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  1. "Living Apart Together": Relationships in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Strohm

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We use two surveys to describe the demographic and attitudinal correlates of being in "Living Apart Together" (LAT, cohabiting, and marital relationships for heterosexuals, lesbians, and gay men. About one third of U.S. adults not married or cohabiting are in LAT relationships - these individuals would be classified as "single" in conventional studies that focus on residential unions. Gay men are somewhat more likely than heterosexual men to be in LAT relationships. For heterosexuals and lesbians, LAT relationships are more common among younger people. Heterosexuals in LAT unions are less likely to expect to marry their partners, but more likely to say that couples should be emotionally dependent than are cohabiters. Regardless of sexual orientation, people in LAT relationships perceive similar amounts of emotional support from partners, but less instrumental support than cohabiters perceive.

  2. Teasing Apart Complex Motions using VideoPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mark

    2002-10-01

    Using video analysis software such as VideoPoint, it is possible to explore the physics of any phenomenon that can be captured on videotape. The good news is that complex motions can be filmed and analyzed. The bad news is that the motions can become very complex very quickly. An example of such a complicated motion, the 2-dimensional motion of an object as filmed by a camera that is moving and rotating in the same plane will be discussed. Methods for extracting the desired object motion will be given as well as suggestions for shooting more easily analyzable video clips.

  3. Strategy for introduction of rainwater management facility considering rainfall event applied on new apartment complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, H.; Lee, D. K.; Yoo, S.

    2014-12-01

    As regional torrential rains become frequent due to climate change, urban flooding happens very often. That is why it is necessary to prepare for integrated measures against a wide range of rainfall. This study proposes introduction of effective rainwater management facilities to maximize the rainwater runoff reductions and recover natural water circulation for unpredictable extreme rainfall in apartment complex scale. The study site is new apartment complex in Hanam located in east of Seoul, Korea. It has an area of 7.28ha and is analysed using the EPA-SWMM and STORM model. First, it is analyzed that green infrastructure(GI) had efficiency of flood reduction at the various rainfall events and soil characteristics, and then the most effective value of variables are derived. In case of rainfall event, Last 10 years data of 15 minutes were used for analysis. A comparison between A(686mm rainfall during 22days) and B(661mm/4days) knew that soil infiltration of A is 17.08% and B is 5.48% of the rainfall. Reduction of runoff after introduction of the GI of A is 24.76% and B is 6.56%. These results mean that GI is effective to small rainfall intensity, and artificial rainwater retarding reservoir is needed at extreme rainfall. Second, set of target year is conducted for the recovery of hydrological cycle at the predevelopment. And an amount of infiltration, evaporation, surface runoff of the target year and now is analysed on the basis of land coverage, and an arrangement of LID facilities. Third, rainwater management scenarios are established and simulated by the SWMM-LID. Rainwater management facilities include GI(green roof, porous pavement, vegetative swale, ecological pond, and raingarden), and artificial rainwater. Design scenarios are categorized five type: 1)no GI, 2)conventional GI design(current design), 3)intensive GI design, 4)GI design+rainwater retarding reservoir 5)maximized rainwater retarding reservoir. Intensive GI design is to have attribute value to

  4. The Effectiveness of an Electronic Security Management System in a Privately Owned Apartment Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David F.; Roush, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Poisson and negative binomial regression methods are used to analyze the monthly time series data to determine the effects of introducing an integrated security management system including closed-circuit television (CCTV), door alarm monitoring, proximity card access, and emergency call boxes to a large privately-owned complex of apartment…

  5. Understanding strain transfer and basin evolution complexities in the Salton pull-apart basin near the Southern San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, A. M.; Sahakian, V. J.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Baskin, R. L.; Barth, M.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Active source seismic data in the Salton Sea provide insight into the complexity of the pull-apart system development. Seismic reflection data combined with tomographic cross sections give constraints on the timing of basin development and strain partitioning between the two dominant dextral faults in the region; the Imperial fault to the southwest and the Southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) to the northeast. Deformation associated with this step-over appears young, having formed in the last 20-40 k.a. The complexity seen in the Salton Sea is similar to that seen in pull-apart basins worldwide. In the southern basin of the Salton Sea, a zone of transpression is noted near the southern termination of the San Andreas fault, though this stress regime quickly transitions to a region of transtension in the northern reaches of the sea. The evolution seen in the basin architecture is likely related to a transition of the SSAF dying to the north, and giving way to youthful segments of the Brawley seismic zone and Imperial fault. Stratigraphic signatures seen in seismic cross-sections also reveal a long-term component of slip to the southwest on a fault 1-2 km west of the northeastern Salton Sea shoreline. Numerous lines of evidence, including seismic reflection data, high-resolution bathymetry within the Salton Sea, and folding patterns in the Borrego Formation to the east of the sea support an assertion of a previously unmapped fault, the Salton Trough fault (STF), parallel to the SAF and just offshore within the Salton Sea. Seismic observations are seen consistently within two datasets of varying vertical resolutions, up to depths of 4-5 km, suggesting that this fault strand is much longer-lived than the evolution seen in the southern sub-basin. The existence of the STF unifies discrepancies between the onshore seismic studies and data collected within the sea. The STF likely serves as the current bounding fault to the active pull-apart system, as it aligns with the "rung

  6. Stand Together or Apart: A Thematic Unit for "The Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Lisa

    This thematic unit is all about what a classic novel about race relations in the 1930s American South, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and a frequently banned contemporary teen story about a candy sale, "The Chocolate War," have in common. The unit considers what people have in common, what it means to stand apart, and what…

  7. The Igbo People of Nigeria as Seen Through "Things Fall Apart" by Chinua Achebe. An Instructional Unit for Tenth Grade English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Odessa B.

    This teaching guide is intended to aid tenth grade English classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on the Igbo-speaking people of Nigeria. The source material for this unit is "Things Fall Apart," by Chinua Achebe. The guide is a product of an interdisciplinary summer workshop for teachers on development of…

  8. Exploration of the burial apartments in tomb complex AS 68. Preliminary report of the 2013 fall season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Vymazalová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the tomb complex of king’s daughter Sheretnebty, which was discovered in 2012, continued in the archaeological season of 2013. In October–November, the work concentrated on the underground parts of the tombs, including the burial shafts and burial chambers. In tomb AS 68c, two shafts were unusually deep; at a depth of 11.00 m under the ground the burial chambers of a man and a woman had been hewn. The man’s chamber contained a large sarcophagus of fine limestone and the remains of his burial and his tomb equipment, while the woman’s chamber remained largely unfinished and contained her rather simple burial placed on the floor. The so far discovered evidence indicates that this was the burial of Princess Sheretnebty. Another four shafts in the tomb contained four other burials of a female and three males, most probably the couple’s descendants. In addition, the shafts in the two western rock-cut tombs were explored. In the tomb of Shepespuptah (AS 68b, a single shaft was dug in the tomb’s chapel, while the tomb owner was buried in a burial chamber south of the chapel. The shaft in the chapel was large but reached only 1.40 m deep and was never finished and never used for burial. The two shafts in the tomb of Duaptah (AS 68a revealed the burials of two men; the southern shaft belonged to Duaptah himself while the northern shaft to a certain Nefermin. The burials were mostly very simple, and all of them were disturbed by tomb robbers. The preserved bones might, however, still reveal important details about the individuals buried in the rock-cut tombs, and they will therefore be studied in order to trace the family relationships among the tomb owners.

  9. Electromagnetic driving units for complex microrobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Frank; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Berg, Udo; Degen, Reinhard; Schmitz, Felix

    1998-10-01

    Electromagnetic actuators play an important role in macroscopic robotic systems. In combination with motion transformers, like reducing gear units, angular gears or spindle-screw drives, electromagnetic motors in large product lines ensure the rotational or linear motion of robot driving units and grippers while electromagnets drive valves or part conveyors. In this paper micro actuators and miniaturized motion transformers are introduced which allow a similar development in microrobotics. An electromagnetic motor and a planetary gear box, both with a diameter of 1.9 mm, are already commercially available from the cooperation partner of IMM, the company Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH in Schonaich, Germany. In addition, a motor with a diameter of 2.4 mm is in development. The motors successfully drive an angular gear and a belt drive. A linear stage with a motion range of 7 mm and an overall size as small as 5 X 3.5 X 24 mm3 has been realized involving the motor, a stationary spur gear with zero backlash and a spindle-screw drive. By the use of these commercially available elements complex microrobots can be built up cost-efficiently and rapidly. Furthermore, a batch process has been developed to produce the coils of micro actuator arrays using lithographic techniques with SU-8 resin. In applying these components, the modular construction of complex microrobotic systems becomes feasible.

  10. Things Come Together with "Things Fall Apart."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhr, Kathleen M.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using C. Achebe's English language novel, "Things Fall Apart," in a unit on tragedy. Provides plot summary and topics for discussion of cultural values and socialization. Notes that besides illustrating character traits, themes and plot structure of the tragic genre, the novel provides an opportunity for learning Nigerian…

  11. Complexity Leadership Theory: A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    DD-MM-YYYY) 23-04-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complexity...Monograph Title : Complexity Leadership Theory : A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay Approved by...General Ridgway’s Success in Korea.” Master’s thesis , United States Army Command and General Staff College, 2010. Diana, Gabriel. “Vision, Education

  12. Teaching Ethics with Apartment Leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerenke, Paula J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a corporate-communications class in which students examine the design and the language of their apartment leases. Discusses how this assignment teaches students about the Plain English laws and the need for plain English in leases and in ethics. (SR)

  13. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content ...

  14. Complexity estimates based on integral transforms induced by computational units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, September (2012), s. 160-167 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : neural networks * estimates of model complexity * approximation from a dictionary * integral transforms * norms induced by computational units Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2012

  15. Taking the Copenhagen Process apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    that the Copenhagen Process has legitimately extended vocational education and training policy formation to include the EU and its new institutional settings established through the Open Method of Coordination. Furthermore, vocational education and training is being reconfigured within a neoliberal Lifelong Learning......The aim of this thesis is to analyse the EU vocational education and training policy process (The Copenhagen Process) from a critical perspective based on the policy analysis methodology, “What’s the Problem Represented to Be?” (WPR) developed by Professor Carol Bacchi. The main research question...... “How can the European vocational education and training policy process - the Copenhagen Process - be understood from a WPR perspective? “ is addressed in six articles which take apart the Copenhagen Process and deal with specific WPR questions and specific aspects of the Copenhagen Process...

  16. Working apart together: foundations for component groupware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hofte, H.; ter Hofte, Gerard Henri

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is the culmination of five years of Working Apart Together. As a research theme, it struck me in 1993 that Working Apart Together was not only a way of working that groupware systems were designed to support, but also a principle that could be applied within the groupware systems

  17. Defining and Assessing Chinese Syntactic Complexity via TC-Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaona

    2016-01-01

    The triad dimensions of complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) has been widely used for assessing second language performance and development. Unlike accuracy and fluency, the construct of Chinese syntactic complexity has not been comprehensibly conceptualized or operationalized. Moreover, not tailored to the typological differences such as the…

  18. Lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Dooley, Tim P.

    2015-11-01

    We present here the results of the first lithospheric-scale centrifuge models of pull-apart basins. The experiments simulate relative displacement of two lithospheric blocks along two offset master faults, with the presence of a weak zone in the offset area localising deformation during strike-slip displacement. Reproducing the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere system provides boundary conditions that are more realistic than the horizontal detachment in traditional 1 g experiments and thus provide a better approximation of the dynamic evolution of natural pull-apart basins. Model results show that local extension in the pull-apart basins is accommodated through development of oblique-slip faulting at the basin margins and cross-basin faults obliquely cutting the rift depression. As observed in previous modelling studies, our centrifuge experiments suggest that the angle of offset between the master fault segments is one of the most important parameters controlling the architecture of pull-apart basins: the basins are lozenge shaped in the case of underlapping master faults, lazy-Z shaped in case of neutral offset and rhomboidal shaped for overlapping master faults. Model cross sections show significant along-strike variations in basin morphology, with transition from narrow V- and U-shaped grabens to a more symmetric, boxlike geometry passing from the basin terminations to the basin centre; a flip in the dominance of the sidewall faults from one end of the basin to the other is observed in all models. These geometries are also typical of 1 g models and characterise several pull-apart basins worldwide. Our models show that the complex faulting in the upper brittle layer corresponds at depth to strong thinning of the ductile layer in the weak zone; a rise of the base of the lithosphere occurs beneath the basin, and maximum lithospheric thinning roughly corresponds to the areas of maximum surface subsidence (i.e., the basin depocentre).

  19. Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2006-06-01

    We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

  20. Newporter Apartments. Deep Energy Retrofit Short Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Auer, Dan [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Clegg, Zach [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost-effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960’s vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  1. Newporter Apartments: Deep Energy Retrofit Short-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.; Howard, L.; Kunkle, R.; Lubliner, M.; Auer, D.; Clegg, Z.

    2012-12-01

    This project demonstrates a path to meet the goal of the Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30% in multi-family buildings. The project demonstrates cost effective energy savings targets as well as improved comfort and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) associated with deep energy retrofits by a large public housing authority as part of a larger rehabilitation effort. The project focuses on a typical 1960's vintage low-rise multi-family apartment community (120 units in three buildings).

  2. Stakeholders and Apart Hotels: Multiple Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kyoko Wada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Means of accommodation involve a wide range of social actors and agents, as well as different business models. Management strategies in this sector have been increasingly important for long-term sustainability and competitiveness of business organizations. This study aims to analyze the interactions between apart-hotels and their stakeholders to foster an improvement of services provided, aligning the interface of strategic management from the point of view of managers and their key stakeholders. It is an exploratory study, with qualitative chacter, along with multiple case studies of the following establishments: Travel Inn, Hotels Slaviero and Etoile george v. Brazilian enterprises, which manage lodging facilities with apart-hotel concepts, combining features that enable comparative analysis of the study. For conceptual understanding, this study was based on literature about stakeholders, taking the work of Freeman (1984 and Freeman et al (2010 as main references. The research was conducted through semi-structured interviews with managers of lodging facilities and their key stakeholders and through direct observation and documentation. We found that not all groups of influence are considered in the planning of service flats. However, the organizations surveyed indicated that the market has realized the importance of the groups that exert influence and are influenced by their goals, and are therefore increasingly alert for integration of such groups in their strategic planning.

  3. Benchmarking in pathology: development of a benchmarking complexity unit and associated key performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Amanda; Pfeffer, Sally; Burnett, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the development of a new type of pathology laboratory productivity unit, the benchmarking complexity unit (BCU). The BCU provides a comparative index of laboratory efficiency, regardless of test mix. It also enables estimation of a measure of how much complex pathology a laboratory performs, and the identification of peer organisations for the purposes of comparison and benchmarking. The BCU is based on the theory that wage rates reflect productivity at the margin. A weighting factor for the ratio of medical to technical staff time was dynamically calculated based on actual participant site data. Given this weighting, a complexity value for each test, at each site, was calculated. The median complexity value (number of BCUs) for that test across all participating sites was taken as its complexity value for the Benchmarking in Pathology Program. The BCU allowed implementation of an unbiased comparison unit and test listing that was found to be a robust indicator of the relative complexity for each test. Employing the BCU data, a number of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were developed, including three that address comparative organisational complexity, analytical depth and performance efficiency, respectively. Peer groups were also established using the BCU combined with simple organisational and environmental metrics. The BCU has enabled productivity statistics to be compared between organisations. The BCU corrects for differences in test mix and workload complexity of different organisations and also allows for objective stratification into peer groups.

  4. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs

  5. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  6. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  7. [Complex technology for water and wastewater disinfection and its industrial realization in prototype unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, E N; Brunman, V E; Brunman, M V; Konyashin, A V; Dyachenko, V A; Petkova, A P

    Usage of complex automated electrolysis unit for drinking water disinfection and wastewater oxidation and coagulation is scoped, its ecological and energy efficiency is shown. Properties of technological process of anolyte production using membrane electrolysis of brine for water disinfection in municipal pipelines and potassium ferrate production using electrochemical dissolution of iron anode in NaOH solution for usage in purification plants are listed. Construction of modules of industrial prototype for anolyte and ferrate production and applied aspects of automation of complex electrolysis unit are proved. Results of approbation of electrolytic potassium ferrate for drinking water disinfection and wastewater, rain water and environmental water oxidation and coagulation are shown.

  8. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The present article is based on the post occupancy occupants’ perception of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 residential apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design o...

  9. NEW GENERATIONS RAISED IN APARTMENT SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Salih ŞEKER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of private preparatory schools is preparing students for higher education institutions, they dealt a severe blow to the formal educatio nal institutions. Various solutions generated to close down these schools brought many concerns led to deepening of the problem. In this study, the issue of closing private preparatory schools, which function for preparation for the university entrance ex am, down and converting them into private schools in the academic year of 2014/2015 by regulations enforced by the ministry is discussed. Obviously, this period will results in generations with obesity, physical impairment, postural disorders, respiratory system disorders, cardiovascular and circulatory disorders as well as permanent diseases. These schools are established in apartments and commercial building employed by private preparatory schools previously. It is clearly seen that these physical condi tions may cause serious problems in physical activities and sport practices. The aim of this study is discussing the predicted problems either experienced or will be faced by students since they will continue formal education at schools called “Basic High School” converted from private preparatory schools into formal educational institutions with same physical conditions but different educational programs.

  10. Mine subsidence event at Washington West Apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.B.; Weber, M.W.; Purdy, J.; Acker, P.

    1994-01-01

    A major mine subsidence event occurred in Scranton, PA in early 1993. The initial damage included breakage of gas and water lines, cracking of pavements and sidewalks, and architectural damage to the seven-story apartment building that houses about 150 elderly persons. Visible damage include a 3/4-in dilation of the expansion joint separating the building, approximately 200 interior and exterior cracks, and distress to utility lines. The Office of Surface mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) funded an integrated geotechnical and structural engineering investigation to determine the cause of the subsidence, the limits of affected areas, and the nature of damage to the building. Work included interior surveys, exterior surveys, installation of crack gages, eight subsurface borings, review of building design drawings, review of geologic and mining data, and structural analysis of the rigid steel frame building. The surveys showed the building had undergone movements consisting of a lateral translation, a longitudinal differential settlement, and a transverse differential settlement. Preliminary structural analyses showed that the differential settlements had introduced significant additional stresses in some of the building columns. This paper provides a case history of the cause and effects of the subsidence event. The techniques used to collect and analyze the data are presented along with the findings of the geotechnical and structural engineering investigations. The paper also describes emergency actions that were implemented, the remedial alternatives that were considered, and the method selected as the recommended alternative

  11. The Living, Dynamic and Complex Environment Care in Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Büscher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care, experienced by professionals working in this unit, managers, patients, families and professional support services, as well as build a theoretical model about the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care. Grounded Theory, both for the collection and for data analysis. Based on theoretical sampling, we carried out 39 in-depth interviews semi-structured from three different Adult Intensive Care Units. built up the so-called substantive theory "Sustaining life in the complex environment of care in the Intensive Care Unit". It was bounded by eight categories: "caring and continuously monitoring the patient" and "using appropriate and differentiated technology" (causal conditions); "Providing a suitable environment" and "having relatives with concern" (context); "Mediating facilities and difficulties" (intervenienting conditions); "Organizing the environment and managing the dynamics of the unit" (strategy) and "finding it difficult to accept and deal with death" (consequences). confirmed the thesis that "the care environment in the Intensive Care Unit is a living environment, dynamic and complex that sustains the life of her hospitalized patients".

  12. The Living, Dynamic and Complex Environment Care in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Terezinha Stein Backes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care, experienced by professionals working in this unit, managers, patients, families and professional support services, as well as build a theoretical model about the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care.METHOD: Grounded Theory, both for the collection and for data analysis. Based on theoretical sampling, we carried out 39 in-depth interviews semi-structured from three different Adult Intensive Care Units.RESULTS: built up the so-called substantive theory "Sustaining life in the complex environment of care in the Intensive Care Unit". It was bounded by eight categories: "caring and continuously monitoring the patient" and "using appropriate and differentiated technology" (causal conditions; "Providing a suitable environment" and "having relatives with concern" (context; "Mediating facilities and difficulties" (intervenienting conditions; "Organizing the environment and managing the dynamics of the unit" (strategy and "finding it difficult to accept and deal with death" (consequences.CONCLUSION: confirmed the thesis that "the care environment in the Intensive Care Unit is a living environment, dynamic and complex that sustains the life of her hospitalized patients".

  13. OPERATING OF MOBILE MACHINE UNITS SYSTEM USING THE MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lebedev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  14. Operating of mobile machine units system using the model of multicomponent complex movement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lebedev; R. Kaidalov; N. Artiomov; M. Shulyak; M. Podrigalo; D. Abramov; D. Klets

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite) movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  15. Complexity perspectives on clinical decision making in an intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bock, Ben A.; Willems, Dick L.; Weinstein, Henry C.

    2017-01-01

    How to clarify the implications of complexity thinking for decision making in the intensive care unit (ICU)? Retrospective qualitative empirical research. Practitioners in an ICU were interviewed on how their decisions were made regarding a particular patient in a difficult, clinical situation.

  16. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

  17. Enhanced electric dipole transition in lanthanide complex with organometallic ruthenocene units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Sato, Nao; Hirai, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kato, Masako; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji

    2015-05-21

    Enhanced luminescence of a lanthanide complex with dynamic polarization of the excited state and molecular motion is introduced. The luminescent lanthanide complex is composed of one Eu(hfa)3 (hfa, hexafluoroacetylacetonate) and two phosphine oxide ligands with ruthenocenyl units Rc, [Eu(hfa)3(RcPO)2] (RcPO = diphenylphosphorylruthenocene). The ruthenocenyl units in the phosphine oxide ligands play an important role of switching for dynamic molecular polarization and motion in liquid media. The oxidation states of the ruthenocenyl unit (Rc(1+)/Rc(1+)) are controlled by potentiostatic polarization. Eu(III) complexes attached with bidentate phosphine oxide ligands containing ruthenocenyl units, [Eu(hfa)3(RcBPO)] (RcBPO = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)ruthenocene), and with bidentate phosphine oxide ligands, [Eu(hfa)3(BIPHEPO)] (BIPHEPO =1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diylbis(diphenylphosphine oxide), were also prepared as references. The coordination structures and electrochemical properties were analyzed using single crystal X-ray analysis, cyclic voltammetry, and absorption spectroscopy measurements. The luminescence properties were estimated using an optoelectrochemical cell. Under potentiostatic polarization, a significant enhancement of luminescence was successfully observed for [Eu(hfa)3(RcPO)2], while no spectral change was observed for [Eu(hfa)3(RcBPO)]. In this study, the remarkable enhanced luminescence phenomena of Eu(III) complex based on the dynamic molecular motion under potentiostatic polarization have been performed.

