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Sample records for unit area increased

  1. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  2. Unit area control in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Hallin

    1951-01-01

    There is a definite distinction between the basic concept of unit area control and the specific techniques or treatments used for specific units. Unit area control as a term was first used in connection with a cutting trial in the sugar pine-fir type; consequently, many foresters think the term refers merely to the technique used in sugar pine management, This is not...

  3. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Travis Belote

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most "natural" (i.e., least human-modified corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1 among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2 among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs. Corridor values varied substantially among classes of "unprotected" non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas.

  4. The increase performance BMF-14 calcination unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triyono

    2013-01-01

    The heating element of performance increase BMF-14 calcination unit has been installed. The activity includes: installation and function test heating element step by step. The main component includes: kanthal heating element type with size long 58,2 cm diameter 0,9 cm slot total 28, flexible cable resists heat 30 Amperes, band cable heat resists and flexible clamp. The heating elements installation includes from 3 groups and every groups have 4 heating elements to connectly series. Every group connecting to every phase RST and neutral for getting electric voltage 380 Volts follow contact relay 3 phases to controlling by digital temperature control. The resulting installation of heating element in the BMF-14 calcination unit showed that: BMF-14 calcination unit can be again of the setting temperature step by step. In the step I get optimal temperature 560 °C test time 1068 minutes with rate velocity heat 0 to 18,0 °C/minutes with current between 5,8 to 6,4 Amperes voltage 103 to 123 Volts (phase R and T). In the step II gets optimal temperature 600 °C test time 265 minutes getting rate velocity heat 0 to 40,3 °C/minutes with current 3,8 to 8,5 Amperes voltage 76 to 142 Volts (phase RST). In the step III gets optimal temperature 1000 °C test time 107 minutes getting rate velocity heat 0 to 53,5 °C/minutes with current 9,7 to 12,5 Amperes voltage 215 to 225 Volts (phase RST). (author)

  5. Areas with increased natural radioactivity. Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1990-03-01

    When studying possible health effects of environmental radioactivity to man, areas of high natural radiation background are especially valuable. The classical and most investigated areas with this respect in the world are the monazite sand regions on the beaches of the States of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in South-India. Indian scientists from the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) have investigated possible health effects to man by the high natural background radiation in this area since about thirty years. As a remarkable result of the epidemiological studies, no significant genetical radiation damage effects within a collective of about seventythousand investigated persons could be observed. When studying lung cancer risks as a function of natural radiation exposure in the region of relatively low doses, the central problem is, how to extrapolate from the high doses of uranium miners to zero doses. Since the relative number of lung cancer is too small and does not exceed the statistical noise level, no significant experimental approval could be made until today. Therefore, one has to rely mainly on three different hypothesis, among which one cannot make an experimental decision at the moment. Hypothesis I (linear extrapolation) is the most pessimistic one, which denies the existence of repair mechanisms. Hypethesis II (threshold behaviour) is more realistic and considers repair mechanisms. Hypothesis III (hormesis effect) assumes positive health effects at lower radiation doses because of the proved existence of repair mechanisms in the living human cell and their stimulation by irradiation. In possible agreement with hypothesis III, within the last few years several authors in different areas of the world with higher natural radiation background have observed a significant decrease of lung cancer risk with increasing natural radiation background. The authors of this report are demonstrating this behaviour for India with their sets of data. (orig./MG)

  6. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  7. Mathematical model of parking space unit for triangular parking area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sundari, Teti; Iskandar, Taufiq; Halfiani, Vera; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Parking space unit (PSU) is an effective measure for the area size of a vehicle, including the free space and the width of the door opening of the vehicle (car). This article discusses a mathematical model for parking space of vehicles in triangular shape area. An optimization model for triangular parking lot is developed. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method is used to determine the maximum number of the PSU. The triangular parking lot is in isosceles and equilateral triangles shape and implements four possible rows and five possible angles for each field. The vehicles which are considered are cars and motorcycles. The results show that the isosceles triangular parking area has 218 units of optimal PSU, which are 84 units of PSU for cars and 134 units of PSU for motorcycles. Equilateral triangular parking area has 688 units of optimal PSU, which are 175 units of PSU for cars and 513 units of PSU for motorcycles.

  8. Management accounting in an area. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The role of a chief accountant in a mining Area, in particular the management accounting aspect, is demonstrated by considering: cash flow; cost control; functional costing; capital expenditure appraisal; budgetary control and zero base budgeting. The above subject headings and their needs are also considered in the light of the current economic situation. 4 references.

  9. Peculiarities of territorial governing in the area of increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchinskas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The area of Ignalina NPP can be evaluated from the standpoint of governing as the area of increased risk territory (zone), so the local administration should acquire a specific status. The results of expert examination show insufficient efficiency of the administration's activity, it's orientation to quantitative results. An objective fund is necessary for the supporting the local administration and population of this area. (author)

  10. State of the art and trends of radiometric methods for measuring the mass per unit area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the mass per unit area by means of transmission or backscattering methods is one of the traditional radioisotope applications. Microelectronics have essentially contributed to the noticeable progress achieved in the development of radiometric instruments for mass per unit area measurements. The use of microcomputers led to both a reliable solution of the main problem of processing the measured data - the correlation of the mass per unit area value with the detector signal under nonlinear calibration conditions - and a considerable increase in the efficiency of the measuring equipment

  11. Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verweij, P.

    2004-12-01

    This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper

  12. HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

  13. Attention Increases Spike Count Correlations between Visual Cortical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marlene R.

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention, which improves perception of attended locations or objects, has long been known to affect many aspects of the responses of neuronal populations in visual cortex. There are two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses concerning the neuronal mechanisms that underlie these perceptual improvements. The first hypothesis, that attention improves the information encoded by a population of neurons in a particular cortical area, has considerable physiological support. The second hypothesis is that attention improves perception by selectively communicating relevant visual information. This idea has been tested primarily by measuring interactions between neurons on very short timescales, which are mathematically nearly independent of neuronal interactions on longer timescales. We tested the hypothesis that attention changes the way visual information is communicated between cortical areas on longer timescales by recording simultaneously from neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) and the middle temporal area (MT) in rhesus monkeys. We used two independent and complementary approaches. Our correlative experiment showed that attention increases the trial-to-trial response variability that is shared between the two areas. In our causal experiment, we electrically microstimulated V1 and found that attention increased the effect of stimulation on MT responses. Together, our results suggest that attention affects both the way visual stimuli are encoded within a cortical area and the extent to which visual information is communicated between areas on behaviorally relevant timescales. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual attention dramatically improves the perception of attended stimuli. Attention has long been thought to act by selecting relevant visual information for further processing. It has been hypothesized that this selection is accomplished by increasing communication between neurons that encode attended information in different cortical areas. We recorded simultaneously

  14. Attention Increases Spike Count Correlations between Visual Cortical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Douglas A; Cohen, Marlene R

    2016-07-13

    Visual attention, which improves perception of attended locations or objects, has long been known to affect many aspects of the responses of neuronal populations in visual cortex. There are two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses concerning the neuronal mechanisms that underlie these perceptual improvements. The first hypothesis, that attention improves the information encoded by a population of neurons in a particular cortical area, has considerable physiological support. The second hypothesis is that attention improves perception by selectively communicating relevant visual information. This idea has been tested primarily by measuring interactions between neurons on very short timescales, which are mathematically nearly independent of neuronal interactions on longer timescales. We tested the hypothesis that attention changes the way visual information is communicated between cortical areas on longer timescales by recording simultaneously from neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) and the middle temporal area (MT) in rhesus monkeys. We used two independent and complementary approaches. Our correlative experiment showed that attention increases the trial-to-trial response variability that is shared between the two areas. In our causal experiment, we electrically microstimulated V1 and found that attention increased the effect of stimulation on MT responses. Together, our results suggest that attention affects both the way visual stimuli are encoded within a cortical area and the extent to which visual information is communicated between areas on behaviorally relevant timescales. Visual attention dramatically improves the perception of attended stimuli. Attention has long been thought to act by selecting relevant visual information for further processing. It has been hypothesized that this selection is accomplished by increasing communication between neurons that encode attended information in different cortical areas. We recorded simultaneously from neurons in primary

  15. Corn rootworm area-wide management across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Laurence D.; Coppedge, James R.; Richard Edwards, C.; Tollefson, Jon J.; Wilde, Gerald E.

    2000-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, and Mexican corn rootworm, D. virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith are among the most economically and environmentally important pests of United States maize (Zea mays L.) production systems (Metcalf 1986). Annually, 8 to 10 million hectares of maize are treated with soil applied insecticides to protect the crop from larval feeding damage. Crop rotation, however, is also widely used to minimise the need for soil insecticide applications. Insecticides for adult rootworm management are also frequently used. Numerous problems are currently associated with corn rootworm management approaches. Soil insecticides are normally used to protect maize roots from larval feeding damage. However, they are ineffective in controlling the management of corn rootworm populations (Gray et al. 1992, Sutter et al. 1991). It is not uncommon for large numbers of rootworms to develop within treated fields. Thus, when maize is grown in the same field year after year (continuous cropping), soil insecticide applications must be used to protect the plant. These applications are generally made without knowledge (prophylactic) of the rootworm population levels within the field due to the difficulty of sampling for immature life stages. Western corn rootworm resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides has been extensively documented (Ball and Weekman 1962). Recently, two distinct populations of western corn rootworms in Nebraska were found to be resistant to carbaryl and methyl parathion which are commonly used for adult control (Meinke et al. 1998). Although the occurrence of resistance has not spread outside of these areas, the potential for increased tolerance of western corn rootworm populations to carbamate and organophosphate insecticides across the region does exist. In response to many of the management problems discussed above, scientists with the USDA Agricultural

  16. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-01-01

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed

  17. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-22

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed.

  18. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hawbaker, Todd J; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Hammer, Roger B; Helmers, David P

    2010-01-12

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  19. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  20. China’s Increasing Influence in Oceania: Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    protection, and the promotion of women’s development and gender equity issues. Each of these areas also provide scope for the United States and China ...development, increasing healthcare capacity, fisheries conservation and management, marine protection, and promoting women’s development and gender equity ...institutions, promotion of dynamic civil society organizations, and promoting women’s development and gender equity are all areas applicable to Oceania

  1. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Harold E; Carbin, Gregory W; Marsh, Patrick T

    2014-10-17

    Whether or not climate change has had an impact on the occurrence of tornadoes in the United States has become a question of high public and scientific interest, but changes in how tornadoes are reported have made it difficult to answer it convincingly. We show that, excluding the weakest tornadoes, the mean annual number of tornadoes has remained relatively constant, but their variability of occurrence has increased since the 1970s. This is due to a decrease in the number of days per year with tornadoes combined with an increase in days with many tornadoes, leading to greater variability on annual and monthly time scales and changes in the timing of the start of the tornado season. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Large-area landslide susceptibility with optimized slope-units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    A Slope-Unit (SU) is a type of morphological terrain unit bounded by drainage and divide lines that maximize the within-unit homogeneity and the between-unit heterogeneity across distinct physical and geographical boundaries [1]. Compared to other terrain subdivisions, SU are morphological terrain unit well related to the natural (i.e., geological, geomorphological, hydrological) processes that shape and characterize natural slopes. This makes SU easily recognizable in the field or in topographic base maps, and well suited for environmental and geomorphological analysis, in particular for landslide susceptibility (LS) modelling. An optimal subdivision of an area into a set of SU depends on multiple factors: size and complexity of the study area, quality and resolution of the available terrain elevation data, purpose of the terrain subdivision, scale and resolution of the phenomena for which SU are delineated. We use the recently developed r.slopeunits software [2,3] for the automatic, parametric delineation of SU within the open source GRASS GIS based on terrain elevation data and a small number of user-defined parameters. The software provides subdivisions consisting of SU with different shapes and sizes, as a function of the input parameters. In this work, we describe a procedure for the optimal selection of the user parameters through the production of a large number of realizations of the LS model. We tested the software and the optimization procedure in a 2,000 km2 area in Umbria, Central Italy. For LS zonation we adopt a logistic regression model implemented in an well-known software [4,5], using about 50 independent variables. To select the optimal SU partition for LS zonation, we want to define a metric which is able to quantify simultaneously: (i) slope-unit internal homogeneity (ii) slope-unit external heterogeneity (iii) landslide susceptibility model performance. To this end, we define a comprehensive objective function S, as the product of three

  3. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Evidence for increasingly variable Palmer Drought Severity Index in the United States since 1895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-02-15

    Annual and summertime trends towards increasingly variable values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) over a sub-decadal period (five years) were investigated within the contiguous United States between 1895 and the present. For the contiguous United States as a whole, there is a significant increasing trend in the five-year running minimum-maximum ranges for the annual PDSI (aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range)). During this time frame, the average aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) has increased by about one full unit, indicating a substantial increase in drought variability over short time scales across the United States. The end members of the running aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) highlight even more rapid changes in the drought index variability within the past 120 years. This increasing variability in the aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) is driven primarily by changes taking place in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean coastal climate regions, climate regions which collectively comprise one-third the area of the contiguous United States. Similar trends were found for the annual and summertime Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), the Palmer Modified Drought Index (PMDI), and the Palmer Z Index (PZI). Overall, interannual drought patterns in the contiguous United States are becoming more extreme and difficult to predict, posing a challenge to agricultural and other water-resource related planning efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased activation in Broca's area after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianin, Pascal; Urben, Sébastien; Magistretti, Pierre; Marquet, Pierre; Fornari, Eleonora; Jaugey, Laure

    2014-03-30

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes in cerebral activity in patients with schizophrenia after participation in the Cognitive Remediation Program for Schizophrenia and other related disorders (RECOS). As RECOS therapists make use of problem-solving and verbal mediation techniques, known to be beneficial in the rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndromes, we expected an increased activation of frontal areas after remediation. Executive functioning and cerebral activation during a covert verbal fluency task were measured in eight patients with schizophrenia before (T1) and after (T2) 14 weeks of RECOS therapy. The same measures were recorded in eight patients with schizophrenia who did not participate in RECOS at the same intervals of time (TAU group). Increased activation in Broca's area, as well as improvements in performance of executive/frontal tasks, was observed after cognitive training. Metacognitive techniques of verbalization are hypothesized to be the main factor underlying the brain changes observed in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An emerging paradigm for managing protected areas with examples from Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Absher; Carsten Mann

    2010-01-01

    Parks and Protected Areas (PPA) have become increasingly important for societal well-being in Europe and the United States. Urbanization, detachment from nature, and demographic changes are fostering discussions about strengthening the social and cultural dimensions of management. The complexities and subtleties of incorporating PPAs into existing government and...

  7. Engineering report on the Grayburg Cooperative and unit area, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, John A.; Soyster, Merwin H.

    1945-01-01

    This report covers the area committed to the Grayburg Cooperative and Unit Agreement (I-Sec. 370) approved by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior on October 5, 1943, hereafter referred to as the "unit area", embracing 4,769.44 acres of public land in T. 17 S., Rs. 29 and 30 E., Eddy County, New Mexico. The area includes portions of the Anderson, Grayburg-Jackson, and Leonard oil fields as defined for proration purposes by the New Mexico Oil Conservation Commission. The unit area is covered by Federal oil and gas leases owned by the Grayburg Oil Company of New Mexico and the Western Production Company, Inc. The Grayburg Unit Association has been formed and designated to conduct and manage all operations in the unit area. As of December 31, 1943, there were forty-six producing oil wells within the unit area. The report has been prepared for the purpose of assisting the Grayburg Unit Association in determining the proper locations of gas-injection wells and the best methods for future operation of the pressure-maintenance system that is being installed for the purpose of retarding the reservoir pressure decline and increasing the ultimate recovery of oil from the Grayburg Zone defined in the above-mentioned agreement as formations not more than 3300 feet below the surface. Data used in the report were obtained from records on file in the Geological Survey office at Roswell, New Mexico, and from the records of the Western Production Company and the Grayburg Oil Company. All data were carefully checked as to accuracy with engineers and field representatives of both companies.

  8. Ejectors of power plants turbine units efficiency and reliability increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Kuptsov, V. K.; Murmanskii, I. B.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Khaet, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The functioning of steam turbines condensation systems influence on the efficiency and reliability of a power plant a lot. At the same time, the condensation system operating is provided by basic ejectors, which maintain the vacuum level in the condenser. Development of methods of efficiency and reliability increasing for ejector functioning is an actual problem of up-to-date power engineering. In the paper there is presented statistical analysis of ejector breakdowns, revealed during repairing processes, the influence of such damages on the steam turbine operating reliability. It is determined, that 3% of steam turbine equipment breakdowns are the ejector breakdowns. At the same time, about 7% of turbine breakdowns are caused by different ejector malfunctions. Developed and approved design solutions, which can increase the ejector functioning indexes, are presented. Intercoolers are designed in separated cases, so the air-steam mixture can’t move from the high-pressure zones to the low-pressure zones and the maintainability of the apparatuses is increased. By U-type tubes application, the thermal expansion effect of intercooler tubes is compensated and the heat-transfer area is increased. By the applied nozzle fixing construction, it is possible to change the distance between a nozzle and a mixing chamber (nozzle exit position) for operating performance optimization. In operating conditions there are provided experimental researches of more than 30 serial ejectors and also high-efficient 3-staged ejector EPO-3-80, designed by authors. The measurement scheme of the designed ejector includes 21 indicator. The results of experimental tests with different nozzle exit positions of the ejector EPO-3-80 stream devices are presented. The pressure of primary stream (water steam) is optimized. Experimental data are well-approved by the calculation results.

  9. Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Jay; Yalisove, Steve

    2009-01-01

    An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/ele c t - rode assembly. The feasibility of the roughening technique was demonstrated in experiments in which proton-conducting membranes made of a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, protonconducting polymer were ablated by use of femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that when proper combinations of the pulse intensity, pulse-repetition rate, and number of repetitions was chosen, the initially flat, smooth membrane surfaces became roughened to such an extent as to be converted to networks of nodules interconnected by filaments (see Figure 1). In further experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on a pristine (smooth) membrane and on two laser-roughened membranes after the membranes were coated with platinum on both sides. Some preliminary EIS data were interpreted as showing that notwithstanding the potential for laser-induced damage, the bulk conductivities of the membranes were not diminished in the roughening process. Other preliminary EIS data (see Figure 2) were interpreted as signifying that the surface areas of the laser-roughened membranes were significantly greater than those of the smooth membrane. Moreover, elemental analyses showed that the sulfur-containing molecular groups necessary for proton conduction remained intact, even near the laser-roughened surfaces. These preliminary results can be taken

  10. Cross-sectional area of the murine aorta linearly increases with increasing core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A Colleen; Manders, Adam B; Cao, Amos A; Scheven, Ulrich M; Greve, Joan M

    2017-11-06

    The cardiovascular (CV) system plays a vital role in thermoregulation. To date, the response of core vasculature to increasing core temperature has not been adequately studied in vivo. Our objective was to non-invasively quantify the arterial response in murine models due to increases in body temperature, with a focus on core vessels of the torso and investigate whether responses were dependent on sex or age. Male and female, adult and aged mice were anaesthetised and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were acquired from the circle of Willis (CoW), heart, infrarenal aorta and peripheral arteries at core temperatures of 35, 36, 37 and 38 °C (±0.2 °C). Vessels in the CoW did not change. Ejection fraction decreased and cardiac output (CO) increased with increasing temperature in adult female mice. Cross-sectional area of the aorta increased significantly and linearly with temperature for all groups, but at a diminished rate for aged animals (p temperature are biologically important because they may affect conductive and convective heat transfer. Leveraging non-invasive methodology to quantify sex and age dependent vascular responses due to increasing core temperature could be combined with bioheat modelling in order to improve understanding of thermoregulation.

  11. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  13. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony D; Thellesen, Peder V; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed) to the least selected (Winter Crops) which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  14. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Heldbjerg

    Full Text Available The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed to the least selected (Winter Crops which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  15. 7 CFR 275.18 - Project area/management unit corrective action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project area/management unit corrective action plan... SYSTEM Corrective Action § 275.18 Project area/management unit corrective action plan. (a) The State agency shall ensure that corrective action plans are prepared at the project area/management unit level...

  16. Childhood thyroid cancer increased in areas around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1996-01-01

    The population in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia who was exposed to the fallout from Chernobyl has suffered from many physical and mental health problems, which are not directly related to radiation. Instead, many health problems are linked to radiation protection countermeasures such as evacuation, food restrictions and other limitations of daily life. Fear for health consequences for people themselves or for their children has influenced mental well-being even in relatively clean areas. In comparison to these effects the direct health effects from radiation are not great. Of the rescue people who worked in the reactor on the night of the catastrophe, 30 died from acute radiation injury. Later on there has appeared around 600 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children. Other health effects which relate directly to radiation have not thus far been observed. (orig.) (1 fig.)

  17. Leveraging modern climatology to increase adaptive capacity across protected area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, J.E.; Graumlich, L.J.; Rowland, E.L.; Pederson, G.T.; Breshears, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Human-driven changes in the global environment pose an increasingly urgent challenge for the management of ecosystems that is made all the more difficult by the uncertain future of both environmental conditions and ecological responses. Land managers need strategies to increase regional adaptive capacity, but relevant and rapid assessment approaches are lacking. To address this need, we developed a method to assess regional protected area networks across biophysically important climatic gradients often linked to biodiversity and ecosystem function. We plot the land of the southwestern United States across axes of historical climate space, and identify landscapes that may serve as strategic additions to current protected area portfolios. Considering climate space is straightforward, and it can be applied using a variety of relevant climate parameters across differing levels of land protection status. The resulting maps identify lands that are climatically distinct from existing protected areas, and may be utilized in combination with other ecological and socio-economic information essential to collaborative landscape-scale decision-making. Alongside other strategies intended to protect species of special concern, natural resources, and other ecosystem services, the methods presented herein provide another important hedging strategy intended to increase the adaptive capacity of protected area networks. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  19. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  20. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  1. POULTRY AGRIBUSINESS FOR INCREASE UKBM (ENTREPRENEURSHIP BRAHMA MANDIRI UNITED PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartatik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology entrepreneurship programe (IBK used to improve the UKBM (Entreprenurship Brahma Mandiri United. This method is done by recruited 20 tenants of students and alumni of the Brahmaputra Husbandry Academy. The participants of the training are lectures, practice and visit to poultry agribusiness industry. After that they are required to make a business plan and presented. participans who do not feel sufficient skill in the field of business planned advised to practice at a poultry industry. Students who have been awarded funding ready tried stimulant. Poultry Agribusiness Entrepreneurship training results 18 business plans in the field of poultry feasible and funded stimulant, although the majority did not carry out an internship therefore already have enough skill results from practice some lectures and PKM. Performance tenant IBK with Poultry Agribusiness is the activity for training the average attendance 76 percent the ability to create a business plan 90 percent, quality of products produced average has not reached maximum quality and sustainability efforts are 12 tenant-up (60 percent and six tenant stops

  2. A multiscale network analysis of protected-area connectivity for mammals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Emily S; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2010-12-01

    Protected areas must be close, or connected, enough to allow for the preservation of large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes, such as gene flow, migration, and range shifts in response to climate change. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether the network of protected areas in the United States is connected in a way that will preserve biodiversity over large temporal and spatial scales. It is also unclear whether protected-area networks that function for larger species will function for smaller species. We assessed the connectivity of protected areas in the three largest biomes in the United States. With methods from graph theory--a branch of mathematics that deals with connectivity and flow--we identified and measured networks of protected areas for three different groups of mammals. We also examined the value of using umbrella species (typically large-bodied, far-ranging mammals) in designing large-scale networks of protected areas. Although the total amount of protected land varied greatly among biomes in the United States, overall connectivity did not. In general, protected-area networks were well connected for large mammals but not for smaller mammals. Additionally, it was not possible to predict connectivity for small mammals on the basis of connectivity for large mammals, which suggests the umbrella species approach may not be an appropriate design strategy for conservation networks intended to protect many species. Our findings indicate different strategies should be used to increase the likelihood of persistence for different groups of species. Strategic linkages of existing lands should be a conservation priority for smaller mammals, whereas conservation of larger mammals would benefit most from the protection of more land. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Walking associated with public transit: moving toward increased physical activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Amy L; Banerjee, Shailendra N; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Wendel, Arthur M

    2013-03-01

    We assessed changes in transit-associated walking in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and documented their importance to public health. We examined transit walk times using the National Household Travel Survey, a telephone survey administered by the US Department of Transportation to examine travel behavior in the United States. People are more likely to transit walk if they are from lower income households, are non-White, and live in large urban areas with access to rail systems. Transit walkers in large urban areas with a rail system were 72% more likely to transit walk 30 minutes or more per day than were those without a rail system. From 2001 to 2009, the estimated number of transit walkers rose from 7.5 million to 9.6 million (a 28% increase); those whose transit-associated walking time was 30 minutes or more increased from approximately 2.6 million to 3.4 million (a 31% increase). Transit walking contributes to meeting physical activity recommendations. Study results may contribute to transportation-related health impact assessment studies evaluating the impact of proposed transit systems on physical activity, potentially influencing transportation planning decisions.

  4. Design of an increase in the CNAAA unit I South auxiliary building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentz, R.G.; Loyola Benedicto Ottoni, I. de; Roech, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work it is presented the description of the model adopted in the structural calculations for a modification in the CNAAA Unit I South Auxiliary Building. This modification intended to increase the facilities destinated to keeping and changing of special clothing for access to the controlled area. The design basically constitutes of a slab at the Elevation 5,15m, for which a tridimensional frame model was adopted, in reinforced adopted concrete, fixed in the South Auxiliary Building foundation slab and structurally independent on the building, at the slab level. It was demonstrated in this study that the introduction, in the existing structure, of the masses of this enlarged area does not considerably change the dynamic behaviour of the building, which allowed proceeding the analysis of the new structure independently of the existing one. (author)

  5. Urbanized Areas of the United States Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An urbanized area (UA) consists of densely settled territory that contains 50,000 or more people. A UA may contain both place and nonplace territory. The U.S. Census...

  6. Multi-area unit commitment with ramp-rate limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that there are two tasks considered in power system generation scheduling. One is the unit commitment which determines the unit start up and shut down schedules in order to minimize the system fuel expenditure. The other is the economic dispatch which assigns the system load demand to the committed generating units for minimizing the power generation cost. The economic operation attracts a great deal of attention as a modest reduction in percentage fuel cost leads to a large saving in the system operation costs. Many studies for power system generation scheduling have successfully applied various mathematical algorithms such as Lagrangian relaxation, dynamic programming, and artificial intelligence techniques e.g., expert systems, artificial neural networks (ANN), etc. The AI techniques have incorporated the system practical operational policies in the mathematical techniques to improve system models considerably. The mechanism of ANN simulates the learning process of the human brain. One class of ANN learns the knowledge through examples, or training facts, composed by various inputs and their corresponding outputs. The extent of the intelligibility of ANN depends upon the diversity of the training facts. For an input which is not in the training facts, the trained ANN can estimate an output based on its previous knowledge about the problem

  7. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Van Brunt, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  8. The ecological effectiveness of protected areas: the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaston, K.J.; Charman, K.; Jackson, S.F.; Armsworth, P.R.; Bonn, A.; Briers, R.A.; Callaghan, C.S.Q.; Catchpole, R.; Hopkins, J.; Kunin, W.E.; Latham, J.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Stoneman, R.; Stroud, D.A.; Tratt, R.

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance placed on protected areas, determining their effectiveness in representing and maintaining biodiversity is a core issue in conservation biology. Nonetheless, frameworks identifying the breadth of issues associated with this effectiveness, and case studies of how well these are

  9. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land...

  10. Distribution of heavy metals in the coastal area of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rashdi, Saeed; Arabi, Alya A; Howari, Fares M; Siad, Abdi

    2015-08-15

    Fifty-seven sediment samples were collected from Abu Dhabi coastal area, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The concentrations of heavy metals including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, molybdenum, nickel and zinc were obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence. Heavy metal contaminations in Abu Dhabi had increased since 2004. Nevertheless, the enrichment factors, geoaccumulation indices and the pollution load index of 0.3 showed no pollution with any of the measured metals except arsenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. United States Crystalline Repository Project - key research areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patera, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Crystalline Repository Project is responsible for siting the second high-level nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock for the US Department of Energy. A methodology is being developed to define data and information needs and a way to evaluate that information. The areas of research the Crystalline Repository Project is involved in include fluid flow in a fractured network, coupled thermal, chemical and flow processes and cooperation in other nations and OECD research programs

  12. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.P.; Allen, Craig D.; Millar, C.I.; Swetnam, T.W.; Michaelsen, J.; Still, C.J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ≈2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ≈7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ≈18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.

  13. Area racism and birth outcomes among Blacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Clouston, Sean; Martz, Connor D; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Turpin, Rodman; Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth; Kramer, Michael R

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that racism is a cause of poor health outcomes in the United States, including adverse birth outcomes among Blacks. However, research on the health consequences of racism has faced measurement challenges due to the more subtle nature of contemporary racism, which is not necessarily amenable to assessment through traditionally used survey methods. In this study, we circumvent some of these limitations by examining a previously developed Internet query-based proxy of area racism (Stephens-Davidowitz, 2014) in relation to preterm birth and low birthweight among Blacks. Area racism was measured in 196 designated market areas as the proportion of total Google searches conducted between 2004 and 2007 containing the "n-word." This measure was linked to county-level birth data among Blacks between 2005 and 2008, which were compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics; preterm birth and low birthweight were defined as racism was associated with relative increases of 5% in the prevalence of preterm birth and 5% in the prevalence of low birthweight among Blacks. Our study provides evidence for the utility of an Internet query-based measure as a proxy for racism at the area-level in epidemiologic studies, and is also suggestive of the role of racism in contributing to poor birth outcomes among Blacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. United States of America (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    reconciled with the principle that all couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsably the number and spacing of their children and to have the information and means to do so. Voluntarism is an essential element in population programs because family planning touches the most intimate areas of the lives of couples, because longterm change in fertility behavior is achieved only when the choices reflect the free decisions of couples, because user-preferences and the motivation of providers to improve program acceptability are compromised by coercion, and because voluntarism is a basic human right.

  15. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...... with a patch test and a repeated open application test (ROAT). Nickel was applied on small and large areas. The varying parameters were area, total dose and dose per unit area. RESULTS: In the patch test, at a low concentration [15 microg nickel (microg Ni)/cm(2)], there were significantly higher scores...... on the large area with the same dose per area as the small area. At higher concentrations of nickel, no significant differences were found. In the ROAT at low concentration (6.64 microg Ni/cm(2)), it was found that the latency period until a reaction appeared was significantly shorter on the large area...

  16. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides – DDT, lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – occurs on a limited basis. We measured p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, HCB, beta (β)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and γ-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94-100%. Median levels (ng/g-lipid) of p,p′-DDE (1,052), p,p′-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than U.S. population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p′-DDE and β-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred prior to moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

  17. Warm Arctic episodes linked with increased frequency of extreme winter weather in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judah; Pfeiffer, Karl; Francis, Jennifer A

    2018-03-13

    Recent boreal winters have exhibited a large-scale seesaw temperature pattern characterized by an unusually warm Arctic and cold continents. Whether there is any physical link between Arctic variability and Northern Hemisphere (NH) extreme weather is an active area of research. Using a recently developed index of severe winter weather, we show that the occurrence of severe winter weather in the United States is significantly related to anomalies in pan-Arctic geopotential heights and temperatures. As the Arctic transitions from a relatively cold state to a warmer one, the frequency of severe winter weather in mid-latitudes increases through the transition. However, this relationship is strongest in the eastern US and mixed to even opposite along the western US. We also show that during mid-winter to late-winter of recent decades, when the Arctic warming trend is greatest and extends into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, severe winter weather-including both cold spells and heavy snows-became more frequent in the eastern United States.