  18. Parenting from Prison: Staying Connected while Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Angela; Pickholtz, Naomi; Green, Allison; Rumble, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The United States has more people in prison than any other country, and more than half of those incarcerated are parents. This article reviews the challenges to parenting while in prison and considers how parental attachment experiences and difficult life trajectories have an impact on parent-child relationships. The authors provide examples of…

  19. Giant black hole rips star apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small

  20. Teaching World History with "Things Fall Apart."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Martha J.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using Chinua Achebe's novel of the 19th-century conflict between African tribal culture and English colonists in a world history class. Achebe's rich narrative, written in a graceful prose, is easily accessible to high school students. The novel replaces simplistic and abstract concepts with those more complex and concrete. (MJP)

  1. The geometry of pull-apart basins in the southern part of Sumatran strike-slip fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribowo, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Models of pull-apart basin geometry have been described by many previous studies in a variety tectonic setting. 2D geometry of Ranau Lake represents a pull-apart basin in the Sumatran Fault Zone. However, there are unclear geomorphic traces of two sub-parallel overlapping strike-slip faults in the boundary of the lake. Nonetheless, clear geomorphic traces that parallel to Kumering Segment of the Sumatran Fault are considered as inactive faults in the southern side of the lake. I demonstrate the angular characteristics of the Ranau Lake and Suoh complex pull-apart basins and compare with pull-apart basin examples from published studies. I use digital elevation model (DEM) image to sketch the shape of the depression of Ranau Lake and Suoh Valley and measure 2D geometry of pull-apart basins. This study shows that Ranau Lake is not a pull-apart basin, and the pull-apart basin is actually located in the eastern side of the lake. Since there is a clear connection between pull-apart basin and volcanic activity in Sumatra, I also predict that the unclear trace of the pull-apart basin near Ranau Lake may be covered by Ranau Caldera and Seminung volcanic products.

  2. Keeping it together and falling apart: Women's dynamic experience of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Priscilla J; Foster, Jennifer Whitman; Yount, Kathryn M; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski

    2018-03-01

    To explore the complexity of women's birth experiences in the context in which they occur and to describe how these influence women's well-being in labor. Qualitative method with a phenomenological approach, following the analysis principles of van Manen. Eight women from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds in Atlanta, Georgia, United States with a recent, healthy birth were interviewed twice about their experience of the labor journey. The first interview was 3-12 weeks post-partum, with the second interview at 10-22 weeks post-partum. The phenomenon of childbirth was a dynamic fluctuating between keeping it together and falling apart. The changes in emotion were created by a sensitive feedback loop between the woman and her environment, the physical space, and interactions with humans present. Four characteristics supported and created this phenomenon: confidence, comfort, agency and connection. Confidence was believing in one's physical ability to birth the baby while at the same time, having the emotional resources to cope with the experience. Comfort was essential to manage pain and difficult emotions. The presence of comfort changed the meaning and experience of pain and increased relaxation. Agency was overtly supported in labor, but compromised by hospital routine and unresponsive caregiver practices, and was diminished by women's vulnerability in labor. When agency was compromised, falling apart increased, and there was a move towards intense negative emotion. In labor, women wanted an authentic human connection, being known as a person. This connection was a mechanism to support the other characteristics of comfort, confidence, and agency. Clinicians need to accommodate the complex, dynamic fluctuations of emotion during birth addressing both the physical and non-physical aspects of the person. Birth care practices and childbirth research need to account for the complexity of birth as a holistic experience, specifically regarding the emotional

  3. Coordination chemistry of gadolinium complexes having pyridine carboxylate units in relation with the medical imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gateau, C.; Chatterton, N.; Nonat, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Pecaut, J.; Borel, A.; Merbach, A.; Heim, L.

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the influence of the coordination sphere on the properties which govern the relaxivity, ligands containing pyridine carboxylates units have been particularly studied. It has been shown that the tripodal ligand tpaa forms with gadolinium (III) a neutral complex having a relaxivity (r1p=13.3 mM -1 at 298 K and 60 MHz) which is three times superior to the contrast agents currently used in NMR Imaging. To explain this remarkably relaxivity, two new ligands analogous to the tpaa: the tpatcn and the bpeda containing pyridine carboxylate units bound to one or several aliphatic nitrogen have been studied in modulating the number of coordination sites and the symmetry degree. The study of the relaxivity of the corresponding gadolinium (III) complexes gives precious data on the understanding of the results in the case of the complex [Gd(tpaa)]. The synthesis and the properties of these gadolinium (III) complexes will be presented during this conference. (O.M.)

  4. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1 non-chemical methods only (n = 9; (2 insecticides only (n = 6; and (3 integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9. The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM treatment were: 4 (1, 57, 19 (1, 250, and 14 (1, 219, respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134, 11.5 (0, 58, and 1 (0, 38, respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  5. CHI SYMBOLISM IN ACHEBE'S THINGS FALL APART: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the chi symbolism as exhibited in his famous work Things Fall. Apart. Things Fall Apart by Achebe gives fictionalized account of Igbo life and times which are close to the reality of our era. Philosophy ... solution which he offers to the problems of daily living in society. .... weighed on the balance of reality, they could stand for.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF AN APARTMENT POSITIONING ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela PRADA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of the highly topical subject of global warming and energy conservation. The article contains parametric studies of energy consumption and CO² emissions for an apartment located in a block of flats, depending on its location. It was studied the energy consumption of an apartment having different cardinal orientations in the same building and of an apartment with the same position inside the building but located in different climatic zones. The case studies show the difference between the energy consumption of an apartment depending on its position, thus resulting in a few general directions for their heat insulation, so that the specific energy consumption of the apartment is below 100 kWh/m² year.

  7. Analysis of Embodied Environmental Impacts of Korean Apartment Buildings Considering Major Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the reduction in environmental impacts (EIs of buildings using life-cycle assessment (LCA has been emphasized as a practical strategy for the sustainable development of the construction industry, studies are required to analyze not only the operational environmental impacts (OEIs of buildings, but also the embodied environmental impacts (EEIs of building materials. This study aims to analyze the EEIs of Korean apartment buildings on the basis of major building materials as part of research with the goal of reducing the EIs of buildings. For this purpose, six types of building materials (ready-mixed concrete, reinforcement steel, concrete bricks, glass, insulation, and gypsum for apartment buildings were selected as major building materials, and their inputs per unit area according to the structure types and plans of apartment buildings were derived by analyzing the design and bills of materials of 443 apartment buildings constructed in South Korea. In addition, a life-cycle scenario including the production, construction, maintenance, and end-of-life stage was constructed for each major building material. The EEIs of the apartment buildings were quantitatively assessed by applying the life-cycle inventory database (LCI DB and the Korean life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA method based on damage-oriented modeling (KOLID, and the results were analyzed.

  8. Endemicity of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in an Intensive Care Unit in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amreeta Dhanoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (ACB complex is a leading opportunistic pathogen in intensive care units (ICUs. Effective control of spread requires understanding of its epidemiological relatedness. This study aims to determine the genetic relatedness and antibiotic susceptibilities of ACB complex in an ICU in Malaysia. Methodology. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, E-test, and disk diffusion were used for isolates characterization. Results. During the study period (December 2011 to June 2012, 1023 patients were admitted to the ICU and 44 ACB complex (blood, n=21, and blind bronchial aspirates, n=23 were recovered from 38 ICU patients. Six isolates were from non-ICU patients. Of the 44 ICU isolates, 88.6% exhibited multidrug-resistant (MDR patterns. There was high degree of resistance, with minimum inhibitory concentration90 (MIC90 of >32 μg/mL for carbapenems and ≥256 μg/mL for amikacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, and cefoperazone/sulbactam. Isolates from the main PFGE cluster were highly resistant. There was evidence of dissemination in non-ICU wards. Conclusion. High number of clonally related MDR ACB complex was found. While the ICU is a likely reservoir facilitating transmission, importation from other wards may be important contributor. Early identification of strain relatedness and implementation of infection control measures are necessary to prevent further spread.

  9. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  10. [Children's medically complex diseases unit. A model required in all our hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent Alcalá, Francisco José; García Fernández de Villalta, Marta; Escosa García, Luis; Rodríguez Alonso, Aroa; Albajara Velasco, Luis Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    The increase in survival of children with severe diseases has led to the rise of children with chronic diseases, sometimes with lifelong disabilities. In 2008, a unit for the specific care of medically complex children (MCC) was created in Hospital La Paz. To describe the work and care activities of this Unit. Patients and methods An analysis was performed on all discharge reports of the Unit between January 2014 and July 2016. The MCC Unit has 6 beds and daily outpatient clinic. A total of 1,027 patients have been treated since the creation of the unit, with 243 from 2014. The median age was 24.2 months (IQ: 10.21-84.25). The large majority (92.59%) have multiple diseases, the most frequent chronic conditions observed were neurological (76.95%), gastrointestinal (63.78%), and respiratory diseases (61.72%). More than two-thirds (69.54%) of MCC are dependent on technology, 53.49% on respiratory support, and 35.80% on nutritional support. Hospital admission rates have increased annually. There have been 403 admissions since 2014, of which 8.93% were re-admissions within 30 days of hospital discharge. The median stay during 2014-2016 was 6 days (IQ: 3-14). The occupancy rate has been above 100% for this period. Currently, 210 patients remain on follow-up (86.42%), and 11 children (4.53%) were discharged to their referral hospitals. The mortality rate is 9.05% (22 deaths). The main condition of these 22 patients was neurological (9 patients). Infectious diseases were the leading cause of death. MCC should be treated in specialized units in tertiary or high-level hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Retrofitting Garden-Style Apartments in Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Heather [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Maxwell, Sean [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Grab, Joanna [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This research effort sought to achieve a solution package that yields energy savings greater than 30% over the pre-existing conditions in a minimally intrusive multifamily retrofit project. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with L+M Development Partners, Inc. on a Mitchell-Lama Housing Program project, Marcus Garvey Village, in Brooklyn, NY (Climate Zone 4A). The Mitchell-Lama Housing Program is a form of housing subsidy in the state of New York that provides affordable rental and cooperative housing to moderate- and middle-income families. Marcus Garvey Village was founded in 1975 and contains 625 residential units (ranging from studios to 5-bedroom units) in thirty-two 4-story garden-style apartment structures built with concrete and faced in light brown brick. The single largest challenge for implementation of energy conservation measures at Marcus Garvey was working within occupied spaces. Measures are being implemented in phases to minimize disruption. As of August 2015, the retrofit work is over 50% complete. The wall insulation, sealing of the through wall AC vent, and installation of new oil-filled electric baseboards with advanced controls are conducted at one time, limiting disruption to the living room space. In a similar fashion, the kitchen work is done, then the bathroom. The final selection of energy conservation measures is projected to save 26.5% in source energy with a cost just under $3.7 million and utility bill savings of nearly $480,000 (of an average $1.8 million annual utility cost for the development).

  12. X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  14. A Framework of Complex Adaptive Systems: Parents As Partners in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼAgata, Amy L; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neonatal care are allowing for increased infant survival; however, neurodevelopmental complications continue. Using a complex adaptive system framework, a broad analysis of the network of agents most influential to vulnerable infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is presented: parent, nurse, and organization. By exploring these interconnected relationships and the emergent behaviors, a model of care that increases parental caregiving in the NICU is proposed. Supportive parent caregiving early in an infant's NICU stay has the potential for more sensitive caregiving and enhanced opportunities for attachment, perhaps positively impacting neurodevelopment.

  15. Frame complexity and the Financial Crisis: a comparison of the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany 2007-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Schultz, F.; Oegema, D.

    2015-01-01

    Communicative complexity concerns the variety of issues and stakeholders (agenda complexity) and their associations (frame complexity) in the news. One issue may dominate news in crises (9/11, Katrina), but as soon as complexity recovers, uncertainty may decrease and the public mood may improve. The

  16. Qualitative Survey of the Effluent from the Olefin Unit of Bandar-e-Imam Petrochemical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Sabzalipour

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the qualitative parameters of the wastewater from the Olefin Unit of Bandar-e-Imam Petrochemical Complex in an attempt to identify the problems and to develop solutions. All the oily wastes generated in the unit under study are directed to the CPI and DAF systems where they are deoiled, diverted into the Eastern Pond, and, finally, discharged into the sea after a primary treatment process. In this study, information was collected on the process and on the effluent contaminant spreading sources in order to determined the sampling spots. Sampling was performed over 6 months and the effluent quality parameters (pH, TDS, BOD, COD, Oil, SO4=, PO4≡, and NO− were measured. Changes in the parameters were recorded on monthly, weekly, and daily bases. Combined samples were additionally used to ensure measurement accuracy. The results showed that the concentration levels of the parameters BOD, COD, oil, and phosphate ion in the effluent from the CPI system were beyond the national standards. Pollution load estimations for the relevant parameters also confirmed these results. Investigations revealed that COD and oil removal efficiencies in the CPI system were 17% and 10%, respectively, which cannot be desirable (paired sample t-test. Another problem observed was the effluent from the caustic wash tower. This effluent, which contains considerable quantities of caustic, polymer, yellow oil, and water, is discharged into the waste neutralization pond to leave the complex without further neutralization.

  17. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Sukjin; Yoon, Seonghwan

    2015-01-01

    Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdo...

  18. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  19. A formalism for scattering of complex composite structures. I. Applications to branched structures of asymmetric sub-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2012-01-01

    to structural connectivity is completely decoupled from internal structure of the sub-units. This allows sub-units to be replaced by more complex structures. We illustrate the physical interpretation of the formalism diagrammatically. By applying a self-consistency requirement, we derive the pair distributions...

  20. Iridium terpyridine complexes as functional assembling units in arrays for the conversion of light energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamigni, Lucia; Collin, Jean-Paul; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    In photosynthesis, sunlight energy is converted into a chemical potential by an electron transfer sequence that is started by an excited state and ultimately yields a long-lived charge-separated state. This process can be reproduced by carefully designed multicomponent artificial arrays of three or more components, and the stored energy can be used to oxidize or reduce molecules in solution, to inject electrons or holes, or to create an electron flow. Therefore, the process is important both for artificial-photosynthesis research and for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Molecular arrays for photoinduced charge separation often use chromophores that resemble the natural ones. However, new synthetic components, including transition metal complexes, have had some success. This Account discusses the use of bis-terpyridine (tpy) metal complexes as assembling and functional units of such multicomponent arrays. M(tpy)2(n+) complexes have the advantage of yielding linear arrays with unambiguous geometry. Originally, Ru(tpy)2(2+) and Os(tpy)2(2+) were used as photosensitizers in triads containing typical organic donors and acceptors. However, it soon became evident that the relatively low excited state of these complexes could act as an energy drain of the excited state of the photosensitizer and, thus, seriously compete with charge separation. A new metal complex that preserved the favorable tpy geometry and yet had a higher energy level was needed. We identified Ir(tpy)2(3+), which displayed a higher energy level, a more facile reduction that favored charge separation, a longer excited-state lifetime, and strong spectroscopic features that were useful for the identification of intermediates. Ir(tpy)2(3+) was used in arrays with electron-donating gold porphyrin and electron-accepting free-base porphyrins. A judicious change of the free-base porphyrin photosensitizer with zinc porphyrin allowed us to shape the photoreactivity and led to charge separation with

  1. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors.

  2. Tandem bike design for apartment residents as an idea to reduce air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandriawan Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical housing is recently popular in urban areas since the availability of land is very limited. A strong preference for living in the city is mainly due to the home to work travel that is relatively close for those who work in the city. While residing in the vertical housing (i.e. apartment can be an advantage, several accommodation facilities are often provided at their minimum standards. As such, a special design of bicycle for apartment residents may an effective solution. Multi-function bike, ridden either by one or two riders and its aesthetic part of interior element can be an attractive offer. Identification of marketing objectives and observation of comparable products were a crucial step in the initial process of tandem bike design. The use of bicycle in urban areas can overcome a number of motorized vehicles operating wherever the using of them may create issues such as traffic jam and air pollution. This study aims to adjust the tandem bike which can be produced commercially for the apartment residents. Stated in the research problems, the design process was successfully fulfilled. Fabrication and product testing were positively completed. A concise and comfortable bike to carry from the lobby to the apartment unit, or vice versa, was successfully created.

  3. Assessment of indoor air in Austrian apartments with and without visible mold growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Galler, H.; Buzina, W.; Schlacher, R.; Marth, E.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    Fungal spores are transported across great distances in the outdoor air and are also regularly found indoors. Building conditions and behavior-related problems in apartments may lead to massive growth of mold within a very short period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the visible growth of mold indoors influences the concentration of fungal spores in the air as well as the variety of their species. Samples were collected from 66 households in Austria. For each sampling, the corresponding outdoor air was measured as reference value. The size of the visible mold growth was categorized in order to correlate the extent of mold growth with the concentration of airborne spores as well as the fungal genera. In order to determine fungal spore concentrations in the air, the one-stage MAS-100 ® air sampler was used. Malt extract agar (MEA) and dichloran glycerol agar (DG18) plates were used as culture media. The total colony forming units (CFU) per m 3 were determined. The fungi were identified from the isolated colonies. The results show that in apartments visibly affected by mold, the median values were significantly higher than those of apartments without visible mold growth. The extent of visible mold growth is significantly correlated with both concentration of fungal spores ( pPenicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. ( pPenicillium and Aspergillus in the air of apartments is recommended for assessing fungal exposure.

  4. Estimating the Performance of Random Forest versus Multiple Regression for Predicting Prices of the Apartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Čeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyse the predictive performance of the random forest machine learning technique in comparison to commonly used hedonic models based on multiple regression for the prediction of apartment prices. A data set that includes 7407 records of apartment transactions referring to real estate sales from 2008–2013 in the city of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, was used in order to test and compare the predictive performances of both models. Apparent challenges faced during modelling included (1 the non-linear nature of the prediction assignment task; (2 input data being based on transactions occurring over a period of great price changes in Ljubljana whereby a 28% decline was noted in six consecutive testing years; and (3 the complex urban form of the case study area. Available explanatory variables, organised as a Geographic Information Systems (GIS ready dataset, including the structural and age characteristics of the apartments as well as environmental and neighbourhood information were considered in the modelling procedure. All performance measures (R2 values, sales ratios, mean average percentage error (MAPE, coefficient of dispersion (COD revealed significantly better results for predictions obtained by the random forest method, which confirms the prospective of this machine learning technique on apartment price prediction.

  5. Community-acquired Legionnaires' Disease in a Newly Constructed Apartment Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sukhyun; Yang, Kyungho; Chun, Byung Chul

    2017-07-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a severe type of pneumonia caused by inhalation of aerosols contaminated with Legionella . On September 22, 2016, a single case of LD was reported from a newly built apartment building in Gyeonggi province. This article describes an epidemiologic investigation of LD and identification of the possible source of infection. To identify the source of LD, we interviewed the patient's husband using a questionnaire based on the Legionella management guidelines from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Water samples from the site were collected and analyzed. An epidemiological investigation of the residents and visitors in the apartment building was conducted for 14 days before the index patient's symptoms first appeared to 14 days after the implementation of environmental control measures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the heated-water samples from the patient's residence and the basement of the apartment complex. Thirty-two suspected cases were reported from the apartment building during the surveillance period, yet all were confirmed negative based on urinary antigen tests. The likely source of infection was the building's potable water, particularly heated water. Further study of effective monitoring systems in heated potable water should be considered.

  6. [Complexity of care and organizational effectiveness: a survey among medical care units in nine Lombardy region hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sara; Capitoni, Enrica; Tiraboschi, Giuseppina; Alborghetti, Adriana; De Luca, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Eleven medical care units of nine Lombardy Region hospitals organized by levels of care model or by the traditional departmental model have been analyzed, in order to evaluate if methods for complexity of patient-care evaluation represent an index factor of nursing organizational effectiveness. Survey with nine Nurses in managerial position was conducted between Nov. 2013-Jan. 2014. The following factors have been described: context and nursing care model, staffing, complexity evaluation, patient satisfaction, staff well-being. Data were processed through Microsoft Excel. Among Units analysed ,all Units in levels of care and one organized by the departmental model systematically evaluate nursing complexity. Registered Nurses (RN) and Health Care Assistants (HCA) are on average numerically higher in Units that measure complexity (0.55/ 0.49 RN, 0.38/0.23 HCA - ratio per bed). Adopted measures in relation to changes in complexity are:rewarding systems, supporting interventions, such as moving personnel within different Units or additional required working hours; reduction in number of beds is adopted when no other solution is available. Patient satisfaction is evaluated through Customer Satisfaction questionnaires. Turnover, stress and rate of absenteeism data are not available in all Units. Complexity evaluation through appropriate methods is carried out in all hospitals organized in levels of care with personalized nursing care models, though complexity is detected with different methods. No significant differences in applied managerial strategies are present. Patient's satisfaction is evaluated everywhere. Data on staffing wellbeing is scarcely available. Coordinated regional actions are recommended in order to gather comparable data for research, improve decision making and effectiveness of Nursing care.

  7. Traffic Noise as a Factor Influencing Apartment Prices in Large Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepańska Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors are among the key determinants of real estate prices. They include landscape attractiveness, land relief, exposure to sunlight and proximity to natural features. In large urban centers, traffic noise emissions significantly affect decision-making on the real estate market. Weakly developed road networks and the absence of ring roads that shift road traffic outside residential districts are a widespread problem in the cities of Central-Eastern Europe. The prevention of traffic noise pollution, one of the key environmental problems in Europe, is an important goal of European Union policy. This paper analyzes the correlations between apartment prices and traffic noise levels in Olsztyn, the capital city of the Warminsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship (province in north-eastern Poland. A linear correlation analysis was performed, and the distribution of unit prices of apartments was mapped by ordinary kriging.

  8. Things Fall Apart Across Cultures: The Universal Significance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Things Fall Apart Across Cultures: The Universal Significance of Chinua Achebe's 1958 Reconstruction of the African Heritage. ... There may be variations here and there in different social settings, but the novel portrays people in a communal environment grappling with survival on a daily basis on planet earth.

  9. Disrespect, Tension, and Togetherness--Apartness in Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    For a study of marital togetherness and apartness, the partners in 136 couples completed questionnaires. The role of disrespect, a factor serving as an abrasive in marriage, was investigated. Findings suggest that therapy for couples with a presenting problem of insufficient contact may first have to deal with abrasive factors. (Author)

  10. Using Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" in Introductory Geography Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, James

    1993-01-01

    Describes use of Nigerian author, Chinua Achebe's novel, "Things Fall Apart," in an introductory geography course at the secondary school or college level. Provides a summary of the book's story, which deals with the impact of colonialism and Christianity on the culture of eastern Nigeria. Includes recommended instructional strategies…

  11. The US business cycle: power law scaling for interacting units with complex internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2002-11-01

    In the social sciences, there is increasing evidence of the existence of power law distributions. The distribution of recessions in capitalist economies has recently been shown to follow such a distribution. The preferred explanation for this is self-organised criticality. Gene Stanley and colleagues propose an alternative, namely that power law scaling can arise from the interplay between random multiplicative growth and the complex structure of the units composing the system. This paper offers a parsimonious model of the US business cycle based on similar principles. The business cycle, along with long-term growth, is one of the two features which distinguishes capitalism from all previously existing societies. Yet, economics lacks a satisfactory theory of the cycle. The source of cycles is posited in economic theory to be a series of random shocks which are external to the system. In this model, the cycle is an internal feature of the system, arising from the level of industrial concentration of the agents and the interactions between them. The model-in contrast to existing economic theories of the cycle-accounts for the key features of output growth in the US business cycle in the 20th century.

  12. Model describing the effect of employment of the United States military in a complex emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donald S

    2005-01-01

    The end of the Cold War vastly altered the worldwide political landscape. With the loss of a main competitor, the United States (US) military has had to adapt its strategic, operational, and tactical doctrines to an ever-increasing variety of non-traditional missions, including humanitarian operations. Complex emergencies (CEs) are defined in this paper from a political and military perspective, various factors that contribute to their development are described, and issues resulting from the employment of US military forces are discussed. A model was developed to illustrate the course of a humanitarian emergency and the potential impact of a military response. The US intervention in Haiti, Northern Iraq, Kosovo, Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda serve as examples. A CE develops when there is civil conflict, loss of national governmental authority, a mass population movement, and massive economic failure, each leading to a general decline in food security. The military can alleviate a CE in four ways: (1) provide security for relief efforts; (2) enforce negotiated settlements; (3) provide security for non-combatants; and/or (4) employ logistical capabilities. The model incorporates Norton and Miskel's taxonomy of identifying failing states and helps illustrate the factors that lead to a CE. The model can be used to determine if and when military intervention will have the greatest impact. The model demonstrates that early military intervention and mission assignment within the core competencies of the forces can reverse the course of a CE. Further study will be needed to verify the model.

  13. An outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex in the paediatric unit of a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Mali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen worldwide especially in patients with indwelling catheters and cystic fibrosis. Bcc is a common contaminant of pharmaceutical products. We describe an outbreak of Bcc bacteraemia amongst children admitted in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU and paediatric ward at a tertiary care hospital, Mumbai, in Western India. Materials and Methods: Blood culture samples from paediatric patients yielded growth of non-fermenting, oxidase positive, motile, Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB (76/909 over a period of 8 months. Based on conventional biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, these isolates were provisionally identified as Bcc. The increased, repeated and continued isolation of Bcc alerted the possibility of an outbreak confined to PICU and paediatric ward. Active surveillance was undertaken to trace the source and contain the outbreak. Isolates were subjected to recA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Expanded multilocus sequence typing (EMLST. Results: Surveillance revealed the presence of Bcc on the upper surface of rubber stopper of sealed multidose amikacin vials. Isolates from blood culture and rubber stoppers were confirmed as Bcc by recA PCR. EMLST revealed that these isolates shared an identical novel sequence type 824 proving clonality. Timely interventions instituted led to control of the outbreak. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of identification and molecular characterization of Bcc to establish its role in infection and outbreak.

  14. An outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex in the paediatric unit of a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Swapna; Dash, Lona; Gautam, Vikas; Shastri, Jayanthi; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen worldwide especially in patients with indwelling catheters and cystic fibrosis. Bcc is a common contaminant of pharmaceutical products. We describe an outbreak of Bcc bacteraemia amongst children admitted in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and paediatric ward at a tertiary care hospital, Mumbai, in Western India. Blood culture samples from paediatric patients yielded growth of non-fermenting, oxidase positive, motile, Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) (76/909) over a period of 8 months. Based on conventional biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, these isolates were provisionally identified as Bcc. The increased, repeated and continued isolation of Bcc alerted the possibility of an outbreak confined to PICU and paediatric ward. Active surveillance was undertaken to trace the source and contain the outbreak. Isolates were subjected to recA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Expanded multilocus sequence typing (EMLST). Surveillance revealed the presence of Bcc on the upper surface of rubber stopper of sealed multidose amikacin vials. Isolates from blood culture and rubber stoppers were confirmed as Bcc by recA PCR. EMLST revealed that these isolates shared an identical novel sequence type 824 proving clonality. Timely interventions instituted led to control of the outbreak. This study highlights the importance of identification and molecular characterization of Bcc to establish its role in infection and outbreak.

  15. Isotopes, Inventories and Seasonality: Unraveling Methane Source Distribution in the Complex Landscapes of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Zazzeri, G.; Lanoisellé, M.; France, J.; Allen, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike the big open landscapes of many continents with large area sources dominated by one particular methane emission type that can be isotopically characterized by flight measurements and sampling, the complex patchwork of urban, fossil and agricultural methane sources across NW Europe require detailed ground surveys for characterization (Zazzeri et al., 2017). Here we outline the findings from multiple seasonal urban and rural measurement campaigns in the United Kingdom. These surveys aim to: 1) Assess source distribution and baseline in regions of planned fracking, and relate to on-site continuous baseline climatology. 2) Characterize spatial and seasonal differences in the isotopic signatures of the UNFCCC source categories, and 3) Assess the spatial validity of the 1 x 1 km UK inventory for large continuous emitters, proposed point sources, and seasonal / ephemeral emissions. The UK inventory suggests that 90% of methane emissions are from 3 source categories, ruminants, landfill and gas distribution. Bag sampling and GC-IRMS delta13C analysis shows that landfill gives a constant signature of -57 ±3 ‰ throughout the year. Fugitive gas emissions are consistent regionally depending on the North Sea supply regions feeding the network (-41 ± 2 ‰ in N England, -37 ± 2 ‰ in SE England). Ruminant, mostly cattle, emissions are far more complex as these spend winters in barns and summers in fields, but are essentially a mix of 2 end members, breath at -68 ±3 ‰ and manure at -51 ±3 ‰, resulting in broad summer field emission plumes of -64 ‰ and point winter barn emission plumes of -58 ‰. The inventory correctly locates emission hotspots from landfill, larger sewage treatment plants and gas compressor stations, giving a broad overview of emission distribution for regional model validation. Mobile surveys are adding an extra layer of detail to this which, combined with isotopic characterization, has identified spatial distribution of gas pipe leaks

  16. Development of renewable energies apart from biomass on farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brule, K.; Pindard, A.; Jaujay, J.; Femenias, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance at the development of renewable energies in farms, apart those which are based on the production or use of biomass. Some indicators are defined (energy production and consumption). Stake holders are identified. Some retrospective major and emerging trends are discussed. The major trends are: growth and diversification of renewable energy production, calling to renewable energy production in farms. The emerging trends are: a recent increase of renewable energy production in farms apart from biomass, locally stressed land market, economic profitability of photovoltaic installations due to purchase tariffs. Some prospective issues are discussed: technical support, financial support, development of other energy sources, and tax policy on fossil energy used in agriculture. Three development hypotheses are discussed

  17. [Supporting the end of life in a therapeutic coordination apartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Jean-Luc; Thévenin, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic coordination apartments are medical-social structures which provide accommodation to desocilialized people. For the last 25 years, the association Cordia has been supporting people with debilitating chronic diseases in situations of precarity. The multi-disciplinary approach also ensures that terminally-ill residents are taken care of right up until their last moments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  19. United States Support Programme (USSP): Lessons Learned from the Management of Complex, Multi-Stakeholder Projects for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Tackentien, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will review USSP experiences, lessons learned, and proposed future strategies on the management of complex projects including the Universal Non-Destructive Assay Data Acquisition Platform (UNAP) instrument development task. The focus will be on identifying lessons learned to formulate strategies to minimize risk and maximize the potential of commercial success for future complex projects. Topics planned for inclusion are: 1. Initial agreement amongst all stakeholders on the justification of the need of the development including market studies of existing/near term future COTS technology capabilities; 2. Initial confirmation that there is a market for the product other than the IAEA to reduce investment risk; 3. Agreement on an accelerated initial project schedule from request acceptance to commercial unit production including per unit cost and quantities; 4. During product development, obtaining periodic customer reaffirmation of the need and quantities for the product per the existing schedule and per unit price. (author)

  20. Changes in Sunlight and Outdoor Thermal Environment Conditions Based on the Layout Plan of Flat Type Apartment Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjin Jung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growths lead to population increases in large cities. This has brought about the growing necessity for apartment housing which has resulted in higher density populations living in high-rise apartment complexes. Therefore, the urban microclimate is aggravated due to the increasing ratio of artificial coverage and substandard daylight availability. To achieve a comfortable living environment and improve urban microclimates, a process considering the daylight availability and the outdoor thermal environment is required when designing apartment housing complexes. This study selected a total of 27 valid cases using an orthogonal array, L27(313 design of experiments (DOE. As a result of significance probability obtained in DOE analysis, the design factors that have an effect on the outdoor thermal environment and daylight availability were found to be building coverage ratio, distance between buildings, and azimuth. The rankings of the effect of design factors were shown to be in the order of azimuth > building coverage ratio > distance between buildings > floor area ratio > width/depth ratio. The surface temperature of the whole building decreased by 0.3 °C and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT decreased by 1.1 °C as a result of applying the greenery coverage ratio to apartment complexes. Heat Island Potential (HIP also showed a decrease of 5.4 °C (at noon.

  1. Identifying designatable units for intraspecific conservation prioritization: a hierarchical approach applied to the lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Jonathan A; Bernatchez, Louis; Reist, Jim D; Rogers, Sean M; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    The concept of the designatable unit (DU) affords a practical approach to identifying diversity below the species level for conservation prioritization. However, its suitability for defining conservation units in ecologically diverse, geographically widespread and taxonomically challenging species complexes has not been broadly evaluated. The lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.) is geographically widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains a great deal of variability in ecology and evolutionary legacy within and among populations, as well as a great deal of taxonomic ambiguity. Here, we employ a set of hierarchical criteria to identify DUs within the Canadian distribution of the lake whitefish species complex. We identified 36 DUs based on (i) reproductive isolation, (ii) phylogeographic groupings, (iii) local adaptation and (iv) biogeographic regions. The identification of DUs is required for clear discussion regarding the conservation prioritization of lake whitefish populations. We suggest conservation priorities among lake whitefish DUs based on biological consequences of extinction, risk of extinction and distinctiveness. Our results exemplify the need for extensive genetic and biogeographic analyses for any species with broad geographic distributions and the need for detailed evaluation of evolutionary history and adaptive ecological divergence when defining intraspecific conservation units.

  2. Love Will Keep Us Apart? Understanding Living Apart Together Partnerships in the Post-state-socialist Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka; Křížková, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2015), s. 993-1022 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13766S; GA ČR GAP404/10/0021 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : living apart together * biographical research * gender * new forms of partnership * family policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.262, year: 2015 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/cs/issue/180-sociologicky-casopis-czech-sociological-review-6-2015/3580

  3. A novel dinuclear Ru(II) complex having a bridging ligand of a rigid and extended structure. Incorporation of an anthraquinone unit and efficient emission quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, L.; Choi, Chang-Shik; Araki, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Dinuclear Ru(II) complex having extended conjugation within the bridging ligand was prepared by coupling of the Ru(II) polypyridyl complex having a benzoyl-substituted phenazine unit with diaminoanthraquinone in one step, in which emission from the excited Ru(II) center was efficiently quenched through the anthraquinone unit. (author)

  4. Host-guest complexes between cucurbit[n]urils and acetanilides having aminopropyl units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaki-Sogo, Mireia; Montes-Navajas, Pedro; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2013-06-01

    2-(Propylamino)acetamide of aniline (1a), and bis-2-(propylamino)acetamide of ortho- (1b) and para-(1c) phenylenediamine form host-guest complexes with CB[6], CB[7] and CB[8] as evidenced by the variations in the (1)H NMR spectroscopy chemical shifts and observation in MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS of ions at the corresponding mass. Binding constants for the 1:1 complexes were estimated from fluorescence titrations and were in the range 10(5)-10(6)M(-1). Models based on molecular mechanics for these supramolecular complexes are provided. In spite of the different geometries arising from the ortho- or para-substitution, phenylenediamides form complexes of similar strength in which the hydrophobic alkyl chains are accommodated inside the host cavity. Formation of these host-guest complexes in the solid state was also achieved by modifying an aminopropyl silica with chloroacetanilides and preparing three silica having analogues of compounds 1a-c anchored to the solid particles. Titrations showed, however, that these solids can adsorb a large percentage of CBs by unselective interactions that are not related to the formation of inclusion complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Deprotonation/protonation of coordinated secondary thioamide units of pincer ruthenium complexes: modulation of voltammetric and spectroscopic characterization of the pincer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratani, Takuya; Koizumi, Take-aki; Yamamoto, Takakazu; Tanaka, Koji; Kanbara, Takaki

    2011-09-21

    New pincer ruthenium complexes, [Ru(SCS)(tpy)]PF(6) (1) (SCS = 2,6-bis(benzylaminothiocarbonyl)phenyl), tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridyl) and [Ru(SNS)(tpy)]PF(6) (2) (SNS = 2,5-bis(benzylaminothiocarbonyl)pyrrolyl), having κ(3)SCS and κ(3)SNS pincer ligands with two secondary thioamide units were synthesized by the reactions of [RuCl(3)(tpy)] with N,N'-dibenzyl-1,3-benzenedicarbothioamide (L1) and N,N'-dibenzyl-2,5-1H-pyrroledicarbothioamide (L2), respectively, and their chemical and electrochemical properties were elucidated. The structure of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The complexes 1 and 2 showed a two-step deprotonation reaction by treatment with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU), and the addition of DBU led to a shift of the metal-centered redox couples to a lower potential by 720 and 550 mV, respectively. The di-deprotonated complexes were also studied by (1)H-NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The addition of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) to the di-deprotonated complexes enabled the recovery of 1 and 2, indicating that the thioamide moiety underwent a reversible deprotonation-protonation process, which resulted in regulating the redox potentials of the metal center. The Pourbaix diagram of 1 revealed that 1 underwent a one-proton/one-electron transfer process in the pH range of 5.83-10.35, and a two-proton/one-electron process at a pH of over 10.35, indicating that the deprotonation/protonation process of the complexes is related to proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  6. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  7. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intelligent, The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians discusses trends through easy-to-read charts, tables, and comprehensive data analysis. Exploring possible reasons for the anomalies of this trend, this book explores several surprising facts, such as: 16 percent of the 1995 American Research Libraries population of librarians will retire by the year 2000, another 16 percent between 2000 and 2005, 24 percent between 2005 ...

  8. Distribution of heating costs in multi-story apartment buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Under current rules in the Danish Meter Order at least 40% of the total heating costs in multi-story blocks of flats should be distributed by metering the consumption in individual apartments. This fixed share is the result of a previous study that showed that 40% of the total heating costs were...... used for space heating, 35% for production and heat loss associated with hot water consumption and finally 25% of heat losses in the heating system. It is interesting to investigate whether this distribution remains representative in both existing buildings, where older buildings still dominate......, as in newer and future standard of blocks of flats. Intuitively, we would like to settle 100% of the costs attributable to space heating, by individual meters. Thereby, tenants will pay for their own consumption which encourages energy savings. This is an excellent method for electricity, gas and water...

  9. Things fall apart: biological species form unconnected parsimony networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael W; Sunday, Jennifer

    2007-10-22

    The generality of operational species definitions is limited by problematic definitions of between-species divergence. A recent phylogenetic species concept based on a simple objective measure of statistically significant genetic differentiation uses between-species application of statistical parsimony networks that are typically used for population genetic analysis within species. Here we review recent phylogeographic studies and reanalyse several mtDNA barcoding studies using this method. We found that (i) alignments of DNA sequences typically fall apart into a separate subnetwork for each Linnean species (but with a higher rate of true positives for mtDNA data) and (ii) DNA sequences from single species typically stick together in a single haplotype network. Departures from these patterns are usually consistent with hybridization or cryptic species diversity.

  10. Administration of recombinant activated factor VII in the intensive care unit after complex cardiovascular surgery: clinical and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Walter E; Toole, John M; Stroud, Martha R; Haney, Jason S; Lazarchick, John; Crawford, Fred A; Ikonomidis, John S

    2011-06-01

    Refractory bleeding after complex cardiovascular surgery often leads to increased length of stay, cost, morbidity, and mortality. Recombinant activated factor VII administered in the intensive care unit can reduce bleeding, transfusion, and surgical re-exploration. We retrospectively compared factor VII administration in the intensive care unit with reoperation for refractory bleeding after complex cardiovascular surgery. From 1501 patients who underwent cardiovascular procedures between December 2003 and September 2007, 415 high-risk patients were identified. From this cohort, 24 patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they either received factor VII in the intensive care unit (n = 12) or underwent reoperation (n = 12) for refractory bleeding. Preoperative and postoperative data were collected to compare efficacy, safety, and economic outcomes. In-hospital survival for both groups was 100%. Factor VII was comparable with reoperation in achieving hemostasis, with both groups demonstrating decreases in chest tube output and need for blood products. Freedom from reoperation was achieved in 75% of patients receiving factor VII, whereas reoperation was effective in achieving hemostasis alone in 83.3% of patients. Prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and median operating room time were significantly less (P factor VII. Both groups had no statistically significant differences in other efficacy, safety, or economic outcomes. Factor VII administration in the intensive care unit appears comparable with reoperation for refractory bleeding after complex cardiovascular surgical procedures and might represent an alternative to reoperation in selected patients. Future prospective, randomized controlled trials might further define its role. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Together and apart: a typology of re-partnering in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Chaya

    2014-08-01

    The human need for love, friendship, and physical contact, and the fear of loneliness do not diminish with age. Widowhood and late-life divorce and increased life expectancy are likely to lead to alternative relationships, such as re-partnering. The purpose of this paper is to explore interplays between emotional and physical components of re-partnering in old age. Theoretical sampling of 20 couples included men who re-partnered at the age of 65+ years and women at the age of 60+ years, following termination of lifelong marriages due to death or divorce. Living arrangements included married or unmarried cohabitation under the same roof or in separate homes. Forty semi-structured interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The couple was the unit of analysis. Interplays between physical and emotional dimensions were examined using five abductive parameters derived from data analysis resulting in a fourfold typology of emotional and physical closeness/distance in re-partnering in old age: (1) living together (physically and emotionally); (2) living apart (physically) together (emotionally); (3) living together (physically) apart (emotionally); and (4) living apart (physically and emotionally). Findings revealed types of partner relationships that are different from lifelong marriages. The typology could help professionals working with older persons regarding what to expect in re-partnering in old age and be included in developmental theories as an option in old age. A quantitative tool for research and therapy purposes, entitled The Re-partnering in Old Age Typology Scale (RPOAT Scale), based on abductive parameters, could be established for measuring re-partnering relationship quality and classifying re-partnering couples.

  12. EPIQR - a decision making tool for apartment building refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccavelli, D. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Cedex (France); Balaras, C. [National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece); Bluyssen, P. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands); Flourentzou, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (France); Jaggs, M. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom); Wetzel, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fur Bauphysik, Holzkirchen (Germany); Wittchen, K. [Danish Building Reasearch Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    In a large majority of European countries, the amount of the maintenance and refurbishment works represents nearly 50% of the total amount spent in the building sector. New requirements are being added to the necessity of maintaining or re-establishing the building stock`s usage value. They are linked to the determination to reduce energy consumption, pollutant emissions, work site wastes, to improve the Indoor Environment Quality and all the modern conveniences inside apartment. Aware of this matter, the European Community has launched a two-year European research project, entitled EPIQR (Energy Performance, Indoor Environmental Quality, Retrofit) involving seven research institutions in the frame of the JOULE III programme. The purpose is to give architects and contracting authorities a multimedia tool to enable them to simultaneously grasp the whole process of apartment building refurbishment or retrofit. It has a number of functions: Assess the building`s degradation state based on a technical diagnosis after a standardised and complete inspection of the building; Prepare work proposals. These take into account not only the renovation of the building but also the improvement of the energy performance and IEQ; Estimate the costs corresponding to these works. A data base, containing the costs of 800 refurbishment works, provides a fast estimate of the total amount of the works being considered; Estimate the evolution of the degradation of the components if none of the works were to be carried out, as well as the refurbishment costs which would result. This paper provides an overview of the EPIQR methodology and the final deliverables of the project. (au)

  13. A Field Study of Wall Furnace Venting and Coincident Exhaust Fan Usage in 16 Northern California Apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brooks, Andrew [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Finn, Brian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To inform efforts to improve combustion appliance testing in residential energy efficiency programs, we studied the frequency of coincident fan use and depressurization-induced downdrafting and spillage from atmospherically vented (i.e., natural draft) wall furnaces in airtight apartments. Indoor environmental conditions, heating appliance operation, use of exhaust fans, and cooking with stovetop or oven were monitored for approximately three weeks each in 16 apartment units in two buildings in Northern California. Apartments also were assessed using standard combustion appliance safety test methods and enhanced protocols. Monitoring occurred in February and March of 2016, with heating demand corresponding to 7.3 ± 0.5 heating degree-days at a 65ºF reference temperature. Most of the furnaces spilled combustion products when the apartments were depressurized in the “worst-case” challenge condition of all exhaust fans operating at their highest settings and all windows closed. Many also spilled under less challenging conditions (e.g., with kitchen exhaust fan on low and bathroom fan operating). On average, bathroom exhaust fans were operated 3.9% of monitored minutes (13.5% max), and cooking (burner or kitchen fan operation) occurred 4.6% of minutes (max 13.3%). Event lengths averaged 17 minutes (max 540) and 34 minutes (max 324), respectively. Their coincident operation averaged 0.34% of minutes (max 2.0%), with average event length of 13 minutes (max 92 minutes). This suggests that the operation of apartment units at or near the currently used worst-case challenge condition is quite rare. Wall furnace burners operated an average of 2.8% of minutes (max of 8.9%), with average burner cycle length of 14 minutes (max 162). Coincident bath fan use, cooking and wall furnace operation was very rare, occurring only a handful of times across all apartments. The highest rate was 0.075% of monitored minutes in one apartment, and the longest event length was 12 minutes

  14. Nuclear power desalinating complex with IRIS reactor plant and Russian distillation desalinating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V. I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V. I.; Fateev, S. A.; Gureeva, L. V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has been prepared as a result of Russian activities on the development of nuclear power desalinating complex (NPDC) with the IRIS reactor plant (RP). The purpose of the activities was to develop the conceptual design of power desalinating complex (PDC) and to evaluate technical and economical indices, commercial attractiveness and economical efficiency of PDC based on an IRIS RP with distillation desalinating plants. The paper presents the main results of studies as applied to dual-purpose PDC based on IRIS RP with different types of desalinating plants, namely: characteristics of nuclear power desalinating complex based on IRIS reactor plant using Russian distillation desalinating technologies; prospective options of interface circuits of the IRIS RP with desalinating plants; evaluations of NPDC with IRIS RP output based on selected desalinating technologies for water and electric power supplied to the grid; cost of water generated by NPDC for selected interface circuits made by the IAEA DEEP code as well as by the Russian TEO-INVEST code; cost evaluation results for desalinated water of PDC operating on fossil fuel and conditions for competitiveness of the nuclear PDC based on IRIS RP compared with analog desalinating complexes operating on fossil fuel.(author)

  15. Business model innovation in electricity supply markets: The role of complex value in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Stephen; Roelich, Katy

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the new opportunities that business model innovations are creating in electricity supply markets at the sub-national scale. These local supply business models can offer significant benefits to the electricity system, but also generate economic, social, and environmental values that are not well accounted for in current policy or regulation. This paper uses the UK electricity supply market to investigate new business models which rely on more complex value propositions than the incumbent utility model. Nine archetypal local supply business models are identified and their value propositions, value capture methods, and barriers to market entry are analysed. This analysis defines 'complex value' as a key concept in understanding business model innovation in the energy sector. The process of complex value identification poses a challenge to energy researchers, commercial firms and policymakers in liberalised markets; to investigate the opportunities for system efficiency and diverse outcomes that new supplier business models can offer to the electricity system. - Highlights: •Business models of energy supply markets shape energy transitions. •The British system misses four opportunities of local electricity supply. •Nine new business model archetypes of local supply are analysed. •New electricity business models have complex value propositions. •A process for policy response to business model innovation is presented.