  18. EnviroAtlas - Percent Large, Medium, and Small Natural Areas for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains the percentage of small, medium, and large natural areas for each Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit Code...

  19. 77 FR 20295 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... to the point of origin. The restricted area will be marked by a lighted and signed floating buoy line... supervision or contract to a local military or Naval authority, vessels of the United States Coast Guard, and...

  20. Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units in operation on fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girshfel' d, V Ya; Khanaev, V A; Volkova, E D; Gorelov, V A; Gershenkroi, M L

    1979-01-01

    Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units operating on fossil fuel by modifying them is a necessary measure. The highest economic effect is attained with modification of gas- and oil-fired generating units in the Western United Power Systems of the European part of the SPSS. On the basis of available experience, 150- and 200-MW units can be extensively used to regulate the power in the European part of the SPSS through putting them into reserve for the hours of the load dip at night. The change under favorable conditions of 150- and 200-MW units operating on coal to a district-heating operating mode does not reduce the possibilities for flexible operation of these units because it is possible greatly to unload the turbines while the minimum load level of the pulverized fuel fired boiler is retained through transferring a part of the heat load to the desuperheater. It is necessary to accumulate and analyze experience with operation of generating units (especially of supercritical units) with regular shutdowns and starts of groups of units and to solve the problems of modification of generating units, with differentiation with respect to types of fuel and to the united power supply system.

  1. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  2. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.

  3. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  4. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  5. 76 FR 12643 - Proposed Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... northeast corridor between the Washington, DC and New York City metropolitan areas. The FAA is proposing... northeast corridor between the New York City and Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. The routes would serve...

  6. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  7. United States home births increase 20 percent from 2004 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Mathews, T J

    2011-09-01

    After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of births occurring at home increased from 2004 to 2008 in the United States. The objective of this report was to examine the recent increase in home births and the factors associated with this increase from 2004 to 2008. United States birth certificate data on home births were analyzed by maternal demographic and medical characteristics. In 2008, there were 28,357 home births in the United States. From 2004 to 2008, the percentage of births occurring at home increased by 20 percent from 0.56 percent to 0.67 percent of United States births. This rise was largely driven by a 28 percent increase in the percentage of home births for non-Hispanic white women, for whom more than 1 percent of births occur at home. At the same time, the risk profile for home births has been lowered, with substantial drops in the percentage of home births of infants who are born preterm or at low birthweight, and declines in the percentage of home births that occur to teen and unmarried mothers. Twenty-seven states had statistically significant increases in the percentage of home births from 2004 to 2008; only four states had declines. The 20 percent increase in United States home births from 2004 to 2008 is a notable development that will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers. (BIRTH 38:3 September 2011). © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected...

  9. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  10. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  11. Current staffing personnel and areas of activity of the units of SSPA radio physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo Pain, E.; Roldan Arjona, J. M.; Carrasco Rodriguez, J. L.; Guerrero Alcaide, R.; Almansa Lopez, J.; Rodriguez Castillo, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The work arises from the Andalucia society of hospital Radiophysics as a study of the situation in the year 2012 in Andalusia, in terms of human resources and equipment in charge of services or units clinics of management of Radiophysics of the health public system of Andalusia (SSPA). Clinical management units are organizational structures established by the service Andalucia health (SAS) which are governed by agreements in the area of health care management providing that coverage. (Author)

  12. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  13. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  14. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  15. Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-3 container storage unit RCRA closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, G.A.; Lodman, D.L.; Spry, M.J.; Poor, K.J.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-3 container storage unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the unit are described. The unit will be closed by decontaminating structures and equipment that may have contacted waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  16. Increasing Access and Usability of Remote Sensing Data: The NASA Protected Area Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gary N.

    2004-01-01

    Although remote sensing data are now widely available, much of it at low or no-cost, many managers of protected conservation areas do not have the expertise or tools to view or analyze it. Thus access to it by the protected area management community is effectively blocked. The Protected Area Archive will increase access to remote sensing data by creating collections of satellite images of protected areas and packaging them with simple-to-use visualization and analytical tools. The user can easily locate the area and image of interest on a map, then display, roam, and zoom the image. A set of simple tools will be provided so the user can explore the data and employ it to assist in management and monitoring of their area. The 'Phase 1 ' version requires only a Windows-based computer and basic computer skills, and may be of particular help to protected area managers in developing countries.

  17. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina controlled by... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of... in the Republic of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the...

  18. ERP correlates of source memory: unitized source information increases familiarity-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A; Van den Boom, Wijnand; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ranganath, Charan

    2011-01-07

    Source memory tests typically require subjects to make decisions about the context in which an item was encoded and are thought to depend on recollection of details from the study episode. Although it is generally believed that familiarity does not contribute to source memory, recent behavioral studies have suggested that familiarity may also support source recognition when item and source information are integrated, or "unitized," during study (Diana, Yonelinas, and Ranganath, 2008). However, an alternative explanation of these behavioral findings is that unitization affects the manner in which recollection contributes to performance, rather than increasing familiarity-based source memory. To discriminate between these possibilities, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study testing the hypothesis that unitization increases the contribution of familiarity to source recognition. Participants studied associations between words and background colors using tasks that either encouraged or discouraged unitization. ERPs were recorded during a source memory test for background color. The results revealed two distinct neural correlates of source recognition: a frontally distributed positivity that was associated with familiarity-based source memory in the high-unitization condition only and a parietally distributed positivity that was associated with recollection-based source memory in both the high- and low-unitization conditions. The ERP and behavioral findings provide converging evidence for the idea that familiarity can contribute to source recognition, particularly when source information is encoded as an item detail. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring in ore treatment unit: I external exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Py Junior, D.A.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Dantas, M.V.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is an uranium mining and milling complex deactivated in 1995 that operated monazite during the years 2004 and 2005 in a plant used especially for that purpose called Chemical Treatment of Monazite (CTM). This study aims to analyze the monitoring of area to exposure rate from 2002 to 2012, comparing periods of suspended operation of OTU and identifying the influences of CTM and of the radioactive waste deposit, from other facilities of OTU. A total of 22,294 samples were analyzed for area dose rates; average values were obtained of 6.74 μSv h{sup -1} with an amplitude from 0 to 420 μSv h{sup -1}. 92% of the monitoring were below the derivative limit for workers, and 1,702 monitoring samples showed values above this limit. Ignoring the monitoring that was realized at CTM and at the deposit of radioactive waste, the number of monitoring samples were reduced to 1,341. In this case, the average reduces to 0.96 μSv h{sup -1}, going from 0 to 25 μSv h{sup -1}, only 15 samples remained above the threshold for workers and 675 samples were below the limit for individual public. It can be concluded that the OTU is an installation with nearly 99% of monitoring area safe for workers and 50% for individual public. The inclusion of new practices (CTM) and the deposit of radioactive waste coming from other facilities alter this picture dramatically, increased the dose rates. (author)

  20. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  1. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office[DOE/NV], 2000a)

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2001-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the remediation activities performed and the results of verification sampling conducted at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230, Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and CAU 320, Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box. The CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1) and consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 22-03-01- Sewage Lagoon (CAU 230); and 22-99-01- Strainer Box (CAU 320). Included with CAS 22-99-01 is a buried Imhoff tank and a sludge bed. These CAUs will be collectively referred to in this plan as the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. Site characterization activities were done during September 1999. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) indicated that only the sludge bed (CAS 22-99-01) contained constituents of concern (COC) above action levels and required remediation (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2000a).

  4. Analysis of area level and unit level models for small area estimation in forest inventories assisted with LiDAR auxiliary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Francisco; Monleon, Vicente J; Temesgen, Hailemariam; Ford, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    Forest inventories require estimates and measures of uncertainty for subpopulations such as management units. These units often times hold a small sample size, so they should be regarded as small areas. When auxiliary information is available, different small area estimation methods have been proposed to obtain reliable estimates for small areas. Unit level empirical best linear unbiased predictors (EBLUP) based on plot or grid unit level models have been studied more thoroughly than area level EBLUPs, where the modelling occurs at the management unit scale. Area level EBLUPs do not require a precise plot positioning and allow the use of variable radius plots, thus reducing fieldwork costs. However, their performance has not been examined thoroughly. We compared unit level and area level EBLUPs, using LiDAR auxiliary information collected for inventorying 98,104 ha coastal coniferous forest. Unit level models were consistently more accurate than area level EBLUPs, and area level EBLUPs were consistently more accurate than field estimates except for large management units that held a large sample. For stand density, volume, basal area, quadratic mean diameter, mean height and Lorey's height, root mean squared errors (rmses) of estimates obtained using area level EBLUPs were, on average, 1.43, 2.83, 2.09, 1.40, 1.32 and 1.64 times larger than those based on unit level estimates, respectively. Similarly, direct field estimates had rmses that were, on average, 1.37, 1.45, 1.17, 1.17, 1.26, and 1.38 times larger than rmses of area level EBLUPs. Therefore, area level models can lead to substantial gains in accuracy compared to direct estimates, and unit level models lead to very important gains in accuracy compared to area level models, potentially justifying the additional costs of obtaining accurate field plot coordinates.

  5. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  6. Critical area planting in the United States of America | G | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of vegetation on disturbed or critical areas of the United States of America has long been evident. A wide range of climatic, soil and environmental conditions has resulted in a search for suitable grass species and methods for their establishment. Plant material centres have done considerable work in ...

  7. Closure report for housekeeping category, Corrective Action Unit 349, Area 12, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report summarizes the corrective actions which were completed at the Corrective Action Sites within Corrective Action Unit 349 Area 12 at the Nevada Test Site. Current site descriptions, observations and identification of wastes removed are included on FFACO Corrective Action Site housekeeping closure verification forms

  8. Closure report for housekeeping category, Corrective Action Unit 349, Area 12, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report summarizes the corrective actions which were completed at the Corrective Action Sites within Corrective Action Unit 349 Area 12 at the Nevada Test Site. Current site descriptions, observations and identification of wastes removed are included on FFACO Corrective Action Site housekeeping closure verification forms.

  9. 76 FR 30024 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Executive Order 12866. This rule is issued with respect to a military function of the Department of Defense...; thence easterly along the Marinette Marine Corporation pier to the point of origin. The restricted area... local military or Naval authority, vessels of the United States Coast Guard, and local or state law...

  10. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  11. 77 FR 5733 - Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Docket No. FAA-2011-1407; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-25 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Daud

    1995-01-01

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  13. Vulnerability of United States Bridges to Potential Increases in Flooding from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the potential impacts of increased river flooding from climate change on bridges in the continental United States. Daily precipitation statistics from four climate models and three greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) are used to capture ...

  14. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  15. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; John C. Byrne; Lori D. Daniels; Jerry F. Franklin; Peter Z. Fule; Mark E. Harmon; Andrew J. Larson; Jeremy M. Smith; Alan H. Taylor; Thomas T. Veblen

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29...

  16. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  17. Pedicle distraction increases intervertebral and spinal canal area in a cadaver and bone model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: For each increase in pedicle distraction the area of the spinal and vertebral foramen increases. Pedicle distraction could potentially be used to alleviate spinal stenosis and root impingement. A potential osteotomy plane could be at the midpoint of the pedicle with minimal risk to nerve roots and soft tissue restrictions to prevent distraction.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 386 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 425 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 consisted of a large pile of concrete rubble from the original Hard Target and construction debris associated with the Tornado Rocket Sled Tests. CAU 425 was closed in accordance with the FFACO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2002). CAU 425 was closed by implementing the following corrective actions: The approved corrective action for this unit was clean closure. Closure activities included: (1) Removal of all the debris from the site. (2) Weighing each load of debris leaving the job site. (3) Transporting the debris to the U.S. Air Force Construction Landfill for disposal. (4) Placing the radioactive material in a U.S. Department of Transportation approved container for proper transport and disposal. (5) Transporting the radioactive material to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. (6) Regrading the job site to its approximate original contours/elevation.

  19. Recruitment of single human low-threshold motor units with increasing loads at different muscle lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P A; Cresswell, A G

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the recruitment behaviour of low threshold motor units in flexor digitorum superficialis by altering two biomechanical constraints: the load against which the muscle worked and the initial muscle length. The load was increased using isotonic (low load), loaded dynamic (intermediate load) and isometric (high load) contractions in two studies. The initial muscle position reflected resting muscle length in series A, and a longer length with digit III fully extended in series B. Intramuscular EMG was recorded from 48 single motor units in 10 experiments on five healthy subjects, 21 units in series A and 27 in series B, while subjects performed ramp up, hold and ramp down contractions. Increasing the load on the muscle decreased the force, displacement and firing rate of single motor units at recruitment at shorter muscle lengths (Precruitment pattern was observed between loaded dynamic and isotonic contractions, but not between isometric and loaded dynamic contractions. Thus, the recruitment properties of single motor units in human flexor digitorum superficialis are sensitive to changes in both imposed external loads and the initial length of the muscle.

  20. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  1. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number observed in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Koya

    2013-01-01

    The Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture has been known by that the black rain fell after dropping atomic bomb. The abnormal increase of the leukocyte number was measured in the inhabitants of Nishiyama area, Nagasaki Prefecture after dropping atomic bomb. This phenomenon differs from the general knowledge that the leukocyte number decreases by the radiation exposure. This has been noticed as a rare record confirmed by the residual radiation effect to the human body using the group data. (M.H.)

  2. X-ray quality increasing system controlled by single-chip microcomputer in single phase fluoroscopy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiaolin; Gu Hongmei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To decrease the amount of radiation that doctor and patient receives by increasing X-ray quality. Methods: Using Single-chip Microcomputer technology, test and modulate AC(Alternating Current) from high voltage generator by IGBT. X-ray tube generates X-rays only at high energy area. Thus the amount of radiation decreases. Results: The tube current decreases remarkably and the amount of radiation that doctor and patient receives decreases effectively. Conclusion: the system can effectively decrease the amount of radiation and is widely applicable to the upgrade of all kinds of single phase X-ray units. (authors)

  3. Nicotine reduction as an increase in the unit price of cigarettes: a behavioral economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedicle distraction increases intervertebral and spinal canal area in a cadaver and bone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew; Papadakos, Nikolaos; Bishop, Tim; Bernard, Jason

    2018-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal and/or intervertebral foramen causing compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Traditional decompression techniques can often cause significant trauma and vertebral instability. This paper evaluates a method of increasing pedicle length to decompress the spinal and intervertebral foramen, which could be done minimally invasive. Three Sawbone (Sawbones Europe, Sweden) and 1 cadaveric lumbar spine underwent bilateral pedicle distraction at L4. A pedicle channel was drilled between the superior articular process and transverse process into the vertebral body. The pedicles underwent osteotomy at the midpoint. Screws were inserted bilaterally and fixated distraction of 0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm and 6 mm. CT images were taken at each level of distraction. Foramen area was measured in the sagittal plane at L3/4. Spinal canal area was measured at L4 in the axial images. The cadaver was used to evaluate safety of osteotomy and soft tissue interactions preventing distraction. Statistical analysis was by student paired t-test and Pearson rank test. Increasing distraction led to greater Spinal canal area. From 4.27 cm 2 to 5.72 cm 2 (p = 0.002) with 6 mm distraction. A Maximal increase of 34.1%. Vertebral foramen area also increased with increasing pedicle distraction. From 2.43 cm 2 to 3.22 cm 2 (p = 0.022) with 6 mm distraction. A maximal increase of 32.3%. The cadaver spinal canal increased in area by 21.7%. The vertebral foramen increased in area by 36.2% (left) and 22.6% (right). For each increase in pedicle distraction the area of the spinal and vertebral foramen increases. Pedicle distraction could potentially be used to alleviate spinal stenosis and root impingement. A potential osteotomy plane could be at the midpoint of the pedicle with minimal risk to nerve roots and soft tissue restrictions to prevent distraction. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  5. Airborne Gravimetry Survey for the Marine Area of the United Arab Emirates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Alshamsi, Adel

    2012-01-01

    The Military Survey Department (MSD) of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) undertook an airborne gravity survey project for the marine area of the country in 2009, especially to strengthen the marine and coastal geoid in the near-shore regions. For the airborne gravity survey, 5 km spacing coast...... flight speed of 170 knots and a typical flight elevation of 900-1500 m, depending on weather conditions and topography. Gravity was measured with a ZLS-modified LaCoste and Romberg gravimeter (S-99), augmented with a Honeywell strap-down inertial navigation system unit. The estimated accuracy...

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 551 is located in Area 12 of the NTS, which is approximately 110 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Area 12 is approximately 40 miles beyond the main gate to the NTS. Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; (2) 12-06-05, Muckpile; (3) 12-06-07, Muckpile; and (4) 12-06-08, Muckpile. Corrective Action Site 12-01-09 is located in Area 12 and consists of an above ground storage tank (AST) and associated stain. Corrective Action Site 12-06-05 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. Corrective Action Site 12-06-07 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. Corrective Action Site 12-06-08 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. In keeping with common convention, the U12B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels will be referred to as the B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and sampling of media, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions

  7. Control Of Motor Unit Firing During Step-Like Increases In Voluntary Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most skeletal muscles, force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU recruitment and increases in the firing rate of previously active MUs. Two contrasting patterns of firing rate organization have been reported. In the first pattern, the earliest recruited MUs reach the highest firing rates as force is increased, and later recruited MUs fire at lower rates. When firing rate of multiple MUs are superimposed, these rate trajectories form a concentric layered profile termed ‘onion skin’. In the second pattern, called ‘reverse onion skin’, later recruited MUs reach higher firing rates, and crossing of firing rate trajectories for recorded MUs is common (although such trajectories are assembled routinely from different trials. Our present study examined the firing rate organization of concurrently active MUs of the first dorsal interosseous muscle during serial, step-like increases in isometric abduction forces. We used a surface sensor array coupled with MU discrimination algorithms to characterize MU firing patterns. Our objective was to determine whether ‘onion skin’ profiles are contingent upon the force trajectory of the motor task, examined here using step-like increases of force output, and also whether they are manifested at different force levels.Our results revealed that the overall ‘onion skin’ firing rate profile was retained as the force level increased with each force step up to 15% MVC. However, the distribution of firing rates across MUs was compressed with increasing force, and overlapping firing rate of units were observed. This rate compression was largely due to rate saturation of the relatively high frequency discharging MUs.Our results reflect flexible firing patterns across MUs at different levels of excitation drive. It is also evident that many units did not follow all the step increases consistently. This failure to track firing rate increases at higher forces could be due to an intrinsically

  8. Increasing prevalence of diagnosed diabetes--United States and Puerto Rico, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    In 2010, an estimated 18.8 million persons in the United States had diagnosed diabetes mellitus and another 7.0 million had undiagnosed diabetes. Since 1990, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States has risen sharply among all age groups, both sexes, and all racial/ethnic groups for which data are available. To learn whether the increase has been greater in some regions of the United States than in others, data on self-reported diabetes in adults collected during 1995-2010 by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed. The analysis showed that the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes increased during the interval in every state, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico. In 1995, age-adjusted prevalence was ≥6% in only three states, DC, and Puerto Rico, but by 2010 it was ≥6% in every state, DC, and Puerto Rico, and ≥10.0% in six states and Puerto Rico. Strategies to prevent diabetes and its preventable risk factors are needed, especially for those at highest risk for diabetes, to slow the rise in diabetes prevalence across the United States. Continued surveillance of diabetes prevalence and incidence, its risk factors, and prevention efforts is important to measure progress of prevention efforts.

  9. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  10. Air quality impacts of increased use of ethanol under the United States’ Energy Independence and Security Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rich; Phillips, Sharon; Houyoux, Marc; Dolwick, Pat; Mason, Rich; Yanca, Catherine; Zawacki, Margaret; Davidson, Ken; Michaels, Harvey; Harvey, Craig; Somers, Joseph; Luecken, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, "criteria" pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of increased ethanol use on ozone and air toxics under a potential implementation scenario resulting from mandates in the U. S. Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. The assessment of impacts was done for calendar year 2022, when 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be used. Impacts were assessed relative to a baseline which assumed ethanol volumes mandated by the first renewable fuels standard promulgated by U. S. EPA in early 2007. This assessment addresses both impacts of increased ethanol use on vehicle and other engine emissions, referred to as "downstream" emissions, and "upstream" impacts, i.e., those connected with fuel production and distribution. Air quality modeling was performed for the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), version 4.7. Pollutants included in the assessment were ozone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Results suggest that increased ethanol use due to EISA in 2022 will adversely increase ozone concentrations over much of the U.S., by as much as 1 ppb. However, EISA is projected to improve ozone air quality in a few highly-populated areas that currently have poor air quality. Most of the ozone improvements are due to our assumption of increases in nitrogen oxides (NO x) in volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited areas. While there are some localized impacts, the EISA renewable fuel standards have relatively little impact on national average ambient concentrations of most air toxics, although ethanol concentrations increase substantially. Significant uncertainties are associated with all results, due to limitations in available data. These uncertainties are

  11. Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-2 container storage unit RCRA closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodman, D.W.; Spry, M.J.; Nolte, E.P.; Barry, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the proposed plans for closure of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-2 container storage unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, history, and current status of the unit are described. Future plans for the unit include incorporating the earthen-covered portion of the TSA-2 pad into a TSA retrieval enclosure along with the TSA-1 and TSAR pads, and closure of the portion of the TSA-2 pad under the Air Support Weather Shield (ASWS-2). This plan addresses closure of the ASWS-2 by decontaminating structures and equipment that may have contacted the waste. Sufficient sampling and documentation of all closure activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure. A tentative schedule is provided in the form of a milestone chart

  12. Validation of the USGS Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Fairaux, Nicole; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), capitalizes on the long temporal availability of Landsat imagery to identify burned areas across the conterminous United States (CONUS) (1984–2015). Adequate validation of such products is critical for their proper usage and interpretation. Validation of coarse-resolution products often relies on independent data derived from moderate-resolution sensors (e.g., Landsat). Validation of Landsat products, in turn, is challenging because there is no corresponding source of high-resolution, multispectral imagery that has been systematically collected in space and time over the entire temporal extent of the Landsat archive. Because of this, comparison between high-resolution images and Landsat science products can help increase user's confidence in the Landsat science products, but may not, alone, be adequate. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to systematically validate the Landsat-derived BAECV product. Burned area extent was mapped for Landsat image pairs using a manually trained semi-automated algorithm that was manually edited across 28 path/rows and five different years (1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008). Three datasets were independently developed by three analysts and the datasets were integrated on a pixel by pixel basis in which at least one to all three analysts were required to agree a pixel was burned. We found that errors within our Landsat reference dataset could be minimized by using the rendition of the dataset in which pixels were mapped as burned if at least two of the three analysts agreed. BAECV errors of omission and commission for the detection of burned pixels averaged 42% and 33%, respectively for CONUS across all five validation years. Errors of omission and commission were lowest across the western CONUS, for example in the shrub and scrublands of the Arid West (31% and 24%, respectively), and highest in the grasslands and

  13. Unit Price and Cost Estimation Equations through Items Percentage of Construction Works in a Desert Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research will cover different aspects of estimating process of construction work in a desert area. The inherent difficulties which accompany the cost estimating of the construction works in desert environment in a developing country, will stem from the limited information available, resources scarcity, low level of skilled workers, the prevailing severe weather conditions and many others, which definitely don't provide a fair, reliable and accurate estimation. This study tries to present unit price to estimate the cost in preliminary phase of a project. Estimations are supported by developing mathematical equations based on the historical data of maintenance, new construction of managerial and school projects. Meanwhile, the research has determined the percentage of project items, in such a remote environment. Estimation equations suitable for remote areas have been formulated. Moreover, a procedure for unite price calculation is concluded.

  14. Sampling and decontamination plan for the Transuranic Storage Area--1/-R container storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes the sampling and decontamination of the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA)-l/-R container storage area and the earthen-covered portion of the TSA-2 container storage unit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Stored containers from the earthen-covered asphalt pads will be retrieved from the TSA-l/-R and TSA-2 container storage units. Container retrieval will be conducted under the TSA retrieval enclosure, a fabricated steel building to be constructed over the earthen-covered pad to provide containment and weather protection. Following container retrieval, the TSA retrieval enclosure will be decontaminated to remove radioactive and hazardous contamination. The underlying soils will be sampled and analyzed to determine whether any contaminated soils require removal

  15. CORRELATIONS OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BETWEEN STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS IN THE BROADER AREA OF ZAGREB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Kovačić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity (KTV of geological formations is one of the parameters responsible for the propagation of the heat under the earth surface. During geothermal investigations in the broader area of the Croatian capital of Zagreb the thermal conductivity was measured on the rock samples from the surface and the boreholes. The results of the measurements are presented in this work and used as a basis for calculations of the thermal conductivity of distinct geological formations within the investigated area. It was found out that the values of the thermal conductivity of the rocks in the investigated area vary greatly. The measurements are within the well known scope for certain rock types. The thermal conductivity of the rocks from the Tertiary units corresponds with the average values being typical for such kind of rocks, while the basement carbonate rocks are characterized by the values being by 1 W/K-1m-1 higher than the average. After comparing the thermal conductivity of the stratigraphic units in the broader area of Zagreb it has been established that the values of the thermal conductivity of geological formations in the investigated area are also very different, and that they generally rise with their age. The relative relationships show that the Quaternary, Pliocene and Tertiary sedimentary rocks act as thermal insulators, while Triassic rocks behave as the heat conductor (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench)

  17. Radiant heat increases piglets’ use of the heated creep area on the critical days after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Thodberg, Karen; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how piglets’ use of a creep area is affected by using radiant heat compared to an incandescent light bulb. It was hypothesised that radiant heat would increase the use of the creep area. Twenty litters were randomly assigned to one of two heat sources...... in the creep area: (1) an incandescent light bulb (STANDARD, n=10) or (2) a radiant heat source (RADIANT, n=10) with five of each type of heat source in each of two batches. Observations on piglets’ position in the pen were made by scan sampling every ten minutes in a 4-hour period from 1100 to 1500 h on day 1......–7, 14 and 21 post partum. A higher percentage of piglets in the creep area was seen for RADIANT litters compared to STANDARD litters on day 2 (P=0.002) and day 3 (P=0.005), and percentage of piglets in the creep area increased for RADIANT litters from day 1 to 2 (P

  18. Changes in Area of Timberland in the United States, 1952-2040, By Ownership, Forest Type, Region, and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Allg; William G. Hohenstein; Brian C. Murray; Robert G. Haight

    1990-01-01

    Area change projections for timberland in the United Steats are provided by region, State, ownership, and forest type.Total timberland area is projected to drop by 21 million acres or 4 percent by the year 2040.

  19. Microbial respiration per unit microbial biomass increases with carbon-to-nutrient ratios in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marie; Chodak, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    The ratio of carbon-to-nutrient in forest floors is usually much higher than the ratio of carbon-to-nutrient that soil microorganisms require for their nutrition. In order to understand how this mismatch affects carbon cycling, the respiration rate per unit soil microbial biomass carbon - the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was studied. This was done in a field study (Spohn and Chodak, 2015) and in a meta-analysis of published data (Spohn, 2014). Cores of beech, spruce, and mixed spruce-beech forest soils were cut into slices of 1 cm from the top of the litter layer down to 5 cm in the mineral soil, and the relationship between the qCO2 and the soil carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and the soil carbon-to-phosphorus (C:P) ratio was analyzed. We found that the qCO2 was positively correlated with soil C:N ratio in spruce soils (R = 0.72), and with the soil C:P ratio in beech (R = 0.93), spruce (R = 0.80) and mixed forest soils (R = 0.96). We also observed a close correlation between the qCO2 and the soil C concentration in all three forest types. Yet, the qCO2 decreased less with depth than the C concentration in all three forest types, suggesting that the change in qCO2 is not only controlled by the soil C concentration. We conclude that microorganisms increase their respiration rate per unit biomass with increasing soil C:P ratio and C concentration, which adjusts the substrate to their nutritional demands in terms of stoichiometry. In an analysis of literature data, I tested the effect of the C:N ratio of soil litter layers on microbial respiration in absolute terms and per unit microbial biomass C. For this purpose, a global dataset on the microbial respiration rate per unit microbial biomass C - termed the metabolic quotient (qCO2) - was compiled form literature data. It was found that the qCO2 in the soil litter layers was positively correlated with the litter C:N ratio and negatively related with the litter nitrogen (N) concentration. The positive relation between the qCO2

  20. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  1. Increased neuronal firing in resting and sleep in areas of the macaque medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbott, Paul L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of humans and macaques is an integral part of the default mode network and is a brain region that shows increased activation in the resting state. A previous paper from our laboratory reported significantly increased firing rates of neurons in the macaque subgenual cingulate cortex, Brodmann area (BA) 25, during disengagement from a task and also during slow wave sleep [E.T. Rolls et al. (2003) J. Neurophysiology, 90, 134-142]. Here we report the finding that there are neurons in other areas of mPFC that also increase their firing rates during disengagement from a task, drowsiness and eye-closure. During the neurophysiological recording of single mPFC cells (n = 249) in BAs 9, 10, 13 m, 14c, 24b and especially pregenual area 32, populations of neurons were identified whose firing rates altered significantly with eye-closure compared with eye-opening. Three types of neuron were identified: Type 1 cells (28.1% of the total population) significantly increased (mean + 329%; P ≪ 0.01) their average firing rate with eye-closure, from 3.1 spikes/s when awake to 10.2 spikes/s when asleep; Type 2 cells (6.0%) significantly decreased (mean -68%; P areas of mPFC, implicated in the anterior default mode network, there is a substantial population of neurons that significantly increase their firing rates during periods of eye-closure. Such neurons may be part of an interconnected network of distributed brain regions that are more active during periods of relaxed wakefulness than during attention-demanding tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Increased trends in the use of treatment-limiting decisions in a regional neurosurgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William T; McMillan, Tristan; Young, Adam M H; White, Mark A J

    2017-04-01

    Treatment-limiting decisions (TLDs) are employed to actively withhold treatment from patients whom clinicians feel would derive no benefit or suffer detrimental effects from further intervention. The use of such decisions has been heavily discussed in the media and clinicians in the past have been reluctant to institute them, even though it is in the best interests of the patients. Their use is influenced by several ethical, religious and social factors all of which have changed significantly over time. This study reports the trends in use of TLDs in a regional neurosurgical unit over 23 years. Patient archives were reviewed to identify the number of admissions and procedures performed at the Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow, in the years 1988, 1997 and 2011. Death certificate records were used to identify mortality in the unit in the year 2011. Patient records were used to obtain details of diagnosis, time from admission to death, and the presence and timing of a TLD. The results show an increase in the use of TLDs, with decisions made for 89% of those who died in 2011, compared to 68% in 1997 and 51% in 1988. The number of admissions has increased substantially since 1988 as has the percentage of patients undergoing surgery (46, 67 and 72% in 1988, 1997 and 2011, respectively). There is a trending increase in the number of patients who have a TLD in our regional neurosurgical unit. This demonstrates an increased willingness of clinicians to recognise poor prognosis and to withdraw or withhold treatment in these cases. Continued appropriate use of the TLD is recommended but it is to only ever reflect the best interests of the patient.