  16. 75 FR 53261 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Skate Complex Fishery; Reduction of Skate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...NMFS announces the reduction of the skate wing fishery possession limit for the Skate Management Unit for the remainder of the 2010 fishing year. Regulations governing the skate fishery require publication of this notification to advise skate-permitted vessels that 80 percent of the annual total allowable landings (TAL) of skate wings is projected to be harvested and to announce that the skate wing possession limit is reduced.

  17. Use of Special Operations Forces in United Nations Missions: a Method to Resolve Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    physical stamina and psychological stability, followed by a rigorous training program are the imperatives to create SOF soldiers.42 Mark Bowden in...recommendation is that the United Nations should establish a Special Operations planning cell within the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. As of...now, the cell is nonexistent. This cell should be able to facilitate the integration of SOF into the overall peace operations concept. Finally, the

  18. 75 FR 3434 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Skate Complex Fishery; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...NMFS proposes regulations to implement measures in Amendment 3 to the Northeast Skate Complex Fishery Management Plan (Skate FMP). Amendment 3 was developed by the New England Fishery Management Council (Council) to rebuild overfished skate stocks and implement annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs) consistent with the requirements of the reauthorized Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act). Amendment 3 would implement a rebuilding plan for smooth skate and establish an ACL and annual catch target (ACT) for the skate complex, total allowable landings (TAL) for the skate wing and bait fisheries, seasonal quotas for the bait fishery, reduced possession limits, in-season possession limit triggers, and other measures to improve management of the skate fisheries. This proposed rule also includes skate fishery specifications for fishing years (FY) 2010 and 2011.

  19. Silver-tellurolate polynuclear complexes: from isolated cluster units to extended polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, J.F.; Fenske, D.; Power, W.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the presence of tertiary phosphanes, AgCl reacts readily with the reagent Te(Ph)SiMe 3 to yield silver - tellurolate polynuclear complexes. In the case of PMe 3 , the polymer [Ag 10 (μ 3 -TePh) 10 (PMe 3 ) 2 ] ∞ (shown below) is formed, in which the TePh ligands seve as both inter- and intracluster bridges. (orig.)

  20. Price Determinants of Affordable Apartments in Vietnam: Toward the Public–Private Partnerships for Sustainable Housing Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducksu Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Doi Moi policy of economic reform in 1986, Vietnam has experienced economic development and housing market growth with increasing foreign direct investment. While high-end apartment development has dominated since the emergence of the privatized housing market, more recent focus is on the affordable apartment segment with the remarkable surge of middle-income households in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. While most previous studies have analyzed housing price determinants based on locational classification, this study is based on the affordability framework of the housing market in HCMC. It aims to investigate the price determinants of affordable and unaffordable apartment units using the hedonic regression model. The study identified common factors between the two types of apartments, such as vertical shared access and proximity to downtown, as well as unique factors for each, such as more high-rise towers, foreign development, proximity to main roads, and shopping malls only for the affordable segments. The findings have valuable implications, not only for future investors and developers in setting up successful housing development strategies, but also for the public sector in strongly encouraging public–private partnerships for sustainable housing development in Vietnam.

  1. Time dependence of 50 Hz magnetic fields in apartment buildings with indoor transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Hareuveny, Ronen; Kandel, Shaiela; Ruppin, Raphael

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-four hour measurements of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) in apartment buildings containing transformer stations have been performed. The apartments were classified into four types, according to their location relative to the transformer room. Temporal correlation coefficients between the MF in various apartments, as well as between MF and transformer load curves, were calculated. It was found that, in addition to their high average MF, the apartments located right above the transformer room also exhibit unique temporal correlation properties.

  2. 'Kazmer' a complex noise diagnostic system for 1000 MWe PWR WWER type nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.

    1992-06-01

    Noise diagnostic systems have previously been developed and installed for the WWER-440 type reactors at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Based on the experiences, the system has been extended and modified for use in 1000 MWe, WWER-1000 type units. KAZMER consists of three subsystem, the KARD reactor noise diagnostic system, ARGUS vibration monitoring system for rotation machinery, and ALMOS acoustic monitoring system. The installation of the KAZMER system at the Kalinin Nuclear Power Station, Russia, and the first operational experiences are outlined. (R.P.) 15 refs.; 9 figs

  3. A method for work modeling at complex systems: towards applying information systems in family health care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatobá, Alessandro; de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R; da Cunha, Amauri Marques

    2012-01-01

    Work in organizations requires a minimum level of consensus on the understanding of the practices performed. To adopt technological devices to support the activities in environments where work is complex, characterized by the interdependence among a large number of variables, understanding about how work is done not only takes an even greater importance, but also becomes a more difficult task. Therefore, this study aims to present a method for modeling of work in complex systems, which allows improving the knowledge about the way activities are performed where these activities do not simply happen by performing procedures. Uniting techniques of Cognitive Task Analysis with the concept of Work Process, this work seeks to provide a method capable of providing a detailed and accurate vision of how people perform their tasks, in order to apply information systems for supporting work in organizations.

  4. A new textile-drying technology with heat pump for multifamily apartment houses; Waermepumpentumbler fuer Mehrfamilienhaeuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzwald, E.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this project is the introduction on the market of a new textile drying technology for multifamily apartment houses, the so called HED-technique. Although very well tested, this new product is more or less unknown to potential clients. The main object of this project is the manufacturing of a set of 10 demonstration units because usually in case of need, dryers have to be supplied very quickly. In this way we can demonstrate the advantage of our units and hopefully may be able to find companies interested in selling our units by already existing channels. We would be able to manufacture small series of units, but it would be difficult for us to make a profit after costs of sales promotion have been deducted. The interest of the company Miele in our product before the first prototype was fabricated, means that we have reached the target earlier as we could expect. Now we are in a much better position for getting our special HED heat pump on the market, because we can better integrate the market needs and the users' point of view in our final design for future mass production, in co-operating with Miele. (author)

  5. Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits of Apartments in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Monthly gas and electricity use data from a set of 13 study apartments and 20 control apartments from three apartment buildings (B1 B3) in California were analyzed. The study apartments were retrofit with simultaneous energy savings and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) improvements as the goal. The control apartments were not retrofit. Pre-retrofit modeling indicated annual energy savings of 21percent, 17percent, and 27percent for the study apartments in B1-B3, respectively. Based on a comparison of changes in energy use of study apartments to energy use changes of control apartments, total measured savings of gas energy plus site electrical energy were 28percent in B1, 5percent in B2, and 3percent in B3. Given the small number of study apartments and the substantial changes in energy use within control apartments, the project yielded no conclusive evidence of energy savings. Apartment energy use increased with number of occupants and with floor area; however, the association with occupancy was most evident. Climate differences did not appear to be the major driver for the variability in energy use among apartments. Changes in occupant behaviors affecting energy use may have overwhelmed and obscured the energy savings in this small number of buildings. Much larger prior studies employing similar retrofits indicate that the retrofits usually do save energy.

  6. Remotely Telling Humans and Computers Apart: An Unsolved Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Castro, Carlos Javier; Ribagorda, Arturo

    The ability to tell humans and computers apart is imperative to protect many services from misuse and abuse. For this purpose, tests called CAPTCHAs or HIPs have been designed and put into production. Recent history shows that most (if not all) can be broken given enough time and commercial interest: CAPTCHA design seems to be a much more difficult problem than previously thought. The assumption that difficult-AI problems can be easily converted into valid CAPTCHAs is misleading. There are also some extrinsic problems that do not help, especially the big number of in-house designs that are put into production without any prior public critique. In this paper we present a state-of-the-art survey of current HIPs, including proposals that are now into production. We classify them regarding their basic design ideas. We discuss current attacks as well as future attack paths, and we also present common errors in design, and how many implementation flaws can transform a not necessarily bad idea into a weak CAPTCHA. We present examples of these flaws, using specific well-known CAPTCHAs. In a more theoretical way, we discuss the threat model: confronted risks and countermeasures. Finally, we introduce and discuss some desirable properties that new HIPs should have, concluding with some proposals for future work, including methodologies for design, implementation and security assessment.

  7. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  8. Does apartment's distance to an in-built transformer room predict magnetic field exposure levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Goris, Kelly; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that magnetic field exposure in apartments located directly on top or adjacent to transformer rooms is higher compared with exposure in apartments located further away from the transformer rooms. It is unclear whether this also translates into exposure contrast among individuals living in these apartments. We performed spot measurements of magnetic fields in 35 apartments in 14 apartment buildings with an in-built transformer and additionally performed 24-h personal measurements in a subsample of 24 individuals. Apartments placed directly on top of or adjacent to a transformer room had on average exposures of 0.42 μT, apartments on the second floor on top of a transformer room, or sharing a corner or edge with the transformer room had 0.11 μT, and apartments located further away from the transformer room had levels of 0.06 μT. Personal exposure levels were approximately a factor 2 lower compared with apartment averages, but still showed exposure contrasts, but only for those individuals who live in the apartments directly on top or adjacent to a transformer room compared with those living further away, with 0.23 versus 0.06 μT for personal exposure when indoors, respectively. A classification of individuals into 'high' and 'low' exposed based on the location of their apartment within a building with an in-built transformer is possible and could be applied in future epidemiological studies.

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES IN AMMONIA UNIT OF RAZI PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND FEASIBILITY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakheri Raouf, R. Nabizadeh and N. Jafarzadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries are considered as strategic and important sectors in economic development of Iran. Razi petrochemical factory is one of complex in Iran, established in 1970 with 100 hectare. In this research, the possibility of waste minimization in the ammonia unit of Razi petrochemical complex with about 1000 tons per year was studied for a period of 18 months from September 2003 to April 2005. More than 20 site visits were conducted and the required information was collected. Factors such as industrial solid wastes quality and quantity, sources of generation, production period and the present management practice, were studied. Petrochemical solid wastes were classified based on the recommended method of the United Nations and appropriate policies were suggested for waste minimization. The collected results of this study show production of 185 tons of industrial solid wastes from 45 sources which contained 68.5% catalysts, 10.25% metal barrels, 18.61% aluminum ball, 2.62% plastic barrels and 0.02% paper. 93.3% of these wastes were generated as the result of catalysts change, 3.3% as the result of using chemicals and oils, 1.7% as the result of methanol solution amid application, and 1.1% because of aluminum ball changes. Based on the UNEP methods, the ammonia unit wastes classified as 19/7%hazadrous and 87,12% non hazardous. At present 87.12% of these wastes are being dumped in the area and 12.88% are sold. Proposed procedures for waste minimization contain 68.5% reuse and recycling and 31.5% recycling.

  10. Special Needs Dentistry: Interdisciplinary Management of Medically-Complex Patients at Hospital-Based Dental Units in Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing awareness of the interactions between oral and general health has led to the establishment of Special Needs Dentistry as a dental specialty in many countries. This specialty assists with the interdisciplinary management of patients between the medical and dental professions particularly those with complex medical problems, intellectual and physical impairments, and psychiatric conditions that may affect their oral health or the manner in which they receive treatment. However, little is known about the utilisation of specialised services provided to facilitate individuals with these needs. Aim: The aim of this study was to understand current utilisation of hospital-based dental services established to provide medically-necessary dental care. Methods: A retrospective review of the demographics and medical status of patients treated at referral hospital-based dental clinics in the state of Tasmania was completed for the month of August 2015. Results: Patients treated at these units had a variety of medical backgrounds. Most (46.4% were referred from medical professionals within the hospital. On average, patients treated at these units had 2.56 medical conditions and were taking 3.59 medications each. Many of these were chronic medical conditions known to have an interaction with oral health. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the growing recognition of dynamic interactions between oral and general health and the importance of these hospitalbased units and interprofessional relationships in providing timely and holistic health care to these patients.

  11. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, John W; Wear, David N; Vose, James M

    2015-01-23

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr(-1)) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr(-1)). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr(-1), respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr(-1)) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr(-1)). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

  12. Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems on calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indexes of NPP power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.I.; Koryagin, A.V.; Ruzankov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems concerning calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indices of NPP power units is described. In the system there are means for automated preparation and debugging of data base software complex, which realizes th plotted algorithm in the power unit control system. Besides, in the system there are devices for automated preparation and registration of technical documentation

  13. Complexity of resistance mechanisms to imipenem in intensive care unit strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Damien; Richardot, Charlotte; Müller, Emeline; Robert-Nicoud, Marjorie; Llanes, Catherine; Plésiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy

    2013-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can become resistant to carbapenems by both intrinsic (mutation-driven) and transferable (β-lactamase-based) mechanisms. Knowledge of the prevalence of these various mechanisms is important in intensive care units (ICUs) in order to define optimal prevention and therapeutic strategies. A total of 109 imipenem-non-susceptible (MIC >4 mg/L) strains of P. aeruginosa were collected in June 2010 from the ICUs of 26 French public hospitals. Their resistance mechanisms were characterized by phenotypic, enzymatic, western blotting and molecular methods. Single or associated imipenem resistance mechanisms were identified among the 109 strains. Seven isolates (6.4%) were found to produce a metallo-β-lactamase (one VIM-1, four VIM-2, one VIM-4 and one IMP-29). Porin OprD was lost in 94 (86.2%) strains as a result of mutations or gene disruption by various insertion sequences (ISPa1635, ISPa1328, IS911, ISPs1, IS51, IS222 and ISPa41). Thirteen other strains were shown to be regulatory mutants in which down-regulation of oprD was coupled with overexpressed efflux pumps CzcCBA (n = 1), MexXY (n = 9) and MexEF-OprN (n = 3). The lack of OprD was due to disruption of the oprD promoter by ISPsy2 in one strain and alteration of the porin signal sequence in another. Imipenem resistance in ICU P. aeruginosa strains may result from multiple mechanisms involving metallo-β-lactamase gene acquisition and genetic events (mutations and ISs) inactivating oprD, turning down its expression while increasing efflux activities or preventing insertion of porin OprD in the outer membrane. This diversity of mechanisms allows P. aeruginosa, more than any other nosocomial pathogen, to rapidly adapt to carbapenems in ICUs.

  14. Burkholderia cepacia complex infection in an Adult Cystic Fibrosis unit in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Ruiz, Ana; Girón, Rosa; Buendía, Buenaventura; Medina-Pascual, M José; Valenzuela, Claudia; López-Brea, Manuel; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex have emerged as significant pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients due to the risk of cepacia syndrome and the innate multi-resistance of the microorganisms to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, the genotypes and subtypes of BCC, and the clinical evolution of CF patients with BCC. The lung function and Brasfield and Shwachman score were assessed in 12 patients. BCC were identified and susceptibility was studied by MicroScan (Siemens). Species and genospecies of BCC were confirmed by molecular methods in a Reference Centre (Majadahonda). BCC were identified in 12 of 70 patients (17.1%) over a ten year period. The mean age to colonization by BCC was 24.4 years (SD: 7.71). B. cenocepacia was isolated in 4 patients (33.3%), B. contaminans was isolated in 3 patients (25%), both B. vietnamiensis and B. stabilis were isolated in 2 patients (16.7%), and B. cepacia, B. multivorans and B. late were isolated in one patient (8.3%). Among the B. cenocepacia, subtype IIIa was identified in two strains, and subtype IIIb was identified in the other two strains. There was susceptibility to meropenem in 90% of BCC, 80% to cotrimoxazole, 60% to minocycline, 50% to ceftazidime, and 40% to levofloxacin. B. cenocepacia was the most prevalent species among the BCC isolated in CF adult patients, and subtypes IIIa and IIIb were identified in the 50% of the strains. Meropenem and cotrimoxazole showed the best activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Case Study of High-Dose Ketamine for Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Tracy Ann; Crowley, Kelli; Campese, Catherine; Lauer, Rachel; Yang, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a life-altering and debilitating chronic pain condition. The authors are presenting a case study of a female who received high-dose ketamine for the management of her CRPS. The innovative treatment lies not only within the pharmacologic management of her pain, but also in the fact that she was the first patient to be admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit solely for pain control. The primary component of the pharmacotherapy treatment strategy plan was escalating-dose ketamine infusion via patient-controlled-analgesia approved by the pharmacy and therapeutics committee guided therapy for this patient. The expertise of advanced practice nurses blended exquisitely to ensure patient and family-centered care and the coordination of care across the illness trajectory. The patient experienced positive outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Moving Apart and Coming Together: Discourse, Engagement, and Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoll, Andrea S.; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Tolar, Erin; Šabanovic, Selma; Francisco, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    An important part of "doing" science is engaging in collaborative science practices. To better understand how to support these practices, we need to consider how students collaboratively construct and represent shared understanding in complex, problem-oriented, and authentic learning environments. This research presents a case study…

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the Ambient Air Of Concentration Unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Zrandi, A.; Akhgar, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollutants including gases, vapors and particles, are emitted from different sources. Volatile organic compounds are the most important pollutants in the ambient air of industries. The present study was carried out to identify and measurement of volatile organic compounds in concentration unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex. In this study, sampling of the volatile organic compounds was done by using activated charcoal tube. To identify and measure these compounds gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy were used. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were identified in the ambient air of concentration unit. Among these compounds, the mean value and maximum concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane were 255, 640 μg/m3 and 1577, 14400 μg/m3, respectively. By using SPSS software and independent sample t- test, showed that there were no significant difference between mean value concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane in the ambient air and TLV values of these compounds (isopropyl alcohol; 200 ppm and nonane; 200 ppm) (P >0.05).

  18. POLYCLONAL OUTBREAK OF BLOODSTREAM INFECTIONS CAUSED BY Burkholderia cepacia COMPLEX IN HEMATOLOGY AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT OUTPATIENT UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Boszczowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective was to describe an outbreak of bloodstream infections by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc in bone marrow transplant and hematology outpatients. Methods: On February 15, 2008 a Bcc outbreak was suspected. 24 cases were identified. Demographic and clinical data were evaluated. Environment and healthcare workers' (HCW hands were cultured. Species were determined and typed. Reinforcement of hand hygiene, central venous catheter (CVC care, infusion therapy, and maintenance of laminar flow cabinet were undertaken. 16 different HCWs had cared for the CVCs. Multi-dose heparin and saline were prepared on counter common to both units. Findings: 14 patients had B. multivorans (one patient had also B. cenopacia, six non-multivorans Bcc and one did not belong to Bcc. Clone A B. multivorans occurred in 12 patients (from Hematology; in 10 their CVC had been used on February 11/12. Environmental and HCW cultures were negative. All patients were treated with meropenem, and ceftazidime lock-therapy. Eight patients (30% were hospitalized. No deaths occurred. After control measures (multidose vial for single patient; CVC lock with ceftazidime; cleaning of laminar flow cabinet; hand hygiene improvement; use of cabinet to store prepared medication, no new cases occurred. Conclusions: This polyclonal outbreak may be explained by a common source containing multiple species of Bcc, maybe the laminar flow cabinet common to both units. There may have been contamination by B. multivorans (clone A of multi-dose vials.

  19. Children of Military Families: A Part and Yet Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    engaged in authoritarian occupations (i.e., military, police) are unusually low in self-esteem. Coopersmith (!967) found that children of fathers...between types of families. This is contrary to prior findings (Rosenberg, 1965; Coopersmith , 1967) which suggest that chi!dren, particularly males...Congressional Record. United States Congress, February 1973. Coopersmith , S. 1967. The Antecedents of Self-esteemn. S,.n Francisco: WA-I. Freematn

  20. Crystal structures of titanium–aluminium and –gallium complexes bearing two μ2-CH3 units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Oswald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The isotypic crystal structures of two titanocene complexes containing an EMe3 unit (E = Al, Ga; Me = methyl with two μ2-coordinating methyl groups, namely [μ-1(η5-(adamantan-1-yl-2κC1cycylopentadienyl]di-μ2-methyl-methyl-2κC-[1(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]aluminiumtitanium(III, [AlTi(CH33(C10H15(C15H18], and [μ-1(η5-(adamantan-1-yl-2κC1cycylopentadienyl]di-μ2-methyl-methyl-2κC-[1(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]galliumtitanium(III, [GaTi(CH33(C10H15(C15H18], are reported. Reacting a dinuclear nitrogen-bridged low-valent titanium(III complex with the Lewis acids AlMe3 or GaMe3 results in the loss of molecular dinitrogen and the formation of two monomeric titanocene(III fragments bearing two μ2-bridging methyl groups. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of a new E—C bond involving the pentafulvene ligand while the bridging and terminal methyl groups remain intact.

  1. A systematic approach to assessing the state of the apartment blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Shpak Aleksandr S.