  3. Can online benchmarking increase rates of thrombolysis? Data from the Austrian stroke unit registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Julia; Seyfang, Leonhard; Lang, Wilfried

    2013-09-01

    Despite its widespread availability and known safety and efficacy, a therapy with intravenous thrombolysis is still undergiven. We aimed to identify whether nationwide quality projects--like the stroke registry in Austria--as well as online benchmarking and predefined target values can increase rates of thrombolysis. Therefore, we assessed 6,394 out of 48,462 patients with ischemic stroke from the Austrian stroke registry (study period from March 2003 to December 2011) who had undergone thrombolysis treatment. We defined lower level and target values as quality parameters and evaluated whether or not these parameters could be achieved in the past years. We were able to show that rates of thrombolysis in Austria increased from 4.9% in 2003 to 18.3% in 2011. In a multivariate regression model, the main impact seen was the increase over the years [the OR ranges from 0.47 (95% CI 0.32-0.68) in 2003 to 2.51 (95% CI 2.20-2.87) in 2011). The predefined lower and target levels of thrombolysis were achieved at the majority of participating centers: in 2011 the lower value of 5% was achieved at all stroke units, and the target value of 15% was observed at 21 of 34 stroke units. We conclude that online benchmarking and the concept of defining target values as a tool for nationwide acute stroke care appeared to result in an increase in the rate of thrombolysis over the last few years while the variability between the stroke units has not yet been reduced.

  4. Mid-21st-century climate changes increase predicted fire occurrence and fire season length, Northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Karin L.; Loehman, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to increase fire frequency, fire season length, and cumulative area burned in the western United States. We focus on the potential impact of mid-21st-century climate changes on annual burn probability, fire season length, and large fire characteristics including number and size for a study area in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Although large fires are rare they account for most of the area burned in western North America, burn under extreme weather conditions, and exhibit behaviors that preclude methods of direct control. Allocation of resources, development of management plans, and assessment of fire effects on ecosystems all require an understanding of when and where fires are likely to burn, particularly under altered climate regimes that may increase large fire occurrence. We used the large fire simulation model FSim to model ignition, growth, and containment of wildfires under two climate scenarios: contemporary (based on instrumental weather) and mid-century (based on an ensemble average of global climate models driven by the A1B SRES emissions scenario). Modeled changes in fire patterns include increased annual burn probability, particularly in areas of the study region with relatively short contemporary fire return intervals; increased individual fire size and annual area burned; and fewer years without large fires. High fire danger days, represented by threshold values of Energy Release Component (ERC), are projected to increase in number, especially in spring and fall, lengthening the climatic fire season. For fire managers, ERC is an indicator of fire intensity potential and fire economics, with higher ERC thresholds often associated with larger, more expensive fires. Longer periods of elevated ERC may significantly increase the cost and complexity of fire management activities, requiring new strategies to maintain desired ecological conditions and limit fire risk. Increased fire activity (within the historical range of

  5. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  6. Ability of crime, demographic and business data to forecast areas of increased violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Daniel A; Mercer Kollar, Laura M; Wu, Daniel T; Fraser, David A; Flood, Charles E; Moore, Jasmine C; Mays, Elizabeth W; Sumner, Steven A

    2018-05-24

    Identifying geographic areas and time periods of increased violence is of considerable importance in prevention planning. This study compared the performance of multiple data sources to prospectively forecast areas of increased interpersonal violence. We used 2011-2014 data from a large metropolitan county on interpersonal violence (homicide, assault, rape and robbery) and forecasted violence at the level of census block-groups and over a one-month moving time window. Inputs to a Random Forest model included historical crime records from the police department, demographic data from the US Census Bureau, and administrative data on licensed businesses. Among 279 block groups, a model utilizing all data sources was found to prospectively improve the identification of the top 5% most violent block-group months (positive predictive value = 52.1%; negative predictive value = 97.5%; sensitivity = 43.4%; specificity = 98.2%). Predictive modelling with simple inputs can help communities more efficiently focus violence prevention resources geographically.

  7. Characterization of increased persistence and intensity of precipitation in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Justin; Betts, Alan K.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Beckage, Brian; Bomblies, Arne

    2015-03-01

    We present evidence of increasing persistence in daily precipitation in the northeastern United States that suggests that global circulation changes are affecting regional precipitation patterns. Meteorological data from 222 stations in 10 northeastern states are analyzed using Markov chain parameter estimates to demonstrate that a significant mode of precipitation variability is the persistence of precipitation events. We find that the largest region-wide trend in wet persistence (i.e., the probability of precipitation in 1 day and given precipitation in the preceding day) occurs in June (+0.9% probability per decade over all stations). We also find that the study region is experiencing an increase in the magnitude of high-intensity precipitation events. The largest increases in the 95th percentile of daily precipitation occurred in April with a trend of +0.7 mm/d/decade. We discuss the implications of the observed precipitation signals for watershed hydrology and flood risk.

  8. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  9. Heat-stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas, being warmer than their surroundings, are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine a 35-year convection-permitting climate model integrations with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess heat stress in a typical densely populated mid-latitude maritime region. We show that the heat-stress increase for the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heatwaves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat-stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat-stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our novel insights exemplify the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate-change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  10. Measures to increase the availability of electronic control units, illustrated by examples from power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1976-01-01

    The availibility of electric control units in the power plant engineering is increased by a decentralized construction, redundant current supply. miniaturized electronic modules, short-circuit-safe outputs, efficient protection of the wiring against over-voltage and intensive control of the afferent cables against wire break and short circuits. To reduce disturbing and damaging influences on the control multiple earthings should be avoided, the inductive coupling of distrubances should be reduced by parallel earth wires, and cable shields handled according to the prescriptions should reduce influences on the capacity. (orig.) [de

  11. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  12. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Christian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  13. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  14. Hierarchical Bayes Small Area Estimation under a Unit Level Model with Applications in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageena Nazir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To studied Bayesian aspect of small area estimation using Unit level model. In this paper we proposed and evaluated new prior distribution for the ratio of variance components in unit level model rather than uniform prior. To approximate the posterior moments of small area means, Laplace approximation method is applied. This choice of prior avoids the extreme skewness, usually present in the posterior distribution of variance components. This property leads to more accurate Laplace approximation. We apply the proposed model to the analysis of horticultural data and results from the model are compared with frequestist approach and with Bayesian model of uniform prior in terms of average relative bias, average squared relative bias and average absolute bias. The numerical results obtained highlighted the superiority of using the proposed prior over the uniform prior. Thus Bayes estimators (with new prior of small area means have good frequentist properties such as MSE and ARB as compared to other traditional methods viz., Direct, Synthetic and Composite estimators.

  15. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, David J.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Hoehn, Robert E.; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m −2 of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m −2 of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes). -- Highlights: •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes. •Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban and community areas is estimated at 1.36 billion tonnes. •Net carbon sequestration in U.S. urban areas varies by state and is estimated at 18.9 million tonnes per year. •Overlap between U.S. forest and urban forest carbon estimates is between 247 million and 303 million tonnes. -- Field and tree cover measurements reveal carbon storage and sequestration by trees in U.S. urban and community areas

  16. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T

    2017-07-01

    Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Telemedicine Systems/Units in Greek Remote Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouskoukis, Marios-Nikolaos; Botsaris, Charalambos

    2017-06-01

    Telemedicine units and information technology systems provide special healthcare services to remote populations using telecommunication technology, in order to reduce or even remove the usual and typical face-to-face contact between doctor and patient. This innovative approach to medical care delivery has been expanding for several years and currently covers various medical specialties. To facilitate installation of telemedicine systems/units in Greek remote areas, this article presents results of a cost-benefit analysis for two Greek islands, Patmos and Leros, using specific economic criteria. Net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period were calculated, in order to monetize the economic benefits and the costs savings, estimate the depreciation of each project, and highlight the social benefits. Costs were reduced (through saved air medical transportations) by €19,005 for Patmos and €78,225 for Leros each year. NPV and IRR were positive; NPV was €29,608 for Patmos and €293,245 for Leros, and IRR was 21.5% for Patmos and 140.5% for Leros. Each project depreciated faster than the 5-year life-cycle period, and specifically in 3.13 years for Patmos and in 0.70 years for Leros. The establishment of telemedicine systems/units in Patmos and Leros was evaluated and assessed positively, with large savings, economical and social, gained by reducing or even removing the face-to-face contact between doctor and patient. Telemedicine systems/units seem to be a promising solution, especially in Greece, where the problem of primary healthcare services in remote/inaccessible areas is of great concern.

  18. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  19. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  20. Rocky mountain spotted fever in the United States, 2000-2007: interpreting contemporary increases in incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, John J; Swerdlow, David L; Krebs, John W; Holman, Robert C; Mandel, Eric; Harvey, Alexis; Haberling, Dana; Massung, Robert F; McQuiston, Jennifer H

    2010-07-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a potentially fatal tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is considered a notifiable condition in the United States. During 2000 to 2007, the annual reported incidence of RMSF increased from 1.7 to 7 cases per million persons from 2000 to 2007, the highest rate ever recorded. American Indians had a significantly higher incidence than other race groups. Children 5-9 years of age appeared at highest risk for fatal outcome. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays became more widely available beginning in 2004 and were used to diagnose 38% of cases during 2005-2007. The proportion of cases classified as confirmed RMSF decreased from 15% in 2000 to 4% in 2007. Concomitantly, case fatality decreased from 2.2% to 0.3%. The decreasing proportion of confirmed cases and cases with fatal outcome suggests that changes in diagnostic and surveillance practices may be influencing the observed increase in reported incidence rates.

  1. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-11-23

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Increasing wood mobilization through Sustainable Forest Management in protected areas of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maesano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT JA X-NONE The European Community has long recognized the need to further promote renewable energy. Under the overall objective to support and enhance sustainable management, the promotion of the use of forest biomass could help to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuel, increasing carbon stock in wood products and improve energy self-sufficiency enhancing security of supply and providing job opportunities in rural areas. To what extent Italian forests can satisfy an increased wood demand, without compromising the others Ecosystem Services (ESs remains an open question. Our aim was to assess the potential supply of woody biomass from the network of protected areas in Italy considering the felling constraints. We estimated the theoretical annual potential increment from forest inventory data performing a correlation with the Corine Land Cover 2006 at the IV level with a 1:100,000 resolution elaborated in a GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The average annual potential increment at national level available for felling was 4.4 m3ha-1. Within the network of protected areas (EUAP and Natura 2000, the average annual increment, available to felling, was 0.98 m3ha-1, respectively, 0.81 m3ha-1 from coppice and 1.14 m3ha-1 from non-coppice forests. Based on data obtained from this study, the availability of wood materials could be increased of almost 20 % at national level by pursuing an active management within the network of protected areas. In Italy, the actual level of resource utilization is rather low; increasing felling together with the implementation of an active management within protected areas could allow satisfying, theoretically, the Italian wood consumption. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0

  3. Status of remedial investigation activities in the Hanford Site 300 Area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Innis, B.E.; Frank, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) and Phase 1 and 2 feasibility studies (FS) for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit underlying the 300 Area on the Hanford Site have been completed. Analysis and evaluation of soil, sediment, and surface water, and biotic sampling data, groundwater chemistry, and radiological data gathered over the past 3 years has been completed. Risk assessment calculations have been performed. Use of the data gathered, coupled with information from an automated water level data collection system, has enabled engineers to track three plumes that represent the most significant contamination of the groundwater

  4. Frontier areas and exploration techniques. Frontier uranium exploration in the South-Central United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; Biddle, K.T.

    1977-01-01

    Selected areas of the South-Central United States outside the known U trends of South Texas have a largely untested potential for the occurrence of significant U mineralization. These areas, underlain by Tertiary and older sediments, include parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The commonly accepted criteria employed in U exploration are applicable to these frontier areas but special consideration must also be given to the atypical geologic aspects of such areas as they may apply to relatively unique types of U mineralization or to the development of special exploration criteria for common types of roll-front and fault-and dome-related uranium mineralization. The procedures used in evaluating frontier areas should be based on comprehensive evaluations involving: (1) location and analysis of potential source rocks (e.g., intrusive igneous rocks, bentonitic sediments, unique complexes, etc.); (2) definition of regional variations in the potential host sediments (e.g. marginal marine to nonmarine environments of deposition); (3) review of all available radiometric data in Tertiary or older rocks; (4) local groundwater sampling; (5) widely spaced reconnaissance (or stratigraphic) drilling, coring and borehole geophysical logging to define favorable sedimentary facies and to establish the specific lithologic character of the sediments; and (6) detailed petrographic evaluation of all available samples to define the environment of deposition and diagenetic history of ''favorable'' sediments. If procedures produce favorable results, an expanded exploration program is justified. Depths up to 3,000 feet should be anticipated if up-dip information is favorable. Selected areas are discussed that have: (1) favorable source and host rocks;(2) favorable age; (3) favorable regional and local structure; and (4) radiometric characteristics favorable for U mineralization of potentially economic grade and reserves in the areas

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzmaurice, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    This closure report (CR) provides documentation for the closure of the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). CAU 407 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The RCRSA is located on the northeast comer of the intersection of Main Road and Browne's Lake Road, which is approximately 8 km (5 mi) south of Area 3 (Figure 1). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Double Tracks and Clean Slate tests. Investigation of the RCRSA was conducted from June through November of 1998. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1999) was approved in October of 1999. The purpose of this CR is to: Document the closure activities as proposed in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (DOEM, 2000). Obtain a Notice of Completion from the NDEP. Recommend the movement of CAU 407 from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO. The following is the scope of the closure actions implemented for CAU 407: Removal and disposal of surface soils which were over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal were disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Excavated areas were backfilled with clean borrow soil located near the site. A soil cover was constructed over the waste disposal pit area, where subsurface constituents of concern remain. The site was fenced and posted as an ''Underground Radioactive Material'' area

  6. Multidecadal fCO2 Increase Along the United States Southeast Coastal Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Wang, Hongjie; Vargas, Rodrigo; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Coastal margins could be hotspots for acidification due to terrestrial-influenced CO2 sources. Currently there are no long-term (>20 years) records from biologically important coastal environments that could demonstrate sea surface CO2 fugacity (fCO2) and pH trends. Here, multidecadal fCO2 trends are calculated from underway and moored time series observations along the United States southeast coastal margin, also referred to as the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). fCO2 trends across the SAB, derived from ˜26 years of cruises and ˜9.5 years from a moored time series, range from 3.0 to 4.5 µatm yr-1, and are greater than the open ocean increases. The pH decline related to the fCO2 increases could be as much as -0.004 yr-1; a rate greater than that expected from atmospheric-influenced pH alone. We provide evidence that fCO2 increases and pH decreases on an ocean margin can be faster than those predicted for the open ocean from atmospheric influence alone. We conclude that a substantial fCO2 increase across the marginal SAB is due to both increasing temperature on the middle and outer shelves, but to lateral land-ocean interactions in the coastal zone and on inner shelf.

  7. Revegetation increase bird diversity in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban, East Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Yeni Indah; Edi, Wasito; Alivvy, Alkautsar; Ibadah, Acib Setia; Sari, Fadina Yuliana; Nuraini, Finda; Yanuar, Ahmad; Satriyono, Agus; Riany, Citra Fitrie; Saptarini, Dian; Muzaki, Farid Kamal

    2017-06-01

    Study to address positive impact of revegetation program to increasing diversity of bird had been conducted in coastal area of Socorejo, Tuban - Indonesia. Field observation conducted during April 2011 (representing pre-revegetation period), April 2015 and May 2016 (representing post-revegetation period). A belt transect (500 meter long and 50 meter width) was used to survey the abundance and species composition of birds community. In general, we identified at least 51 bird species from three observation times. From 2011 to 2016, the numbers of the birds identified are 23, 37 and 37 species; while the Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') are 1.865, 2.071 and 2.957, respectively. In addition, there are 11 national or internationally protected species, 3 Indonesian endemic species and 12 migratory species occurred in the area. As a conclusion, the coastal revegetation program provides positive impact by generating habitat function for bird community.

  8. Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Abbott, Richard J; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence. PMID:24772279

  9. The Gordian knot: managing herring (Clupea harengus) bridging across populations, fishery units, management areas, and politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Mosegaard, Henrik; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2012-01-01

    –24) and the North Sea (Division IIIa) by various EU—and in the latter case also non‐EU—fishing fleets. For the two separate management areas, TACs are set at different times in the yearly TACsetting process by the EU and negotiating counties, which often result in conflicts over quota allocations among different......The management of western Baltic spring spawning (WBSS) herring is challenged by the highly complex stock structure with a temporal and geographical distribution leading to conflicting interests among different stakeholder groups. The stock is exploited in the Baltic Sea (Subdivisions 22...... management units. The WBSS herring stock spawns in the western Baltic Sea and migrates into the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas, where it mixes with North Sea autumn spawning (NSAS) herring. Recent development of otolith shape analysis has enabled a high‐resolution separation of herring stocks in these waters...

  10. Environmental remediation cost in Fukushima area. Trial calculation using the unit cost factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujita, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    In order to perform environmental remediation in Fukushima area in a swift and adequate way, it is necessary to obtain perspective of total cost and allocate resources adequately. At present such had not been fixed as what decontamination method should be applied to relevant contaminated places in Fukushima area or what disposition and processing process should be applied to radioactive soils and wastes produced by decontamination, it would be difficult to assess the cost exactly. But it would be better to calculate rough cost on trial and then upgrade the accuracy of the cost gradually based on latest knowledge. Cleanup subcommittee of AESJ utilized published process flow and unit cost and based on original proposed scenario: soils produced by decontamination were classified into intermediate storage facility and controllable processing place based on their contamination concentration and with limited reuse, rough estimated cost was obtained as 6 - 9 trillion yen for basic case. (T. Tanaka)

  11. The impact of oil price increase on the Euro area's growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    In a first part, the author of this article comments the increase of oil prices since 2002 and notices that the magnitude is similar to that noticed during the 1973 and 1979 oil-shocks. He outlines that several factors have limited the impact of the oil price increase in the Euro area, notably the Euro appreciation with respect to the dollar: the Euro appreciation has absorbed half of the oil price increase, the oil intensity of the European economy has decreased, a tax damping effect has been noticed, and more competitive markets limit the inflation risk. The author assesses the impact of oil price increase on the growth of the Euro zone since 2002: recessionary effect of oil price increase, an actual impact but limited by the appreciation of Euro. Perspectives for 2008 are discussed: predictable oil price evolution and its impact of growth in 2008, policy and action of the ECB (European Central Bank) in front of the impact of oil price increase on inflation and on activity

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  13. Scientometrics on Public Health Research in Iran: Increase of Area Studies despite Embargoes? A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreau, Brice

    2017-03-01

    Due to embargoes and sanctions from 1979 until 2015, impact on scientific research in Iran may be critical. Public health is the main example of this burning point. In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research in public health in Iran until 2014 with area studies as well as networks of countries involved. We used bibliographic analyses using VOS viewer software for network analysis during the period 1975-2014. Two databases were used: Web of Science and PubMed. We performed analyses of journals, authors, publication years, organizations, funding companies, countries, keywords and Web of sciences Categories. We accessed 862 articles published between 1991 and 2014, the majority of published after 2008. The main countries of research were Iran, the United States of America, England, and Sweden and represented the main network collaboration. The main Web of Sciences categories was public, occupational and environmental health, medicine general internal and parasitology. We accessed 25462 publications on PubMed database from 1950 to 2014. The majority of published after 2004. The main area studies were prognosis, wounds and injuries, soil solutions and biological markers. Public health research in Iran has been developed since 2004. The chief field was emerging cardiovascular diseases and communicable diseases. Other biotechnological fields were emerging such as biological markers research. Iran provides structures to face up with its new challenges using networks of countries such as the USA, England, and Sweden. End of embargoes could provide new perspectives for public health research and more largely scientific research in Iran.

  14. A retrospective and prospective look at strategies to increase adolescent HPV vaccine uptake in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Katharine J; Biederman, Erika; Sturm, Lynne A; Zimet, Gregory D

    2018-01-23

    The HPV vaccine debuted more than ten years ago in the United States and many strategies have been evaluated to increase HPV vaccination rates, which include not only improving current vaccination behaviors but also sustaining these behaviors. Researchers and practitioners from a variety of backgrounds have engaged in this work, which has included efforts directed at public health and government policies, health education and health promotion programs, and clinical and patient-provider approaches, as well as work aimed to respond to and combat anti-HPV vaccination movements in society. Using a previously developed conceptual model to organize and summarize each of these areas, this paper also highlights the need for future HPV vaccine promotion work to adopt a multi-level and, when possible, integrated approach in order to maximize impact on vaccination rates.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafason, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU consists of thee Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01 - Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02 - Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03 - Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). Characterization activities indicated that only CAS 25-07-02 (F and J Roads Pad) contained constituents of concern (COCs) above action levels and required remediation. The COCs detected were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel, cesium-137, and strontium-90. The F and J Roads Pad may have been used for the decontamination of vehicles and possibly disassembled engine and reactor parts from Test Cell C. Activities occurred there during the 1960s through early 1970s. The F and J Roads Pad consisted of a 9- by 5-meter (m) (30- by 15-foot [ft]) concrete pad and a 14- by 13-m (46-by 43-ft) gravel sump. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Closure activities began on August 21, 2000, and ended on September 19, 2000. Waste disposal activities were completed on December 12, 2000. A total of 172 cubic meters (223 cubic yards) of impacted soil was excavated and disposed. The concrete pad was also removed and disposed. Verification samples were collected from the bottom and sidewalls of the excavation and analyzed for TPH diesel and 20-minute gamma spectroscopy. The sample results indicated that all impacted soil above remediation standards was removed. The closure was completed following the approved Corrective Action Plan. All impacted waste was disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill. All non-impacted debris was disposed in the Area 9 Construction Landfill and the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill

  16. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bosch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in {Li [In(1,3 − BDC2]}n and enhancement of the H2 uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  17. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  18. The Institutional Sustainability in Protected Area Tourism-Case Studies of Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area, China and New Forest National Park, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Feifei; Fox, Dorothy; Zhang, J.; Cheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers sustainable tourism development in two protected areas, Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area in China and the New Forest National Park in the United Kingdom. An inductive approach is used to explore the "fourth component" of sustainable tourism development that is institutional sustainability. Primary data from in-depth interviews, together with a range of secondary data sources, are analyzed to understand the governance and management of each area. These reveal that whilst ...

  19. Simulated effects of increased groundwater withdrawals in the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Connor J.

    2014-01-01

    Concern for future water supplies in Tennessee has grown in recent years as a result of increased awareness of competing needs, the impact of droughts, and the need for more water to support growing populations. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts investigations to improve the knowledge about interactions of geology, climate, humans, and ecosystems with the water cycle, which is critical to understanding and optimizing water availability. The Hixson Utility District in Hamilton County, Tennessee, uses groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area as a water supply, withdrawing water from two well fields located at Cave Springs and Walkers Corner. Historically, Hixson Utility District has withdrawn about 5 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) at the Cave Springs well field and between 2 and 3 Mgal/d at the Walkers Corner well field. To assess the capacity of the groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area to meet future demands, four different scenarios of increased groundwater withdrawals were analyzed using computer model simulations.

  20. Climate change. Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romps, David M; Seeley, Jacob T; Vollaro, David; Molinari, John

    2014-11-14

    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. Here we propose that the lightning flash rate is proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation explains 77% of the variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS). Storms convert CAPE times precipitated water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of 1%. When this proxy is applied to 11 climate models, CONUS lightning strikes are predicted to increase 12 ± 5% per degree Celsius of global warming and about 50% over this century. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Projected Increase in Lightning Strikes in the United States Due to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romps, D. M.; Seeley, J.; Vollaro, D.; Molinari, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. The lightning flash rate is proposed here to be proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation is found to explain the majority of variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS) on timescales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. The observations reveal that storms convert the CAPE of water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of about 1%. This proxy can be applied to global climate models, which provide predictions for the increase in lightning due to global warming. Results from 11 GCMs will be shown.

  2. Control area around dental x-ray units - dosimetric study I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suric Mihic, M.; Prlic, I.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Mestrovic, T.; Rojnica, F.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of prompt professional occupational dose reporting is raised when the interval between doses is short or when the radiation source suffers a technical failure. Every involved person should be able to recognised individual or group radiation exposure. Actual radiation quality of the source is to be taken into account. To optimise radiation protection of dental radiologists, dental x-ray units were subject to Quality Control measurements. Scattering radiation from the patient's dental structures was measured in order to prove the results published by S. Tabakov, but using the modern RVG dental mode and several classical diagnostic positions. We used a special head phantom (real scull + Perspex + crown glass) and common dental x-ray units of various brands and types. The radiation quality was measured using standard QA/QC equipment. We measured the radiation scattered from the phantom in the horizontal plane (at thyroid height) at 0.5 m distance from the centre of the phantom. The measurement were done for a number of standard dental x-ray procedures, but this paper presents only the scattering caused by the upper premolars. The attenuation in the facial tissue was minimal and the majority of incidental radiation passes through the open mouth of a patient directly into the room area causing occupational exposure. The results we obtained are consistent with earlier reports on patient dosimetry. Occupational exposure is much lower if a modern RVG technique is used and no radiation protection threshold is exceeded in relation to Croatian laws. Much more important is the fact that the need for protective equipment and shielding is smaller if QA warrants proper technical operation of the x-ray tube. The maintenance of dental units is essential and so is a proper training of staff using modern diagnostic techniques. The control area around the x-ray unit is to be calculated and established for every standard dental unit (this does not apply for panoramic x

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  4. Life Science's Average Publishable Unit (APU Has Increased over the Past Two Decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radames J B Cordero

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the scientific literature is important for evaluating the evolution and state of science. To study how the density of biological literature has changed over the past two decades we visually inspected 1464 research articles related only to the biological sciences from ten scholarly journals (with average Impact Factors, IF, ranging from 3.8 to 32.1. By scoring the number of data items (tables and figures, density of composite figures (labeled panels per figure or PPF, as well as the number of authors, pages and references per research publication we calculated an Average Publishable Unit or APU for 1993, 2003, and 2013. The data show an overall increase in the average ± SD number of data items from 1993 to 2013 of approximately 7±3 to 14±11 and PPF ratio of 2±1 to 4±2 per article, suggesting that the APU has doubled in size over the past two decades. As expected, the increase in data items per article is mainly in the form of supplemental material, constituting 0 to 80% of the data items per publication in 2013, depending on the journal. The changes in the average number of pages (approx. 8±3 to 10±3, references (approx. 44±18 to 56±24 and authors (approx. 5±3 to 8±9 per article are also presented and discussed. The average number of data items, figure density and authors per publication are correlated with the journal's average IF. The increasing APU size over time is important when considering the value of research articles for life scientists and publishers, as well as, the implications of these increasing trends in the mechanisms and economics of scientific communication.

  5. Life Science's Average Publishable Unit (APU) Has Increased over the Past Two Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Radames J B; de León-Rodriguez, Carlos M; Alvarado-Torres, John K; Rodriguez, Ana R; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the scientific literature is important for evaluating the evolution and state of science. To study how the density of biological literature has changed over the past two decades we visually inspected 1464 research articles related only to the biological sciences from ten scholarly journals (with average Impact Factors, IF, ranging from 3.8 to 32.1). By scoring the number of data items (tables and figures), density of composite figures (labeled panels per figure or PPF), as well as the number of authors, pages and references per research publication we calculated an Average Publishable Unit or APU for 1993, 2003, and 2013. The data show an overall increase in the average ± SD number of data items from 1993 to 2013 of approximately 7±3 to 14±11 and PPF ratio of 2±1 to 4±2 per article, suggesting that the APU has doubled in size over the past two decades. As expected, the increase in data items per article is mainly in the form of supplemental material, constituting 0 to 80% of the data items per publication in 2013, depending on the journal. The changes in the average number of pages (approx. 8±3 to 10±3), references (approx. 44±18 to 56±24) and authors (approx. 5±3 to 8±9) per article are also presented and discussed. The average number of data items, figure density and authors per publication are correlated with the journal's average IF. The increasing APU size over time is important when considering the value of research articles for life scientists and publishers, as well as, the implications of these increasing trends in the mechanisms and economics of scientific communication.

  6. Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadoo, Annabel; Gormally, Alexandra; Cruickshank, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: → Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. → The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. → A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. → External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.

  7. Assessing increasing susceptibility to wildfire at the wildland-urban fringe in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hogue, T. S.

    2013-05-01

    Much of the western U.S. is increasingly susceptible to wildfire activity due to drier conditions, elevated fuel loads, and expanding urbanization. As population increases, development pushes the urban boundary further into wildlands, creating more potential for human interaction at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), primarily from human ignitions and fire suppression policies. The immediate impacts of wildfires include vulnerability to debris flows, flooding, and impaired water quality. Fires also alter longer-term hydrological and ecosystem behavior. The current study utilizes geospatial datasets to investigate historical wildfire size and frequency relative to the WUI for a range of cities across western North America. California, the most populous state in the U.S., has an extensive fire history. The decennial population and acres burned for four major counties (Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Shasta) in California show that increasing wildfire size and frequency follow urbanization trends, with high correlation between the last decade of burned area, urban-fringe proximity, and increasing population. Ultimately, results will provide information on urban fringe communities that are most vulnerable to the risks associated with wildfire and post-fire impacts. In light of evolving land use policies (i.e. forest management and treatment, development at the urban-fringe) and climate change, it is critical to advance our knowledge of the implications that these conditions pose to urban centers, communicate risks to the public, and ultimately provide guidance for wildfire management.

  8. Work loss associated with increased menstrual loss in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Jacobs, Philip; Cumming, David

    2002-10-01

    To estimate the effect of increased menstrual flow on the loss of work. Heavy or otherwise abnormal menstrual bleeding is a common problem among women in the reproductive age range. Until now, there has been no evidence of its effect on absences from work. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey 1999, a personal interview household survey using a nationwide representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Participants were 3133 women aged between 18 and 64 years who reported having a natural menstrual period in the last 12 months and in the last 3 months, never having taken medication containing estrogen (except past use of oral contraceptives), and never having been told that they had reproductive cancer. Analysis was performed using data from 2805 women, 373 having self-described heavy flow and 2432 having normal flow. The main outcome measure was work loss associated with the degree of menstrual flow. Using binary logistic regression, age, marital status, education, family size, perception of health, and flow of menstrual periods are associated with work losses (P women who have a heavier flow are 72% as likely to be working as are women who have a lighter or normal flow. Menstrual bleeding has significant economic implications for women in the workplace: work loss from increased blood flow is estimated to be $1692 annually per woman.

  9. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the United States, 2000–2007: Interpreting Contemporary Increases in Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, John J.; Swerdlow, David L.; Krebs, John W.; Holman, Robert C.; Mandel, Eric; Harvey, Alexis; Haberling, Dana; Massung, Robert F.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a potentially fatal tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is considered a notifiable condition in the United States. During 2000 to 2007, the annual reported incidence of RMSF increased from 1.7 to 7 cases per million persons from 2000 to 2007, the highest rate ever recorded. American Indians had a significantly higher incidence than other race groups. Children 5–9 years of age appeared at highest risk for fatal outcome. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays became more widely available beginning in 2004 and were used to diagnose 38% of cases during 2005–2007. The proportion of cases classified as confirmed RMSF decreased from 15% in 2000 to 4% in 2007. Concomitantly, case fatality decreased from 2.2% to 0.3%. The decreasing proportion of confirmed cases and cases with fatal outcome suggests that changes in diagnostic and surveillance practices may be influencing the observed increase in reported incidence rates. PMID:20595498

  10. The Small Area Health Statistics Unit: a national facility for investigating health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P; Westlake, A J; Hills, M; Kleinschmidt, I; Rodrigues, L; McGale, P; Marshall, K; Rose, G

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU) was established at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in response to a recommendation of the enquiry into the increased incidence of childhood leukaemia near Sellafield, the nuclear reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The aim of this paper was to describe the Unit's methods for the investigation of health around point sources of environmental pollution in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Routine data currently including deaths and cancer registrations are held in a large national database which uses a post code based retrieval system to locate cases geographically and link them to the underlying census enumeration districts, and hence to their populations at risk. Main outcome measures were comparison of observed/expected ratios (based on national rates) within bands delineated by concentric circles around point sources of environmental pollution located anywhere in Britain. MAIN RESULTS--The system is illustrated by a study of mortality from mesothelioma and asbestosis near the Plymouth naval dockyards during 1981-87. Within a 3 km radius of the docks the mortality rate for mesothelioma was higher than the national rate by a factor of 8.4, and that for asbestosis was higher by a factor of 13.6. CONCLUSIONS--SAHSU is a new national facility which is rapidly able to provide rates of mortality and cancer incidence for arbitrary circles drawn around any point in Britain. The example around Plymouth of mesothelioma and asbestosis demonstrates the ability of the system to detect an unusual excess of disease in a small locality, although in this case the findings are likely to be related to occupational rather than environmental exposure. PMID:1431704

  11. Increased connectivity between sensorimotor and attentional areas in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onu, Mihaela; Badea, Liviu; Roceanu, Adina; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Tivarus, Madalina

    2015-01-01

    Our study is using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to evaluate functional connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) in an unbiased manner. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data was collected for 27 PD patients and 16 healthy subjects. Differences for intra- and inter-network connectivity between healthy subjects and patients were investigated using FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools (Melodic ICA, dual regression, FSLNets). Twenty-three ICA maps were identified as components of neuronal origin. For intra-network connectivity changes, eight components showed a significant connectivity increase in patients (p < 0.05); these were correlated with clinical scores and were largest for (sensori)motor networks. For inter-network connectivity changes, we found higher connectivity between the sensorimotor network and the spatial attention network (p = 0.0098) and lower connectivity between anterior and posterior default mode networks (DMN) (p = 0.024), anterior DMN and visual recognition networks (p = 0.026), as well as between visual attention and main dorsal attention networks (p = 0.03), for patients as compared to healthy subjects. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for the best predictor (partial correlation between sensorimotor and spatial attention networks) was 0.772. These functional alterations were not associated with any gray or white matter structural changes. Our results show higher connectivity between sensorimotor and spatial attention areas in patients that may be related to the reduced movement automaticity in PD. (orig.)

  12. Increased connectivity between sensorimotor and attentional areas in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onu, Mihaela [Medical Imaging Department, Clinical Hospital ' ' Prof. Dr. Th. Burghele' ' , Bucharest (Romania); Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Biophysics, Bucharest (Romania); Badea, Liviu [National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics, Artificial Intelligence and Bioinformatics Group, Bucharest (Romania); Roceanu, Adina; Bajenaru, Ovidiu [University of Bucharest Emergency Hospital, Neurology Department, Bucharest (Romania); Tivarus, Madalina [University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Imaging Sciences and Rochester Center for Brain Imaging, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Our study is using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to evaluate functional connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) in an unbiased manner. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data was collected for 27 PD patients and 16 healthy subjects. Differences for intra- and inter-network connectivity between healthy subjects and patients were investigated using FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools (Melodic ICA, dual regression, FSLNets). Twenty-three ICA maps were identified as components of neuronal origin. For intra-network connectivity changes, eight components showed a significant connectivity increase in patients (p < 0.05); these were correlated with clinical scores and were largest for (sensori)motor networks. For inter-network connectivity changes, we found higher connectivity between the sensorimotor network and the spatial attention network (p = 0.0098) and lower connectivity between anterior and posterior default mode networks (DMN) (p = 0.024), anterior DMN and visual recognition networks (p = 0.026), as well as between visual attention and main dorsal attention networks (p = 0.03), for patients as compared to healthy subjects. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for the best predictor (partial correlation between sensorimotor and spatial attention networks) was 0.772. These functional alterations were not associated with any gray or white matter structural changes. Our results show higher connectivity between sensorimotor and spatial attention areas in patients that may be related to the reduced movement automaticity in PD. (orig.)

  13. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  14. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  15. Area-delay trade-offs of texture decompressors for a graphics processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa Súñer, Emilio; Ituero, Pablo; López-Vallejo, Marisa

    2011-05-01

    Graphics Processing Units have become a booster for the microelectronics industry. However, due to intellectual property issues, there is a serious lack of information on implementation details of the hardware architecture that is behind GPUs. For instance, the way texture is handled and decompressed in a GPU to reduce bandwidth usage has never been dealt with in depth from a hardware point of view. This work addresses a comparative study on the hardware implementation of different texture decompression algorithms for both conventional (PCs and video game consoles) and mobile platforms. Circuit synthesis is performed targeting both a reconfigurable hardware platform and a 90nm standard cell library. Area-delay trade-offs have been extensively analyzed, which allows us to compare the complexity of decompressors and thus determine suitability of algorithms for systems with limited hardware resources.

  16. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rick Findlay

    2006-01-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation

  17. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  18. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA

  19. A United States perspective on long term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The United States has far-reaching experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. The events resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the Marshall Islands, follow-up from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, accidents, and the environmental cleanup of our weapons complex have resulted in an extensive body of lessons learned and best practices. The lack of trust created in the affected population, regardless of cause of the spread of radioactive material, creates the working environment for long-term management of the situation. The extent of advanced planning for such an event will define and bound your ultimate success in reaching a conclusion acceptable to the affected parties. The two key issues to be addressed in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials are the two 'T's' - technical and trust. The technical issues to be resolved include: access to the affected area; infrastructure to support operations; local and imported staffing; health care for the affected population; and payment to name a few. In addressing the issue of trust it is critical to establish open, honest and inclusive communications and decision making with the affected population and stakeholders, with clear roles and responsibilities defined. Actions must be sensitive to local cultural issues and agreements reached with affected populations prior to actions being taken. Establishment of an alternative views resolution process helps build trust and allow actions to taken. Government to government relations and agreements must be established with an acceptance and understanding of the long term investment in time and resources needed. Planning ahead for such an eventuality and putting in place procedures, agreements and resources needed to address the technical and trust issues associated with the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials enhances success. (author)

  20. Burden of orofacial pain in a socially deprived and culturally diverse area of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joury, Easter; Bernabe, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Marcenes, Wagner

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the burden and impact of orofacial pain in deprived areas, and whether it mediates the relationship between socioeconomic position and impacts on daily life. We analysed data from a representative sample of 2168 adults, aged 16 to 65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality study. Participants completed a validated questionnaire on demographics, socioeconomic position (area deprivation), orofacial pain (by anatomical site) in the past month, and impacts related to oral conditions on daily life. Negative binomial regression models with robust variance estimator were fitted. The prevalence of orofacial pain was high (30.2%). The most common subset of orofacial pain was intraoral pain (27.5%). The prevalence of pain related to temporomandibular disorders was 6.8%. The most common subsets of intraoral pain were tooth (20.4%) and gingival (11.4%) pain. Orofacial pain, its subsets (intraoral and temporomandibular disorder-related pain), and intraoral pain subsets (tooth and gingival pain) consistently showed associations with all dimensions of impacts on daily life that were highly statistically significant: functional limitation, psychological discomfort, disabilities, and handicap. Socioeconomic inequalities were present in orofacial pain and some dimensions of impacts on daily life. Orofacial pain did not mediate the relationship between area deprivation and impacts on daily life. Our study demonstrated a substantial burden and impact of orofacial pain in a socially deprived and culturally diverse area of the United Kingdom. To address this burden, interventions that lie within the remit of health services are needed to improve access to dental care for adults with orofacial pain.

  1. Water level measurements for modeling hydraulic properties in the 300-FF-5 and 100 Aggregate Area Operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; McMahon, W.J.; Simpson, K.R.

    1993-04-01

    Pressure transducers connected to dataloggers were used to measure ground water and Columbia River water elevations simultaneously and hourly at 35 locations in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and 16 locations in the 100 Aggregate Area Operable Unit on the Hanford Site. Water temperatures were also measured at 12 of these locations. This report details the findings of these studies

  2. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Characterization of environmental gamma radiation in urban areas using a tracking mobile unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachett, Ivanor Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The air kerma rate was determined for the main areas in the monazite sand region of the Guarapari city, along the Brazilian coast, and for the volcanic intrusives of the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, inland of Brazil, by using a carborne environmental survey unit. The unit is composed of two gamma spectrometry systems connected to a 100 ml and 4000 ml NaI(Tl) crystal detectors respectively. Both detectors response functions were determined by Monte Carlo simulation with the EGS4 computer code; the conversion coefficients to air kerma cover the environmental range, from 40 up to 3000 keV, split into ten energy bands. The detector response function were validated by experimental measurements of known gamma fields due to both punctual and large concrete sources; the point sources were measured using the shadow shield technique to account for floor and ceiling scattering, and the outdoors large radioactive concrete sources were of 3 m diameter covering a wide range of common environmental gamma fields. The correction factor to account for the shielding due to the vehicle was determined only experimentally. The average air kerma rates obtained at the main urban areas of the towns in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau were: Aguas da Prata, 105.6 nGy/h; Andradas 98.5 nGy/h; Caldas, 128.2 nGy/h; Pocos de Caldas, 144.46 nGy/h. No high air kerma rate spots were found. The mean value for the air kerma rate at the urban region of Guarapari, was 88.9 nGy/h. In this region were found 28 occurrences of small monazite patches, varing from 300 to 6000 nGy/h. (author)

  4. Well Installation Report for Corrective Action Unit 443, Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tim Echelard

    2006-01-01

    A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites, Corrective Action Unit 443'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first phase involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data, and inputting the data into a three-dimensional numerical model to depict groundwater flow. The output from the groundwater flow model was used in a transport model to simulate the migration of a radionuclide release (Pohlmann et al., 2000). The second phase of modeling (known as a Data Decision Analysis [DDA]) occurred after NDEP reviewed the first model. This phase was designed to respond to concerns regarding model uncertainty (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). The third phase of modeling updated the original flow and transport model to incorporate the uncertainty identified in the DDA, and focused the model domain on the region of interest to the transport predictions. This third phase culminated in the calculation of contaminant boundaries for the site (Pohll et al., 2003). Corrective action alternatives were evaluated and an alternative was submitted in the ''Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred alternative for CAU 443 is Proof-of-Concept and Monitoring with Institutional Controls. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated and will control inadvertent exposure to contaminated groundwater at CAU 443

  5. Increase of Elderly Population in the Rainstorm Hazard Areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pujun; Xu, Wei; Ma, Yunjia; Zhao, Xiujuan; Qin, Lianjie

    2017-08-26

    In light of global warming, increased extreme precipitation events have enlarged the population exposed to floods to some extent. Extreme precipitation risk assessments are of great significance in China and allow for the response to climate change and mitigation of risks to the population. China is one of the countries most influenced by climate change and has unique national population conditions. The influence of extreme precipitation depends on the degree of exposure and vulnerability of the population. Accurate assessments of the population exposed to rising rainstorm trends are crucial to mapping extreme precipitation risks. Studying the population exposed to rainstorm hazard areas (RSHA) at the microscale is extremely urgent, due to the local characteristics of extreme precipitation events and regional diversity of the population. The spatial distribution of population density was mapped based on the national population census data from China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. RSHA were also identified using precipitation data from 1975-2015 in China, and the rainstorm tendency values were mapped using GIS in this paper. The spatial characteristics of the rainstorm tendencies were then analyzed. Finally, changes in the population in the RSHA are discussed. The results show that the extreme precipitation trends are increasing in southeastern China. From 1990 to 2010, the population in RSHA increased by 110 million, at a rate of 14.6%. The elderly in the region increased by 38 million at a rate of 86.4%. Studying the size of the population exposed to rainstorm hazards at the county scale can provide scientific evidence for developing disaster prevention and mitigation strategies from the bottom up.

  6. Increasing Utilization Of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery In The United States Between 1997 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana Knight, Elia M.; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Bakaki, Paul M.; Koroukian, Siran M.; Lhatoo, Samden D.; Kaiboriboon, Kitti

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To examine national trends of pediatric epilepsy surgery usage in the United States between 1997 and 2009. METHODS We performed a serial cross-sectional study of pediatric epilepsy surgery using triennial data from the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2009. The rates of epilepsy surgery for lobectomies, partial lobectomies, and hemispherectomies in each study year were calculated based on the number of prevalent epilepsy cases in the corresponding year. The age-race-sex adjusted rates of surgeries were also estimated. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to test for changes in the rates of surgeries over time. Multivariable regression analysis was also performed to estimate the effect of time, age, race, and sex on the annual incidence of epilepsy surgery. RESULTS The rates of pediatric epilepsy surgery significantly increased from 0.85 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 1997 to 1.44 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 2009. An increment in the rates of epilepsy surgeries was noted across all age groups, in boys and girls, all races, and all payer types. The rate of increase was lowest in blacks and in children with public insurance. The overall number of surgical cases for each study year was lower than 35% of children who were expected to have surgery, based on the estimates from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE In contrast to adults, pediatric epilepsy surgery numbers have increased significantly in the past decade. However, epilepsy surgery remains an underutilized treatment for children with epilepsy. In addition, black children and those with public insurance continue to face disparities in the receipt of epilepsy surgery. PMID:25630252

  7. Effective dose per unit kerma-area product conversion factors in adults undergoing modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Bonilha, Heather; Wilmskoetter, Janina; Tipnis, Sameer V.; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Huda, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of adult effective dose (E) per unit Kerma-Area Product (KAP) in Modified Barium Swallow Study (MBSS) examinations. PC program for X-ray Monte Carlo (version 2.0.1) was used to calculate patient organ doses during MBSS examinations, which used combined to generate effective dose. Normalized patient doses were obtained by dividing the effective dose (mSv) by the incident KAP (Gy.cm 2 ). Five standard projections were studied and the importance of X-ray beam size and in patient size (body mass index) were investigated. Lateral projections had an average E/ KAP conversion factor of 0.19 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 . The average E/KAP was highest for upper gastrointestinal (GI) anterior- posterior projections (0.27 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 ) and lowest for upper GI posterior-anterior projections (0.09 ± 0.03 mSv/ Gy.cm 2 ). E/KAP always increased with increasing filtration and/or X-ray tube voltage. Reducing the X-ray beam cross-sectional area increased the E/KAP conversion factors. Small patients have the E/KAP conversion factors that are twice those of a standard adult. Conversion factors for effective dose of adult patients undergoing MBSS examinations must account for X-ray beam projection, beam quality (kV and filtration), image size and patient size. (authors)

  8. Increased use of lethal methods and annual increase of suicide rates in Korean adolescents: comparison with adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-03-01

    The lethality of the suicide method is a strong risk factor for completed suicide. We examined whether the annual change in the pattern of suicide methods was related to the annual change in suicide rates among adolescents in South Korea and the United States. We analyzed annual data for the 2000-2009 period for South Korea and the 2000-2008 period for the United States to examine time trends in the suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 10-19 years in two countries. Data on suicide methods were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. Suicide rates among adolescents in the United States have remained relatively steady since 2000, whereas the suicide among Korean adolescents has increased. Between 2000 and 2009, the most common suicide method among Korean adolescents was jumping for boys and girls, whereas it was hanging for girls and firearms for boys in the United States. Along with the annual increase in suicide rates in South Korea, the incidences of jumping among males and hanging (and recently jumping) among females have increased steadily, whereas suicide by self-poisoning steadily decreased. In the United States, between 2000 and 2008, the proportion of suicides committed by hanging increased, whereas those committed using firearms steadily decreased, particularly among adolescent females. These findings suggest that the increased use of lethal suicide methods is reflected in the increase in suicide rates in Korean adolescents. The most fruitful approach to addressing the rises in jumping suicides among Korean adolescents and hanging suicides among adolescents in the United States may be through population-based initiatives to reduce the physical availability (e.g., limiting access to or fencing off tall structures) and the social acceptability (e.g., effective and responsible regulations for reporting suicide) of these methods. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  10. Increased mechanical cost of walking in children with diplegia: the role of the passenger unit cannot be neglected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Walle, P; Hallemans, A; Truijen, S; Gosselink, R; Heyrman, L; Molenaers, G; Desloovere, K

    2012-01-01

    Gait efficiency in children with cerebral palsy is decreased. To date, most research did not include the upper body as a separate functional unit when exploring these changes in gait efficiency. Since children with spastic diplegia often experience problems with trunk control, they could benefit from separate evaluation of the so-called 'passenger unit'. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to improve insights in the role of the passenger unit in decreased gait efficiency in children with diplegia. Mechanical cost of walking was investigated by calculating work by the integrated joint power approach in 18 children with diplegia and 25 age-related typical developing controls. The total mechanical work in children with diplegia was 1.5 times higher than in typical children. In children with diplegia work at the lower limbs was increased by 37% compared to typical children. Substantially higher increases, up to 222%, were noted at the passenger unit. Trunk and head were the main contributors to the increased work of the passenger unit, but the role of the arms cannot be neglected. Due to these disproportional increases in locomotor and passenger unit, the demands of the passenger unit in pathological gait can no longer be considered minor, as in typical gait. Therefore, the role of the passenger unit must be recognized in the decrease of gait efficiency in children with spastic diplegia and should be part of the evaluation of gait efficiency in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Areas of normal pulmonary parenchyma on HRCT exhibit increased FDG PET signal in IPF patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Thida [Lister Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Thomas, Benjamin A.; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Afaq, Asim; Ell, Peter J.; Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital, Radiology Department, Papworth Everard (United Kingdom); Porter, Joanna C. [University College London, Centre for Respiratory Diseases, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Maher, Toby M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Lukey, Pauline [GSK, Fibrosis DPU, Research and Development, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show increased PET signal at sites of morphological abnormality on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the PET signal at sites of normal-appearing lung on HRCT in IPF. Consecutive IPF patients (22 men, 3 women) were prospectively recruited. The patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/HRCT. The pulmonary imaging findings in the IPF patients were compared to the findings in a control population. Pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG (mean SUV) was quantified at sites of morphologically normal parenchyma on HRCT. SUVs were also corrected for tissue fraction (TF). The mean SUV in IPF patients was compared with that in 25 controls (patients with lymphoma in remission or suspected paraneoplastic syndrome with normal PET/CT appearances). The pulmonary SUV (mean ± SD) uncorrected for TF in the controls was 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.78 ± 0.24 taken from normal lung regions in IPF patients (p < 0.001). The TF-corrected mean SUV in the controls was 2.24 ± 0.29 and 3.24 ± 0.84 in IPF patients (p < 0.001). IPF patients have increased pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG on PET in areas of lung with a normal morphological appearance on HRCT. This may have implications for determining disease mechanisms and treatment monitoring. (orig.)

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.B.

    2001-11-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417. The CNTA is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) west of U.S. State Highway 6 near the Moores Station historical site, and approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. A nuclear device for Project Faultless was detonated approximately 975 meters (3,200 feet) below ground surface on January 19, 1968, in emplacement boring UC-1 (Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office [DOE/NV], 1997). CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Site closure was completed using a Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (DOE/NV, 2000) which was based on the recommendations presented in the NDEP-approved Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). Closure of CAU 417 was completed in two phases. Phase I field activities were completed with NDEP concurrence during 1999 as outlined in the Phase I Work Plan, Appendix A of the CAP (DOE/NV, 2000), and as summarized in Section 2.1.2 of this document

  13. Changing climate increases discharge and attenuates its seasonal distribution in the northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Berton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest is well-established as a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site for climate change and anthropogenic impacts studies on hydrological processes. It is located at the headwater regions of the Merrimack Watershed, the fourth largest basin in New England, USA. The watershed is mostly forested (67% with some developed regions (16%. Study focus: We assessed the scale-dependency of streamflow response to climate variation, river regulation, and development for dry, average, and wet years using long-term precipitation and discharge records. New hydrological insights for the region: The effects of basin scale were limited to discharges with exceedance probability less than 15% and greater than 60% and were expressed as lagged discharge in large sub-basins and earlier discharge in small catchments. Annual discharge responded to increases in annual precipitation but not to river regulation or land development. In general, the temporal trends showed less discharge in dry and greater discharge in wet hydrologic flow classes. Keywords: Climate change, Land development, Hydrologic indicator, Scale dependency, Merrimack river, Northeastern United States

  14. Bench-to-bedside review: Dealing with increased intensive care unit staff turnover: a leadership challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Denny P; Burns, Judy; Doig, Chip J

    2005-01-01

    Critical care leaders frequently must face challenging situations requiring specific leadership and management skills for which they are, not uncommonly, poorly prepared. Such a fictitious scenario was discussed at a Canadian interdisciplinary critical care leadership meeting, whereby increasing intensive care unit (ICU) staff turnover had led to problems with staff recruitment. Participants discussed and proposed solutions to the scenario in a structured format. The results of the discussion are presented. In situations such as this, the ICU leader should first define the core problem, its complexity, its duration and its potential for reversibility. These factors often reside within workload and staff support issues. Some examples of core problems discussed that are frequently associated with poor retention and recruitment are a lack of a positive team culture, a lack of a favorable ICU image, a lack of good working relationships between staff and disciplines, and a lack of specific supportive resources. Several tools or individuals (typically outside the ICU environment) are available to help determine the core problem. Once the core problem is identified, specific solutions can be developed. Such solutions often require originality and flexibility, and must be planned, with specific short-term, medium-term and long-term goals. The ICU leader will need to develop an implementation strategy for these solutions, in which partners who can assist are identified from within the ICU and from outside the ICU. It is important that the leader communicates to all stakeholders frequently as the process moves forward. PMID:16277732

  15. Increasing communication in the intensive care unit: is blogging the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication is a key factor to success in intensive care nursing. At Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) incorporated blogging as one of its primary means of communication. In the health care clinical environment, blogging can help to promote 2-way communication among nursing staff and leadership. Blogging can serve as a valuable method of relaying important updates, changes in practice, and educational resources. Incorporating a blog into the ICU environment involves a cultural shift and some potential barriers. Lack of a technological understanding of social media, outdated software systems, and limited hospital policies may pose issues when incorporating a blog into the health care setting. The benefits though are impressive. Blogging is a form of rapid, real-time communication for which any person may post or comment on an important thought or message. Blogging can help to increase compliance with quality measures, update staff on need to know information such as changes in policies and procedures, and provide up-to-date educational resources at any time, from anywhere.

  16. The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Gmel, Gerrit; Drummond, Colin

    2014-02-05

    Alcohol consumption has been linked to a considerable burden of disease in the United Kingdom (UK), with most of this burden due to heavy drinking and Alcohol Dependence (AD). However, AD is undertreated in the UK, with only 8% of those individuals with AD being treated in England and only 6% of those individuals with AD being treated in Scotland. Thus, the objective of this paper is to quantify the deaths that would have been avoided in the UK in 2004 if the treatment rate for AD had been increased. Data on the prevalence of AD, alcohol consumption, and mortality were obtained from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, and the 2004 Global Burden of Disease study respectively. Data on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioural Therapy were obtained from Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses. Simulations were used to model the number of deaths under different treatment scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model the effects of Brief Interventions and to examine the effect of using AD prevalence data obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. In the UK, 320 female and 1,385 male deaths would have been avoided if treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment had been increased to 20%. This decrease in the number of deaths represents 7.9% of all alcohol-attributable deaths (7.0% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for women and 8.1% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for men). If we used lower AD prevalence rates obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, then treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment in hospitals for 20% of the population with AD would have resulted in the avoidance of 529 deaths in 2004 (99 deaths avoided for women and 430 deaths avoided for men). Increasing AD treatment in the UK would have led to a large number of deaths being avoided in 2004. Increased AD

  17. 46 CFR 153.903 - Operating a United States ship in special areas: Categories A, B, and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NLS residue in a special area unless— (a) The ship's Certificate of Inspection is endorsed in... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating a United States ship in special areas... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS...

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 151 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada

  19. 76 FR 75508 - United States Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Navy Restricted Area, SUPSHIP Bath Maine Detachment Mobile at AUSTAL, USA, Mobile, AL; Restricted Area... facility located in Mobile, Alabama. The Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion and Repair, United States... contracts at AUSTAL USA in Mobile, Alabama, on October 9, 2011, replacing Supervisor of Shipbuilding...

  20. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  1. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  2. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  3. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  4. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  5. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  6. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  7. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  8. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  9. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Metropolitan Statistical Area/Micropolitan Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Areas 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110 in accordance with the reissued (November 2000) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B operational permit NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 2000) and the Federal Facility and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP et al., 1996). CAU 110 consists of one Corrective Action Site 03-23-04, described as the U-3ax/bl Subsidence Crater. Certifications of closure are located in Appendix A. The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 RWMS located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit was closed under the RCRA, as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]) of waste. NTS atmospheric nuclear device testing generated approximately 95% of the total waste volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl; 80% of the total volume was generated from the Waste Consolidation Project. Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is normally in a state of moisture deficit.

  11. Areas of normal pulmonary parenchyma on HRCT exhibit increased FDG PET signal in IPF patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, Thida; Thomas, Benjamin A.; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Afaq, Asim; Ell, Peter J.; Groves, Ashley M.; Screaton, Nicholas J.; Porter, Joanna C.; Maher, Toby M.; Lukey, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show increased PET signal at sites of morphological abnormality on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the PET signal at sites of normal-appearing lung on HRCT in IPF. Consecutive IPF patients (22 men, 3 women) were prospectively recruited. The patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET/HRCT. The pulmonary imaging findings in the IPF patients were compared to the findings in a control population. Pulmonary uptake of 18 F-FDG (mean SUV) was quantified at sites of morphologically normal parenchyma on HRCT. SUVs were also corrected for tissue fraction (TF). The mean SUV in IPF patients was compared with that in 25 controls (patients with lymphoma in remission or suspected paraneoplastic syndrome with normal PET/CT appearances). The pulmonary SUV (mean ± SD) uncorrected for TF in the controls was 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.78 ± 0.24 taken from normal lung regions in IPF patients (p 18 F-FDG on PET in areas of lung with a normal morphological appearance on HRCT. This may have implications for determining disease mechanisms and treatment monitoring. (orig.)

  12. Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Li, Ping; Zhu, Yufeng; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Visceral fat area (VFA), a novel sex-specific index for visceral fat obesity (VFO) might play a major role in the development of vitamin D deficiency. However, the association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Chinese men and women. This cross-sectional study involved 1105 adults aged 20-70 years living in Tianjin who were randomly selected and medically examined. All subjects underwent the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method to estimate the VFA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH) D3) level was assayed by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and defined insufficiency and deficiency following recommended cutoffs. The association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was estimated using binary regression analysis. The total prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH) D3: 20-29 μg/L) and deficiency (25(OH) D3  0.05). Moreover, increased VFA was observed to be associated with higher vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency risk with a positive dose-response trend (P for trend convenience surrogate marker for visceral adipose measurement and could be used in identifying the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in routine health examination.

  13. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  14. Studies and Application of Remote Sensing Retrieval Method of Soil Moisture Content in Land Parcel Units in Irrigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhao, H. L.; Jiang, Y. Z.; Zang, W. B.

    2018-05-01

    Soil moisture is one of the important hydrological elements. Obtaining soil moisture accurately and effectively is of great significance for water resource management in irrigation area. During the process of soil moisture content retrieval with multiremote sensing data, multi- remote sensing data always brings multi-spatial scale problems which results in inconformity of soil moisture content retrieved by remote sensing in different spatial scale. In addition, agricultural water use management has suitable spatial scale of soil moisture information so as to satisfy the demands of dynamic management of water use and water demand in certain unit. We have proposed to use land parcel unit as the minimum unit to do soil moisture content research in agricultural water using area, according to soil characteristics, vegetation coverage characteristics in underlying layer, and hydrological characteristic into the basis of study unit division. We have proposed division method of land parcel units. Based on multi thermal infrared and near infrared remote sensing data, we calculate the ndvi and tvdi index and make a statistical model between the tvdi index and soil moisture of ground monitoring station. Then we move forward to study soil moisture remote sensing retrieval method on land parcel unit scale. And the method has been applied in Hetao irrigation area. Results show that compared with pixel scale the soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has displayed stronger correlation with true value. Hence, remote sensing retrieval method of soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has shown good applicability in Hetao irrigation area. We converted the research unit into the scale of land parcel unit. Using the land parcel units with unified crops and soil attributes as the research units more complies with the characteristics of agricultural water areas, avoids the problems such as decomposition of mixed pixels and excessive dependence on high-resolution data

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): (sm b ullet) CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  19. Radiation Protection Control Area Around Baggage Control X-ray Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Cerovac, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of prompt occupational dose reporting rises when dose is received within a short-time interval or when the radiation source suffers any technical failures. Radiation exposure is to be recognized as a private/or group hazard of each person alone. Actual radiation quality of the source is to be taken into account. To optimize the radiological radiation protection Quality Control measurements of the source are done. We have developed digital dosemeters of type ALARA OD2 for external dosimetry to be used for establishing the real pattern of occupational dose delivered to the workers or/and as the (Ort) professional environmental measuring station. We are using dosemeter to define the control areas and areas of concern - point (Ort) around the source. This upgrade to legal obligatory external (film badge) dosimetry will help us to ease defining the professional stuff and working places which are actually exposed to ionising radiation of concern and for which it is necessary to provide legally required, or even additional, occupational health care programme. This means the analysis of exposure situations for specific jobs near the X-ray equipment used for baggage control in the context of carrying out a detailed study for the optimisation of radiation protection. PC data readout from device forms a real time exposure dose rate pattern that proves that any worker or other employee working nearby the baggage X-ray unit is not obliged to undergo any legal occupational monitoring (dosimetry or health) hence the total dose per year will not exceed 1 mSv under the worst working conditions. (author)

  20. 77 FR 57010 - Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... proposed rulemaking to modify RNAV route Q-62 in Northeast United States by extending it further west (77...

  1. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008)

  2. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  3. Closure Report Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443 January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Closure Report for the subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nevada, Site. CNTA was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. Responsibility for the site’s environmental restoration was transferred from the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended 2011) and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. This Closure Report provides justification for closure of CAU 443 and provides a summary of completed closure activities; describes the selected corrective action alternative; provides an implementation plan for long-term monitoring with well network maintenance and approaches/policies for institutional controls (ICs); and presents the contaminant, compliance, and use-restriction boundaries for the site.