    2015-01-01

    Problems of management system of apartment houses are actualized. The SWOT-analysis of apartment houses management system using qualitative and quantitative methods is conducted. Based on the SWOT-analysis we show summarized expert evaluation and binary evaluation of apartment houses management system problems in the urban district. Also based on the SWOT-analysis results we highlight the need for model measures package ("road map") application to ensure information transparency and accountab...

  2. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    systems. All the ventilation units are equipped with parallel plate cross flow heat exchangers. The analysis in present article is based on the measured indoor quality parameters as well as energy consumptions. Among four different types of ventilation systems, Type 1 is a traditional decentralized...... ventilation system which works only on two speeds i.e. high airflow rates when kitchen exhaust is on otherwise nominal airflow rates. Type 2 ventilation systems are the decentralized ventilation system with motion sensors in hallways, humidity sensors in rooms and kitchen exhaust hood sensors. Type 3...... ventilation system is a centralized ventilation system with the motion sensors in hallways and toilets, humidity sensors in each room, and kitchen exhaust hood sensors. Type 4 ventilation system is a centralized ventilation system with only kitchen exhaust hood sensor. Type 2, Type 3 and Type 4 ventilation...

  3. Conservation Below The Species Level: Suitable Evolutionarily Significant Units Among Mountain Vipers (The Montivipera Raddei Complex) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Roozbeh; Kaboli, Mohammad; Arnal, Véronique; Nazarizadeh, Masoud; Asadi, Atefeh; Salmanian, Amin; Ahmadi, Mohsen; Montgelard, Claudine

    2018-02-01

    Northern and western mountains of Iran are among the most important biodiversity and endemism hot spots for reptiles in the Middle East. Among herpetofauna, the montivipers represent an emblematic and fragmented endemic group for which estimating their level of genetic differentiation and defining conservation priorities is urgently needed. Here, we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic study on the Montivipera raddei species group comprising all five known taxa, among which three are endemic to Iran. Based on two mitochondrial genes, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed three major lineages each presenting very contrasting distribution area. The Iranian montivipers are highly structured in clades showing low genetic diversity and corresponding to high altitude summits. Molecular dating revealed the role of Quaternary paleo-climatic oscillations and altitudinal movements of montivipers in shaping genetic diversity and differentiation of these sky-island taxa. In addition, the best scenario of historical biogeography allowed identifying three possible refugial areas in Iran most likely arising by vicariance. Based on our mitochondrial results and pending additional data, we recognize three candidate species among the Montivipera raddei complex: M. raddei, M.latifii and M. kuhrangica that are coherent with their geographical distribution. We propose that the most appropriate Evolutionary Significant Units for conservation of the montivipers are represented by thirteen units among which six are recognized as high priority. Finally, we suggest some recommendations to the IUCN as well as to the Iranian conservation policies with respect to conservation prioritization. © The American Genetic Association 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Methodological approach in determination of small spatial units in a highly complex terrain in atmospheric pollution research: the case of Zasavje region in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukec, Andreja; Boznar, Marija Z; Mlakar, Primoz; Grasic, Bostjan; Herakovic, Andrej; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The study of atmospheric air pollution research in complex terrains is challenged by the lack of appropriate methodology supporting the analysis of the spatial relationship between phenomena affected by a multitude of factors. The key is optimal design of a meaningful approach based on small spatial units of observation. The Zasavje region, Slovenia, was chosen as study area with the main objective to investigate in practice the role of such units in a test environment. The process consisted of three steps: modelling of pollution in the atmosphere with dispersion models, transfer of the results to geographical information system software, and then moving on to final determination of the function of small spatial units. A methodology capable of designing useful units for atmospheric air pollution research in highly complex terrains was created, and the results were deemed useful in offering starting points for further research in the field of geospatial health.

  5. Data-mining analysis of the provision of mobility devices in the United States with emphasis on complex rehab technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Johnson Taylor, Susan

    2017-11-28

    The objective of this study was to describe the provision of wheeled-mobility equipment from the perspective of a large equipment supplier in the United States. The records of clients who were prescribed a mobility device over a 6-month period were randomly sampled to product a dataset of 1,689 clients. Analysis was limited to descriptive statistics and measures of relationships. The majority of the clients were adults (72%) and female (58%) with 62% receiving a manual wheelchair. The majority of interventions (58%) included some contribution from the client or client's family. Overall, 86% of all prescribed wheelchairs were classified as complex rehab technology (CRT). About half (52%) of all interventions involved a therapist. Therapist involvement was 2.5 times more likely during CRT interventions compared to standard durable medical equipment (StdDME). The project provides a novel description of mobility-related equipment provision using a large retrospective dataset. The analysis demonstrates the utility of analyzing a large number of client interventions. The capabilities of such analyses have business, clinical, and policy implications. Combining the data available from suppliers with prospective collection of client-specific information, such as outcomes, would be a more powerful means to assess the provision of wheeled-mobility equipment.

  6. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteremia in a chemotherapy day care unit due to intrinsic contamination of an antiemetic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the end of 2009, a large number of patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy at the day care unit of a private hospital in Mumbai, India developed Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC blood stream infection (BSI. Objective: The objectives were to identify the source of the outbreak and terminate the outbreak as rapidly as possible. Materials and Methods: All infection control protocols and processes were reviewed. Intensive training was started for all nursing staff involved in patient care. Cultures were sent from the environment (surfaces, water, air, intravenous fluids, disinfectants and antiseptics and opened/unopened medication. Results: A total of 13 patients with cancer with tunneled catheters were affected with BCC BSI. The isolates were of similar antimicrobial sensitivity. No significant breach of infection control protocols could be identified. Cultures from the prepared intravenous medication bags grew BCC. Subsequently, culture from unused vials of the antiemetic granisetron grew BCC, whereas those from the unopened IV fluid bag and chemotherapy medication were negative. On review, it was discovered that the outbreak started when a new brand of granisetron was introduced. The result was communicated to the manufacturer and the brand was withdrawn. There were no further cases. Conclusions: This outbreak was thus linked to intrinsic contamination of medication vials. We acknowledge a delay in identifying the source as we were concentrating more on human errors in medication preparation and less on intrinsic contamination. We recommend that in an event of an outbreak, unopened vials be cultured at the outset.

  7. CO2 Emissions and Cost by Floor Types of Public Apartment Houses in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jae Jang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In each country in the world, there is a strong need for all industries to reduce CO2 emissions for sustainable development as a preparation for climatic change. The biggest issue in many developed countries, including the United States, is to reduce CO2 emissions for the upcoming implementation of Carbon Emissions Trading. The construction industry, in particular, which accounts for up about 30% of CO2 emissions, will need studies on the amount of CO2 emissions. The purpose of this study is to present the most environmentally friendly and economical apartment house plan types according to the increasing number of layers by evaluating the amount of CO2 emissions and economic efficiency. The results indicated that flat and Y-shaped types are more eco-friendly and economical in lower levels of less than 20 stories. However, the L-shaped type is more highly eco-friendly and economically efficient in higher levels of more than 20 stories. The results of this paper would help to make a decision on the building types and the number of stories in the early stages of construction.

  8. Numerical analysis of natural ventilation system in a studio apartment in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K. M. Ariful; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Khan, Md. Abdul Hakim

    2017-07-01

    The study of temperature and air flow for natural ventilation system has been investigated numerically. A finite element model for studio apartment was developed with the aim of achieving detail energy allocation in the real buildings during the transient process in the walls and internal air. A tool of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is employed to assist the process. In the tropical regions most of the energy is consumed by the heating, cooling and ventilation appliances. Therefore, the optimize ventilation system will be a suitable and valid option for the saving of energy from the household sector to increase cooling performance and ensuring thermal comfort as well. A mathematical exploration is carried out on full scale dwelling and small scale model and indication is given on the relevance of such a comparison. Calculations are carried out with household heat sources for calm and windy period, but without any human. As expected, for windy periods, the wind is the main driving force behind the internal air flow. However, in calm periods for unsteady flow the internal airflow looks like more complexes through observation.

  9. Okonkwo’s fate and the worldview of Things Fall Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Foley

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that despite the apparently exhaustive critical attention paid to Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958, certain key aspects of the novel’s meaning remain unresolved. At the heart of the problem lies the question of how to interpret the reasons for Okonkwo’s downfall or fate. The article suggests that a number of different sources of explanation appear to be plausible at various levels, but it goes on to demonstrate that at least some of these putative explanations are incompatible if not mutually exclusive. The more general difficulty arising from this is that several of these explanations are underpinned by worldviews which differ from and even conflict with each other. The article intends, therefore, through an exploration of the possible reasons for Okonkwo’s demise, to consider what worldview the novel finally supports and, indeed, whether the novel’s outlook is coherent at all. The chief conclusion is that although the overall perspective of the novel is highly complex, it does not necessarily follow that the actual meaning of the novel itself is either illogical or selfcontradictory.

  10. Building America Case Study: Retrofitting Garden-Style Apartments, Brooklyn, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Nolen, S. Maxwell, R. Neri, J. Grab

    2016-12-01

    This research effort sought to achieve a solution package that yields energy savings greater than 30 percent over the pre-existing conditions in a minimally intrusive multifamily retrofit project. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with L+M Development Partners, Inc. on a Mitchell-Lama Housing Program project, Marcus Garvey Village, in Brooklyn, NY (Climate Zone 4A). The Mitchell-Lama Housing Program is a form of housing subsidy in the state of New York that provides affordable rental and cooperative housing to moderate- and middle-income families. Marcus Garvey Village was founded in 1975 and contains 625 residential units (ranging from studios to 5-bedroom units) in thirty-two 4-story garden-style apartment structures built with concrete and faced in light brown brick. The single largest challenge for implementation of energy conservation measures at Marcus Garvey was working within occupied spaces. Measures are being implemented in phases to minimize disruption. As of August 2015, the retrofit work is over 50 percent complete. The wall insulation, sealing of the through wall AC vent, and installation of new oil-filled electric baseboards with advanced controls are conducted at one time, limiting disruption to the living room space. In a similar fashion, the kitchen work is done, then the bathroom. The final selection of energy conservation measures is projected to save 26.5 percent in source energy with a cost just under $3.7 million and utility bill savings of nearly $480,000 (of an average $1.8 million annual utility cost for the development).

  11. The perceptual trap: Experimental and modelling examples of soil moisture, hydraulic conductivity and response units in complex subsurface settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Demand, Dominic; Allroggen, Niklas; Loritz, Ralf; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    In order to discuss hypothesis testing in hydrology, the question of the solid foundation of such tests has to be answered. But how certain are we about our measurements of the components of the water balance and the states and dynamics of the complex systems? What implicit assumptions or bias are already embedded in our perception of the processes? How can we find light in the darkness of heterogeneity? We will contribute examples from experimental findings, modelling approaches and landscape analysis to the discussion. Example soil moisture and the soil continuum: The definition of soil moisture as fraction of water in the porous medium assumes locally well-mixed conditions. Moreover, a unique relation of soil water retention presumes instant local thermodynamic equilibrium in the pore water arrangement. We will show findings from soil moisture responses to precipitation events, from irrigation experiments, and from a model study of initial infiltration velocities. The results highlight, that the implicit assumption relating soil moisture state dynamics with actual soil water flow is biased towards the slow end of the actual velocity distribution and rather blind for preferential flow acting in a very small proportion of the pore space. Moreover, we highlight the assumption of a well-defined continuum during the extrapolation of point-scale measurements and why spatially and temporally continuous observation techniques of soil water states are essential for advancing our understanding and development of subsurface process theories. Example hydraulic conductivity: Hydraulic conductivity lies at the heart of hydrological research and modelling. Its values can range across several orders of magnitude at a single site alone. Yet, we often consider it a crisp, effective parameter. We have conducted measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity in the lab and in the field. Moreover, we assessed infiltration capacity and conducted plot-scale irrigation experiments to

  12. Systems for apartment buildings heat pumps. Final report; System foer fastighetsvaermepumpar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakervall, Daniel (WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rogstam, Joergen; Grotherus, Maarten (Sveriges Energi- och Kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    A fast growing segment of the heat pump business is the apartment building applications. Historically the experience base related to such installations is limited. However, this application is more complex than the much more widely spread domestic applications. The core idea of the project was to generate and collect information to avoid mistakes and to encourage the heat pump technology. By interviewing the 'market' and compiling the information good recommendations has been achieved. It is of great importance to convey the best available recommendations to the installers on the market to avoid pit holes and highlight the opportunities for installers and end consumers. A website has been design and built, www.sfvp.se, which contains useful tools for installers and potential system customers. A number of calculation tools to estimate heat requirement, cost of different heating systems, primary energy need, LCC, etc. are all available. The core of the site is the database containing heat pump installations with related data of importance. The data available is such key data as performance figures, cost of installation, etc. Today 104 system installations are collected in the database and these are marked in a colour coding to indicate the quality of the input data. Installations verified with measurement are given higher significance. It has been an unexpected challenge to find documented systems, so one of the conclusions of the project is that there is a great need for further measurement on the field. More information should be directed to the customers to request such equipment when systems are installed. The database enables statistical analysis of the key figures and it can be seen that the average seasonal COP is 3.2 and there are small differences between exhaust air and ground source heat pumps. It should be emphasised that the number of installations do not give statistical confidence for all kinds of analysis yet. Field measurements in apartment

  13. Gravity driven and in situ fractional crystallization processes in the Centre Hill complex, Abitibi Subprovince, Canada: Evidence from bilaterally-paired cyclic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, R. D.; Fowler, A. D.

    1996-12-01

    The formation of layers in mafic intrusions has been explained by various processes, making it the subject of much controversy. The concept that layering originates from gravitational settling of crystals has been superseded in recent years by models involving in situ fractional crystallization. Here we present evidence from the Centre Hill complex that both processes may be operative simultaneously within the same intrusion. The Centre Hill complex is part of the Munro Lake sill, an Archean layered mafic intrusion emplaced in volcanic rocks of the Abitibi Subprovince. The Centre Hill complex comprises the following lithostratigraphic units: six lower cyclic units of peridotite and clinopyroxenite; a middle unit of leucogabbro; six upper cyclic units of branching-textured gabbro (BTG) and clotted-textured gabbro (CTG), the uppermost of these units being overlain by a marginal zone of fine-grained gabbro. The cyclic units of peridotite/clinopyroxenite and BTG/CTG are interpreted to have formed concurrently through fractional crystallization, associated with periodic replenishment of magma to the chamber. The units of peridotite and clinopyroxenite formed by gravitational accumulation of crystals that grew under the roof. The cyclic units of BTG and CTG formed along the upper margin of the sill by two different mechanisms: (1) layers of BTG crystallized in situ along an inward-growing roof and (2) layers of CTG formed by accumulation of buoyant plagioclase crystals. The layers of BTG are characterized by branching pseudomorphs after fayalite up to 50 cm in length that extend away from the upper margin. The original branching crystals are interpreted to have grown from stagnant intercumulus melt in a high thermal gradient resulting from the injection of new magma to the chamber.

  14. Endemic carbapenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex in intensive care units of the national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saharman, Y.R. (Yulia Rosa); Karuniawati, A. (Anis); Sedono, R. (Rudyanto); Aditianingsih, D. (Dita); Sudarmono, P. (Pratiwi); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); Klaassen, C.H.W. (Corné H.W.); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex have emerged worldwide, but the epidemiology in Indonesian hospitals has not been studied. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed on the intensive care units (ICUs) of the national referral

  15. The specchio unit (northern apennines, Italy): An ancient mass transport complex originated from near-coastal areas in an intra-slope setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogata, Kei; Tinterri, Roberto; Pini, Gian Andrea; Mutti, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Within the Eocene-Oligocene syn-orogenic deposits of the Epiligurian succession (Northern Apennines of Italy), a field-based study of the Specchio Unit (lower Rupelian) reveals that this complex is made up of three distinct but amalgamated mass-transport deposits (MTDs), the largest of which reaches

  16. The relationship between mental health and social solidarity among apartment residents in shahrekord, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Forouzan; Nekooee, Afsaneh; Safdari, Faranak; Parvin, Neda; Shafei, Akbar; Ganji, Hanife

    2012-01-01

    To examine the relationship between psychological well-being and social solidarity of apartment residents in Shahrekord, Iran. A sample of 200 apartment dwellers was selected randomly. Fessler Social Solidarity Inventory and General Health Questionnaire were used to gather data. Using partial correlation test and having controlled the effect of age, sex and education, we found significant relationship between mental health and social solidarity (r = 0.47; p= 0.023). After controlling education and marital status, it was also revealed that women were in a better solidarity situation compared to men (psolidarity of apartment residents in Sharekord. Good mental health accompanied with better social solidarity.

  17. Protocol for maximizing energy savings and indoor environmental quality improvements when retrofitting apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitat Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The current focus on building energy retrofit provides an opportunity to simultaneously improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Toward this end, we developed a protocol for selecting packages of retrofits that both save energy and improve IEQ in apartments. The protocol specifies the methodology for selecting retrofits from a candidate list while addressing expected energy savings, IEQ impacts, and costs in an integrated manner. Interviews, inspections and measurements are specified to collect the needed input information. The protocol was applied to 17 apartments in three buildings in two different climates within California. Diagnostic measurements and surveys conducted before and after retrofit implementation indicate enhanced apartment performance.

  18. On Methods of Establishing Design Diagrams for Structural Integrity of Slender Complex Types of Breakwater Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Howell, Gary J.

    1988-01-01

    Many of the recent dramatic failures of a number of large rubble mound breakwaters armoured with Dolosse and Tetrapods were caused by breakage of the concrete armour units. Breakage took place before the hydraulic stability of intact units in the armour layers expired. Thus there was not a balance...... between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layer. Although the relative strength of the units decreases with increasing size (Burcharth 1980) the shape of the units was kept constant and not related to the size...... of the units and the size was not increased beyond the demand dictated by the hydraulic stability.While the hydraulic stability can be roughly estimated by formulae and further evaluated in conventional hydraulic model tests, it is much more complicated to assess the structural integrity of the armour units...

  19. Waste is a Terrible Thing to Mind: Perspectives on the Cleanup of the United States Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodde, David

    1997-03-01

    For the 50 years of the Cold War, the United States nuclear arsenal was the cornerstone of our national security. These weapons were designed, manufactured, and armed with fissionable materials in an industrial complex that, at its peak, included about 16 major facilities and vast tracts of land in Nevada, Idaho, Washington, and South Carolina. Included among these are such well-known sites as the Savannah River Plant, the Hanford, Oak Ridge, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Cold War, that "long twilight struggle" in the evocative phrase of John Kennedy, left little time and few resources for understanding and managing the environmental consequences of nuclear weapons production. At the same time, perceptions of the special nature of the atom led to a concentration of governance in the Atomic Energy Commission and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Thus, external feedback for the managers of the complex was heavily filtered. But the imperatives of the Cold War have waned, and our understanding of the implications for the environment and the health and safety of workers has grown. By 1995 the Department of Energy (DoE) had spent about 23 billion in identifying and characterizing its waste, managing it, and assessing the actions needed to clean up the 120 sites in 36 states. Yet the majority of the task appeared ahead. Estimates made in 1995 suggested a total cost ranging from 200-350 billion and a time to complete of 75 years. If these were true, the cleanup of the weapons complex would become the largest civil works project in the history of humankind. Over the past year or so, the DoE program has shifted its focus from studies to actual cleanup. A strategic plan has been proposed that would accomplish most of the needed work over ten years at a cost of about $85 billion. At the same time, the Department is proposing to transfer oversight to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the states. This Invited

  20. 20 CFR 404.349 - When is a child living apart from me in my care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The child is living apart because of school but spends at least 30 days vacation with you each year... is not in your care if— (1) The child is in active military service; (2) The child is living with his...

  1. Factors Affecting Buying Behavior of an Apartment an Empirical Investigation in Amman, Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mwfeq Haddad; Mahfuz Judeh and Shafig Haddad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the main factors that influencing the customers' buying behavior toward apartment, and tried to identify the most influencing factors that affect buying. A convenience sample consists of 120 persons who already bought an apartment in different areas in Amman. One sample ttest, independent sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used in testing the hypotheses. This study found that respondents would significantly adopt the main constructs when buying...

  2. Thiolato-bridged RuIIAgIRuII trinuclear complex composed of bis(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) units with chelating 2-aminoethanethiolate: conversion to a disulfide-bridged RuIIRuII dinuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoshi; Matsuura, Noriyuki; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Konno, Takumi

    2007-08-20

    The reaction of [Ru(solvent)2(bpy)2]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) with Haet (2-aminoethanethiol) in ethanol/water in the presence of Ag+ gave a thiolato-bridged RuIIAgIRuII trinuclear complex, [Ag{Ru(aet)(bpy)2}2]3+, in which two [RuII(aet)(bpy)2]+ units are linked by an AgI atom. When this complex was treated with HCl in acetonitrile/water, a disulfide-bridged RuIIRuII dinuclear complex, [Ru2(cysta)(bpy)4]4+ (cysta = cystamine), was produced as a result of the removal of an AgI atom and the autoxidation of thiolato groups. It was found that the dinuclear structure in [Ru2(cysta)(bpy)4]4+ is reverted back to [Ag{Ru(aet)(bpy)2}2]3+ by treatment with Ag+ assisted by Zn reduction.

  3. Pedogenesis of a catena of the Farmdale-Sangamon Geosol complex in the north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.M.; Konen, M.E.; Curry, B. Brandon

    2009-01-01

    The Farmdale-Sangamon Geosol pedocomplex consists of the Sangamon Geosol and the overlying Farmdale Geosol, which form the most extensive terrestrial record of the last interglacial to glacial transition in the Midwest United States. The geosol complex formed for upwards of 100??ka, extending from the end of MIS 6 through 4 for the Sangamon Geosol, then the Farmdale Geosol for during a brief episode at the end of MIS 3 following slow accumulation and pedogenic modification of eolian silt deposited on top of the Sangamon Geosol. Our study site consists of a buried paleo-hillslope transect that forms a catena, enabling evaluation of slope effects on interglacial-scale soil formation. The Sangamon Geosol is formed in calcareous and illitic glaciogenic sediment. Along the catena the Sangamon Geosol profiles display some morphological changes, namely in terms of colors that we interpret as indicators of differences in drainage. Most thickness and horizonation characteristics are similar all along the transect, with intact upper sola horizons (AE and E horizons) that overlie clay-enriched Bt horizons. The Bt horizons contain abundant clay that exists as illuvial clay coatings, matrix infills, and as mosaic-speckled domains. The clay originated both by in situ weathering and through illuviation from the clay depleted upper sola. Slope does not appear to affect Bt characteristics beyond redder hues of the matrix and clay coatings in the upper slope position. With depth, effects of carbonate leaching and infilling of clay in the matrix decrease and clay coatings are restricted to walls of voids adjacent to aggregates. Clay mineralogy shows illite depletion, but no interstratified kaolinite-expandable minerals, indicating the degree of weathering is not as great as is typical of Sangamon Geosol profiles formed in loess or in glaciogenic sediment of the central Illinois type area. Clay mineralogy is also stratified with depth, coincident with particle size, which probably

  4. Prelimanary Investigation on The Factors That Influencing The Maintenance Cost of Apartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing is a basic need for all. The increasing numbers of population and income had increase in housing demand. Thus, it has led to the construction of apartments to meet the needs of people and to reduce the use of land to build residential buildings. From year to year, maintenance costs of the building are increased. To ensure the maintenance cost for apartment residence maintenance can be reduced, it is important to determine the factor that influence the maintenance cost of the apartment. This paper is to investigate and identify the factors contributing the increase of maintenance costs. The first objective of this study is to determine the factors that affect the cost of maintaining the apartment and meanwhile the second objective is to rank the factors that influence the maintenance cost of the apartment at Johor Baharu Tengah. To achieve the objectives of the study, the questionnaires were distributed to the parties involved in the management of building. Results of this study concluded that there are five factors that influence maintenance cost are the expectations of tenants, building age, building material, failure to execute maintenance at the right time and budget constraints.