  4. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  5. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  6. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  7. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  8. Estradiol increases the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons to dopamine and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha J Vandegrift

    Full Text Available Gender differences in psychiatric disorders such as addiction may be modulated by the steroid hormone estrogen. For instance, 17β-estradiol (E2, the predominant form of circulating estrogen in pre-menopausal females, increases ethanol consumption, suggesting that E2 may affect the rewarding properties of ethanol and thus the development of alcohol use disorder in females. The ventral tegmental area (VTA is critically involved in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of ethanol. In order to determine the role of E2 in VTA physiology, gonadally intact female mice were sacrificed during diestrus II (high E2 or estrus (low E2 for electrophysiology recordings. We measured the excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine (DA of VTA DA neurons and found that both excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine were greater in diestrus II compared with estrus. Treatment of VTA slices from mice in diestrus II with an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780 reduced ethanol-stimulated neuronal firing, but had no effect on ethanol-stimulated firing of neurons in slices from mice in estrus. Surprisingly, ICI 182,780 did not affect the inhibition by DA, indicating different mechanisms of action of estrogen receptors in altering ethanol and DA responses. We also examined the responses of VTA DA neurons to ethanol and DA in ovariectomized mice treated with E2 and found that E2 treatment enhanced the responses to ethanol and DA in a manner similar to what we observed in mice in diestrus II. Our data indicate that E2 modulates VTA neuron physiology, which may contribute to both the enhanced reinforcing and rewarding effects of alcohol and the development of other psychiatric disorders in females that involve alterations in DA neurotransmission.

  9. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille) processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross...

  10. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  11. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  14. Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention: global policy recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolea, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    .... Its impact, however, is most severe in low income countries. There are two reasons for this. One is that many of these countries already suffer from acute shortages of health workers - in all areas...

  15. Assessment of the relative socioeconomic effects of increased coal development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Santini, D.J.

    1979-12-01

    This report contains a description of the Social and Economic Assessment Model, which is used to analyze the social and economic effects of energy development at the regional and county levels. Using the SEAM, the effects of coal mines and coal-fired utilities projected for over 340 US counties are examined. The study utilizes a clustering algorithm to determine the assimilative capacity of a county, that is, the county's ability to sustain the effects of an influx of population and thus an increased demand on its resources. The results of the clustering algorithm are used, together with county demographic data, as well as data on projected facility location, size, timing, and type, to estimate socioeconomic effects in terms of public costs that will be imposed on the affected populations. These results are aggregated to the regional level to give a rough estimate of the relative regional effects of coal development. The results indicate that 93% of the entire long-term, adverse impact from coal will be borne by states and counties of the Rocky Mountain area, whereas only 14% of the short-term impacts will be borne by this region. About 42% of the short-term costs will occur in the Southern region and 33% in the North Central region, but only 5% of the long-term costs are estimated for these two regions. Of the four major Census regions (Northeast, South, North Central, and West) only the Northeast is expected to be relatively free of community growth problems caused by coal development.

  16. Increasing Risk Factors for Imported and Domestic Gnathostomiasis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Gnathostomiasis is a foodborne zoonotic helminthic infection, commonly described in Asia and Latin America, which may follow the consumption of raw fish, eels, amphibians, and reptiles infected with muscle-encysted larvae of Gnathostoma species nematodes. After an inoculum of as little as one infective larva and an incubation period of months to years, most infections are characterized by intermittent migratory swellings due to subdermal larval migration. Less commonly, larval migration to the central nervous system may result in radiculomyelopathy or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with high fatality rates; or larval migration to the eye with resulting blindness in untreated cases. Since the US now supports a zoonosis of Gnathostoma species with infective larvae encysted in imported and domestic fish and eels that may be consumed raw as exotic ethnic dishes, the objectives of this review were to describe the biology and life cycle of Gnathostoma nematodes and the behavioral risk factors for gnathostomiasis; and to describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention of human gnathostomiasis. Since the eradication of gnathostomiasis is very unlikely given the global distribution of Gnathostoma nematodes and the increasingly exotic culinary tastes of US residents and travelers to endemic regions, the only effective strategies for gnathostomiasis include: (1) educating citizens in the US and travelers abroad in endemic areas that fish, eels, frogs, snakes, and chicken must be cooked thoroughly first and not eaten raw or marinated; and (2) seeking medical care immediately for evaluation of migratory subcutaneous swellings. The combination of international travel and increased immigration from Asia and Latin America to the US has resulted in greater popularity of exotic ethnic cuisine, especially raw seafood dishes. The ethnic cuisine industry is supported by domestic aquaculture that produces fish-farmed tilapia and trout, and by increased

  17. Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield

  18. Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-27

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield.

  19. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzmaurice, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10 5 cubic meters (8.12 x 10 6 cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and repair

  20. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and

  1. Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from industrial areas in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Ohura, Takeshi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-11-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants in the urban environment. Nevertheless, there is little information available regarding the occurrence and profiles of ClPAHs in environmental matrices. In this study, residual concentrations and profiles of 20 individual ClPAHs and 16 US EPA-priority PAHs were determined using high- resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry in sediments from water bodies near industrialized areas: Tokyo Bay, Japan; the Saginaw River watershed, Michigan, USA; a former chlor-alkali plant, Georgia, USA; and the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site, Massachusetts, USA. A sediment core from Tokyo Bay showed temporal patterns in the distribution of ClPAHs from the 1950s through 2004. The fluxes of ClPAHs and 16 priority PAHs in Tokyo Bay sediment core were 0.029-0.57 ng/cm(2)/year and 85-609 ng/cm(2)/year, respectively; fluxes were lowest in the 1950s and highest in 1989-1990. In the United States, a high mean concentration of ClPAHs was found in sediment collected near a former chlor-alkali plant [8820 pg/g dry weight (dry wt)], and lower mean concentrations were found for New Bedford Harbor (1880 pg/g dry wt) and the Saginaw River watershed (1140 pg/g dry wt). Among individual ClPAHs, 6-ClBaP and 1-ClPyr were the dominant compounds in sediments; this pattern is similar to the pattern reported in the literature for waste incineration and ambient urban air samples. Significant correlation between SigmaClPAH concentrations and Sigmaparent-PAH concentrations in Tokyo Bay sediment implies that the sources and distribution of ClPAHs are directly related to those of parent PAHs. We also analyzed ClPAHs and parent PAHs in blue mussels from New Bedford Harbor. The mean concentration of ClPAHs in mussels from New Bedford Harbor was 21 ng/g lipid weight, a concentration three orders of magnitude lower than the mean concentration of parent PAHs. Low-molecular-weight ClPAHs predominated

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): (sm b ullet) CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge (sm b ullet) CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil (sm b ullet) CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  4. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  5. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    behaviour and demonstrates the vicious circle of improving product efficiency that leads to further consumption and environmental impact. To address this problem, a new framework of dynamic functional unit definition is put forward for performing comparative LCA to manage the development of product life...... consumption of products in provided services as well as in growing volumes. This article aims to present a new framework in defining a dynamic functional unit of product technologies that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and growing market. Methods: A new approach to defining the functional unit...... is demonstrated on a case study in which the analysis of historical data for two TV product technologies—CRT and LCD—is used to show how the total environmental impact is increasing due to the increased functionality which triggers an increase in the volume of the market. Despite the efforts of improving product...

  6. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker. C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart; Todd J. Hawbaker; Urs Gimmi; Anna M. Pidgeon; Curtis H. Flather; Roger. B. Hammer; David P. Helmers

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by...

  7. Maximum likelihood unit rooting test in the presence GARCH: A new test with increased power

    OpenAIRE

    Cook , Steve

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The literature on testing the unit root hypothesis in the presence of GARCH errors is extended. A new test based upon the combination of local-to-unity detrending and joint maximum likelihood estimation of the autoregressive parameter and GARCH process is presented. The finite sample distribution of the test is derived under alternative decisions regarding the deterministic terms employed. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the newly proposed ML t-test is shown to exhibit incre...

  8. Increasing access to health workers in underserved areas: a conceptual framework for measuring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Dieleman, M.; Campbell, J.; Codjia, L.; Balabanova, D.; Dussault, G.; Dolea, C.

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have developed strategies to attract and retain qualified health workers in underserved areas, but there is only scarce and weak evidence on their successes or failures. It is difficult to compare lessons and measure results from the few evaluations that are available. Evaluation

  9. Increasing access to health workers in underserved areas : a conceptual framework for measuring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, Luis; Dieleman, Marjolein; Campbell, James; Codjia, Laurence; Balabanova, Dina; Dussault, Gilles; Dolea, Carmen

    Many countries have developed strategies to attract and retain qualified health workers in underserved areas, but there is only scarce and weak evidence on their successes or failures. It is difficult to compare lessons and measure results from the few evaluations that are available. Evaluation

  10. Anti-seismic air condition's cooling capability increase of the second control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Secondary area (SCA) air-conditioning system is an important ventilation system in plant. It should achieve the indoor temperature controllable. To resolve the problem of cooling capacity insufficiency, on the basis of ventilation and refrigeration theory, the thesis analyzes the design modification plan. (author)

  11. Shrub removal in reforested post-fire areas increases native plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle N. Bohlman; Malcolm North; Hugh D. Safford

    2016-01-01

    Large, high severity fires are becoming more prevalent in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests, largely due to heavy fuel loading and forest densification caused by past and current management practices. In post-fire areas distant from seed trees, conifers are often planted to re-establish a forest and to prevent a potential type-conversion to shrub fields. Typical...

  12. 76 FR 37261 - Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...) structure and designates two helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes) in the northeast corridor between the... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish two helicopter RNAV routes in Northeast United States...

  13. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  14. Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Wei, Z.; Strow, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Q.

    2017-03-01

    This study provides evidence of substantial increases in atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentrations (14 year) over several of the worlds major agricultural regions, using recently available retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The main sources of atmospheric NH3 are farming and animal husbandry involving reactive nitrogen ultimately derived from fertilizer use; rates of emission are also sensitive to climate change. Significant increasing trends are seen over the U.S. (2.61% yr-1), the European Union (EU) (1.83% yr-1), and China (2.27% yr-1). Over the EU, the trend results from decreased scavenging by acid aerosols. Over the U.S., the increase results from a combination of decreased chemical loss and increased soil temperatures. Over China, decreased chemical loss, increasing temperatures, and increased fertilizer use all play a role. Over South Asia, increased NH3 emissions are masked by increased SO2 and NOx emissions, leading to increased aerosol loading and adverse health effects.

  15. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 165: AREA 25 AND 26 DRY WELL AND WASH DOWN AREAS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165, Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. CAU 165 consists of 8 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. Site closure activities were performed according to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 165. CAU 165 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; (2) CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; (3) CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; (4) CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain; (5) CAS 25-51-02, Drywell; (6) CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; (7) CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and (8) CAS 26-59-01, Septic System. CAU 165, Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, consists of eight CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The approved closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls

  16. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT165: AREA 25 AND 26 DRY WELL AND WASH DOWN AREAS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165, Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. CAU 165 consists of 8 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. Site closure activities were performed according to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 165. CAU 165 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; (2) CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; (3) CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; (4) CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain; (5) CAS 25-51-02, Drywell; (6) CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; (7) CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and (8) CAS 26-59-01, Septic System. CAU 165, Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, consists of eight CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The approved closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls.

  17. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risk of patient delay in pulmonary tuberculosis in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Ma, Aiguo; Han, Xiuxia; Zhao, Shanliang; Cai, Jing; Kok, Frans J.; Schouten, Evert G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excessive time between the first presentation of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diagnosis contributes to ongoing transmission and increased risk of infection in the community, as well as to increased disease severity and higher mortality. People with type 2 diabetes

  18. Measuring Financial Cycles in a Model-Based Analysis: Empirical Evidence for the United States and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galati, E.B.G.; Hindrayanto, A.I.W.; Koopman, S.J.; Vlekke, M.

    2016-01-01

    We adopt an unobserved components time series model to extract financial cycles for the United States and the five largest euro area countries over the period 1970-2014. We find that financial cycles can parsimoniously be estimated by house prices and total credit or the credit-to-GDP ratio. We show

  19. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2017-10-20

    small metropolitan or nonmetropolitan areas throughout the study period. Notably, past-month use of illicit drugs declined over the study period for the youngest respondents (aged 12-17 years). The prevalence of past-year illicit drug use disorders among persons using illicit drugs in the past year varied by metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status and changed over time. Across both metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, the prevalence of past-year illicit drug use disorders declined during 2003-2014. In 2015, approximately six times as many drug overdose deaths occurred in metropolitan areas than occurred in nonmetropolitan areas (metropolitan: 45,059; nonmetropolitan: 7,345). Drug overdose death rates (per 100,000 population) for metropolitan areas were higher than in nonmetropolitan areas in 1999 (6.4 versus 4.0), however, the rates converged in 2004, and by 2015, the nonmetropolitan rate (17.0) was slightly higher than the metropolitan rate (16.2). Drug use and subsequent overdoses continue to be a critical and complicated public health challenge across metropolitan/nonmetropolitan areas. The decline in illicit drug use by youth and the lower prevalence of illicit drug use disorders in rural areas during 2012-2014 are encouraging signs. However, the increasing rate of drug overdose deaths in rural areas, which surpassed rates in urban areas, is cause for concern. Understanding the differences between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in drug use, drug use disorders, and drug overdose deaths can help public health professionals to identify, monitor, and prioritize responses. Consideration of where persons live and where they die from overdose could enhance specific overdose prevention interventions, such as training on naloxone administration or rescue breathing. Educating prescribers on CDC's guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain (Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain-United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep

  20. Increased 3H-spiperone binding sites in mesolimbic area related to methamphetamine-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, K.; Sato, M.; Otsuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    The specific 3 H-spiperone binding to membrane homogenates of the striatum, mesolimbic area, and frontal cortex was examined in two groups of rats pretreated once daily with saline or 4 mg/kg of methamphetamine (MAP) for 14 days. At 7 days following cessation of chronic pretreatment, all rats received an injection of 4 mg/kg of MAP and were decapitated 1 hr after the injection. In the chronic saline-pretreatment group, the single administration of MAP induced significant changes in the number (Bmax) of specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites (a decrease in the striatum and an increase in the mesolimbic area and frontal cortex), but no significant changes in the affinity (KD) in any brain area. The chronic MAP pretreatment markedly augmented the changes in Bmax in the striatum and mesolimbic area. The increase in specific 3 H-spiperone binding sites in the mesolimbic area is discussed in relation to MAP-induced behavioral hypersensitivity

  1. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  2. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable

  3. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area

  4. 100-N Area Decision Unit Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-N Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  5. Evidence of Climate Change (Global Warming) and Temperature Increases in Arctic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Kojo Wu Aikins

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on the proximate causes of climate change. Also, it discusses the impact of the global temperature increases since the beginning of the twentieth century and the effectiveness of climate change models in isolating the primary cause (anthropogenic influences or natural variability in temperature) of the observed temperature increases that occurred within this period. The paper argues that if climate scientist and policymakers ignore the...

  6. Reconstruction of false spring occurrences over the southeastern United States, 1901-2007: an increasing risk of spring freeze damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Garrett P; Kaiser, Dale P; Gu, Lianhong; Ricciuto, Daniel M

    2011-01-01

    Near-record warmth over much of the United States during March 2007 promoted early growth of crops and vegetation. A widespread arctic air outbreak followed in early April, resulting in extensive agricultural losses over much of the south-central and southeastern US. This 'false spring' event also resulted in widespread damage to newly grown tissues of native deciduous forest species, shown by previous researchers to have had measurable effects on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The current study reconstructed the historical occurrence of false springs over most of the southeastern quarter of the conterminous US (32-39 deg. N; 75-98 deg. W) from 1901 to 2007 using daily maximum and minimum temperature records from 176 stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network database, and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. A false spring index was derived that examined the timing of the start of the growing season (SGS), or leaf emergence, relative to the timing of a potentially damaging last hard freeze (minimum temperature ≤ - 2.2 deg. C). SGS was modeled for the domain by combining EVI data with ground-based temperature 'degree day' calculations reflecting the rate of springtime warming. No significant area-wide, long-term SGS trend was found; however, over much of a contiguous region stretching from Mississippi eastward to the Carolinas, the timing of the last hard freeze was found to occur significantly later, this change occurring along with increased frequency of false springs. Earlier last hard freeze dates and decreased frequency of false springs were found over much of the northwestern part of the study region, including Arkansas and southern Missouri.

  7. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  8. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  9. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 (as amended March 2010)). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  10. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  11. Increase of reliability of contact networks of electric transport, due to increase of strength of the joint unit of pipes of different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitov, L. S.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshin, I. R.; Gatiyatov, I. Z.; Kuznetsov, I. L.

    2017-09-01

    The feature of the stress state of the supports of the contact networks is the presence of a joint of pipes of different diameters, the ultimate state of which is determined, as a rule, the strength of the weld. The proposed unit allows to increase the reliability and strength of the connection and also exclude the presence of a weld bead on the outer surface of the pipe of smaller diameter in the place of its attachment to the upper end of the support ring.

  12. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing; Regan, John M.

    2012-01-01

    significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered

  13. 78 FR 1715 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, grape handlers in a... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0090... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the...

  14. 76 FR 21620 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, grape handlers in a... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0104... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the...

  15. 78 FR 39548 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, grape handlers in a... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-13-0005... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the...

  16. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601-612), the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered... Marketing Service. [FR Doc. 2011-2875 Filed 2-8-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-02-P ...

  17. Historic and future increase in the global land area affected by monthly heat extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Climatic warming of about 0.5 ° C in the global mean since the 1970s has strongly increased the occurrence-probability of heat extremes on monthly to seasonal time scales. For the 21st century, climate models predict more substantial warming. Here we show that the multi-model mean of the CMIP5

  18. Numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater

  19. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence.

  20. Increased opacity of left pericardiac area on chest radiograph : correlation with CT findings and its frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Ik; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwak, Jin Young; Ryu, Chang Woo; Yoon, Sam Hyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of extrapericardial fat in the left cardiac border, and with regard to left extrapericardial fat, to correlate chest radiographs with CT scans. This study involved 132 consecutive patients who underwent chest PA and lateral radiographs, and chest CT scans. According to the results of chest PA radiograph, patients were divided into three groups: those with a clear left cardiac border; those with an indistinct left cardiac border; and those with an indistinct left cardiac border with increased density; cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph, the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs was evaluated. On the basis of the results of CT scanning, patients were classified into four groups according to the amount of left extrapericardial fat : negative, minimum, moderate, and maximum. Left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, was correlated with the conspicuity of left cardiac border seen on PA radiograph and the presence of increased density in the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiograph. The conspicuousness of the left cardiac border, as seen on PA chest radiograph, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT, and was related to the amount of left extrapericardial fat. Increased density of the anterior cardiophrenic angle, as seen on lateral radiographs, correlated with the presence of left extrapericardial fat on CT, but the absence of increased density on lateral radiograph corresponds to the absence or a minimal amount of left extrapericardial fat, as seen on CT. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area: comparison between lecture and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students' attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sense of fulfillment and passion in medicine of remote area was significantly increased after the community-based practice. On the other hand, the level of understanding in medicine in remote area was increased by the lecture not by the practice. The intensity of desire both to become a generalist and a specialist was significantly increased when the grade went up. Most of sixth-year students desired to have abilities of a generalist and a specialist simultaneously. This study shows that the community-based practice is more meaningful in increasing motivation in medicine in remote area than the lecture, and suggests that it is important to prepare more courses to experience community medicine to increase the number of physicians who desire to work in remote area.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Candidate Areas for Ecological Restoration for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the candidate areas for ecological restoration, identified as close but geographically disjunct vegetated regions. Ecological...

  3. Pedicle distraction increases intervertebral and spinal canal area in a cadaver and bone model

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes Matthew; Papadakos Nikolaos; Bishop Tim; Bernard Jason

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Lumbar spinal stenosis is degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal and/or intervertebral foramen causing compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Traditional decompression techniques can often cause significant trauma and vertebral instability. This paper evaluates a method of increasing pedicle length to decompress the spinal and intervertebral foramen, which could be done minimally invasive. Methods: Three Sawbone (Sawbones Europe, Sweden) and 1 cadaveric lumbar sp...

  4. Historic and future increase in the global land area affected by monthly heat extremes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Climatic warming of about 0.5 ° C in the global mean since the 1970s has strongly increased the occurrence-probability of heat extremes on monthly to seasonal time scales. For the 21st century, climate models predict more substantial warming. Here we show that the multi-model mean of the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models accurately reproduces the evolution over time and spatial patterns of the historically observed increase in monthly heat extremes. For the near-term (i.e., by 2040), the models predict a robust, several-fold increase in the frequency of such heat extremes, irrespective of the emission scenario. However, mitigation can strongly reduce the number of heat extremes by the second half of the 21st century. Unmitigated climate change causes most (>50%) continental regions to move to a new climatic regime with the coldest summer months by the end of the century substantially hotter than the hottest experienced today. We show that the land fraction experiencing extreme heat as a function of global mean temperature follows a simple cumulative distribution function, which depends only on natural variability and the level of spatial heterogeneity in the warming. (letter)

  5. Reduced cortical thickness and increased surface area in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weixiong; Li, Gang; Liu, Huasheng; Shi, Feng; Wang, Tao; Shen, Celina; Shen, Hui; Lee, Seong-Whan; Hu, Dewen; Wang, Wei; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-11-19

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), one of whose characteristics is high impulsivity, is of great interest in the field of brain structure and function. However, little is known about possible impairments in the cortical anatomy in ASPD, in terms of cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), as well as their possible relationship with impulsivity. In this neuroimaging study, we first investigated the changes of CTh and SA in ASPD patients, in comparison to those of healthy controls, and then performed correlation analyses between these measures and the ability of impulse control. We found that ASPD patients showed thinner cortex while larger SA in several specific brain regions, i.e., bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), orbitofrontal and triangularis, insula cortex, precuneus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left bank of superior temporal sulcus (STS). In addition, we also found that the ability of impulse control was positively correlated with CTh in the SFG, MFG, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), pars triangularis, superior temporal gyrus (STG), and insula cortex. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal simultaneous changes in CTh and SA in ASPD, as well as their relationship with impulsivity. These cortical structural changes may introduce uncontrolled and callous behavioral characteristic in ASPD patients, and these potential biomarkers may be very helpful in understanding the pathomechanism of ASPD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Progress in increasing electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies can improve public health surveillance for reportable diseases and conditions by making reporting more timely and complete. Since 2010, CDC has provided funding to 57 state, local, and territorial health departments through the Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases cooperative agreement to assist with improving electronic laboratory reporting (ELR) from clinical and public health laboratories to public health agencies. As part of this agreement, CDC and state and large local health departments are collaborating to monitor ELR implementation in the United States by developing data from each jurisdiction regarding total reporting laboratories, laboratories sending ELR by disease category and message format, and the number of ELR laboratory reports compared with the total number of laboratory reports. At the end of July 2013, 54 of the 57 jurisdictions were receiving at least some laboratory reports through ELR, and approximately 62% of 20 million laboratory reports were being received electronically, compared with 54% in 2012. Continued progress will require collaboration between clinical laboratories, laboratory information management system (LIMS) vendors, and public health agencies.

  7. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m(sup 3)) (30 cubic yards[yd(sup 3)]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet[ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m(sup 3) (3000 yd(sup 3)) of construction-related debris

  9. The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program: A Model for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Burger; D. J. Adams; T. Post; L. Sommers; B. Swift

    2005-01-01

    The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program, modeled after the National Audubon Society?s Important Bird Areas Program, is based on legislation signed by Governor Pataki in 1997. New York is the first state in the nation to enact such a program. The BCA Program seeks to provide a comprehensive, ecosystem approach to conserving birds and their habitats on...

  10. Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    2002-01-01

    Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads

  11. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Nevada Test Site - Area 10 Corrective Action Unit 367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Craig

    2010-01-01

    A series of aerial radiological surveys were conducted over the Sedan, Uncle, and Ess ground zero areas in Area 10. The surveys were performed in November 2009 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the ground zeros. Gross Counts, inferred exposure rates, man-made activity, and Americium-241 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed areas. In addition, spectral products are included that identify Cesium-137, Americium-241 and Cobalt-60 as the primary radionuclides present within the survey area.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick and Sloop, Christy

    2011-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372, Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, located within Areas 18 and 20 at the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 372 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 372 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at all CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 9, 2009, through December 10, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 372 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL was established of 25 millirem per year based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present at all four CASs. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present within the Little Feller I and Cabriolet high

  13. Increasing importance of deposition of reduced nitrogen in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Li; Bret A. Schichtel; John T. Walker; Donna B. Schwede; Xi Chen; Christopher M. B. Lehmann; Melissa A. Puchalski; David A. Gay; Jeffrey L. Collett

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of agriculture and fossil fuel combustion greatly increased US reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in the second half of the 20th century, resulting in excess nitrogen deposition to natural ecosystems. Recent efforts to lower nitrogen oxides emissions have substantially decreased nitrate wet deposition. Levels of wet ammonium...

  14. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Jonathan C.B. Nesmith; MaryBeth Keifer; Eric E. Knapp; Alan Flint; Lorriane Flint

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after...

  15. Ketamine increases the frequency of electroencephalographic bicoherence peak on the alpha spindle area induced with propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Tsuda, N; Sawa, T; Hagihira, S

    2007-09-01

    The reticular and thalamocortical system is known to play a prominent role in spindle wave activity, and the spindle wave is related to the sedative effects of anaesthetics. Recently, bispectral analysis of the EEG has been developed as a better method to indicate nonlinear regulation including the thalamocortical system linking to the cortical area. In the present study, in order to explore the interference of ketamine with the nonlinear regulation of the sub-cortical system, we examined the effect of ketamine on spindle alpha waves through the bispectral analysis. The study included 21 patients. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using a propofol-TCI system (target-controlled infusion, with target concentration 3.5 microg ml(-1)). An A-2000 BIS monitor was used and the raw EEG signals were collected via an RS232 interface on a personal computer. Bicoherence, the normalized bispectrum, and power spectrum were analysed before and after i.v. administration of 1 mg kg(-1) racemic ketamine. Propofol caused alpha peaks in both power and bicoherence spectra, with average frequencies of 10.6 (SD 0.9) Hz and 10.7 (1.0) Hz, respectively. The addition of ketamine significantly shifted each peak to frequencies of 14.4 (1.4) Hz and 13.6 (1.5) Hz, respectively [P < 0.05, mean (SD)]. Ketamine shifted the alpha peaks of bicoherence induced by propofol to higher frequencies. This suggests that ketamine changes the alpha spindle rhythms through the modulation of the nonlinear sub-cortical reverberating network.

  16. Motor unit number index (MUNIX) derivation from the relationship between the area and power of surface electromyogram: a computer simulation and clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Francesc

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The motor unit number index (MUNIX) is a technique based on the surface electromyogram (sEMG) that is gaining acceptance as a method for monitoring motor neuron loss, because it is reliable and produces less discomfort than other electrodiagnostic techniques having the same intended purpose. MUNIX assumes that the relationship between the area of sEMG obtained at increasing levels of muscle activation and the values of a variable called ‘ideal case motor unit count’ (ICMUC), defined as the product of the ratio between area and power of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) by that of the sEMG, is described by a decreasing power function. Nevertheless, the reason for this comportment is unknown. The objective of this work is to investigate if the definition of MUNIX could derive from more basic properties of the sEMG. Approach. The CMAP and sEMG epochs obtained at different levels of muscle activation from (1) the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle of persons with and without a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and (2) from a computer model of sEMG generation previously published were analysed. Main results. MUNIX reflects the power relationship existing between the area and power of a sEMG. The exponent of this function was smaller in patients with motor CTS than in the rest of the subjects. The analysis of the relationship between the area and power of a sEMG could aid in distinguishing a MUNIX reduction due to a motoneuron loss from that due to a loss of muscle fibre. Significance. MUNIX is derived from the relationship between the area and power of a sEMG. This relationship changes when there is a loss of motor units (MUs), which partially explains the diagnostic sensibility of MUNIX. Although the reasons for this change are unknown, it could reflect an increase in the proportion of MUs of great amplitude.

  17. Single-unit studies of visual motion processing in cat extrastriate areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajda, Ildiko

    2003-01-01

    Motion vision has high survival value and is a fundamental property of all visual systems. The old Greeks already studied motion vision, but the physiological basis of it first came under scrutiny in the late nineteenth century. Later, with the introduction of single-cell (single-unit)

  18. Increased Symptom Expression among Patients with Delirium Admitted to an Acute Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maxine; Yennu, Sriram; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Reddy, Akhila; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric condition in very ill patients and those at the end of life. Previous case reports found that delirium-induced disinhibition may lead to overexpression of symptoms. It negatively affects communication between patients, family members, and the medical team and can sometimes lead to inappropriate interventions. Better understanding would result in improved care. Our aim was to determine the effect of delirium on the reporting of symptom severity in patients with advanced cancer. We reviewed 329 consecutive patients admitted to the acute palliative care unit (APCU) without a diagnosis of delirium from January to December 2011. Demographics, Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance status, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) on two time points were collected. The first time point was on admission and the second time point for group A was day one (+two days) of delirium. For group B, the second time point was within two to four days before discharge from the APCU. Patients who developed delirium and those who did not develop delirium during the entire course of admission were compared using chi-squared test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Paired t-test was used to assess if the change of ESAS from baseline to follow-up was associated with delirium. Ninety-six of 329 (29%) patients developed delirium during their admission to the APCU. The median time to delirium was two days. There was no difference in the length of stay in the APCU for both groups. Patients who did not have delirium expressed improvement in all their symptoms, while those who developed delirium during hospitalization showed no improvement in physical symptoms and worsening in depression, anxiety, appetite, and well-being. Patients with delirium reported no improvement or worsening symptoms compared to patients without delirium. Screening for delirium is important in patients who continue to report

  19. Increasing academic mobility as a strategic task of the state governance politics in the educational area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karapetyan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of standards, recommendations and instruments which help to form terms and degrees comparative with ones existing in the European countries is an essential task of Bologna reform in the system of education in Ukraine. Modernization of the organization mechanism is an up-to-date issue, which is reflected in the Law of Ukraine «About Education» and the most important strategic documents of Ukraine. The principal aim is to increase academic mobility and, with the help of it, increase the mobility of workforce on the European labour market. The article provides the analysis of the main documents regulating the issue of academic mobility and elicits the weak points they contain, which include lack of holistic approach, aims and terms, sources and terms of financing. The author gives the definition of academic mobility, identifies its types (inward and outward, and aims. The article studies the impact of academic mobility on the economy of the host country and on the quality of higher education, which justifies the necessity to improve and implement the mechanisms to enhance academic mobility, both inward and outward. The author gives recommendations as for how academic mobility can be enhanced. Firstly, it is recommended that state information centers should be organized to provide students and academic staff with information on options for studying and scientific work abroad. Secondly, improving instruments of mutual recognition is important. Thirdly, financial stimuli, the system of crediting play a great part. Alongside it, creation of the English language environment, delivering certain courses in English as well as intensive foreign language studying are helpful. Another suggestion is stimulating outward mobility with the view of geopolitical interests of the country. It is noteworthy, that setting concrete indicators for inward and outward mobility and identifying the amount of time for a mobile student

  20. Baseline risk assessment for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 microg/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  1. Focused feasibility study of engineered barriers for waste management units in the 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas consisting of the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) included the 200 Areas (as well as the 100, 300, and 1,100 Areas) of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiates the remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) process to characterize the nature and extent of contamination, assess risks to human health and the environment, and select remedial actions. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) was developed and signed by representatives from the EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and DOE in May 1989 to provide a framework to implement and integrate cleanup activities. The scope of the agreement covers CERCLA past-practice, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) past-practice, and RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities on the Hanford Site. The 1991 revision to the Tri-Party Agreement required that an aggregate area approach be implemented in the 200 Areas based on the Hanford Site Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) and established a milestone (M-27-00) to complete 10 Aggregate Area Management Study (AAMS) Reports in 1992

  2. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  3. Increased variability of watershed areas in patients with high-grade carotid stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarz, Stephan; Griese, Vanessa; Preibisch, Christine

    2018-01-01

    . Despite of high relevance for both clinical diagnostics and research, individual in vivo WSA definition is fairly limited to date. Thus, this study proposes a standardized segmentation approach to delineate individual WSAs by use of time-to-peak (TTP) maps and investigates spatial variability...... of individual WSAs. Methods: We defined individual watershed masks based on relative TTP increases in 30 healthy elderly persons and 28 patients with unilateral, high-grade carotid stenosis, being at risk for watershed-related hemodynamic impairment. Determined WSA location was confirmed by an arterial transit...... time atlas and individual super-selective arterial spin labeling. We compared spatial variability of WSA probability maps between groups and assessed TTP differences between hemispheres in individual and group-average watershed locations. Results: Patients showed significantly higher spatial...

  4. A century of change in Kenya's mammal communities: increased richness and decreased uniqueness in six protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó B Tóth

    Full Text Available The potential for large-scale biodiversity losses as a result of climate change and human impact presents major challenges for ecology and conservation science. Governments around the world have established national parks and wildlife reserves to help protect biodiversity, but there are few studies on the long-term consequences of this strategy. We use Kenya as a case study to investigate species richness and other attributes of mammal communities in 6 protected areas over the past century. Museum records from African expeditions that comprehensively sampled mammals from these same areas in the early 1900's provide a baseline for evaluating changes in species richness and community structure over time. We compare species lists assembled from archived specimens (1896-1950 to those of corresponding modern protected areas (1950-2013. Species richness in Kenya was stable or increased at 5 out of 6 sites from historical to modern times. Beta-diversity, in contrast, decreased across all sites. Potential biases such as variable historical vs. modern collection effort and detection of small-bodied, rare, and low-visibility species do not account for the observed results. We attribute the pattern of decreased beta diversity primarily to increased site occupancy by common species across all body size classes. Despite a decrease in land area available to wildlife, our data do not show the extinctions predicted by species-area relationships. Moreover, the results indicate that species-area curves based solely on protected areas could underestimate diversity because they do not account for mammal species whose ranges extend beyond protected area boundaries. We conclude that the 6 protected areas have been effective in preserving species richness in spite of continuing conversion of wild grasslands to cropland, but the overall decrease in beta diversity indicates a decline in the uniqueness of mammal communities that historically characterized Kenya's varied

  5. Proposal to increase the drug adherence in a brazilian health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Garrocho de Faria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2016v13n24p174 The aim of this work was to use a Strategic Planning tool to check for problems and propose strategic activities that increases the drug treatment adherence in a UBS of Minas Gerais. This study was developed from May to October 2015 using Strategic Planning divided in four stages: explanatory, normative, strategic and tactical situational. Resulting actions were defined in order to increase the drug treatment adherence and reduce unnecessary spending. Thus, the importance of the method was perceived, been able to meet the views of participants need and direct discussions to achieve the proposed goals. In conclusion, the method evidenced the awareness of the participants and the shared responsibility for patients as well as the planning official. It is expected following the implementation of the proposed actions, achieving success in relation to the drug treatment adherence.

  6. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  7. Rapid increase in the use of oral antidiabetic drugs in the United States, 1990-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysowski, Diane K; Armstrong, George; Governale, Laura

    2003-06-01

    To describe the use of oral antidiabetic drugs for management of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. from 1990 through 2001. Data on oral antidiabetic drugs were derived from two pharmaceutical marketing databases from IMS Health, the National Prescription Audit Plus and the National Disease and Therapeutic Index. In 1990, 23.4 million outpatient prescriptions of oral antidiabetic agents were dispensed. By 2001, this number had increased 3.9-fold, to 91.8 million prescriptions. Glipizide and glyburide, two sulfonylurea medications, accounted for approximately 77% of prescriptions of oral antidiabetic drugs in 1990 and 35.5% of prescriptions in 2001. By 2001, the biguanide metformin (approved in 1995) had captured approximately 33% of prescriptions, and the thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizers (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone marketed beginning in 1999) accounted for approximately 17% of market share. Compared with patients treated in 1990, those in 2001 were proportionately younger and they more often used oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin in combination. Internists and general and family practitioners were the primary prescribers of this class of drugs. Consistent with the reported increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the number of dispensed outpatient prescriptions of oral antidiabetic drugs increased rapidly between 1990 and 2001. This period was marked by an increase in the treatment of younger people and the use of oral antidiabetic drugs in combination. With the approval in the last decade of several new types of oral antidiabetic medications with different mechanisms of action, options for management of type 2 diabetes have expanded.

  8. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of $13.1 billion (95% CI: $0.6 billion, $43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  9. Potential air quality benefits from increased solar photovoltaic electricity generation in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David; Holloway, Tracey; Harkey, Monica; Rrushaj, Arber; Brinkman, Greg; Duran, Phillip; Janssen, Mark; Denholm, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We evaluate how fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and precursor emissions could be reduced if 17% of electricity generation was replaced with solar photovoltaics (PV) in the Eastern United States. Electricity generation is simulated using GridView, then used to scale electricity-sector emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) from an existing gridded inventory of air emissions. This approach offers a novel method to leverage advanced electricity simulations with state-of-the-art emissions inventories, without necessitating recalculation of emissions for each facility. The baseline and perturbed emissions are input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ version 4.7.1) for a full accounting of time- and space-varying air quality changes associated with the 17% PV scenario. These results offer a high-value opportunity to evaluate the reduced-form AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT), while using AVERT to test the sensitivity of results to changing base-years and levels of solar integration. We find that average NOX and SO2 emissions across the region decrease 20% and 15%, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations decreased on average 4.7% across the Eastern U.S., with nitrate (NO3-) PM2.5 decreasing 3.7% and sulfate (SO42-) PM2.5 decreasing 9.1%. In the five largest cities in the region, we find that the most polluted days show the most significant PM2.5 decrease under the 17% PV generation scenario, and that the greatest benefits are accrued to cities in or near the Ohio River Valley. We find summer health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure estimated as 1424 avoided premature deaths (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 284 deaths, 2 732 deaths) or a health savings of 13.1 billion (95% CI: 0.6 billion, 43.9 billion) These results highlight the potential for renewable energy as a tool for air quality managers to support current and future health-based air quality regulations.

  10. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  11. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  12. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  13. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  14. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  15. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:20,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  16. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  17. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Urban Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  18. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, Current Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  19. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  20. 2014 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:5,000,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2014 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  1. Danger Zones and Restricted Areas in the United States as of July 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the location of Danger Zones and Restricted Areas within coastal and marine waters, as outlined by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and the...

  2. 2015 Cartographic Boundary File, Combined Statistical Area for United States, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 cartographic boundary shapefiles are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File /...

  3. Analysis and Comparison of Shading Strategies to Increase Human Thermal Comfort in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the expected increase in warmer conditions caused by climate change, heat-related illnesses are becoming a more pressing issue. One way that humans can protect themselves from this is to seek shade. The design of urban spaces can provide individuals with a variety of ways to obtain this shade. The objective of this study was to perform a detailed evaluation and comparison of three shading strategies that could be used in an urban environment: shade from a building, from a tree, and from an umbrella. This was done through using field measurements to calculate the impact of each strategy on a thermal comfort index (Comfort Formula (COMFA in two urban settings during sunny days of the summer of 2013 and 2014 in London, Canada. Building shade was found to be the most effective cooling strategy, followed by the tree strategy and the umbrella strategy. As expected, the main determinant of this ranking was a strategy’s ability to block incoming shortwave radiation. Further analysis indicated that changes in the convective loss of energy and in longwave radiation absorption had a smaller impact that caused variations in the strategy effectiveness between settings. This suggests that under non-sunny days, these rankings could change.

  4. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  5. Considerations for increasing unit 1 spent fuel pool capacity at the Laguna Verde station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, A.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the spent fuel storage capacity at the Laguna Verde Station in a safe and economical manner and assure a continuous operation of the first Mexican Nuclear Plant, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the Nation's Utility, seeked alternatives considering the overall world situation, the safety and licensing aspects, as well as the economics and the extent of the nuclear program of Mexico. This paper describes the alternatives considered, their evaluation and how the decision taken by CFE in this field, provides the Laguna Verde Station with a maximum of 37 years storage capacity plus full core reserve

  6. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  7. Rapid increase in lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men, United Kingdom, 2003 to September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Tristan; Simms, Ian; Alexander, Sarah; Eastick, Kirstine; Hughes, Gwenda; Field, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    United Kingdom (UK) national data show a sharp increase in diagnoses of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) since 2012. Most cases are in men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London, with high rates of co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. In light of these data, and the recent finding that one quarter of LGV infections may be asymptomatic, clinicians should be vigilant in testing for LGV, including in asymptomatic HIV-positive MSM.

  8. Modeling The Economic And Health Impact Of Increasing Children's Physical Activity In The United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Adam, Atif; Zenkov, Eli; Hertenstein, Daniel; Ferguson, Marie C; Wang, Peggy I; Wong, Michelle S; Wedlock, Patrick; Nyathi, Sindiso; Gittelsohn, Joel; Falah-Fini, Saeideh; Bartsch, Sarah M; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Brown, Shawn T

    2017-05-01

    Increasing physical activity among children is a potentially important public health intervention. Quantifying the economic and health effects of the intervention would help decision makers understand its impact and priority. Using a computational simulation model that we developed to represent all US children ages 8-11 years, we estimated that maintaining the current physical activity levels (only 31.9 percent of children get twenty-five minutes of high-calorie-burning physical activity three times a week) would result each year in a net present value of $1.1 trillion in direct medical costs and $1.7 trillion in lost productivity over the course of their lifetimes. If 50 percent of children would exercise, the number of obese and overweight youth would decrease by 4.18 percent, averting $8.1 billion in direct medical costs and $13.8 billion in lost productivity. Increasing the proportion of children who exercised to 75 percent would avert $16.6 billion and $23.6 billion, respectively. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Increasing incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever among the American Indian population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert C; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Haberling, Dana L; Cheek, James E

    2009-04-01

    To examine trends of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) incidence among American Indians compared with other race groups, a retrospective analysis of national RMSF surveillance data reported to the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance and the Tickborne Rickettsial Disease Case Report Forms system were used. The RMSF incidence for American Indians, which was comparable to those for other race groups during 1990-2000, increased at a disproportionate rate during 2001-2005. The average annual incidence of RMSF reported among American Indians for 2001-2005 was 16.8 per 1,000,000 persons compared with 4.2, 2.6, and 0.5 for white, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander persons, respectively. Most cases in American Indians were reported from Oklahoma (113.1 cases per 1,000,000), North Carolina (60.0), and Arizona (17.2). The incidence of RMSF increased dramatically among American Indians disproportionately to trends for other race groups. Education about tick-borne disease and prevention measures should be addressed for high-risk American Indian populations.

  10. The trend toward free trade areas: economic consequences and policy implications for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    All, William H., IV

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Because America's economy relies to a significant degree on export markets and external sources of raw materials, the health of the international trading system is critical to the national security of the United States. This thesis demonstrates that the organization on which America has relied for the management of the international trading system since the 1950s, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), is failing to effect...

  11. Annual dose at the exclusion area boundary of a multi-unit CANDU site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, N.; Bobb, C.R.; Tsang, K.T.

    1997-01-01

    The annual dose to members of the public from CANDU nuclear power stations is dominated by the contribution from airborne effluents. The principal radionuclides contributing to the annual dose are tritium, carbon-14 and noble gases. The tritium is released as tritiated heavy-water vapour; the carbon-14 is released principally as carbon dioxide. To demonstrate compliance with the public dose limit, AECL has calculated the annual dose from airborne emissions from 10 CANDU units at an extended Wolsong site. The analysis has used the treatment of atmospheric dispersion described in the US Regulatory Guide 1.111 and programmed in the code XOQDOQ. The analysis has then modelled the transport of these airborne emissions through the environment as they expose the critical group using the US Regulatory Guide 1.109. the study takes account of the different annual emissions from each unit to reflect the different design features of the units. This study also includes a treatment of topography and makes allowances for building wake effects

  12. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  13. Analysis of gamma ray intensity on the S/C vent pipes area in the unit 2 reactor building of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The robot is equipped with cameras, a dosimeter, and 2 DOF (degree of freedom) manipulation arms. It loads a small vehicle equipped with a camera that can access and inspect narrow areas. TEPCO is using the four-legged walking robot to inspect the suppression chamber (S/C) area of the unit 2 reactor building basement in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The robot carried out 6 missions for about four months, from 11 December, 2012 to 15 March, 2013, where it examined an evidence of a leakage of radioactivity contaminated water in the S/C area of unit 2 reactor building. When a camera's signal processing unit, which is consist of ASIC and FPGA devices manufactured by a CMOS fabrication process, is exposed to a higher dose rate gamma ray, the speckle distribution in the camera image increase more. From the inspection videos, released by TEPCO, of the underground 8 vent pipes in the unit 2 reactor building, we analyzed the speckle distribution from the high dose-rate gamma rays. Based on the distribution of the speckle, we attempted to characterize the vent pipe with much radioactivity contaminated materials among the eight vent pipes connected to the PCV. The numbers of speckles viewed in the image of a CCD (or CMOS) camera are related to an intensity of the gamma ray energy emitted by a nuclear fission reaction from radioactivity materials. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. Therefore, calculating the speckles counts, we can determine the vent pipe with relatively most radioactivity-contaminated materials among the other vent pipes. From the comparison of speckles counts calculated in the inspection image of the vent pipe with the speckles counts extracted by gamma ray irradiation experiment of the same small vehicle camera model loaded with the four-legged walking robot, we can qualitatively estimate the gamma ray dose-rate in the S/C vent pipe area of the

  14. Quantifying the risk of nosocomial infection within Ebola Holding Units: a retrospective cohort study of negative patients discharged from five Ebola Holding Units in Western Area, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Paul; Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Kamara, Abdul; Kamara, Thaim B; Johnson, Oliver; Lado, Marta; George, Viginia; Koroma, Fatmata; King, Matilda B; Parker, Benson E; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A central pillar in the response to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Sierra Leone was the role of Ebola Holding Units (EHUs). These units isolated patients meeting a suspect case definition, tested them for EVD, initiated appropriate early treatment and discharged negative patients to onward inpatient care or home. Positive patients were referred to Ebola Treatment Centres. We aimed to estimate the risk of nosocomial transmission within these EHUs. We followed up a cohort of 543 patients discharged with a negative EVD test from five EHUs in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, and examined all line-listed subsequent EVD tests from any facility in the Western Area to see whether the patient was retested within 30 days, matching by name, age and address. We defined possible readmissions as having the same name and age but uncertain address, and confirmed readmissions where name, age and address matched. We found a positive readmission rate of 3.3% (18 cases), which included 1.5% confirmed readmissions (8 cases) and 1.8% possible readmissions (10 cases). This is lower than rates previously reported. We cannot ascertain whether EVD was acquired within the EHUs or from re-exposure in the community. No demographic or clinical variables were identified as risk factors for positive readmission, likely due to our small sample size. These findings support the EHU model as a safe method for isolation of suspect EVD patients and their role in limiting the spread of EVD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An Examination of Incentive Strategies to Increase Participation in Outcomes Research for an Adolescent Inpatient Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Carolyn; Madan, Alok; Long, Tessa A; Sharp, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Tracking adolescent outcomes after inpatient hospitalization is important in informing clinical care for this age group, as inpatient care is one of the most expensive treatment modalities. This study examined 4 incentive strategies used to maintain adolescent participation in follow-up research (at 6, 12, and 18 mo) after their discharge from the hospital (N=267). A generalized estimation equation approach was taken to investigate whether different incentive strategies predicted adolescent completion of the follow-up assessments at each time point. Findings demonstrate that implementation of social worker contact significantly differed from other incentive strategies in increasing adolescent completion of follow-up assessments (Z=2.51, P=0.012) over the 3 time points, even when controlling for age and sex. Although these findings ultimately need to be confirmed through a randomized controlled study of incentive strategies, they provide preliminary support for the notion that relational incentives, such as maintaining contact with a member of the clinical team at the hospital, may be particularly important in promoting adolescent participation in outcomes research.

  16. SUPPLEMENTAL PACKAGE FOR THE SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium were tentatively identified as ecological RCOCs for the PAOU Ash Basin (PAOU Post-Characterization/Problem Identification Scoping Meeting, March 2007). Core Team agreed to consider eliminating these constituents as RCOCs based on a revised uncertainty discussion. The ecological risk tables and revised text (in its entirety) for the PAOU Ash Basin are provided in the Supplemental Information Package for the FS Scoping Meeting (June 2007). Arsenic and selenium have been traditionally carried through as ecological RCOCs (D-Area Ash Basin, A-Area Ash Pile)

  17. SUPPLEMENTAL PACKAGE FOR THE SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-23

    Arsenic and selenium were tentatively identified as ecological RCOCs for the PAOU Ash Basin (PAOU Post-Characterization/Problem Identification Scoping Meeting, March 2007). Core Team agreed to consider eliminating these constituents as RCOCs based on a revised uncertainty discussion. The ecological risk tables and revised text (in its entirety) for the PAOU Ash Basin are provided in the Supplemental Information Package for the FS Scoping Meeting (June 2007). Arsenic and selenium have been traditionally carried through as ecological RCOCs (D-Area Ash Basin, A-Area Ash Pile).

  18. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Dept. of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940's at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima (Japan)), the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares (Spain)). This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. (authors)

  19. Varieties of granitic uranium deposits and favorable exploration areas in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Ragland, P.C.; Nishimori, R.K.; Greenberg, J.K.; Hauck, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. First is an overview of the basic igneous processes that cause concentration of uranium and the types of rocks in which these deposits are most likely to occur. Second is a discussion of the source of uranium and the tectonic environments in which uranium-rich igneouos rocks are likely to form. Third is an application of these principles to the delineation of favorable belts for uranium exploration in crystalline rocks in the eastern United States. The paper is restricted to a discussion of those deposits in which high-uranium concentrations are caused by magmatic processes. 114 refs

  20. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  2. 75 FR 76648 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... routes would improve departure flow from the San Francisco/Oakland, CA, Terminal area by providing...'' N., long. 107[deg]55'30'' W.) * * * * * Q-128 LIN to MEM [New] LIN VORTAC (Lat. 38[deg]04'29'' N...'' W.) * * * * * Q-130 LIN to PNH [New] LIN VORTAC (Lat. 38[deg]04'29'' N., long. 121[deg]00'14'' W...

  3. 76 FR 13084 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Francisco/Oakland, CA, Terminal area by providing additional parallel departure routings and improve arrival....) * * * * * * * Q-128 LIN to MEM [New] LIN VORTAC (Lat. 38[deg]04[min]29[sec] N., long. 121[deg]00[min]14[sec] W...] W.) * * * * * * * Q-130 LIN to PNH [New] LIN VORTAC (Lat. 38[deg]04[min]29[sec] N., long. 121[deg]00...

  4. 75 FR 53264 - United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico VA; Restricted Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... addition, lighted, floating, small craft intrusion barriers will be placed across the Chopawamsic Creek... bridge. (b) The regulations. (1) All persons, vessels, or other craft are prohibited from entering... area and that entry is prohibited. Additionally, floating, lighted, small craft intrusion barriers will...

  5. Acupuncture attenuates cognitive deficits and increases pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area of vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yi; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-04-28

    Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells. We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P area in any of the groups (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

  6. Are Swine Workers in the United States at Increased Risk of Infection with Zoonotic Influenza Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kendall P.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Setterquist, Sharon F.; Capuano, Ana W.; Donham, Kelley J.; Thacker, Eileen L.; Merchant, James A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza strains originate in nonhuman species. Pigs have an important role in interspecies transmission of the virus. We examined multiple swine-exposed human populations in the nation's number 1 swine-producing state for evidence of previous swine influenza virus infection. Methods We performed controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among 111 farmers, 97 meat processing workers, 65 veterinarians, and 79 control subjects using serum samples collected during the period of 2002–2004. Serum samples were tested using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against the following 6 influenza A virus isolates collected recently from pigs and humans: A/Swine/WI/238/97 (H1N1), A/Swine/WI/R33F/01 (H1N2), A/Swine/Minnesota/593/99 (H3N2), A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2), and A/Nanchang/933/95 (H3N2). Results Using multivariable proportional odds modeling, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Farmers had the strongest indication of exposure to swine H1N1 virus infection (odds ratio [OR], 35.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7–161.8), followed by veterinarians (OR, 17.8; 95% CI, 3.8–82.7), and meat processing workers (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.4–29.5). Similarly, farmers had the highest odds for exposure to swine H1N2 virus (OR, 13.8; 95% CI, 5.4–35.4), followed by veterinarians (OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 3.6–24.6) and meat processing workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.7). Conclusions Occupational exposure to pigs greatly increases workers' risk of swine influenza virus infection. Swine workers should be included in pandemic surveillance and in antiviral and immunization strategies. PMID:16323086

  7. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-10-01

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a)

  10. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  11. Increasing Trend of Fatal Falls in Older Adults in the United States, 1992 to 2005: Coding Practice or Reporting Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrazi, Rebekah J; Nash, Denis; Mielenz, Thelma J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether changes in death certificate coding and reporting practices explain part or all of the recent increase in the rate of fatal falls in adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Trends in coding and reporting practices of fatal falls were evaluated under mortality coding schemes for International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Ninth Revision (1992-1998) and Tenth Revision (1999-2005). United States, 1992 to 2005. Individuals aged 65 and older with falls listed as the underlying cause of death (UCD) on their death certificates. The primary outcome was annual fatal falls rates per 100,000 U.S. residents aged 65 and older. Coding practice was assessed through analysis of trends in rates of specific UCD fall ICD e-codes over time. Reporting quality was assessed by examining changes in the location on the death certificate where fall e-codes were reported, in particular, the percentage of fall e-codes recorded in the proper location on the death certificate. Fatal falls rates increased over both time periods: 1992 to 1998 and 1999 to 2005. A single falls e-code was responsible for the increasing trend of fatal falls overall from 1992 to 1998 (E888, other and unspecified fall) and from 1999 to 2005 (W18, other falls on the same level), whereas trends for other falls e-codes remained stable. Reporting quality improved steadily throughout the study period. Better reporting quality, not coding practices, contributed to the increasing rate of fatal falls in older adults in the United States from 1992 to 2005. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lee S; Li, Li; Ford, Earl S; Liu, Simin

    2004-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic that is affecting an ever-increasing proportion of the US population. Although consumption of refined carbohydrates has increased and is thought to be related to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, the ecologic effect of changes in the quality of carbohydrates in the food supply on the risk of type 2 diabetes remains to be quantified. The objective was to examine the correlation between consumption of refined carbohydrates and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States. In this ecologic correlation study, the per capita nutrient consumption in the United States between 1909 and 1997 obtained from the US Department of Agriculture was compared with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In a univariate analysis, a significant correlation with diabetes prevalence was observed for dietary fat (r = 0.84, P < 0.001), carbohydrate (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), protein (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), fiber (r = 0.16, P = 0.03), corn syrup (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), and total energy (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) intakes. In a multivariate nutrient-density model, in which total energy intake was accounted for, corn syrup was positively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (beta = 0.0132, P = 0.038). Fiber (beta = -13.86, P < 0.01) was negatively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, protein (P = 0.084) and fat (P = 0.79) were not associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes when total energy was controlled for. Increasing intakes of refined carbohydrate (corn syrup) concomitant with decreasing intakes of fiber paralleled the upward trend in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes observed in the United States during the 20th century.

  13. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  14. Public parks and wellbeing in urban areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Viniece Jennings; Scott A. Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of...

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document

  16. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  17. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  18. Expanding health insurance to increase health care utilization: will it have different effects in rural vs. urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Damrongplasit, Kannika Kampanya; Melnick, Glenn

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the importance of medical fee and distance to health care provider on individual's decision to seek care in developing countries. The estimation method used a mixed logit model applied to data from the third wave of the Indonesian family life survey (2000). The key variables of interest include medical fee and distance to different types of health care provider and individual characteristic variables. Urban dweller's decision to choose health care providers are sensitive to the monetary cost of medical care as measured by medical fee but they are not sensitive to distance. For those who reside in rural area, they are sensitive to the non-medical component cost of care as measured by travel distance but they are not sensitive to medical fee. As a result of those findings, policy makers should consider different sets of policy instruments when attempting to expand health service's usage in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. To increase access in urban areas, we recommend expansion of health insurance coverage in order to lower out-of-pocket medical expenditures. As for rural areas, expansion of medical infrastructures to reduce commuting distance and costs will be needed to increase utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  20. Increased perirenal fat area is not associated with adverse outcomes after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, Katarina; Bulut, Orhan; Schødt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intraabdominal visceral obesity may increase technical challenges during laparoscopic rectal resection and hypothetically therefore increase the risk of perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to analyze intraabdominal obesity by means of perirenal fat against risk...... of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods This study was a single-institution retrospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic total mesorectal surgery for rectal cancer between January 2009 and January 2013. Abdominal CT scans...... with intravenous contrast were assessed in a blinded manner to estimate the perirenal fat area (cm2). Result A total of 195 patients were included (median age 70 years (range 27–87), 58 women and 137 men) for analysis. There was a moderate correlation between BMI and perirenal fat area (r = 0.499, p = 0...

  1. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 383: Area E-Tunnel Sites, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is the joint responsibility of DTRA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 383 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and two adjacent areas: • CAS 12-06-06, Muckpile • CAS 12-25-02, Oil Spill • CAS 12-28-02, Radioactive Material • Drainage below the Muckpile • Ponds 1, 2, and 3 The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation to support the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions at the three CASs and two adjacent areas of CAU 383.

  3. Innovative modified hair follicle harvesting technique with reverse rake scalp elevator for lower occipital donor area in follicular unit extraction hair transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharwade, Chandrakant Rambhau

    2016-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is one of the widely practiced minimally invasive follicular harvesting techniques employed during hair transplantation. FUE technique has an advantage of utilising lower occipital area and supra-auricular region as a safe donor area described by Unger, in addition to the standard occipital donor area used in strip method (follicular unit transplant). Despite its potential advantages such as rapid recovery, minimal scarring and reduced post-operative pain; its widespread acceptance is limited due to various factors in variable contribution like steeper learning curve and potentially higher follicular transection rates (FTRs). The main practical drawbacks in harvesting FUE from lower occipital donor region that lie inferior to the standard donor area, is its acute angle (10°-15°) of emergent hair from scalp skin, higher variance angle (15°-35°) between hairs below the skin and hair exit angle above the skin and comparatively loose scalp, preventing to provide stable platform for punching. Hair transplant surgeon faces difficulty in aligning and engaging the FUE punch leading to very high hair follicle transection rate, and therefore, it is not a preferred site for harvesting follicles in FUE. Authors description of modified technique using reverse rake scalp elevator helps in negating the acute angle of the hair follicles exit from scalp skin and reducing the variance angle between emergent hair and hair below the skin in lower occipital region thereby reducing FTR. Furthermore, an added advantage of reducing the overall operative time and surgeon fatigue, improve donor area healing, availability of a comparatively larger donor area which increases the confidence of the beginners. This method will be of help as it is easy to duplicate and follow by novice hair transplant surgeons and also for those who are routinely doing mega hair transplants sessions.

  4. Innovative modified hair follicle harvesting technique with reverse rake scalp elevator for lower occipital donor area in follicular unit extraction hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Rambhau Gharwade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is one of the widely practiced minimally invasive follicular harvesting techniques employed during hair transplantation. FUE technique has an advantage of utilising lower occipital area and supra-auricular region as a safe donor area described by Unger, in addition to the standard occipital donor area used in strip method (follicular unit transplant. Despite its potential advantages such as rapid recovery, minimal scarring and reduced post-operative pain; its widespread acceptance is limited due to various factors in variable contribution like steeper learning curve and potentially higher follicular transection rates (FTRs. The main practical drawbacks in harvesting FUE from lower occipital donor region that lie inferior to the standard donor area, is its acute angle (10°–15° of emergent hair from scalp skin, higher variance angle (15°–35° between hairs below the skin and hair exit angle above the skin and comparatively loose scalp, preventing to provide stable platform for punching. Hair transplant surgeon faces difficulty in aligning and engaging the FUE punch leading to very high hair follicle transection rate, and therefore, it is not a preferred site for harvesting follicles in FUE. Authors description of modified technique using reverse rake scalp elevator helps in negating the acute angle of the hair follicles exit from scalp skin and reducing the variance angle between emergent hair and hair below the skin in lower occipital region thereby reducing FTR. Furthermore, an added advantage of reducing the overall operative time and surgeon fatigue, improve donor area healing, availability of a comparatively larger donor area which increases the confidence of the beginners. This method will be of help as it is easy to duplicate and follow by novice hair transplant surgeons and also for those who are routinely doing mega hair transplants sessions.

  5. A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: −1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the

  6. Financial analysis as a marketing tool in the process of awareness increase in the area of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Taušová

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources of energy represent a great area of progress nowadays. The trend of the 21. century is energetically demanding with an increaming tendency to use fossil fuels, sources of which are however limited. The article will deal with an inevitability of the use of marketing tools with the aim to increase the share of these energetical resources on the Slovak market. The result will be obtaining of some financial advantage for future users on one side and the increase of volume of sales for vendors on the other side.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 230/320 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 230 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; while CAU 320 consists of CAS 22-99-01, Strainer Box. These CAUs are referred to as CAU 230/320 or the Sewage Lagoons Site. The Sewage Lagoons Site also includes an Imhoff tank, sludge bed, and associated buried sewer piping. Located in Area 22, the site was used between 1951 to 1958 for disposal of sanitary sewage effluent from the historic Camp Desert Rock Facility at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada. Based on site history, the contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and radionuclides. Vertical migration is estimated to be less than 12 feet below ground surface, and lateral migration is limited to the soil immediately adjacent to or within areas of concern. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of field screening for VOCs and TPH using the direct-push method and excavation using a backhoe to gather soil samples for analysis. Gamma spectroscopy will also be conducted for waste management purposes. Sampling locations will be biased to suspected worst-case areas including the nearby sludge bed, sewage lagoon inlet(s) and outlet(s), disturbed soil surrounding the lagoons, surface drainage channel south of the lagoons, and the area near the Imhoff tank. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document

  8. Public Parks and Wellbeing in Urban Areas of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln R Larson

    Full Text Available Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of subjective wellbeing at the city level. Using 2014 data from 44 U.S. cities, we evaluated the relationship between urban park quantity, quality, and accessibility and aggregate self-reported scores on the Gallup-Healthways Wellbeing Index (WBI, which considers five different domains of wellbeing (e.g., physical, community, social, financial, and purpose. In addition to park-related variables, our best-fitting OLS regression models selected using an information theory approach controlled for a variety of other typical geographic and socio-demographic correlates of wellbeing. Park quantity (measured as the percentage of city area covered by public parks was among the strongest predictors of overall wellbeing, and the strength of this relationship appeared to be driven by parks' contributions to physical and community wellbeing. Park quality (measured as per capita spending on parks and accessibility (measured as the overall percentage of a city's population within ½ mile of parks were also positively associated with wellbeing, though these relationships were not significant. Results suggest that expansive park networks are linked to multiple aspects of health and wellbeing in cities and positively impact urban quality of life.