  5. Physically elastic analysis of a cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Vahid

    2018-03-01

    Elastic analysis is analytically presented to predict the behaviors of the stress and displacement components in the cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials. This analysis is based on the complex computation of the stress functions in the complex plane and polar coordinates. Also, suitable boundary conditions are considered and assumed to analyze along with the equilibrium equations and bi-harmonic equation. This method has some important applications in many fields of engineering such as mechanical, civil and material engineering generally. One of the applications of this research work is in composite design and designing the cylindrical devices under various loadings. Finally, it is founded that the convergence and accuracy of the results are suitable and acceptable through comparing the results.

  6. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2014-01-01

    comfort and the performance of the air heating system and solar shading. Thermal comfort category B according to ISO 7730 was obtained in the building during field measurements, indicating that the air heating system was able to maintain comfort conditions in winter, when the outdoor temperature had been...... building project finished medio 2012. The design challenge was met with a concept of air heating that is individually controlled in every room. It also applies external solar shading. This study used indoor climate measurements and dynamic simulations in one of these apartment buildings to evaluate thermal...... unusual low for a longer period. The dynamic simulations also indicated that air heating during winter can provide a comfortable thermal environment. Dynamic simulations also demonstrated that during summer, apartments with automatic external solar screens had no serious overheating, whereas in apartments...

  7. Neither single, nor in a couple. A study of living apart together in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Regnier-Loilier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Among living arrangements, living apart together relationships arouse curiosity on the part of sociologists, demographers and even the media. From a scientific point of view, how have noncohabiting relationships evolved in recent decades? How can we recognise these relationships, and who are the populations concerned? The present study provides an overall view into noncohabiting relationships in France, shedding light on the characteristics of both the individuals concerned and their relationships. There has been no recent increase in the prevalence of this living arrangement. It competes with cohabiting relationships both among students and among people with cohabiting children. Four main groups of living apart relationships are described: "Young adults", "Out of a family", "Seniors." The reasons for living apart as well as future intentions vary considerably across these groups.

  8. Two supramolecular complexes based on polyoxometalates and Co-EDTA units via covalent connection or non-covalent interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Chunlin; Xiao, Hanxi [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Functional Molecule for Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Cai, Qing [Chemistry Department, City University of New York, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tang, Jianting; Cai, Tiejun [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Functional Molecule for Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Deng, Qian, E-mail: dengqian10502@163.com [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Functional Molecule for Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Two new 3D network organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecular complexes ([Na{sub 6}(CoEDTA){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 13}]·(H{sub 2}SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40})·xH{sub 2}O)n (1) and [CoH{sub 4}EDTA(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}(SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40})·15H{sub 2}O (2) (H{sub 4}EDTA=Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) have been successfully synthesized by solution method, and characterized by infrared spectrum (IR), thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and single{sup −}crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both of the complexes are the supramolecules, but with different liking mode, they are two representative models of supramolecule. complex (1) is a 3D infinite network supramolecular coordination polymer with a rare multi-metal sturcture of sodium-cobalt-containing, which is mainly linked through coordinate-covalent bonds. While complex (2) is normal supramolecule, which linked by non-covalent interactions, such as H-bonding interaction, electrostatic interaction and van der waals force. Both of complex (1) and (2) exhibit good catalytic activities for catalytic oxidation of methanol, when the initial concentration of methanol is 3.0 g m{sup −3}, flow rate is 10 mL min{sup −1}, and the quality of catalyst is 0.2 g, for complex (1) and complex (2) the maximum elimination rates of methanol are 85% (150 °C) and 92% (120 °C), respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecular complexes based on Co-EDTA, and Keggin polyanions have been successfully synthesized with different pH value by solution method. They are attributed to two representative models of supramolecule. Complex(1) is an infinite coordination polymer with a rare multi-metal sturcture of sodium-cobalt-containing, which is mainly linked through covalent bonds. Complex (2) is a normal supramolecule, which linked by non-covalent interactions of H-bonding interaction, electrostatic interaction and van der waals force. - Highlights: • Two supramolecules

  9. Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control. Demonstration project with 49 apartments in Soenderborg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the project is to demonstrate how the overall energy consumption in apartment buildings can be reduced through a combination of: 1) Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control; 2) Energy efficient design of the building shell including passive solar and seasonally flexible sunspaces; 3) Use of low temperature heating system. The 3 blocks in the project, each with 16 apartments, are furnished with 3 different ventilation systems: 1) Standard exhaust system according to building codes; 2) Ventilation system with humidity control. Each room is furnished with an air inlet valve controlled by a processor, which monitors the humidity; 3) Standard ventilation system with heat recovery. (au)

  10. Blue-emitting dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complex featuring a nearly unit quantum yield

    KAUST Repository

    Baron, Marco

    2012-02-06

    Dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes of general formula [Au 2(RIm-Y-ImR) 2](PF 6) 2 (R = Me, Cy; Y = (CH 2) 1-4, o-xylylene, m-xylylene) have been synthesized and screened for their luminescence properties. All the complexes are weakly emissive in solution whereas in the solid state some of them show significant luminescence intensities. In particular, crystals or powders of the complex with R = Me, Y = (CH 2) 3 exhibit an intense blue emission (λ max = 450 nm) with a high quantum yield (Φ em = 0.96). The X-ray crystal structure of this complex is characterized by a rather short intramolecular Au•••Au distance (3.272 Ǻ). Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to calculate the UV/vis properties of the ground state as well as of the first excited state of the complex, the latter featuring a significantly shorter Au•••Au distance. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Blue-emitting dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complex featuring a nearly unit quantum yield

    KAUST Repository

    Baron, Marco; Tubaro, Cristina; Biffis, Andrea; Basato, Marino; Graiff, Claudia; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Armaroli, Nicola; Accorsi, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes of general formula [Au 2(RIm-Y-ImR) 2](PF 6) 2 (R = Me, Cy; Y = (CH 2) 1-4, o-xylylene, m-xylylene) have been synthesized and screened for their luminescence properties. All the complexes are weakly emissive in solution whereas in the solid state some of them show significant luminescence intensities. In particular, crystals or powders of the complex with R = Me, Y = (CH 2) 3 exhibit an intense blue emission (λ max = 450 nm) with a high quantum yield (Φ em = 0.96). The X-ray crystal structure of this complex is characterized by a rather short intramolecular Au•••Au distance (3.272 Ǻ). Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to calculate the UV/vis properties of the ground state as well as of the first excited state of the complex, the latter featuring a significantly shorter Au•••Au distance. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Prediction of radiation ratio and sound transmission of complex extruded panel using wavenumber domain Unite element and boundary element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H; Ryue, J; Thompson, D J; Müller, A D

    2016-01-01

    Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found. (paper)

  13. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  14. Energy statistics of apartment buildings in 2012; Energistatistik foer flerbostadshus 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data regarding energy used for heating and hot water in Swedish apartment buildings (2012) in terms of heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  15. Why do intimate partners live apart? Evidence on LAT relationships across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Poortman, A.R.; Seltzer, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research asks whether or not cohabitation has come to rival marriage. Little is known about the meaning of living apart together (LAT) relationships, and whether LAT is an alternative to marriage and cohabitation or a dating relationship. OBJECTIVE: We examine across Europe: (1) the

  16. Community Living for Adults in North Dakota: A Case Study of an Apartment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racino, Julie Ann

    This report describes a 1988 site visit to Pride Industries, a private, nonprofit agency which operates an apartment program for individuals with developmental disabilities in Bismarck, North Dakota, through a contract with a regional office of North Dakota's Department of Developmental Disabilities. Pride Industries supports 34 people living in…

  17. Residents’ Experiences of Privacy and Comfort in Multi-Storey Apartment Dwellings in Subtropical Brisbane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Kennedy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dwellings in multi-storey apartment buildings (MSAB are predicted to increase dramatically as a proportion of housing stock in subtropical cities over coming decades. The problem of designing comfortable and healthy high-density residential environments and minimising energy consumption must be addressed urgently in subtropical cities globally. This paper explores private residents’ experiences of privacy and comfort and their perceptions of how well their apartment dwelling modulated the external environment in subtropical conditions through analysis of 636 survey responses and 24 interviews with residents of MSAB in inner urban neighbourhoods of Brisbane, Australia. The findings show that the availability of natural ventilation and outdoor private living spaces play important roles in resident perceptions of liveability in the subtropics where the climate is conducive to year round “outdoor living”. Residents valued choice with regard to climate control methods in their apartments. They overwhelmingly preferred natural ventilation to manage thermal comfort, and turned to the air-conditioner for limited periods, particularly when external conditions were too noisy. These findings provide a unique evidence base for reducing the environmental impact of MSAB and increasing the acceptability of apartment living, through incorporating residential attributes positioned around climate-responsive architecture.

  18. Interactive Configuration of High Performance Renovation of Apartment Buildings by the use of CSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vareilles, E.; Thuesen, Christian; Falcon, M.

    2013-01-01

    of mid-rise (up to seven stories) apartment buildings. The renovation is based on external rectangular panels, always comprising insulation and cladding, and sometimes including, in addition, doors, windows or solar modules. The panels can be fixed directly onto the walls or onto a metal structure around...

  19. Antoine's Necklace or How to Keep a Necklace from Falling Apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechner, Beverly L.; Mayer, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A construction in geometric topology is presented for an imaginary string of beads, but without the string, forming a necklace that cannot fall apart. Some well-known applications and generalizations of Antoine's Necklace are provided, with all examples subsets of Euclidean spaces. (MNS)

  20. Predictors of summertime heat index levels in New York City apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, A; Kinney, P; Shaman, J

    2017-07-01

    During heat waves, fatal overexposure to heat most often occurs at home. It is not known how factors such as building size, floor level, and different types of air conditioning (AC) contribute to excess indoor heat. We monitored indoor temperature and humidity in 36 apartments in New York City during summers 2014 and 2015 and used these values to calculate the indoor heat index (HI). We investigated the role of AC type and building-level factors on indoor HI using multilevel regression models. Thirty-four of 36 homes had AC. Central and ductless AC types were associated with the coolest indoor conditions; homes with window and portable AC were significantly warmer. Apartments on the top floor of a building were significantly hotter during heat advisory periods than other apartments regardless of the presence of AC. High indoor HI levels persisted in some homes for approximately 1 day following the end of the two heat advisory periods. We provide concrete evidence of higher heat levels in top floor apartments and in homes with certain types of AC. High heat levels that persist indoors after outdoor heat has subsided may present an underappreciated public health risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Software Prototype Design for Managing Housing and Communal Services in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper presents the disign and implementation of a computer program for the housing and utilities services. The Housing Code of the Russian Federation allows creating an apartment building council. The residents of a house choose the members this council to control providing services, manage an apartment building and represent their interests. The authors suggest using a special computer program for this purpose. Materials and Methods: The authors used the qualitative analysis of the data obtained from house bills and from the State housing and communal sector information system. The data processing and software development were performed through using the Ruby object-oriented language, the Ruby On Rails framework, the PostgreSQL database management system, the Slim templating, and Sass CSS extensions. Results: The authors developed a prototype software system to automate the activities of the apartment building council. This software helps to increase the quality of life of the apartment building residents. Discussion and Conclusions: This research provides an information framework for improving the quality of utilities services. The results of this study can be applied to the solution of many problems of housing and utilities sector.

  2. Influence of Indoor Environment and Occupant Behaviour on Energy Consumption in Passive House Apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skød Søvsø, Asger; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Køge Boligselskab built 9 building blocks totalling 126 passive house apartments. Their monitored space heating demand (SHD) has been a lot higher than the passive house requirements. The aim of this study was to identify why, and how it relates to indoor environment and occupant behaviour...

  3. On the Issue of Obligatory Hazard Activity Liability Insurance of Lifts Operation in Apartment Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storozhuk D. A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of legislation application of Obligatory Hazard Activity Liability Insurance, civic responsibility of the owner of the dangerous object for doing harm as a result of damage caused by lift operation in apartment houses

  4. From Fiction to Field Notes: Observing Ibo Culture in "Things Fall Apart."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how introducing students to African literature can appeal to their imaginations and encourage them to develop their insights into African culture. Outlines the procedures in a middle school class where the students are transformed into anthropologists as they read Chinua Achebe's, "Things Fall Apart." (MJP)

  5. Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart": Teaching through the Novel. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Chinua Achebe is one of Africa's best-known and most influential contemporary writers. His first novel, "Things Fall Apart," is a narrative about the European colonization of Africa told from the viewpoint of the colonized people. Published in 1958, the novel recounts the life of the warrior and village hero Okonkwo and describes the…

  6. The Cultural Impact upon Human Struggle for Social Existence in Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dessouky, Mohamed Fawzy

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing an insight into the nature of cultural conflict as depicted in Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart." This study shows how the African black culture represented by Ibo tribe comes into disagreement with the white one imposed by the British imperialism. The greatness of Achebe lies in the vivid description of…

  7. Role of Colonial Subjects in Making Themselves Inferior in Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Chinua Achebe in his novel "Things Fall Apart" gives us a unique picture of life in Africa before the arrival of Christianity and colonization and the era afterwards. He shows how African people lost their traditional culture and values, replacing them with foreign beliefs. In this article, the way black people lived before the arrival…

  8. Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart": Oral and Literary Strategies. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Chinua Achebe is one of Africa's best-known contemporary writers. His first novel, "Things Fall Apart," deals with the clash of cultures and the violent transitions in life and values brought about by the onset of British colonialism in Nigeria at the end of the 19th century. Published in 1958, just before Nigerian independence, the…

  9. Analysis of energy economic renovation for historic wooden apartment buildings in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumägi, Endrik; Kalamees, Targo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving potential in historic wooden apartment buildings is up to 63%. • In historic wooden apartment buildings an economically viable energy saving level is 50%. • The largest energy saving potential lies in heat source and building service systems. • Of the building structures, insulation of the external wall has the highest potential. • New heating and ventilation systems must be installed to fulfill regulations limits. - Abstract: Buildings represent the largest sector of primary energy consumption and play a major role in saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Our analysis of energy consumption and potential energy savings is based on field measurements, computer simulations and economic calculations. The average primary energy consumption (PE) of wooden apartment buildings was 331 kW h/(m 2 a) 83% higher than the limit 180 kW h/(m 2 a) set in national regulations for apartment buildings subject to major renovation. The studied buildings represent a high potential for energy savings. The renovation packages were compiled using different insulation measures, HVAC solutions and energy sources to achieve a 20–65% reduction of primary energy. For historic buildings, the renovation solutions that concentrate on the building envelope can be problematic due to the need to preserve cultural and architectural values. Our calculation results indicate that the cost optimal PE level is around 250 kW h/(m 2 a) and the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 170 kW h/(m 2 a). In terms of the architectural appearance the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 210 kW h/(m 2 a). We propose to set a different PE limit for historic wooden apartment buildings with an architectural appearance worth preserving

  10. Complex solution of problem of all-season construction of roads and pipelines on universal composite pontoon units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabkov, A. V.; Stafeeva, N. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zakuraev, A. F.

    2018-05-01

    A complex construction consisting of a universal floating pontoon road for laying pipelines in automatic mode on its body all year round and in any weather for Siberia and the Far North has been designed. A new method is proposed for the construction of pipelines on pontoon modules, which are made of composite materials. Pontoons made of composite materials for bedding pipelines with track-forming guides for automated wheeled transport, pipelayer, are designed. The proposed system eliminates the construction of a road along the route, ensures the buoyancy and smoothness of the self-propelled automated stacker in the form of a "centipede", which has a number of significant advantages in the construction and operation of the entire complex in the swamp and watered areas without overburden.

  11. Main features of the unit 1-4 building complex, Kozloduy NPP in respect to seismic safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, M; Boncheva, H; Stafanov, D [Central Laboratory for Seismic Mechanics and Earthquake Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1993-07-01

    The Units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP were originally designed to resist a IV-V degree MSK earthquake. They have been subsequently upgraded for a VII degree earthquake. Since that structure basically do not meet the safety requirements to resist the new earthquake with a maximum acceleration of 0.2 g and very broad spectrum. The performed analyses are clearly pointing out that an upgrading for the new earthquake level is possible. The problems common for all the structures of Kozloduy NPP are summarized in this presentation.

  12. Main features of the unit 1-4 building complex, Kozloduy NPP in respect to seismic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.; Boncheva, H.; Stafanov, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP were originally designed to resist a IV-V degree MSK earthquake. They have been subsequently upgraded for a VII degree earthquake. Since that structure basically do not meet the safety requirements to resist the new earthquake with a maximum acceleration of 0.2 g and very broad spectrum. The performed analyses are clearly pointing out that an upgrading for the new earthquake level is possible. The problems common for all the structures of Kozloduy NPP are summarized in this presentation

  13. Complex patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence in an island bird and the consequences for delimiting conservation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, A B; Owens, I P F; Black, R A; Chittock, J; Burke, T; Clegg, S M

    2008-06-01

    Substantial phenotypic and genetic variation is often found below the species level and this may be useful in quantifying biodiversity and predicting future diversification. However, relatively few studies have tested whether different aspects of intraspecific variation show congruent patterns across populations. Here, we quantify several aspects of divergence between 13 insular populations of an island endemic bird, the Vanuatu white-eye (Zosterops flavifrons). The components of divergence studied are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nuclear DNA microsatellites and morphology. These different aspects of divergence present subtly different scenarios. For instance, an mtDNA phylogenetic tree reveals a potential cryptic species on the most southerly island in Vanuatu and considerable divergence between at least two other major phylogroups. Microsatellite loci suggest that population genetic divergence between insular populations, both between and within phylogroups, is substantial, a result that is consistent with a low level of interisland gene flow. Finally, most populations were found to be strongly morphologically divergent, but no single population was morphologically diagnosable from all others. Taken together, our results show that, although many measures of divergence are concordant in this system, the number of divergent units identified varies widely depending on the characters considered and approach used. A continuum of divergence and a degree of discordance between different characters are both to be expected under simple models of evolution, but they present problems in terms of delimiting conservation units.

  14. Breaching of strike-slip faults and flooding of pull-apart basins to form the southern Gulf of California seaway from 8 to 6 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhoefer, P. J.; Skinner, L. A.; Oskin, M. E.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Darin, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Studies from multiple disciplines delineate the development of the oblique-divergent Pacific - North America plate boundary in the southern Gulf of California. Integration of onshore data from the Loreto - Santa Rosalia margin with offshore data from the Pescadero, Farallon, and Guaymas basins provides a detailed geologic history. Our GIS-based paleotectonic maps of the plate boundary from 9 to 6 Ma show that evolution of pull-apart basins led to the episodic northwestward encroachment of the Gulf of California seaway. Because adjacent pull-apart basins commonly have highlands between them, juxtaposition of adjacent basin lows during translation and pull apart lengthening played a critical role in seaway flooding. Microfossils and volcanic units date the earliest marine deposits at 9(?) - 8 Ma at the mouth of the Gulf. By ca. 8 Ma, the seaway had flooded north to the Pescadero basin, while the Loreto fault and the related fault-termination basin was proposed to have formed along strike at the plate margin. East of Loreto basin, a short topographic barrier between the Pescadero and Farallon pull-apart basins suggests that the Farallon basin was either a terrestrial basin, or if breaching occurred, it may contain 8 Ma salt or marine deposits. This early southern seaway formed along a series of pull-apart basins within a narrow belt of transtension structurally similar to the modern Walker Lane in NV and CA. At ca. 7 Ma, a series of marine incursions breached a 75-100 km long transtensional fault barrier between the Farallon and Guaymas basins offshore Bahía Concepción. Repeated breaching events and the isolation of the Guaymas basin in a subtropical setting formed a 2 km-thick salt deposit imaged in offshore seismic data, and thin evaporite deposits in the onshore Santa Rosalia basin. Lengthening of the Guaymas, Yaqui, and Tiburon basins caused breaches of the intervening Guaymas and Tiburón transforms by 6.5-6.3 Ma, forming a permanent 1500 km-long marine seaway

  15. Studing the Influence of Six Main Industrial Losses on Overall Equipment Effectiveness in Cold Rolling Unit of Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is a key indicator and a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of equipments as well as assessing the effectiveness of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM system. This indicator together with overall equipment performance can be used in production lines such as steel production. The aim of this article is to study the influence of six main industrial losses on the OEE indicator . For this purpose, the OEE has been calculated in the cold rolling production lines of Mobarakeh Steel Complex the gap between production lines and the global industrial standards has been studied the causes of production system inefficiency has been investigated and the effectiveness of TPM system, equipments' bottlenecks and the influence of the main industry losses on OEE have been studied. The findings imply that the influence of the variation of availability and performance rates on OEE is high, while the influence of the variation of quality rate on OEE is not considerable.

  16. Drawing theories apart the dispersion of Feynman diagrams in postwar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, David

    2005-01-01

    Winner of the 2007 Pfizer Prize from the History of Science Society. Feynman diagrams have revolutionized nearly every aspect of theoretical physics since the middle of the twentieth century. Introduced by the American physicist Richard Feynman (1918-88) soon after World War II as a means of simplifying lengthy calculations in quantum electrodynamics, they soon gained adherents in many branches of the discipline. Yet as new physicists adopted the tiny line drawings, they also adapted the diagrams and introduced their own interpretations. Drawing Theories Apart traces how generations of young theorists learned to frame their research in terms of the diagrams—and how both the diagrams and their users were molded in the process.Drawing on rich archival materials, interviews, and more than five hundred scientific articles from the period, Drawing Theories Apart uses the Feynman diagrams as a means to explore the development of American postwar physics. By focusing on the ways young physicists learned new calcul...

  17. Indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment building before and after energy renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Földváry, Veronika; Langer, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings in central Europe built in the 20th century do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide remedial measures are taken to improve the energy ef...... exchange rates and acceptable and healthy IAQ. Without these considerations, energy reconstruction can adversely affect the quality of the indoor environment....... efficiency of these buildings and reduce their energy consumption. Since the impact of these measures on the indoor air quality is rarely considered, they often compromise indoor air quality due to decreased ventilation and infiltration rate. We compared the indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment...... building in Slovakia before and after energy renovation, during two subsequent winters. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of CO2, formaldehyde, NO2, and volatile organic compounds were performed during one week in January 2015 in 20 apartments in one multifamily building...

  18. A Study of the Unsafe Actions of Staff in the Maintenance and Overhaul Unit at a Petrochemical Complex and the Presentation of Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Today, oil, gas, and petrochemical industries are of strategic significance in the macro-development of oil-rich countries. These industries, given the nature of the work and the technical complexity of the various processes, are hazardous and susceptible to occupational accidents. More than 90% of the accidents are related to the faults and unsafe actions of personnel, either directly or indirectly. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the unsafe actions of staff working in the maintenance unit of a petrochemical complex. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive and analytical study conducted on 167 morning-shift workers at the Mahshahr petrochemical complex. The data were collected based on a checklist of unsafe actions prepared through a direct observation of their activities and an analysis of work instructions, documents, and incident reports. SPSS statistical software was also used for data analysis and relevant testing. Results According to the results of this study, the mean number of unsafe actions performed by the employees was 42%. The highest number of unsafe actions achieved in the maintenance mechanical unit was 52.8%, 47.1% in repair services, and 43.8% in machinery. The highest frequency of unsafe actions were caused by indiscretion and negligence, a failure to use a face shield and goggles, and non-compliance with safety principles. Conclusions According to the findings, there has been a rise in the number of unsafe actions in machinery and maintenance service units compared to other maintenance units. As such, training courses based on the behavior-based safety principles at the beginning of employment, close monitoring of health safety environment (HSE officials on the implementation of regulations, and provision of appropriate scheduling based on weather conditions and the nature of maintenance services are recommended. In addition, a refrainment from hastiness in performing duties, enhanced

  19. Study of Customer Satisfaction with Living Conditions in New Apartment Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Lepkova Natalija; Butkiene Egle; Bełej Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to analyze the Lithuanian housing market and to look into the satisfaction of people with living conditions in new apartment buildings on this market. The article presents the concept of customer satisfaction in construction and the criteria that define the quality of dwellings; the benefits, consequences, merits and demerits of the assessment of customer satisfaction are also named. A survey of customer satisfaction helped to evaluate the quality of dwellings according to th...

  20. When work keeps us apart: a thematic analysis of the experience of business travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, H; McDowall, A

    2012-01-01

    Whilst business travel is deemed important for organizational success and economic outcomes, little is known about the actual process of business travelling from the perspective of individuals who undertake such travel on a regular basis. Thus the current qualitative study examined how business travellers (three women and eight men) attempt to find a balance between work and family, by focusing on how time together and time apart are experienced. The results can be interpreted and framed with...

  1. Symptoms and perceived indoor air quality among occupants of houses and apartments with different ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.; Roennberg, R.; Majanen, A.; Seppaenen, O. (Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Jaakkola, J.J.K. (Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland) Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and the perception of poor indoor air quality among the occupants of houses and apartments with different ventilation systems. The study population consisted of the 473 occupants of 242 dwellings in the Helsinki metropolitan area who responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 93.1%) after a two-week period of indoor air quality measurements. The symptoms of interest were those often related to poor indoor air quality including dryness or itching of the skin; dryness, irritation or itching of the eyes; nasal congestion (''blocked nose''); nasal dryness; nasal discharge (''runny nose''); sneezing; cough; breathlessness; headache or migraine; and lethargy, weakness or nausea. Perception of coldness; warmness; draught; dryness; stuffiness; and sufficiency of air exchange was also requested. The age-standardized period prevalences of the symptoms and complaints were systematically more common among the occupants of the apartments than those of the houses. The occupants of the houses with natural ventilation seemed to have more symptoms and complaints than those with balanced ventilation. However, in the apartments with blanced ventilation the occupants reported, in general, more symptoms and complaints than those with natural ventilation. (au) (9 refs.).

  2. Études onomasiologiques et sémasiologiques des technolectes et des unités terminologiques complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe, Chidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminology is strengthening its foundations as a sub-discipline through reflections on its principles and methodologies by entrenching the study of its principal object, to wit the term (Boulanger et L'Homme 1991. Thus, a constellation of theories and innovative methods have been suggested by contributors such as Temmerman (2000 who opts for a sociocognitive approach by applying the tenets of cognitive semantics to ontologies in the life sciences; Cabré (1998, 2000 who isolates the polyhedric nature of the term; Diki-Kidiri (1999, 2000 whose treatment of the cultural dimensions of the term are especially pertinent to less described languages; and Kageura (1995 whose semantic treatise delineates the boundaries of "conceptology". Collectively, these works apprehend the term contre-jour, in particular as a unit of comprehension in relation to its immediate environment, in contradistinction to its traditional definition which in the classical mould considers a term as contextually stripped of its textual or discursive value. In sequel of recent theoretical trends therefore, this paper represents our initial theoretical attempt to put into relief semasiological and onomasiological approaches to the term/concept association, in order to shed additional light on their possible complementarity with respect to both lexicographical and terminographical definitions of the term.

  3. Characterization of unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units using matrix properties and depositional history in a complex volcanic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Buesch, David C.; Flint, Alan L.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the physical and unsaturated hydrologic properties of subsurface materials is necessary to calculate flow and transport for land use practices and to evaluate subsurface processes such as perched water or lateral diversion of water, which are influenced by features such as faults, fractures, and abrupt changes in lithology. Input for numerical flow models typically includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all materials in the unsaturated zone, such as bulk density, porosity, and particle density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture-retention characteristics, and field water content. We describe an approach for systematically evaluating the site features that contribute to water flow, using physical and hydraulic data collected at the laboratory scale, to provide a representative set of physical and hydraulic parameters for numerically calculating flow of water through the materials at a site. An example case study from analyses done for the heterogeneous, layered, volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain is presented, but the general approach for parameterization could be applied at any site where depositional processes follow deterministic patterns. Hydrogeologic units at this site were defined using (i) a database developed from 5320 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow (deep (500–1000 m) boreholes, (ii) lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (iii) transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (iv) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (v) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. Model parameters developed in this study, and the relation of flow properties to porosity, can be used to produce detailed and accurate

  4. Perceptions of Contractors and Consultants Toward Application of Greenship Rating Tools on Apartment Buildings in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Pintardi Chandra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last ten years, the growth of apartment buildings in Surabaya has encountered the bitter experience of global warming, resource depletion, energy scarcity, and other environmental impacts. We cannot avoid them, but we can minimize the negative impacts of global warming. The green building concept is one of the methods to minimize the environmental impact. It takes into account principles of sustainable development in planning, construction, operation, and maintenance. Greenship Rating Tools is used to evaluate and calculate green achievements, prior to green building certification. The aim of this research is to represent the perceptions of contractors and consultants toward application of Greenship Rating Tools on apartment buildings in Surabaya. Based on the data obtained from a questionnaires survey carried out to 41 respondents, the mean value ranking method is used to evaluate the main factors of Greenship. These factors are Appropriate Site Development, Energy Efficiency and Conservation, Water Conservation, Material Resource and Cycle, Indoor Health and Comfort, and Building Environmental Management. In general, the results of this research show that there are a number of differences between perceptions of contractors and consultants toward application of Greenship Rating Tools on apartment buildings in Surabaya. According to the contractors’ perception, Visual Comfort is a factor that would easily to be applied, whilst consultants’ is Landscape. On the other hand, there are factors that would difficult to be applied. Based on contractors’ perceptiom is Climate Change, while consultants’ perception is Renewal Energy. In summary, Greenship Rating Tools can be applied on contractors’ and consultants’ perceptions, whilst there are some variables which can not be applied.

  5. Coalition Building for Health: A Community Garden Pilot Project with Apartment Dwelling Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Lynne K; Blood-Siegfried, Jane; Champagne, Mary; Al-Jumaily, Maha; Biederman, Donna J

    2015-01-01

    Refugees often experience compromised health from both pre- and post-migration stressors. Coalition theory has helped guide the development of targeted programs to address the health care needs of vulnerable populations. Using the Community Coalition Action Theory as a framework, a coalition was formed to implement a community garden with apartment-dwelling refugees. Outcomes included successful coalition formation, a community garden, reported satisfaction from all gardeners with increased vegetable intake, access to culturally meaningful foods, and evidence of increased community engagement. The opportunity for community health nurses to convene a coalition to affect positive health for refugees is demonstrated.

  6. Influence of windows on the energy balance of apartment buildings in Amman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassouneh, K.; Alshboul, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of windows on the energy balance of apartment buildings in Amman is investigated by using self developed simulation software (SDS) based on the ASHRAE tables for solar heat gain calculation and coaling load factor for latitude 32 deg., where Amman city is located. The calculations of energy saving are made to find out the influence of windows on the energy balance of apartment buildings in Amman. Also, the present investigation aimed to study the energy performance of windows of an apartment building in Amman in order to select the most energy efficient windows that can save more energy and reduce heating load in winter, the percentage of saving energy and saving fuel and money through time. Variations of type of glazing using eight types of glazing (clear glass, types A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) are made to find out the most appropriate type of glazing in each direction. Also the orientation of window is changeable in the main four directions (N, S, E and W). The area of glazing varies also in different orientation to find the influence of window area on the thermal balance of the building. The results show that if energy efficient windows are used, the flexibility of choosing the glazed area and orientation increases. It has been found that choosing a larger area facing south, east and west can save more energy and decrease heating costs in winter using certain types of glazing such as glass type A and clear glass, while decreasing the glazing area facing north can save money and energy. However, it has been found that the energy can be saved in the north direction if glass type B has been used. In the apartment building, it is found that certain combination of glazing is energy efficient than others. This combination consists of using large area of glass type A in the east, west and south direction, and glass type B in the north direction or reducing glazing area as possible in the north direction.

  7. A Study on the “Things” in Chinua Achebe’sThings Fall Apart

    OpenAIRE

    Erdağ, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the reasons of the fall of the Umuofia tribe and the main character, Okonkwo. There are certain events, both internally and externally, caused things to fall apart. This study divides these “things” into two main subtitles: “Okonkwo’s dreams that fall apart” and “The tribal system that falls apart”. These subtitles include main influences of the changes that occur in the book. The first chapter includes the events such as Ikemefuna’s death, Nwoye’s conversion, Okokwo’s des...

  8. Shear-controlled evolution of the Red Sea: pull apart model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, J.; Rihm, R.

    1991-11-01

    Results of seismic and other geophysical investigations suggest that strike-slip processes controlled the break-up of the Arabian plate from Africa and initiated the Red Sea Rift. Early oceanisation was facilitated by nucleation of pull apart basins and massive intrusives. The evolution of the Red Sea has gone through different stages. It was a zone of structural weakness already during the Pan-African orogeny approximately 600 Ma. A major reactivation, however, that gradually led to the present-day configuration was initiated during the late Oligocene with intense magmatic activity and the development of a continental rift. Wrench faulting played a key role in the early evolution of the Red Sea, as it shaped most of its western flank as a sharp plate boundary and resulted in the generation and rapid oceanisation of linearly arranged pull apart basins. Spatial distribution of these basins reflects the geometry of the strike-slip zone, which was controlled by pre-existing fault systems like the Najd Shear System, the Central African Fault Zone or the Onib-Hamisana and Baraka suture zones. Strike-slip motion along the latter zones of weakness influenced mainly the Egyptian and Sudanese coastal areas. Arabia was therefore separated from Africa by oceanisation in those regions, where pull apart basins developed. They were still connected in the in-between segments by stretched continental crust. With Arabia as the "moving" and Africa as the "stable" plate the eastern Red Sea flank was formed by pure shear through stretching, thinning and diffuse extension. As a consequence, the eastern and western flanks of the Red Sea are asymmetrical. The acceleration of the movement of Arabia in early/middle Miocene could no longer be accommodated by the opening in the Gulf of Suez and consequently the Dead Sea strike-slip fault developed approximately 14 Ma ago. Since plate motion was still oblique to the major structural trends, the pull apart evolution on the western flank

  9. Linear units improve articulation between social and physical constructs: An example from caregiver parameterization for children supported by complex medical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruczko, N.; Stanley, T.; Battle, M.; Latty, C.

    2016-11-01

    Despite broad sweeping pronouncements by international research organizations that social sciences are being integrated into global research programs, little attention has been directed toward obstacles blocking productive collaborations. In particular, social sciences routinely implement nonlinear, ordinal measures, which fundamentally inhibit integration with overarching scientific paradigms. The widely promoted general linear model in contemporary social science methods is largely based on untransformed scores and ratings, which are neither objective nor linear. This issue has historically separated physical and social sciences, which this report now asserts is unnecessary. In this research, nonlinear, subjective caregiver ratings of confidence to care for children supported by complex, medical technologies were transformed to an objective scale defined by logits (N=70). Transparent linear units from this transformation provided foundational insights into measurement properties of a social- humanistic caregiving construct, which clarified physical and social caregiver implications. Parameterized items and ratings were also subjected to multivariate hierarchical analysis, then decomposed to demonstrate theoretical coherence (R2 >.50), which provided further support for convergence of mathematical parameterization, physical expectations, and a social-humanistic construct. These results present substantial support for improving integration of social sciences with contemporary scientific research programs by emphasizing construction of common variables with objective, linear units.

  10. Feasibility randomized-controlled trial of online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for patients with complex chronic pain in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W; Chilcot, J; Guildford, B; Daly-Eichenhardt, A; McCracken, L M

    2018-04-28

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has growing support for chronic pain. However, more accessible treatment delivery is needed. This study evaluated the feasibility of online ACT for patients with complex chronic pain in the United Kingdom to determine whether a larger trial is justified. Participants with chronic pain and clinically meaningful disability and distress were randomly assigned to ACT online plus specialty medical pain management, or specialty medical management alone. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3- and 9-month post-randomization. Primary feasibility outcomes included recruitment, retention and treatment completion rates. Secondary outcomes were between-groups effects on treatment outcomes and psychological flexibility. Of 139 potential participants, 63 were eligible and randomized (45% recruitment rate). Retention rates were 76-78% for follow-up assessments. Sixty-one per cent of ACT online participants completed treatment. ACT online was less often completed by employed (44%) compared to unemployed (80%) participants. Fifty-six per cent of ACT online participants rated themselves as 'much improved' or better on a global impression of change rating, compared to only 20 per cent of control participants. Three-month effects favouring ACT online were small for functioning, medication and healthcare use, committed action and decentring, medium for mood, and large for acceptance. Small-to-medium effects were maintained for functioning, healthcare use and committed action at 9 months. Online ACT for patients with chronic pain in the United Kingdom appears feasible to study in a larger efficacy trial. Some adjustments to treatment and trial procedures are warranted, particularly to enhance engagement among employed participants. This study supports the feasibility of online Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for chronic pain in the United Kingdom and a larger efficacy trial. Refinements to treatment delivery, particularly to

  11. Metamorphic brines and no surficial fluids trapped in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (Nevado-Filábride units, Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja-Person, Vanessa; Tarantola, Alexandre; Richard, Antonin; Hibsch, Christian; Siebenaller, Luc; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Boulvais, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The ductile-brittle transition zone in extensional regimes can play the role of a hydrogeological barrier. Quartz veins developed within an orthogneiss body located in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) in the Nevado-Filábride units (Betics, Spain). The detachment footwall is composed mainly of gneisses, schists and metacarbonates from the Bédar-Macael sub-unit. Schist and metacarbonate bodies show evidence of ductile deformation at the time the gneiss was already undergoing brittle deformation and vein opening during exhumation. The vein system provides the opportunity to investigate the origin, composition and PVTX conditions of the fluids that circulated in the detachment footwall while the footwall units were crossing the ductile-brittle transition. The analysis of fluid inclusions reveals the presence of a single type of fluid: 30-40 mass% NaCl > KCl > CaCl2 > MgCl2 brines, with trace amounts of CO2 and N2 and tens to thousands of ppm of metals such as Fe, Sr, Li, Zn, Ba, Pb and Cu. δDfluid values between -39.8 and -16.7‰ and δ18Ofluid values between 4.4 and 11.7 ± 0.5‰ show that the brines have undergone protracted interaction with the host orthogneissic body. Coupled salinity and Cl/Br ratios (200 to 4400) indicate that the brines originate from dissolution of Triassic metaevaporites by metamorphic fluids variably enriched in Br by interaction with graphitic schists. This study highlights the absence of any record of surficial fluids within the veins, despite the brittle deformation conditions prevailing in this orthogneiss body. The fact that fluids from the detachment footwall were isolated from surficial fluid reservoirs may result from the presence of overlying schists and metacarbonates that continued to be affected by ductile deformation during vein formation in the gneiss, preventing downward circulation of surface-derived fluids.

  12. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Gabriella B.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  13. Elongated membrane tethers, individually anchored by high affinity α4β1/VCAM-1 complexes, are the quantal units of monocyte arrests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Chu

    Full Text Available The α4β1 integrin facilitates both monocyte rolling and adhesion to the vascular endothelium and is physiologically activated by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1. The current study investigated the initial events in the adhesion of THP-1 cells to immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1. Using AFM force measurements, cell adhesion was shown to be mediated by two populations of α4β1/VCAM-1 complexes. A low affinity form of α4β1 was anchored to the elastic elements of the cytoskeleton, while a higher affinity conformer was coupled to the viscous elements of the cell membrane. Within 100 ms of contact, THP-1 cells, stimulated by co-immobilized MCP-1, exhibited a tremendous increase in adhesion to VCAM-1. Enhanced cell adhesion was accompanied by a local decoupling of the cell membrane from the cytoskeleton and the formation of long membrane tethers. The tethers were individually anchored by multiple α4β1/VCAM-1 complexes that prolonged the extension of the viscous tethers. In vivo, the formation of these membrane tethers may provide the quantal structural units for the arrest of rolling monocytes within the blood vessels.

  14. A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

  15. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2001; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, the Area 3 Landfill Complexes at Tonopah Test Range, consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), seven of which are landfill cells that were closed previously by capping. (The eighth CAS, A3-7, was not used as a landfill site and was closed without taking any corrective action.) Figure 1 shows the general location of the landfill cells. Figure 2 shows in more detail the location of the eight landfill cells. CAU 424 closure activities included removing small volumes of soil containing petroleum hydrocarbons, repairing cell covers that were cracked or had subsided, and installing above-grade and at-grade monuments marking the comers of the landfill cells. Post-closure monitoring requirements for CAU 424 are detailed in Section 5.0, Post-Closure Inspection Plan, contained in the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-283, July 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1999. The CR includes compaction and permeability results of soils that cap the seven landfill cells. As stated in Section 5.0 of the NDEP-approved CR, post-closure monitoring at CAU 424 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections conducted twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit. (2) Verification that landfill markers and warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable. (3) Notice of any subsidence, erosion, unauthorized use, or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the landfill covers. (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery. (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. The inspections were preformed after the NDEP approval of the CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklist, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in

  16. Risk aversion and willingness to pay for energy efficient systems in rental apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstr. 18, Zurich 8032 (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    This paper uses a random utility model to estimate consumers' valuation of energy efficient insulation and ventilation systems in rental apartments. Given consumers' limited experience in residential buildings and the perceived uncertainty about their comfort benefits and resulting energy savings, these relatively new technologies might be undervalued by risk-averse consumers. Using the concept of certainty-equivalence, this paper proposes a model to assess the consumers' risk-aversion for adopting energy-efficient systems. These systems are treated as risky assets while conventional commodities are assumed to be risk-free. The curvature of the utility function is interpreted as a measure of aversion to perceived risks as opposed to explicit risks measured by observed variances. The proposed formulation is applicable in stated preference data with qualitative variables. The model is applied to data from a choice experiment conducted among 264 apartment tenants in Switzerland. The estimated curvatures reject the risk-neutrality hypothesis. The range of the estimated risk premiums suggests that risk considerations remain a central issue in dealing with energy efficiency in residential buildings. The analysis also indicates that assuming same risk attitudes toward new and conventional systems could bias the estimates of the willingness to pay, especially when the system is comprised of several components. (author)

  17. Risk aversion and willingness to pay for energy efficient systems in rental apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farsi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a random utility model to estimate consumers' valuation of energy efficient insulation and ventilation systems in rental apartments. Given consumers' limited experience in residential buildings and the perceived uncertainty about their comfort benefits and resulting energy savings, these relatively new technologies might be undervalued by risk-averse consumers. Using the concept of certainty-equivalence, this paper proposes a model to assess the consumers' risk-aversion for adopting energy-efficient systems. These systems are treated as risky assets while conventional commodities are assumed to be risk-free. The curvature of the utility function is interpreted as a measure of aversion to perceived risks as opposed to explicit risks measured by observed variances. The proposed formulation is applicable in stated preference data with qualitative variables. The model is applied to data from a choice experiment conducted among 264 apartment tenants in Switzerland. The estimated curvatures reject the risk-neutrality hypothesis. The range of the estimated risk premiums suggests that risk considerations remain a central issue in dealing with energy efficiency in residential buildings. The analysis also indicates that assuming same risk attitudes toward new and conventional systems could bias the estimates of the willingness to pay, especially when the system is comprised of several components.

  18. Profiles of five promising industries and apartment dwellings for solar systems trials planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1891-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify suitable types of large-scale applications for solar water-heating systems. The factors considered in industrial applications were the amount, type, and cost of energy used for heating water to temperatures <50/sup 0/C. It was found that five industries account for almost one-half of the industrial low-temperautre water-heating requirements. Since oil is the primary source of this energy in Eastern Canada and is soon to be the most costly conventional energy source, large businesses located in Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces were found to be the most promising establishments for solar applications. The report recommends contacting owners in all five industrial sectors to determine their attitudes to solar systems trials and to gather site-specific data. At the same time, the report indicates that apartments, especially those in Eastern Canada, may be more suitable than businesses for large-scale solar water heating. Low-rise apartments use approximately 17 PJ of oil energy for domestic hot water compared to the 11 PJ used by all five industrial subsectors for low-temperature water heating. 4 refs., 5 figs., 100 tabs.