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1990 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory -- Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release

  10. No money printing machine. The market for cogeneration units with a Stirling engine begins to increase; Keine Gelddruckmaschinen. Markt fuer Stirling-KWK-Geraete kommt in Bewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2012-10-15

    The serial production of micro combined heat and power units with a Stirling engine is started. However, it is becoming apparent, that from economic reasons units of the 1-kW{sub el.}-class designed for single-family houses and two-family houses are increasingly used as a base load unit in multi-family houses and small trades.

  11. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  13. A Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit for Long-Term Monitoring in the Dependency Care Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Català

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU, which are wearable and comfortable devices with long battery life. The IMU’s movement signals might be, on the one hand, stored in a digital support, in which an analysis is performed a posteriori. On the other hand, the signal analysis might take place in the same IMU at the same time as the signal acquisition through online classifiers. The new sensor system presented in this paper is designed for both collecting movement signals and analyzing them in real-time. This system is a flexible platform useful for collecting data via a triaxial accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, with the possibility to incorporate other information sources in real-time. A µSD card can store all inertial data and a Bluetooth module is able to send information to other external devices and receive data from other sources. The system presented is being used in the real-time detection and analysis of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, in gait analysis, and in a fall detection system.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 366 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended).

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history

  18. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program

  20. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs

  1. Warming increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and shortens the duration of hot moments in the detritusphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaomin; Razavi, Bahar S.; Holz, Maire; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Temperature effects on enzyme kinetics and on the spatial distribution of microbial hotspots are important because of their potential feedback to climate change. We used direct zymography to study the spatial distributions of enzymes responsible for P (phosphatase), C (cellobiohydrolase) and N (leucine-aminopeptidase) cycles in the rhizosphere (living roots of maize) and detritusphere (7 and 14 days after cutting shoots). Soil zymography was coupled with enzyme kinetics to test temperature effects (10, 20, 30 and 40 °C) on the dynamics and localization of these three enzymes in the detritusphere. Total hotspot areas of enzyme activity were 1.9-7.9 times larger and their extension was broader in the detritusphere compared to rhizosphere. From 10 to 30 °C, the hotspot areas enlarged by a factor of 2-24 and Vmax increased by 1.5-6.6 times; both, however, decreased at 40 °C. For the first time, we found a close positive correlation between Vmax and the areas of enzyme activity hotspots, indicating that maximum reaction rate is coupled with hotspot formation. The substrate turnover time at 30 °C were 1.7-6.7-fold faster than at 10 °C. The Km of cellobiohydrolase and phosphatase significantly increased at 30 and 40 °C, indicating high enzyme conformational flexibility, or isoenzyme production at warm temperatures. We conclude that soil warming (at least up to 30°C) increases hotspot areas of enzyme activity and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) in the detritusphere. This, in turn, leads to faster substrate exhaustion and shortens the duration of hot moments.

  2. Ground-water exploration in Al Marj area, Cyrenaica, United Kingdom of Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, T.G.; Haddor, Yousef

    1963-01-01

    The present report, based largely on fieldwork during 1959-61, describes the results of reconnaissance hydrogeologic studies and exploratory drilling to evaluate the general water-bearing properties of the rocks and the availability of groundwater supplies for irrigation, stock, and village uses in Al Marj area. These studies and the drilling were conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Operations Mission of the International Cooperation Administration. Al Marj area, located in the Province of Cyrenaica on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, contains a land area of about 6,770 square kilometers. Along the Mediterranean shore is a narrow coastal plain that rises evenly to the base of an escarpment that forms the seaward front of an undulating plateau known as. Al Jabal al Akhgiar. The climate is semiarid; seasonal rainfall occurs during the winter months. Owing to orographic effects, the rainfall is somewhat higher in the Jabal than in the coastal plain. The average annual rainfall ranges from about 250 millimeters in the coastal plain to 450 millimeters on the Jabal. All the streams (wadis) of the area are ephemeral and flow only in response to heavy rains of the winter season. From a drainage divide on the Jabal some streams flow north and northwest toward the sea and the others, south and southeast to the interior desert. Solution features, such as limestone sink holes, are common in the coastal plain and a large solution depression occurs near Al Marj. The rocks of A1 Marj area consist predominantly of limestone and some sandstone and shale; they range from Cretaceous to Miocene age. On the coastal plain Miocene limestone is locally mantled by Quaternary alluvial, beach and lagoonal deposits. The Miocene and older beds have a regional southerly dip. These rocks are broken by northeast-trending normal faults in the coastal and inland escarpments. The ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in fractures, bedding planes, and solution openings in the

  3. Hydrogeologic framework and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system and intermediate confining unit in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    The successful implementation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) as a water-management tool requires detailed information on the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of the potential water storage zones. This report presents stratigraphic and hydrogeologic sections of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system and the overlying confining unit or aquifer system in the Lake Okeechobee area, and contour maps of the upper contacts of the Ocala Limestone and the Arcadia Formation, which are represented in the sections. The sections and maps illustrate hydrogeologic factors such as confinement of potential storage zones, the distribution of permeability within the zones, and geologic features that may control the efficiency of injection, storage, and recovery of water, and thus may influence decisions on ASR activities in areas of interest to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO of 1996), and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operation Office [NNSA/NV], 2001). CAU 330 consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 06-02-04, 22-99-06, 23-01-02, and 23-25-05 (Figure 1).

  6. Prolonged Living as a Refugee from the Area Around a Stricken Nuclear Power Plant Increases the Risk of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiichiro

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011) resulted in a large number of disaster-related deaths, it is not common knowledge that the number of disaster-related deaths continues to increase, even four years after the earthquake, in Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear power plant accident occurred. There has been a lack of a minute and critical analysis for the causes for this continuous increase. In this report, the causes for the increase in disaster-related deaths in Fukushima Prefecture were analyzed by aggregating and comparing multiple data released by public organizations (the Reconstruction Agency, the National Police Agency, and Fukushima Prefecture), which may also have implications for developing response strategies to other disasters. The disaster-related death rate, the dead or missing rate, and the refugee rate (the number of disaster-related deaths, dead or missing persons, and refugees per 1,000 people) in each prefecture in stricken areas, and also each city, county, town, and village in Fukushima Prefecture, were calculated and compared with each other. The populations which were used for the calculation of each death rate in the area were based on the number of dead victims who had lived in the area when the earthquake occurred, regardless of where they were at the time of their death. The disaster-related death rate was higher than the dead or missing rate in the area around a stricken nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. These areas coincide exactly with the Areas under Evacuation Orders because of unsafe radiation levels. The external and internal radiation doses of most of the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake have appeared not to be so high to harm their health, until now. The psychological stress associated with being displaced from one's home for a long time with an uncertain future may be the cause for these disaster-related deaths. There is an urgent need to recognize refugees

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years

  8. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  9. Civil-Defense Needs of High-Risk Areas of the United States. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    essencial to complement planning and increase the ability of the government to provide information to the public on demand, in a form that can basz be...CSP) apttons 175 ,: IAI WI o A ccI IAI ujj c oi -J I- 1 76 oh 00’t (V~ OIL 0 cj C~ to U1L -)0 at 0 C IM~CL0 0 _ 0. CL 0 41~~4 -. oc 0. cu 4) zc c ono

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2000-07-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved.

  12. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Local inpatient units may increase patients’ utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Lars Henrik; Sørgaard, Knut; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care. Methods Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays. Results The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients’ use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized), a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays. Conclusion Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care. PMID:26604843

  14. Local inpatient units may increase patients' utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Lars Henrik; Sørgaard, Knut; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care. Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays. The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients' use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized), a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays. Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    The following site closure activities were performed at the 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) comprising Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 and are documented in this report: (1) No closure action was taken at 13 CASs (17 sites): 58-05-01,58-07-01,58-05-04, 58-09-05 (Mud Pits C and D only), 58-35-01,58-05-02,58-09-06 (Mud Pits A, B, C, and D), 58-10-06,58-19-01,58-35-02,58-44-04,58-05-04, and 58-09-03 (Mud Pit E only). (2) Housekeeping activities, collecting scrap materials, and transporting to approved landfill sites at the NTS were used to close seven CASs: 58-44-01,58-44-02,58-44-05, 58-98-03,58-98-01,58-98-02, and 58-98-04. (3) Two CASs (58-05-03 and 58-99-01) were closed by excavation and removal of USTs. (4) Two septic tanks (CASs 58-05-05 and 58-05-06) were closed by backfilling with clean fill. (5) Site posting with above-grade monuments and attached warning signs and land-use restrictions were used to close seven CASs (nine sites): 58-09-02,58-09-05 (Mud Pit E only), 58-09-06 (Mud Pit E only), 58-10-01,58-25-01,58-09-03 (Mud Pits A, B, and D), and 58-10-05. (6) Clean closure by excavation soil with TPH levels greater than the NDEP action level of 100 mg/kg and limited regrading was used to close five CASs: 58-10-03,58-44-06, 58-44-03,58-10-02, and 58-10-04. (7) Construction of engineered covers was used to close in place two CASs: 58-09-01 and 58-09-03 (Mud Pit C only). Following construction, a fence was constructed around each cover to prevent damage to the cover or intrusion by wildlife

  16. The utilisation of a midwifery obstetrical unit (mou in a metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M I Mashazi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study an explorative, descriptive design which is contextual in nature, is utilized. The objective of the study is three-fold: Firstly, to describe the opinions of members of the community about the reasons for the under-utilization of the Midwifery Obstetrical Unit (MOU; secondly, to describe the suggestions of the community for improving the utilization of the MOU and thirdly, to describe intervention strategies for community nurses to improve the utilization of the MOU. Data was collected by means of focus group interviews, and was analysed using Tesch’s (in Cresswell, 1994: 154-155 method of data analysis. Trustworthiness was ensured by using the method of Guba and Lincoln (1985. The respondents were mothers who delivered their babies at the hospital, mothers who delivered their babies at the MOU, members of the Community Health Committee and MOU nurses. Data was collected in two phases. Phase I dealt with the first question: What is your opinion about the reasons for the under-utilization of the MOU? Phase II dealt with the second question: What are your suggestions for improving the utilization of the MOU? The four groups participated in Phase I as well as in Phase II, the reason being to involve the groups in identifying problems and finding solutions with which they would be comfortable, since it would be their ideas. This whole exercise was, however, carried out in line with the RDP principle of people driven approach or community involvement. The investigation revealed that the community was not utilizing the MOU because of the following reasons: • Negative attitudes of nurses. • Lack of material and human resources. • Poor safety and security measures. • Lack of community involvement/participation. The focus groups then identified the following suggestions for improving the utilization of the MOU: • Change of attitudes by nurses towards the patients. • Availability of material and human resources. • Proper

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1983. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclide releases yield an estimated dose of 5 x 10 -5 man-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.2 mrem per year. Plutonium and krypton in air were similar to 1982 levels while cesium and strontium in other samples were near the detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 29 references, 35 figures, 30 tables

  2. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  3. Increase of arginase activity in old apolipoprotein-E deficient mice under Western diet associated with changes in neurovascular unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaut Jérôme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aging and atherosclerosis are well-recognized risk factors for cardiac and neurovascular diseases. The Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE−/− mouse on a high-fat diet is a classical model of atherosclerosis, characterized by the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in extracranial vessels but not in cerebral arteries. Increase in arginase activity was shown to participate in vascular dysfunction in the peripheral arteries of atherosclerotic mice by changing the level of nitric oxide (NO. NO plays a key role in the physiological functions of the neurovascular unit (NVU. However, the regulation of arginase expression and activity in the brain was never investigated in association with changes in the NVU, ApoE deficiency and high fat diet. Fourteen-month-old ApoE−/− mice on high-fat diet exhibited deposition of lipids in the NVU, impairment of blood–brain barrier properties, astrogliosis and an increase of aquaporin 4 staining. In association with these changes, brain arginase activity was significantly increased in the old ApoE−/− mice as compared to old wild type mice, with an increase in the level of arginase type I in the blood vessels. In conclusion, aging in this classical mouse model of atherosclerosis induces an increase in the level and activity of arginase I that may impair NO synthesis and contribute to changes in the NVU leading to blood–brain barrier leakage and inflammation.

  4. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Ribisl, Kurt; Brownstein, John S

    2011-03-16

    Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US) 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state) were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada) for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV) scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; ptax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; ptax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational or psychological outcomes manifested online.

  5. Multiscale Framework for Assessing Critical Loads of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition for Aquatic Ecosystems in Wilderness Areas of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, Leora; Clow, David; Saros, Jasmine; McMurray, Jill; Blett, Tamara; Sickman, James

    2017-04-01

    High-elevation aquatic ecosystems in Wilderness areas of the western United States are impacted by current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition associated with local and regional air pollution. Documented effects include elevated surface water nitrate concentrations, increased algal productivity, and changes in diatom species assemblages. A predictive framework was developed for sensitive high-elevation basins across the western United States at multiple spatial scales including the Rocky Mountain Region (Rockies), the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), and Yosemite (YOSE) and Sequoia & Kings Canyon (SEKI) National Parks. Spatial trends in critical loads of N deposition for nutrient enrichment of aquatic ecosystems were quantified and mapped using a geostatistical approach, with modeled N deposition, topography, vegetation, geology, and climate as potential explanatory variables. Multiple predictive models were created using various combinations of explanatory variables; this approach allowed for better quantification of uncertainty and identification of areas most sensitive to high atmospheric N deposition (> 3 kg N ha-1 yr-1). For multiple spatial scales, the lowest critical loads estimates (1.5 + 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1) correspond with areas of high N deposition and vary spatially ranging from less than 20% to over 40% of the study area for the Rockies, GYA, YOSE, and SEKI. These predictive models and maps identify sensitive aquatic ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition and can be used to help protect against future anthropogenic disturbance. The approach presented here may be transferable to other remote and protected high-elevation ecosystems at multiple spatial scales that are sensitive to adverse effects of pollutant loading in the US and around the world.

  6. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  7. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  8. Unauthorized forced entry into the protected area at Three Mile Island Unit 1 on February 7, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    On February 7, 1993, at 6:53 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST) an intruder drove into tile site owner-controlled area, through a gate into the protected area of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station, Unit I (TMI-1) and crashed through a roll-up door on the Turbine Building. TMI Security reported this event to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters operations officer and declared a Security Emergency upon determining that the protected area of the plant had been compromised. At 7:23 a.m., the TMI-1 shift supervisor officially notified the NRC Headquarters operations officer that he had declared a Site Area Emergency effective at 7:05 a.m. Upon considering the possible significance to physical security and the regulatory questions that could result from the event, the NRC Executive Director for Operations established an incident investigation team to determine what happened and make appropriate findings and conclusions. In this report the team described the event and the response to the event, evaluated the regulatory requirements, and presented the team's findings and conclusions

  9. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 390: AREAS 9, 10, AND 12 SPILL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 390 consists four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 9, 10, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The closure activities performed at the CASs include: (1) CAS 09-99-03, Wax, Paraffin: 2 cubic yards of drilling polymer was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (2) CAS 10-99-01, Epoxy Tar Spill: 2 cubic feet of asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (3) CAS 10-99-03, Tar Spills: 3 cubic yards of deteriorated asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (4) CAS 12-25-03, Oil Stains (2); Container: Approximately 16 ounces of used oil were removed from ventilation equipment on June 28,2005, and recycled. One CAS 10-22-19, Drums, Stains, was originally part of CAU 390 but was transferred out of CAU 390 and into CAU 550, Drums, Batteries, and Lead Materials. The transfer was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on August 19,2005, and a copy of the approval letter is included in Appendix D of this report.

  10. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  11. Childhood leukemia near nuclear plants in the United Kingdom: The evolution of a systematic approach to studying rare disease in small geographic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1990-01-01

    A cluster of childhood leukemia in a village near a nuclear plant in northern England prompted further studies of cancer in the vicinity of other nuclear plants in the United Kingdom. These studies demonstrated that the risk of childhood leukemia was increased near certain other nuclear plants. Although the reasons for the increase are still unclear, the scientific debate stimulated by these findings has clarified some of the special methodological problems encountered when studying rare diseases in small areas. Firstly, unless a specific hypothesis is defined in advance, the relevance of a single geographic cluster of disease can rarely be interpreted. Even when a prior hypothesis exists, the small number of cases which generally occur in a small area make the findings highly sensitive to reporting, diagnostic, or classification errors. The statistical power of such investigations is also usually low and only marked increases in risk can be detected. Furthermore, conventional statistical tests may be inappropriate if the underlying spatial distribution of the disease is not random; and little is known about the background distribution of disease in small areas. Investigations of specific hypotheses about defined sources of environmental contamination, especially if they can be replicated, are more likely to result in conclusive findings that are in-depth studies of individual clusters

  12. When roads appear jaguars decline: Increased access to an Amazonian wilderness area reduces potential for jaguar conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Santiago; Celis, Gerardo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, the protected area with highest potential for jaguar conservation in Ecuador, and an area both threatened by road development and inhabited by indigenous groups dependent upon bushmeat. We surveyed prey and jaguar abundance with camera traps in four sites that differed in accessibility to hunters and used site occupancy and spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses to evaluate prey occurrence and estimate jaguar density, respectively. Higher landscape accessibility to hunters was linked with lower occurrence and biomass of game, particularly white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), the primary game for hunters and prey for jaguars. Jaguar density was up to 18 times higher in the most remote site compared to the most accessible site. Our results provide a strong case for the need to: 1) consider conservation of large carnivores and other wildlife in policies about road construction in protected areas, 2) coordinate conservation initiatives with local governments so that development activities do not conflict with conservation objectives, and 3) promote development of community-based strategies for wildlife management that account for the needs of large carnivores.

  13. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Public Participation Plan for Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14 at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. G. Meagher

    2007-01-01

    This Public Participation Plan outlines activities being planned to: (1) brief the public on results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study, (2) discuss the proposed plan for remediation of Operable Unit 7-13/14 with the public, and (3) encourage public participation in the decision-making process. Operable Unit 7-13/14 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Group 7. Analysis focuses on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory (Site). This plan, a supplement to the Idaho National Laboratory Community Relations Plan (DOE-ID 2004), will be updated as necessary. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will participate in the public involvement activities outlined in this plan. Collectively, DOE, DEQ, and EPA are referred to as the Agencies. Because history has shown that implementing the minimum required public involvement activities is not sufficient for high-visibility cleanup projects, this plan outlines additional opportunities the Agencies are providing to ensure that the public's information needs are met and that the Agencies can use the public's input for decisions regarding remediation activities

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Wickline

    2007-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: 19-99-01, Mud Spill 19-99-11, Mud Spill 20-09-09, Mud Spill 20-99-03, Mud Spill. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  17. Surface area loss and increased sphericity account for the splenic entrapment of subpopulations of Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Safeukui

    Full Text Available Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens revealed innate retention of numerous cultured Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected red blood cells (ring-iRBCs. Ring-iRBC retention was confirmed by a microsphiltration device, a microbead-based technology that mimics the mechanical filtering function of the human spleen. However, the cellular alterations underpinning this retention remain unclear. Here, we use ImageStream technology to analyze infected RBCs' morphology and cell dimensions before and after fractionation with microsphiltration. Compared to fresh normal RBCs, the mean cell membrane surface area loss of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uninfected co-cultured RBCs (uRBCs was 14.2% (range: 8.3-21.9%, 9.6% (7.3-12.2% and 3.7% (0-8.4, respectively. Microsphilters retained 100%, ∼50% and 4% of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uRBCs, respectively. Retained ring-iRBCs display reduced surface area values (estimated mean, range: 17%, 15-18%, similar to the previously shown threshold of surface-deficient RBCs retention in the human spleen (surface area loss: >18%. By contrast, ring-iRBCs that successfully traversed microsphilters had minimal surface area loss and normal sphericity, suggesting that these parameters are determinants of their retention. To confirm this hypothesis, fresh normal RBCs were exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine to induce a controlled loss of surface area. This resulted in a dose-dependent retention in microsphilters, with complete retention occurring for RBCs displaying >14% surface area loss. Taken together, these data demonstrate that surface area loss and resultant increased sphericity drive ring-iRBC retention in microsphilters, and contribute to splenic entrapment of a subpopulation of ring-iRBCs. These findings trigger more interest in malaria research fields, including modeling of infection kinetics, estimation of parasite load, and analysis of risk factors for severe clinical forms. The determination of the threshold of

  18. Health Insurance Premium Increases for the 5 Largest School Districts in the United States, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. Objective To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Methods Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. Results The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers—Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Conclusions Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace. PMID:25126311

  19. Health insurance premium increases for the 5 largest school districts in the United States, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, John R

    2010-03-01

    Local school districts are often one of the largest, if not the largest, employers in their respective communities. Like many large employers, school districts offer health insurance to their employees. There is a lack of information about the rate of health insurance premiums in US school districts relative to other employers. To assess the change in the costs of healthcare insurance in the 5 largest public school districts in the United States, between 2004 and 2008, as representative of large public employers in the country. Data for this study were drawn exclusively from a survey sent to the 5 largest public school districts in the United States. The survey requested responses on 3 data elements for each benefit plan offered from 2004 through 2008; these included enrollment, employee costs, and employer costs. The premium growth for the 5 largest school districts has slowed down and is consistent with other purchasers-Kaiser/Health Research & Educational Trust and the Federal Employee Health Benefit Program. The average increase in health insurance premium for the schools was 5.9% in 2008, and the average annual growth rate over the study period was 7.5%. For family coverage, these schools provide the most generous employer contribution (80.8%) compared with the employer contribution reported by other employers (73.5%) for 2008. Often the largest employers in their communities, school districts demonstrate a commitment to provide choice of benefits and affordability for employees and their families. Despite constraints typical of public employers, the 5 largest school districts in the United States have decelerated in premium growth consistent with other purchasers, albeit at a slower pace.

  20. Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, there has been tremendous effort to examine strategies for sustainably increasing agricultural production to meet this surging global demand. Before developing new solutions from scratch, though, we believe it is important to consult our recent agricultural history to see where and how agricultural production changes have already taken place. By utilizing the newly created temporal M3 cropland datasets, we can for the first time examine gridded agricultural yields and area, both spatially and temporally. This research explores the historical drivers of agricultural production changes, from 1965-2005. The results will be presented spatially at the global-level (5-min resolution), as well as at the individual country-level. The primary research components of this study are presented below, including the general methodology utilized in each phase and preliminary results for soybean where available. The complete assessment will cover maize, wheat, rice, soybean, and sugarcane, and will include country-specific analysis for over 200 countries, states, territories and protectorates. Phase 1: The first component of our research isolates changes in agricultural production due to variation in planting decisions (harvested area) from changes in production due to intensification efforts (yield). We examine area/yield changes at the pixel-level over 5-year time-steps to determine how much each component has contributed to overall changes in production. Our results include both spatial patterns of changes in production, as well as spatial maps illustrating to what degree the production change is attributed to area and/or yield. Together, these maps illustrate where, why, and by how much agricultural production has changed over time. Phase 2: In the second phase of our research we attempt to determine the impact that area and yield changes have had on agricultural production at the country-level. We calculate a production

  1. [Diseases diagnosed at a pneumology unit integrated with its health area. Comparison with historical controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Escribano, P; López Encuentra, A; Martín García, I; Cienfuegos Agustín, M I; Caballero Borda, C

    1996-01-01

    An understanding of changes in pulmonology disease patterns observed at a general hospital before and after implantation of a population-based model of health care not only provides useful insight into the diseases treated but also aids adjustment of health care service organization. The aim of this study was to compare data collected after 1992 (when the new system was established) with records kept by the same pulmonology group in earlier years (1974-1986). Data after 1992 described patients attended in Health District 11 by the newly organized pneumologists. For the two periods the most common pneumological diagnoses were chronic air flow obstruction and chronic hypersecretory bronchitis. The most common non pneumological diagnoses were systemic arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes, liver disease and hiatus hernia/gastroesophageal reflux. The prospective study covered a larger population and was closer to primary care, including as it did patients at clinics unattached to hospitals. In the earlier hospital-based experience the most common diagnoses were acute respiratory infection, chronic air flow obstruction and asthma, apart from those patients referred in whom no respiratory disease was found. With the organizational integration of hospital and health district pulmonology service, contact between patients and specialists has increased. Record systems have been established for a well-defined population to permit better forecasting at less cost and facilitate contact with primary care givers and epidemiological studies.

  2. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  3. Effects of age-related increases in sapwood area, leaf area, and xylem conductivity on height-related hydraulic costs in two contrasting coniferous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Barbara Lachenbruch; Michele L. Pruyn; Rachel Spicer

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of vertical variation in hydraulic parameters would improve our understanding of individual trunk functioning and likely have important implications for modeling water movement to the leaves. Specifically, understanding how foliage area (Al), sapwood area (As), and hydraulic specific...

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2010, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the Baneberry site. The primary release associated with Corrective Action Unit 365 was radiological contamination from the Baneberry nuclear test. Baneberry was an underground weapons-related test that vented significant quantities of radioactive gases from a fissure located in close proximity to ground zero. A crater formed shortly after detonation, which stemmed part of the flow from the fissure. The scope of this investigation includes surface and shallow subsurface (less than 15 feet below ground surface) soils. Radionuclides from the Baneberry test with the potential to impact groundwater are included within the Underground Test Area Subproject. Investigations and corrective actions associated with the Underground Test Area Subproject include the radiological inventory resulting from the Baneberry test.

  5. Technique for Simulation of Black Sea Circulation with Increased Resolution in the Area of the IO RAS Polygon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Fomin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    A numerical technique is presented for simulating the hydrophysical fields of the Black Sea on a variable-step grid with refinement in the area of IO RAS polygon. Model primitive equations are written in spherical coordinates with an arbitrary arrangement of poles. In order to increase the horizontal resolution of the coastal zone in the area of the IO RAS polygon in the northeastern part of the sea near Gelendzhik, one of the poles is placed at a land point (38.35° E, 44.75° N). The model horizontal resolution varies from 150 m in the area of the IO RAS polygon to 4.6 km in the southwestern part of the Black Sea. The numerical technique makes it possible to simulate a large-scale structure of Black Sea circulation as well as the meso- and submesoscale dynamics of the coastal zone. In order to compute the atmospheric forcing, the results of the regional climate model WRF with a resolution of about 10 km in space and 1 h in time are used. In order to demonstrate the technique, Black Sea hydrophysical fields for 2011-2012 and a passive tracer transport representing self-cleaning of Gelendzhik Bay in July 2012 are simulated.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  7. Ways to increase efficiency of the HTGR coupled with the gas-turbine power conversion unit - HTR2008-58274

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovko, V. F.; Kodochigov, N. G.; Vasyaev, A. V.; Shenoy, A.; Baxi, C. B.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of increasing efficiency of nuclear power plants with the modular high-temperature helium reactor (HTGR) and direct gas turbine cycle. It should be noted that only this combination can highlight the advantages of the HTGR, namely the ability to heat helium to about 1000 deg. C, in comparison with other reactor plants for electricity generation. The HTGR has never been used in the direct gas turbine cycle. At present, several designs of such commercial plants are at the stage of experimental validation of main technical features. In Russia, 'OKB Mechanical Engineering' together with 'General Atomics' (USA) are developing the GT-MHR project with the reactor power of 600 MW, reactor outlet helium temperature of 850 deg. C, and efficiency of about 45.2%; the South African Republic is developing the PBMR project with the reactor power of 400 MW, reactor outlet helium temperature of 900 deg. C, and efficiency of about 42%; and Japan is developing the GTHTR-300 project with the reactor power of 600 MW, reactor outlet helium temperature of 850 deg. C, and efficiency of about 45.6%. As it has been proven by technical and economic estimations, one of the most important factors for successful promotion of reactor designs is their net efficiency, which must be not lower than 47%. A significant advantage of a reactor plant with the HTGR and gas-turbine power conversion unit over the steam cycle is considerable simplification of the power unit layout and reduction of the required equipment and systems (no steam generators, no turbine hall including steam lines, condenser, deaerator, etc.), which makes the gas-turbine power conversion unit more compact and less costly in production, operation and maintenance. However, in spite of this advantage, it seems that in the projects currently being developed, the potential of the gas-turbine cycle and high-temperature reactor to more efficiently generate electricity is not fully used. For example, in modern

  8. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  9. Does the Visibility of Greenery Increase Perceived Safety in Urban Areas? Evidence from the Place Pulse 1.0 Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space provides a series of esthetic, environmental and psychological benefits to urban residents. However, the relationship between the visibility of green vegetation and perceived safety is still in debate. This research investigated whether green vegetation could help to increase the perceived safety based on a crowdsourced dataset: the Place Pulse 1.0 dataset. Place Pulse 1.0 dataset, which was generated from a large number of votes by online participants, includes geo-tagged Google Street View images and the corresponding perceived safety score for each image. In this study, we conducted statistical analyses to analyze the relationship between perceived safety and green vegetation characteristics, which were extracted from Google Street View images. Results show that the visibility of green vegetation plays an important role in increasing perceived safety in urban areas. For different land use types, the relationship between vegetation structures and perceived safety varies. In residential, urban public/institutional, commercial and open land areas, the visibility of vegetation higher than 2.5 m has significant positive correlations with perceived safety, but there exists no significant correlation between perceived safety and the percentage of green vegetation in transportation and industrial areas. The visibility of vegetation below 2.5 m has no significant relationship with the perceived safety in almost all land use types, except for multifamily residential land and urban public/institutional land. In general, this study provided insight for the relationship between green vegetation characteristics and the perception of environment, as well as valuable reference data for developing urban greening programs.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-06

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach for collecting the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 12 on the NTS, CAU 552 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 12-06-04, Muckpile; 12-23-05, Ponds. Corrective Action Site 12-06-04 in Area 12 consists of the G-Tunnel muckpile, which is the result of tunneling activities. Corrective Action Site 12-23-05 consists of three dry ponds adjacent to the muckpile. The toe of the muckpile extends into one of the ponds creating an overlap of two CASs. The purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technic ally viable corrective actions. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-09-29

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). CAU 116 consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 consisted of Building 3210 and the attached concrete shield wall. CAS 25-23-20 consisted of the nuclear furnace piping and tanks. Closure activities began in January 2007 and were completed in August 2011. Activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 116 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2008). This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provides data confirming that closure objectives for CAU 116 were met. Site characterization data and process knowledge indicated that surface areas were radiologically contaminated above release limits and that regulated and/or hazardous wastes were present in the facility.

  12. Local inpatient units may increase patients' utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myklebust LH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars Henrik Myklebust,1 Knut Sørgaard,1,2 Rolf Wynn21Psychiatric Research Centre of North Norway, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, NorwayObjectives: In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care.Methods: Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays.Results: The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients' use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized, a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays.Conclusion: Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care.Keywords: psychiatry, hospitalization, decentralization, outpatients, continuity of care, health service research, affective

  13. Cobalamin Deficiency Results in Increased Production of Formate Secondary to Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidation of One-Carbon Units in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Luke; Tingley, Garrett; Young, Sara K; Clow, Kathy A; Randell, Edward W; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2018-03-01

    Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to consume either a cobalamin-replete (50 μg cobalamin/kg diet) or -deficient (no added cobalamin) diet for 6 wk. Formate production was measured in vivo and in isolated liver mitochondria from a variety of one-carbon precursors. We also measured the oxidation of [3-14C]-l-serine to 14CO2 in isolated rat liver mitochondria and the expression of hepatic genes involved in one-carbon unit and formate metabolism. Cobalamin-deficient rats produce formate at a rate 55% higher than that of replete rats. Formate production from serine was increased by 60% and from dimethylglycine and sarcosine by ∼200% in liver mitochondria isolated from cobalamin-deficient rats compared with cobalamin-replete rats. There was a 26% decrease in the 14CO2 produced by mitochondria from cobalamin-deficient rats. Gene expression analysis showed that 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cytosolic (Aldh1l1) and mitochondrial (Aldh1l2) expression were decreased by 40% and 60%, respectively, compared to control, while 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, mitochondrial, monofunctional (Mthfd1l) expression was unchanged. We propose that a bifurcation in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is a key control mechanism in determining the fate of one-carbon units, to formate or CO2. During cobalamin deficiency in rats the disposition of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate carbon is shifted in favor of formate production. This may represent a mechanism to generate more one-carbon units for the replenishment of the S

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation of the corrective actions and site closure activities implemented at CAU 367. A corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions was completed at each of the three crater CASs (10-45-01, 10-45-02, and 10-45-03); corrective actions were not required at CAS 10-09-03. In addition, a limited soil removal corrective action was conducted at the location of a potential source material release. Based on completion of these correction actions, no additional corrective action is required at CAU 367, and site closure is considered complete. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 2010 through March 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of non-test or other releases (e.g., migration in washes and potential source material). Based on the proximity of the Uncle, Ess, and Sedan craters, the impact of the Sedan test on the fallout deposited from the two earlier tests, and aerial radiological surveys, the CAU 367 investigation was designed to study the releases from the three crater CASs as one combined release (primary release). Corrective Action Site 10-09-03, Mud Pit, consists of two mud pits identified at CAU 367. The mud pits are considered non-test releases or other releases and were investigated independent of the three crater CASs. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 367 dataset of

  17. Record of Technical Change No.2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.''

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements

  19. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Findlay

    2006-09-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell email = campbek@nv.doe.gov

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  1. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wolock, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L-1. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities

  2. An integrated nuclear reactor unit for a floating low capacity nuclear power plant designed for power supply in remote areas with difficult access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achkasov, A.N.; Grechko, G.I.; Gladkov, O.G.; Pavlov, V.L.; Pepa, V.N.; Shishkin, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the conceptual design of an integrated advanced safety nuclear reactor unit for a low capacity floating, NPP designed for power supply in areas which are remote with difficult access. The paper describes the major structural and lay-out components of the steam generator and reactor units with main technical characteristics. (author)

  3. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  4. Electrical Stimulation During Gait Promotes Increase of Muscle Cross-sectional Area in Quadriplegics: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Alberto; Rondina, Jane Maryan; Cendes, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Increases in muscular cross-sectional area (CSA) occur in quadriplegics after training, but the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) along with training are unknown. Thus, we addressed two questions: (1) Does NMES during treadmill gait training increase the quadriceps CSA in complete quadriplegics?; and (2) Is treadmill gait training alone enough to observe an increase in CSA? Fifteen quadriplegics were divided into gait (n = 8) and control (n = 7) groups. The gait group performed training with NMES for 6 months twice a week for 20 minutes each time. After 6 months of traditional therapy, the control group received the same gait training protocol but without NMES for an additional 6 months. Axial images of the thigh were acquired at the beginning of the study, at 6 months (for both groups), and at 12 months for the control group to determine the average quadriceps CSA. After 6 months, there was an increase of CSA in the gait group (from 49.8 ± 9.4 cm2 to 57.3 ± 10.3 cm2), but not in the control group (from 43.6 ± 7.6 cm2 to 41.8 ± 8.4 cm2). After another 6 months of gait without NMES in the control group, the CSA did not change (from 41.8 ± 8.4 cm2 to 41.7 ± 7.9 cm2). The increase in quadriceps CSA after gait training in patients with chronic complete quadriplegia appears associated with NMES. PMID:18791775

  5. Association between silent embolic cerebral infarction and continuous increase of P2Y12 reaction units after neurovascular stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Joon; Kwon, Joo Y; Jung, Jin-Man; Lee, Deok Hee; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S; Kwon, Sun U

    2014-10-01

    Endovascular procedures are one of the important treatment options for steno-occlusive arteries in ischemic stroke patients. However, embolic complications after such procedures are always a concern. The authors investigated the association between serial change of residual platelet reactivity and silent embolic cerebral infarction (SECI) after endovascular treatment. Ischemic stroke patients undergoing stenting of intra- or extracranial arteries were recruited prospectively. Residual platelet reactivity, represented by aspirin reaction units (ARUs) and P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs), was measured serially (6 hours before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the procedure). A loading dosage of aspirin (500 mg) and/or clopidogrel (300 mg) was given 24 hours before the procedure to patients naïve to antiplatelet agents, whereas the usual dosage (aspirin 100 mg and clopidogrel 75 mg) was continued for patients who had previously been taking these agents for more than a week. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed before and 24 hours after the procedure to detect new SECIs. Clinical characteristics, baseline ARU and PRU values, and the change in ARU and PRU values after stenting were compared between patients with and without SECIs. Among 69 consecutive patients who underwent neurovascular stent insertion, 41 patients (59.4%) had poststenting SECIs. The lesion was located only at the vascular territory of the stented vessel in 21 patients (51.2%), outside the stented vessel territory in 8 patients (19.5%), and both inside and outside in 12 patients (29.3%). The occurrence of SECIs was not associated with the baseline ARU or PRU value, but was associated with PRU increase after stenting (36 ± 73 vs -12 ± 59, p = 0.007), deployment of a longer stent (31.1 ± 16.5 mm vs 21.8 ± 9.9 mm, p = 0.01), and stent insertion in extracranial arteries (78.1% vs 45.2%, p = 0.008). Stent length (OR 1.066, p = 0.01) and PRU change (OR 1.009, p = 0.04) were independently associated with

  6. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; Stock, W.D.; Hedderson, T.

    2009-01-01

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar δ 15 N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha -1 a -1 since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa

  7. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  9. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  10. Stimulation of the ventral tegmental area increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased spinal dorsal horn neuronal activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Ling; Sibi, Jiny E; Yang, Xiaofei; Chiao, Jung-Chih; Peng, Yuan Bo

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been found to be effective in relieving intractable pain. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a role not only in the reward process, but also in the modulation of nociception. Lesions of VTA result in increased pain thresholds and exacerbate pain in several pain models. It is hypothesized that direct activation of VTA will reduce pain experience. In this study, we investigated the effect of direct electrical stimulation of the VTA on mechanical, thermal and carrageenan-induced chemical nociceptive thresholds in Sprague-Dawley rats using our custom-designed wireless stimulator. We found that: (1) VTA stimulation itself did not show any change in mechanical or thermal threshold; and (2) the decreased mechanical and thermal thresholds induced by carrageenan injection in the hind paw contralateral to the stimulation site were significantly reversed by VTA stimulation. To further explore the underlying mechanism of VTA stimulation-induced analgesia, spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal responses to graded mechanical stimuli were recorded. VTA stimulation significantly inhibited dorsal horn neuronal activity in response to pressure and pinch from the paw, but not brush. This indicated that VTA stimulation may have exerted its analgesic effect via descending modulatory pain pathways, possibly through its connections with brain stem structures and cerebral cortex areas.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 539: Area 25 and Area 26 Railroad Tracks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 539, Areas 25 and 26 Railroad Tracks, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A modification to the FFACOwas approved in May 2010 to transfer the two Railroad Tracks corrective action sites (CASs) from CAU 114 into CAU539. The two CASs are located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-21, Area 25 Railroad Tracks • 26-99-05, Area 26 Railroad Tracks This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of the CAU 539 Railroad Tracks CASs using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation should support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 14, 2009, by representatives of U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, LLC (NNES); and National Security Technologies

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to CAS 23-02-08. The scope of the corrective action investigation

  13. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and surrounding area Amarillo, Texas. Date of survey: October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.

    1981-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and Pantex Lake areas in October, 1979. The Pantex Plant survey covered an area of approximately 64 km 2 . The Pantex Lake survey area was approximately 2 km 2 . Both areas were surveyed at an altitude of 46 m (150 feet) with lines spaced at 91 m (300 foot) intervals. Several passes were also made over the shipping areas at the Amarillo International Airport. An array of sodium iodide detectors were mounted in a helicopter to collect gamma ray spectral data. As expected, the spectral data indicated the presence of several areas containing man-made sources

  14. Occurrence and Environmental Effects of Boscalid and Other Fungicides in Three Targeted Use Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T. J.; Smalling, K. L.; Wilson, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fungicides are typically used to control the outbreak of persistent, historically significant plant diseases like late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans and responsible for the Irish Potato famine of 1846) and newer plant diseases like Asian Soy Rust, both of which are potentially devastating if not controlled. Of the more than 67,000 pesticide products currently registered for use in the United States, over 3,600 are used to combat fungal diseases. Although they are widely used, relatively little is known about the fate and potential secondary effects of fungicides in the aquatic environment. Even less is known about the fate and environmental occurrence of recently registered fungicides including boscalid, which was first registered for use in the US in 2003. Unlike most other pesticides, multiple fungicides are typically applied as a prophylactic crop protectant upwards of ten times per season (depending upon conditions and crop type), but at lower application rates than herbicides or insecticides. This difference in usage increases the likelihood of chronic exposure of aquatic ecosystems to low concentrations of fungicides. Using a newly developed analytical method, the U.S. Geological Survey measured 33 fungicides in surface water and shallow groundwater in three geographic areas of intense fungicide use across the US. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of the crop type and their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters (n=60) and 58% of the groundwater (n=12) samples. Twelve fungicides were detected in surface- and groundwater including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid was the most frequently detected pesticide and has not been previously documented in the aquatic environment. In this study, an average of 44% of the pesticide concentration in a water sample

  15. Area- and depth- weighted averages of selected SSURGO variables for the conterminous United States and District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This digital data release consists of seven data files of soil attributes for the United States and the District of Columbia. The files are derived from National Resources Conservations Service’s (NRCS) Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). The data files can be linked to the raster datasets of soil mapping unit identifiers (MUKEY) available through the NRCS’s Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) database (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/geo/?cid=nrcs142p2_053628). The associated files, named DRAINAGECLASS, HYDRATING, HYDGRP, HYDRICCONDITION, LAYER, TEXT, and WTDEP are area- and depth-weighted average values for selected soil characteristics from the SSURGO database for the conterminous United States and the District of Columbia. The SSURGO tables were acquired from the NRCS on March 5, 2014. The soil characteristics in the DRAINAGE table are drainage class (DRNCLASS), which identifies the natural drainage conditions of the soil and refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods. The soil characteristics in the HYDRATING table are hydric rating (HYDRATE), a yes/no field that indicates whether or not a map unit component is classified as a "hydric soil". The soil characteristics in the HYDGRP table are the percentages for each hydrologic group per MUKEY. The soil characteristics in the HYDRICCONDITION table are hydric condition (HYDCON), which describes the natural condition of the soil component. The soil characteristics in the LAYER table are available water capacity (AVG_AWC), bulk density (AVG_BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KSAT), vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KV), soil erodibility factor (AVG_KFACT), porosity (AVG_POR), field capacity (AVG_FC), the soil fraction passing a number 4 sieve (AVG_NO4), the soil fraction passing a number 10 sieve (AVG_NO10), the soil fraction passing a number 200 sieve (AVG_NO200), and organic matter (AVG_OM). The soil characteristics in the TEXT table are

  16. Geological studies of the COST No. B-3 Well, United States Mid-Atlantic continental slope area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1980-01-01

    The COST No. B-3 well is the first deep stratigraphic test to be drilled on the Continental Slope off the Eastern United States. The well was drilled in 2,686 ft (819 m) of water in the Baltimore Canyon trough area to a total depth of 15,820 ft (4,844 m) below the drill platform. It penetrated a section composed of mudstones, calcareous mudstones, and limestones of generally deep water origin to a depth of about 8.200 ft (2,500 m) below the drill floor. Light-colored, medium- to coarse-grained sandstones with intercalated gray and brown shales, micritic limestones, and minor coal and dolomite predominate from about 8,200 to 12,300 ft (2,500 to 3,750 m). From about 12,300 ft (3,750 m) to the bottom, the section consists of limestones (including oolitic and intraclastic grainstones) with interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstones, dark-colored fissile shales, and numerous coal seams. Biostratigraphic examination has shown that the section down to approximately 6,000 ft (1,830 m) is Tertiary. The boundary between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous sections is placed between 8,600 and 9,200 ft (2,620 and 2,800 m) by various workers. Placement of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary shows an even greater range based on different organisms; it is placed variously between 12,250 and 13,450 ft (3,730 and 5,000 m). The oldest unit penetrated in the well is considered to be Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) by some workers and Middle Jurassic (Callovian) by others. The Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic parts of the section represent nonmarine to shallow-marine shelf sedimentation. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary units reflect generally deeper water conditions at the B-3 well site and show a general transition from deposition at shelf to slope water depths. Examination of cores, well cuttings, and electric logs indicates that potential hydrocarbon-reservoir units are present throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous section. Porous and moderately permeable limestones and sandstones have been

  17. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafason, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection[NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Decontamination Facility is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254. CAU 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site and consists of a single Corrective Action Site CAS 25-23-06. CAU 254 will be closed, in accordance with the FFACO of 1996. CAU 254 was used primarily to perform radiological decontamination and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding soil within an existing perimeter fence. The site was used to decontaminate nuclear rocket test-car hardware and tooling from the early 1960s through the early 1970s, and to decontaminate a military tank in the early 1980s. The site characterization results indicate that, in places, the surficial soil and building materials exceed clean-up criteria for organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides. Closure activities are expected to generate waste streams consisting of nonhazardous construction waste. petroleum hydrocarbon waste, hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Some of the wastes exceed land disposal restriction limits and will require off-site treatment before disposal. The recommended corrective action was revised to Alternative 3- ''Unrestricted Release Decontamination, Verification Survey, and Dismantle Building 3126,'' in an addendum to the Correction Action Decision Document

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 539: Areas 25 and 26 Railroad Tracks Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauss, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 539: Areas 25 and 26 Railroad Tracks, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 539 are located within Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 539 comprises the following CASs: (1) 25-99-21, Area 25 Railroad Tracks; and (2) 26-99-05, Area 26 Railroad Tracks The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 539 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: (1) Reviewed documentation on historical and current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination; (2) Conducted radiological walkover surveys of railroad tracks in both Areas 25 and 26; (3) Collected ballast and soil samples and calculated internal dose estimates for radiological releases; (4) Collected in situ thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements and calculated external dose estimates for radiological releases; (5) Removed lead bricks as potential source material (PSM) and collected verification samples; (6) Implemented corrective actions as necessary to protect human health and the environment; (7) Properly disposed of corrective action and investigation wastes; and (8) Implemented an FFACO use restriction (UR) for radiological contamination at CAS 25-99-21. The approved UR form and map are provided in Appendix F and will be filed in the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Facility Information Management System; the FFACO database; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. From

  4. Age class, longevity and growth rate relationships: protracted growth increases in old trees in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Abrams, Marc D

    2009-11-01

    This study uses data from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank website and tree cores collected in the field to explore growth rate (basal area increment, BAI) relationships across age classes (from young to old) for eight tree species in the eastern US. These species represent a variety of ecological traits and include those in the genera Populus, Quercus, Pinus, Tsuga and Nyssa. We found that most trees in all age classes and species exhibit an increasing BAI throughout their lives. This is particularly unusual for trees in the older age classes that we expected to have declining growth in the later years, as predicted by physiological growth models. There exists an inverse relationship between growth rate and increasing age class. The oldest trees within each species have consistently slow growth throughout their lives, implying an inverse relationship between growth rate and longevity. Younger trees (trees when they are of the same age resulting from a higher proportion of fast-growing trees in these young age classes. Slow, but increasing, BAI in the oldest trees in recent decades is a continuation of their growth pattern established in previous centuries. The fact that they have not shown a decreasing growth rate in their old age contradicts physiological growth models and may be related to the stimulatory effects of global change phenomenon (climate and land-use history).

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan provides the details for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area. CAU 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. One Corrective Action Site (CAS) is included in CAU 408: (lg b ullet) CAS TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, process knowledge, site visits, aerial photography, multispectral data, preliminary geophysical surveys, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), clean closure will be implemented for CAU 408. CAU 408 closure activities will consist of identification and clearance of bomblet target areas, identification and removal of depleted uranium (DU) fragments on South Antelope Lake, and collection of verification samples. Any soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels will be excavated and transported to an appropriate disposal facility. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include explosives. In addition, at South Antelope Lake, bomblets containing DU were tested. None of these contaminants is expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results. The corrective action investigation and closure activities have been planned to include data collection and hold points throughout the process. Hold points are designed to allow decision makers to review the existing data and decide which of the available options are most suitable. Hold points include the review of radiological, geophysical, and analytical data and field observations

  6. A method exploiting direct communication between phasor measurement units for power system wide-area protection and control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib; Vanfretti, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Synchrophasor measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are the primary sensors used to deploy Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems. PMUs stream out synchrophasor measurements through the IEEE C37.118.2 protocol using TCP/IP or UDP/IP. The proposed method establishes a direct communication between two PMUs, thus eliminating the requirement of an intermediate phasor data concentrator, data mediator and/or protocol parser and thereby ensuring minimum communication latency without considering communication link delays. This method allows utilizing synchrophasor measurements internally in a PMU to deploy custom protection and control algorithms. These algorithms are deployed using protection logic equations which are supported by all the PMU vendors. Moreover, this method reduces overall equipment cost as the algorithms execute internally in a PMU and therefore does not require any additional controller for their deployment. The proposed method can be utilized for fast prototyping of wide-area measurements based protection and control applications. The proposed method is tested by coupling commercial PMUs as Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) with Opal-RT's eMEGAsim Real-Time Simulator (RTS). As illustrative example, anti-islanding protection application is deployed using proposed method and its performance is assessed. The essential points in the method are: •Bypassing intermediate phasor data concentrator or protocol parsers as the synchrophasors are communicated directly between the PMUs (minimizes communication delays).•Wide Area Protection and Control Algorithm is deployed using logic equations in the client PMU, therefore eliminating the requirement for an external hardware controller (cost curtailment)•Effortless means to exploit PMU measurements in an environment familiar to protection engineers.

  7. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  8. [Effects of stimulation of dorso-medial area of nucleus facialis on respiration related units in ventro-lateral region of nucleus tractus solitaris in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J X; Liu, L

    1990-10-01

    In urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized and paralyzed rabbits, effects of electrical stimulation of the dorso-medial area of the nucleus facialis (DMNF) on the respiration-related units (RRUs) in ventro-lateral region of nucleus tractus solitaris (VLNTS) were observed. The experimental results showed that during electrical stimulation of DMNF the majority of the inspiratory (I) neurons (64.4%) were increased in frequency and duration of discharge, some to a marked extent. During electrical stimulation of DMNF the expiratory neurons (35%) were decreased in their frequency and duration of discharge, some to a marked extent too. The responses of RRUs in ipsilateral and contralateral VLNTS to stimulation of DMNF was not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). It is suggested that DMNF may have a facilitating effect on the inspiratory neurons and an inhibiting effect on the expiratory neurons in VLNTS.

  9. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06

  10. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason B; Hendrickson, Linzy M; Garwood, Grant M; Toungate, Kelsey M; Nania, Christina V; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3-4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity.

  11. An increase in the cerebral infarction area during fatigue is mediated by il-6 through an induction of fibrinogen synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:Our study aimed to investigate the impact of fatigue on the severity of stroke and to explore the underlying mechanisms.METHODS:Fatigued male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion and the infarcted brain area was determined. Then, coagulation parameters were assessed in the fatigued group and a control group. In addition, the level of fibrinogen was determined in rats deprived of sleep for various numbers of days. To study whether interleukin-6 was involved in fibrinogen synthesis during fatigue, we also measured levels of interleukin-6 in rats deprived of sleep for various numbers of days. Furthermore, brain injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion was measured in wild-type mice, interleukin-6-/- mice and wild-type mice treated with bezafibrate.RESULTS:More severe cerebral infarction was observed in the fatigued rats, resulting in an infarct ratio of 23.4%. The infarct ratio was significantly increased in the fatigued rats compared with that in the control group (8%, p<0.05. The level of fibrinogen was increased significantly in the fatigued rats compared with that in the control group. In addition, a marked reduction in fibrinogen level was observed in the fatigued interleukin-6-/- mice compared to their wild-type counterparts, whereas no difference was observed between fatigued wild-type mice and interleukin-6-/- rats treated with recombinant human interleukin-6. The reduction in brain injury due to middle cerebral artery occlusion during fatigue was observed in interleukin-6-/- mice and wild-type mice treated with bezafibrate.CONCLUSION:Fatigue could increase stroke severity and was associated with the interleukin-6-induced expression of fibrinogen.

  12. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITY NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada

  13. Major limitations to achieving "4 per 1000" increases in soil organic carbon stock in temperate regions: Evidence from long-term experiments at Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Paul; Johnston, Johnny; Macdonald, Andy; White, Rodger; Powlson, David

    2018-01-21

    We evaluated the "4 per 1000" initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in southeast United Kingdom. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on three soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland. In 65% of cases, SOC increases occurred at >7‰ per year in the 0-23 cm depth, approximately equivalent to 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm depth. In the two longest running experiments (>150 years), annual farmyard manure (FYM) applications at 35 t fresh material per hectare (equivalent to approx. 3.2 t organic C/ha/year) gave SOC increases of 18‰ and 43‰ per year in the 23 cm depth during the first 20 years. Increases exceeding 7‰ per year continued for 40-60 years. In other experiments, with FYM applied at lower rates or not every year, there were increases of 3‰-8‰ per year over several decades. Other treatments gave increases between zero and 19‰ per year over various periods. We conclude that there are severe limitations to achieving the "4 per 1000" goal in practical agriculture over large areas. The reasons include (1) farmers not having the necessary resources (e.g. insufficient manure); (2) some, though not all, practices favouring SOC already widely adopted; (3) practices uneconomic for farmers-potentially overcome by changes in regulations or subsidies; (4) practices undesirable for global food security. We suggest it is more realistic to promote practices for increasing SOC based on improving soil quality and functioning as small increases can have disproportionately large beneficial impacts, though not necessarily translating into increased crop yield

  14. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  15. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Samji

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United States (U.S. and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000-2007 in the U.S. and Canada.Participants were from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD, aged ≥20 years and on ART. Mortality rates were calculated using participants' person-time from January 1, 2000 or ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, or administrative censoring December 31, 2007. Life expectancy at age 20, defined as the average number of additional years that a person of a specific age will live, provided the current age-specific mortality rates remain constant, was estimated using abridged life tables.The crude mortality rate was 19.8/1,000 person-years, among 22,937 individuals contributing 82,022 person-years and 1,622 deaths. Life expectancy increased from 36.1 [standard error (SE 0.5] to 51.4 [SE 0.5] years from 2000-2002 to 2006-2007. Men and women had comparable life expectancies in all periods except the last (2006-2007. Life expectancy was lower for individuals with a history of injection drug use, non-whites, and in patients with baseline CD4 counts <350 cells/mm(3.A 20-year-old HIV-positive adult on ART in the U.S. or Canada is expected to live into their early 70 s, a life expectancy approaching that of the general population. Differences by sex, race, HIV transmission risk group, and CD4 count remain.

  16. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  17. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  18. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Wan-Fen; Hsu, Ling-I; Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Sun, Chien-Wen; Chen, Wei J.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  19. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions. Copyright © 2012

  20. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  1. Corrective action investigation plan for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Corrective Action Unit 407, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. CAUs consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 407, the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) which is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 km (140 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU No. 407 is comprised of only one CAS (TA-23-001-TARC). The RCRSA was used during May and June 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The surface and subsurface soils are likely to have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) associated with decontamination activities at this site. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: identify the presence and nature of COPCs; determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS

  2. Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 91: Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well with Errata Sheet and Certification, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    The closure report for CAU 91 has no Use Restriction Form or drawing/map included in the document to describe the use restricted area, however, Section 3.3.3 states that the site will be fenced and signage placed indicating the area as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Unit. The drawing that was placed in the FFACO indicating the use restricted area lists the coordinates for the RCRA Unit in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. In the ensuing years the reporting of coordinates has been standardized so that all coordinates are reported in the same manner, which is: NAD 27 UTM Zone 11 N, meters. This Errata Sheet updates the coordinate reporting to the currently accepted method and includes an aerial photo showing the RCRA Unit with the coordinates listed showing the use restricted area.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 561 is located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 22, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 561 is comprised of the 10 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 561. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the Corrective Action Investigation for CAU 561 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct

  4. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso Aller

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones and two unprotected (open-access sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania. We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  5. Increased population density of neurosurgeons associated with decreased risk of death from motor vehicle accidents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Atman; Bekelis, Kimon; Zhao, Wenyan; Ball, Perry A

    2012-09-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are a leading cause of death and disability in young people. Given that a major cause of death from MVAs is traumatic brain injury, and neurosurgeons hold special expertise in this area relative to other members of a trauma team, the authors hypothesized that neurosurgeon population density would be related to reduced mortality from MVAs across US counties. The Area Resource File (2009-2010), a national health resource information database, was retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome variable was the 3-year (2004-2006) average in MVA deaths per million population for each county. The primary independent variable was the density of neurosurgeons per million population in the year 2006. Multiple regression analysis was performed, adjusting for population density of general practitioners, urbanicity of the county, and socioeconomic status of the county. The median number of annual MVA deaths per million population, in the 3141 counties analyzed, was 226 (interquartile range [IQR] 151-323). The median number of neurosurgeons per million population was 0 (IQR 0-0), while the median number of general practitioners per million population was 274 (IQR 175-410). Using an unadjusted analysis, each increase of 1 neurosurgeon per million population was associated with 1.90 fewer MVA deaths per million population (p neurosurgeon per million population was associated with 1.01 fewer MVA deaths per million population (p neurosurgeons is associated with a significant reduction in deaths from MVAs, a major cause of death nationally. This suggests that the availability of local neurosurgeons is an important factor in the overall likelihood of survival from an MVA, and therefore indicates the importance of promoting neurosurgical education and practice throughout the country.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document

  7. Embedding an enriched environment in an acute stroke unit increases activity in people with stroke: a controlled before-after pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbergen, Ingrid Cm; Grimley, Rohan S; Hayward, Kathryn S; Walker, Katrina C; Rowley, Donna; Campbell, Alana M; McGufficke, Suzanne; Robertson, Samantha T; Trinder, Janelle; Janssen, Heidi; Brauer, Sandra G

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether an enriched environment embedded in an acute stroke unit could increase activity levels in acute stroke patients and reduce adverse events. Controlled before-after pilot study. An acute stroke unit in a regional Australian hospital. Acute stroke patients admitted during (a) initial usual care control period, (b) an enriched environment period and (c) a sustainability period. Usual care participants received usual one-on-one allied health intervention and nursing care. The enriched environment participants were provided stimulating resources, communal areas for eating and socializing and daily group activities. Change management strategies were used to implement an enriched environment within existing staffing levels. Behavioural mapping was used to estimate patient activity levels across groups. Participants were observed every 10 minutes between 7.30 am and 7.30 pm within the first 10 days after stroke. Adverse and serious adverse events were recorded using a clinical registry. The enriched environment group ( n = 30, mean age 76.7 ± 12.1) spent a significantly higher proportion of their day engaged in 'any' activity (71% vs. 58%, P = 0.005) compared to the usual care group ( n = 30, mean age 76.0 ± 12.8). They were more active in physical (33% vs. 22%, P social (40% vs. 29%, P = 0.007) and cognitive domains (59% vs. 45%, P = 0.002) and changes were sustained six months post implementation. The enriched group experienced significantly fewer adverse events (0.4 ± 0.7 vs.1.3 ± 1.6, P = 0.001), with no differences found in serious adverse events (0.5 ± 1.6 vs.1.0 ± 2.0, P = 0.309). Embedding an enriched environment in an acute stroke unit increased activity in stroke patients.

  8. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang [The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole MA USA; Zhou, Yuyu [Departments of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA USA; Liu, Yaling [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park MD USA; Le Page, Yannick [Department Tapada da Ajuda, Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon Portugal

    2017-08-08

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700–2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001–2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 366 comprises the six corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-08-01, Contaminated Waste Dump No.1; (2) 11-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2; (3) 11-23-01, Radioactively Contaminated Area A; (4) 11-23-02, Radioactively Contaminated Area B; (5) 11-23-03, Radioactively Contaminated Area C; and (6) 11-23-04, Radioactively Contaminated Area D. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 366. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 366 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the total effective dose (TED) at sample locations to the dose-based final action level (FAL). The TED will be calculated by summing the estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples collected from sample plots will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. Based on historical documentation of the releases

  10. Inactivation of the Lateral Entorhinal Area Increases the Influence of Visual Cues on Hippocampal Place Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Scaplen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is important for both navigation and associative learning. We previously showed that the hippocampus processes two-dimensional (2D landmarks and objects differently. Our findings suggested that landmarks are more likely to be used for orientation and navigation, whereas objects are more likely to be used for associative learning. The process by which cues are recognized as relevant for navigation or associative learning, however, is an open question. Presumably both spatial and nonspatial information are necessary for classifying cues as landmarks or objects. The lateral entorhinal area (LEA is a good candidate for participating in this process as it is implicated in the processing of three-dimensional (3D objects and object location. Because the LEA is one synapse upstream of the hippocampus and processes both spatial and nonspatial information, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the LEA modulates how the hippocampus uses 2D landmarks and objects. To test this hypothesis, we temporarily inactivated the LEA ipsilateral to the dorsal hippocampal recording site using fluorophore-conjugated muscimol (FCM 30 min prior to three foraging sessions in which either the 2D landmark or the 2D object was back-projected to the floor of an open field. Prior to the second session we rotated the 2D cue by 90°. Cues were returned to the original configuration for the third session. Compared to the Saline treatment, FCM inactivation increased the percentage of rotation responses to manipulations of the landmark cue, but had no effect on information content of place fields. In contrast, FCM inactivation increased information content of place fields in the presence of the object cue, but had no effect on rotation responses to the object cue. Thus, LEA inactivation increased the influence of visual cues on hippocampal activity, but the impact was qualitatively different for cues that are useful for navigation vs. cues that may not be useful for

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 90: Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 90, Area 2 Bitcutter Containment, is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' of 1996. The post-closure requirements for CAU 90 are described in Section VII.B.8.b of the Nevada Test Site ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Number NEV HW0021, dated November 2005. Post-closure activities consist of the following: Semiannual inspections of the site using inspection checklists; Photographic documentation; Field note documentation; and Preparation and submittal of an annual Post-Closure Inspection Report. This annual report covers the pe