  19. Strike-slip pull-apart process and emplacement of Xiangshan uranium-producing volcanic basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Aijin; Guo Lingzhi; Shu Liangshu

    2001-01-01

    Xiangshan volcanic basin is one of the famous uranium-producing volcanic basins in China. Emplacement mechanism of Xiangshan uranium-producing volcanic basin is discussed on the basis of the latest research achievements of deep geology in Xiangshan area and the theory of continental dynamics. The study shows that volcanic activity in Xiangshan volcanic basin may be divided into two cycles, and its emplacement is controlled by strike-ship pull-apart process originated from the deep regional faults. Volcanic apparatus in the first cycle was emplaced in EW-trending structure activated by clockwise strike-slipping of NE-trending deep fault, forming the EW-trending fissure-type volcanic effusion belt. Volcanic apparatus in the second cycle was emplaced at junction points of SN-trending pull-apart structure activated by sinistral strike-slipping of NE-trending deep faults and EW-trending basement faults causing the center-type volcanic magma effusion and extrusion. Moreover, the formation mechanism of large-rich uranium deposits is discussed as well

  20. Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

  1. Experimental Analysis of a Heat Cost Allocation Method for Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Saba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The correct estimate of individual thermal energy consumptions, and consequently, a fair heat cost allocation among the residents of apartment buildings with centralized heating systems, represents an important driving force towards energy saving, energy efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions. Nowadays, in those contexts where direct heat meters cannot be used because of the layout of the hot water distribution system, electronic Heat Cost Allocators (HCAs have the highest market share for the assessment of individual thermal energy consumptions. The uncertainty associated with the parameterization of heat cost allocation devices and the installation effects arising in real applications can negatively affect the accuracy of these devices, as far as the estimation of the individual fractions of thermal energy consumption is concerned. This work deals with the experimental analysis of a novel heat cost allocation method for apartment buildings and its comparison with conventional HCAs. The method allows the indirect estimation of the thermal energy exchanged by water radiators without the need for surface temperature measurements, reducing some of the drawbacks associated with the on-site installation. The experimental analysis was carried out in a full-scale central heating system test facility available at the Italian National Metrology Institute (INRIM and characterized by SI-traceable direct heat meters installed on each water radiator.

  2. A Study on the Analysis of CO2 Emissions of Apartment Housing in the Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonggeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the construction industry has focused on the reduction of CO2 emission using quantitative assessment of building life. However, most of this research has focused on the operational stage of a building’s life cycle. Few comprehensive studies of CO2 emissions during building construction have been performed. The purpose of this study is to analyze the CO2 emissions of an apartment housing during the construction process. The quantity of CO2 emissions associated with the utilization of selected building materials and construction equipment were used to estimate the CO2 emissions related to the apartment housing life cycle. In order to set the system boundary for the construction materials, equipment, and transportation used, 13 types of construction work were identified; then the CO2 emissions produced by the identified materials were calculated for each type of construction work. The comprehensive results showed that construction work involving reinforced concrete accounted for more than 73% of the total CO2 emissions. The CO2 emissions related to reinforced concrete work was mainly due to transportation from the supplier to the construction site. Therefore, at the time that reinforced concrete is being supplied, shipping distance and fuel economy management of concrete transportation vehicles should be considered thoroughly for significant reduction of CO2 emissions.

  3. Role of Colonial Subjects in Making Themselves Inferior in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinua Achebe in his novel Things Fall Apart gives us a unique picture of life in Africa before the arrival of Christianity and colonization and the era afterwards. He shows how African people lost their traditional culture and values, replacing them with foreign beliefs. In this article, the way black people lived before the arrival of white people, how they encountered and reacted to white colonizers, in addition to how they converted to Christianity and subsequently to White culture, as portrayed in this novel, will be analyzed. The purpose of this study is to trace the roots of this rapid pace of colonialism back to when colonial subjects lost their original culture to the new-coming people and to what extent those colonized people were affectively actualizing their inferiority and subordination to the white society. Frantz Fanon’s theories on the relation between language and culture or language and civilization, as well as his discussion of White notion of Blacks and Blacks’ conception of themselves are discussed and analyzed in Achebe’s masterpiece Things Fall Apart to prove that black people attempted to make up for their deep feeling of incompleteness by imitating white people and forming a white personality in a black statue as a result of their own conscious volition.

  4. Proposed strategies for designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City responding to critical urban issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Nguyen Hoang Long; Huan Giang, Ngoc; Binh Duong, Trong

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims at finding practical strategies for designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City responding to varied municipal issues. Two steps are made. Step-1 identifies the critical issues of Ho Chi Minh City which are associated with high-rise apartment building projects. Step-2 finds potential and applicable strategies which are solutions for the critical issues in Step-1 with reference of seven selected assessment methods. The study finds the set of 58 strategies applicable to designing sustainable high-rise apartment buildings in Ho Chi Minh City.

  5. Temperature Sensor Feasibility Study of Wireless Sensor Network Applications for Heating Efficiency Maintenance in High-Rise Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freliha B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cities are responsible for 60%-80% of the world’s energy use and for approximately the same percentage of greenhouse gas emissions. The existing multi-apartment buildings of multifamily housing sector are often energy inefficient, and the heating system does not ensure optimization of heat distribution of individual apartments. Heat distribution, heating system balancing, heat loss detection and calculation, individual heat energy accounting are difficult tasks to accomplish. This article deals with the temperature monitoring system designed to retrieve temperature differences necessary for overall building heat monitoring and individual apartment monitoring. The sensor testing case study process and its measurements are analysed.

  6. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units; Indice de complejidad en resonancia magnetica: estudio basado en una escala de unidades relativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-07-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs.

  7. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Risk assessment of occupational exposure to benzene using numerical simulation in a complex geometry of a reforming unit of petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayatian, Majid; Ashrafi, Khosro; Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2018-04-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the continuous and the sudden release of volatile organic pollutants from petroleum refineries and occupational and environmental exposures. Benzene is one of the most prevalent volatile compounds, and it has been addressed by many authors for its potential toxicity in occupational and environmental settings. Due to the complexities of sampling and analysis of benzene in routine and accidental situations, a reliable estimation of the benzene concentration in the outdoor setting of refinery using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be instrumental for risk assessment of occupational exposure. In the present work, a computational fluid dynamic model was applied for exposure risk assessment with consideration of benzene being released continuously from a reforming unit of a refinery. For simulation of benzene dispersion, GAMBIT, FLUENT, and CFD post software are used as preprocessing, processing, and post-processing, respectively. Computational fluid dynamic validation was carried out by comparing the computed data with the experimental measurements. Eventually, chronic daily intake and lifetime cancer risk for routine operations through the two seasons of a year are estimated through the simulation model. Root mean square errors are 0.19 and 0.17 for wind speed and concentration, respectively. Lifetime risk assessments of workers are 0.4-3.8 and 0.0096-0.25 per 1000 workers in stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, respectively. Exposure risk is unacceptable for the head of shift work, chief engineer, and general workers in 141 days (38.77%) in a year. The results of this study show that computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for modeling of benzene exposure in a complex geometry and can be used to estimate lifetime risks of occupation groups in a refinery setting.

  9. Photorealistic lighting and rendering of a small apartment interior : a case study with 3DS Max and V-Ray

    OpenAIRE

    Kämä, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the process of creating photorealistic lighting for a small apartment interior and the process of rendering that interior. Both nighttime and daytime lighting was created for the 3D interior scene modeled beforehand. The 3D interior scene was comprised the walls, windows and the largest furniture of the apartment excluding the bathroom. The theoretical section of the thesis focuses on different settings and features which in combination influence...

  10. Study of Customer Satisfaction with Living Conditions in New Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepkova Natalija

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the Lithuanian housing market and to look into the satisfaction of people with living conditions in new apartment buildings on this market. The article presents the concept of customer satisfaction in construction and the criteria that define the quality of dwellings; the benefits, consequences, merits and demerits of the assessment of customer satisfaction are also named. A survey of customer satisfaction helped to evaluate the quality of dwellings according to their technical and functional parameters, as well as the degree of cooperation between customers and contractors/builders. The customer satisfaction index (CSI and the degree of loyalty were calculated, and then a customer satisfaction matrix was built up.

  11. The feasibility of using photovoltaic panels to illuminate the entryway to an apartment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarokova Liudmila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of using an LED lighting system with a power source from solar modules in the climatic conditions of Siberia. The technical possibility of implementing an autonomous house lighting system is shown for example in the lighting of a residential five-story building located in Tomsk. The choice and justification of the neces-sary electrical equipment for solar panels was made. Calculations have been made for the energy consumption of the existing lighting system and a system with LED light sources from photovoltaic panels. The payback period of the project is determined. On the example of an autonomous sys-tem of interior lighting of an apartment building, conclusions were made about the feasibility and efficiency of using photovoltaic panels in the cli-matic conditions of Tomsk region.

  12. Thermal Performance Analysis of Solar Collectors Installed for Combisystem in the Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žandeckis, A.; Timma, L.; Blumberga, D.; Rochas, C.; Rošā, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the application of wood pellet and solar combisystem for space heating and hot water preparation at apartment buildings under the climate of Northern Europe. A pilot project has been implemented in the city of Sigulda (N 57° 09.410 E 024° 52.194), Latvia. The system was designed and optimised using TRNSYS - a dynamic simulation tool. The pilot project was continuously monitored. To the analysis the heat transfer fluid flow rate and the influence of the inlet temperature on the performance of solar collectors were subjected. The thermal performance of a solar collector loop was studied using a direct method. A multiple regression analysis was carried out using STATGRAPHICS Centurion 16.1.15 with the aim to identify the operational and weather parameters of the system which cause the strongest influence on the collector's performance. The parameters to be used for the system's optimisation have been evaluated.

  13. Plano de negócio: apartHotel Ílhavo

    OpenAIRE

    Alpoim, Ivan D`Avila

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão/ Classificação: L83 – Tourism; M10 - General O Plano de Negócios “ApartHotel Ílhavo” analisado nesta tese consiste na segunda fase de construção do “Hotel de Ílhavo”, com recurso a fundos do QREN disponibilizados pelo Turismo de Portugal. O projeto implica a construção de um aparthotel com 20 apartamentos turísticos nas instalações do hotel, procurando obter elevadas taxas de ocupação fora da época estival e ainda durante a semana, pelo que se pretende atingir um clie...

  14. Determining daylight and view preferences from the use of blinds in apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2015-01-01

    preferences have significant influence on the daylight level and view as well as possible impact on the building’s energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to conduct further studies in the area in order to be able to design solutions that supports the user preferences better and through that improves...... for the inhabitants’ health and well-being, as well as the energy consumption. Present research is an important contribution, because of the increased knowledge about daylights impact on health and well-being as well as daylights impact on the energy consumption in our buildings. However, it is often seen...... that curtains or blinds, often close off new apartment buildings with large glass areas in dense urban context. Such observations indicate that there can be a discrepancy between the intentions of the design team or architect and the perception of the user. The paper presents the results of observations...

  15. Why do intimate partners live apart? Evidence on LAT relationships across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aart C. Liefbroer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most research asks whether or not cohabitation has come to rival marriage. Little is known about the meaning of living apart together (LAT relationships, and whether LAT is an alternative to marriage and cohabitation or a dating relationship. Objective: We examine across Europe: (1 the prevalence of LAT, (2 the reasons for LAT, and (3 the correlates of (a LAT relationships vis-à-vis being single, married, or cohabiting, and (b different types of LAT union. Methods: Using Generations and Gender Survey data from ten Western and Eastern European countries, we present descriptive statistics about LATs and estimate multinominal logistic regression models to assess the correlates of being in different types of LAT unions. Results: LAT relationships are uncommon, but they are more common in Western than Eastern Europe. Most people in LAT unions intend to live together but are apart for practical reasons. LAT is more common among young people, those enrolled in higher education, people with liberal attitudes, highly educated people, and those who have previously cohabited or been married. Older people and divorced or widowed persons are more likely to choose LAT to maintain independence. Surprisingly, attitudinal and educational differences are more pronounced in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. Conclusions: A tentative conclusion is that LAT is more often a stage in the union formation process than an alternative to marriage and cohabitation. Yet some groups do view LAT as substituting for marriage and cohabitation, and these groups differ between East and West. In Eastern Europe a cultural, highly educated elite seems to be the first to resist traditional marriage norms and embrace LAT (and cohabitation as alternative living arrangements, whereas this is less the case in Western Europe. In Western Europe, LAT unions are mainly an alternative for persons who have been married before or had children in a prior relationship.

  16. Family Complexity and the Stress Process in Prison: How Sibling Living Arrangements of Minor Children Influence Maternal Role Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Foster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a life-course stress process perspective on maternal role strain as a ‘pain of imprisonment’ by engaging the concept of ‘family complexity’ in the context of mass incarceration I consider how the living arrangements of minor siblings (i.e., those living apart or together during maternal incarceration functions as a form of family complexity. When minor children live apart from their siblings, they may experience more isolation which may further serve as a stressor for incarcerated mothers. A positive association between siblings living apart and maternal role strain would support a process of ‘stress proliferation’ across the prison-family interface. I investigate these connections using survey-based data on mothers with multiple minor children (n = 80 collected in 2011 from a voluntary sample of respondents housed in a federal minimum security prison in the United States. Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that minor siblings living apart during periods of maternal confinement elevates role strain among mothers (odds ratio = 3.66, p < 0.05. This connection is indicative of an ‘inter-institutional strain.’ Finally, children’s age also increases maternal role strain, but this finding is explained by sibling living arrangements during the mother’s incarceration.

  17. Landscape-Scale Disturbance: Insights into the Complexity of Catchment Hydrology in the Mountaintop Removal Mining Region of the Eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Few land disturbances impact watersheds at the scale and extent of mountaintop removal mining (MTM. This practice removes forests, soils and bedrock to gain access to underground coal that results in likely permanent and wholesale changes that impact catchment hydrology, geochemistry and ecosystem health. MTM is the dominant driver of land cover changes in the central Appalachian Mountains region of the United States, converting forests to mine lands and burying headwater streams. Despite its dominance on the landscape, determining the hydrological impacts of MTM is complicated by underground coal mines that significantly alter groundwater hydrology. To provide insight into how coal mining impacts headwater catchments, we compared the hydrologic responses of an MTM and forested catchment using event rainfall-runoff analysis, modeling and isotopic approaches. Despite similar rainfall characteristics, hydrology in the two catchments differed in significant ways, but both catchments demonstrated threshold-mediated hydrologic behavior that was attributed to transient storage and the release of runoff from underground mines. Results suggest that underground mines are important controls for runoff generation in both obviously disturbed and seemingly undisturbed catchments and interact in uncertain ways with disturbance from MTM. This paper summarizes our results and demonstrates the complexity of catchment hydrology in the MTM region.

  18. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  19. Turist Motivasyonunda Mahalli Kültür ve Etkisi ve Apart Ziyaretlerinde Turist Memnuniyeti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang VINH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, apart turizm hizmet sektöründe stratejik pazarlama kararının tesis edilmesi anlayışını sağlamak için turizm planlamacılarına ve turizmcilere yardım etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Ampirik analiz için Duonglam Eski Köyü’nün apart hizmetinden faydalanmış 150 uluslararası ziyaretçinin oluşturduğu datalar kullanılmıştır. Turist motivasyonu ve nihai varış noktası sadakatindeki memnuniyet arasındaki hipotezleri test etmek amacıyla regresyon yöntemi benimsenmiştir. Bu çalışma Duonglam köyündeki iklim şartları, nihai varış noktasına ulaşım kolaylığı, konaklama kalitesi, doğal güzellikler ve hijyen şartlarının turist memnuniyeti üzerinde önemli etkileri olduğu sonucunu çıkarmıştır. Diğer taraftan da bu sonuçlar Duonglam Eski Köyü’nün kültürel aktiviteleri ve turizm hizmet sektörü hakkında olumsuz bir kanıyı temsil etmektedir. Ayrıca çalışmada, araştırmanın sınırı ve turizm sektörü çalışanları için elde edilen bulguların sonuçları tartışılmıştır.

  20. Chinua Achebe's novel Things fall apart as a response to the negative portrayal of Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Babnik

    2009-12-01

    Given that Achebe’s fi rst novel, whose publication sparked an incident at Ibadan University in 1952, was in itself an act of rebellion and a form of rejoinder to the colonial representation of Africans, it is understandable that the absence of personality, historicity, and understanding are integral to his novels. Writing an »African« novel or »anti-novel« meant transcending the »objectivity« of colonial discourse and drawing into one’s consciousness the history and culture of the Igbo people (primarily from southeast Nigeria, although the description of pre-colonial society at the moment of its fi rst contact with the white man does not imply a nostalgic return to the past, as is notable for instance in the négritude movement. Th e potency of Achebe’s novel lies in the fact that by invoking Igbo culture he has turned the colonial perception of Africans as inferior on its head, although the anti-colonial dialectics are intimately bound up with his representation of the African woman. Achebe’s women are marginalized just as in Fanon’s work – the novel Th ings Fall Apart is in some ways a response to Fanon’s theoretical work Th e Wretched of the Earth. Women in Achebe’s trilogy Th ings Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease, and Arrow of God have above all a symbolic and metaphorical role, being represented as the mother of the land, whereas men are individual fi gures. Th is representation of women is linked to the fact that the fi rst two novels, which were written before the independence of Nigeria in 1960, develop the idea of the national struggle for liberation, which reaffi rms the humanity and manhood of the colonized, whereas colonialism only assigned to Africans the attributes of children or at best those of women. In Achebe’s favor, one can say that Okunkwo, as the reincarnation of the social ideal of manhood, is continually fi ghting with the basic tenet of both the preceding (i.e., his father’s and future (i.e., his son’s generation

  1. Significant spread of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii genotypes of clonal complex 92 among intensive care unit patients in a university hospital in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Fereshteh; Monsen, Tor; Karmostaji, Afsaneh; Azimabad, Fahimeh Bahadori; Widerström, Micael

    2017-11-01

    Infections associated with Acinetobacter baumannii represent an increasing threat in healthcare settings. Therefore, we investigated the epidemiological relationship between clinical isolates of A. baumannii obtained from patients in a university hospital in Bandar Abbas in southern Iran. Sixty-four consecutive non-duplicate clinical isolates collected during 2014-2015 were subjected to susceptibility testing, clonal relationship analysis using PFGE, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and examined for the presence of carbapenemases and integrons. Almost all A. baumannii isolates were extensively drug-resistant (XDR; 98 %) and carried an OXA carbapenemase gene (blaOXA-23-like; 98 %) and class 1 integrons (48 %). PFGE and MLST analysis identified three major genotypes, all belonging to clonal complex 92 (CC92): sequence type 848 (ST848) (n=23), ST451 (n=16) and ST195 (n=8). CC92 has previously been documented in the hospital setting in northern Iran, and ST195 has been reported in Arab States of the Persian Gulf. These data suggest national and global transmission of A. baumannii CC92. This report demonstrates the occurrence and potential spread of closely related XDR genotypes of A. baumannii CC92 within a university hospital in southern Iran. These genotypes were found in the majority of the investigated isolates, showed high prevalence of blaOXA-23 and integron class 1, and were associated with stay in the intensive care unit. Very few treatment options remain for healthcare-adapted XDR A. baumannii, and hence effective measures are desperately needed to reduce the spread of these strains and resultant infections in the healthcare setting.

  2. REPRESENTASI KOLONISASI TERHADAP MASYARAKAT KULIT HITAM AFRIKA DALAM NOVEL THINGS FALL APART KARYA CHINUA ACHEBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Hadiyanto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses white-skinned race colonization and its impacts on African black-skinned race tribal society and culture in African Anglophone novel Things Fall Apart written by Chinua Achebe. The approach used in this research is post-colonial approach by using post-colonial theory to analyze phenomena as well as the implication of the colonizer and the colonized relationship. The result of this research indicates that the coming of white-skinned race colonialists in African Ibo tribe community with their colonization and cultural imperialism is implemented with varied strategies. Those strategies are proven effectively in strengthening white-skinned race’s colonial hegemony in Africa. The white-skinned race colonialists’ imperialism results in horizontal conflict and cultural-social disintegration in African native society; between the pro-colonial and the anti-colonial. Anti-colonial resistence is shown by most African native society to fight against colonial government arrogance and to resist white-skinned race imperialism in Africa. Keywords: African black-skinned race traditional culture, white-skinned race colonization, horizontal conflict, social-cultural disintegration

  3. A Part of and Apart from Sport: Practitioners’ Experiences Coaching in Segregated Youth Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport can present a site of exclusion for many youth who experience disability even when it has a focus on inclusion (Fitzgerald, 2009. While sport practitioners can play a critical role in creating inclusive environments, they frequently struggle to do so. As a consequence, the sport opportunities for young people who experience disability are often inadequate and inequitable. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of youth sport practitioners who teach and coach youth in primarily segregated settings. The overall goal was to gain a better understanding of how sport practitioners think about disability and sport within the context of their practices. Guided by the method of interpretive description, we interviewed 15 sport practitioners. Analysis of the data led to the overarching theme, ‘a part of and apart from sport’, highlighting the ways in which segregated youth sport was understood to be more or less inclusive/exclusive by sport practitioners. Within this overarching theme, four subthemes were drawn: a authentic connections, b diversity and adaptations, c expectations same…but different, and d (disability and competitive sport. While highlighting the need for self-reflective and knowledgeable coaches, our findings also bring attention to the concepts of ability and ableism and their impacts on the sport opportunities of youth who experience disability. Our discussion highlights the need to question assumptions underlying segregated sport.

  4. The occurrence of legionalla in hot water distribution systems of some Finnish apartment and office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacheus, O M; Kuittinen, M H; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Institute, Dept. Environ. Hyg. and Toxicol., Kuopio (FI)

    1991-01-01

    A project concerning the effect of water temperature and water quality on the microbiology of hot water distribution systems in Finnish apartment and office buildings was started in 1989. Here we report preliminary results on the occurrence of legionella. Samples were taken from showerpipes and from hot water mains before and after calorifiers of 17 buildings. Water temperature in the showerpipes ranged from 39 to 55 deg. C. Water temperature before calorifiers ranged from 40 to 52 deg. C and after them from 39 to 59 deg. C. Water temperature did not explain well the occurrence of legionalla. Legionalla pneumophila was isolated from six systems. The isolates were serogroups 1, 5 and 6. Legionella concentrations in positive samples ranged from 100 to 350 000 CFU/l. Highest concentrations of legionalla were obtained from showerpipes and hot water mains before calorifiers. Four legionella positive distribution systems were decontaminated by raising the water temperature to 60-70 deg. C and cleaning taps and showerheads, and flushing them twice a day. The numbers of legionellas in the hot water mains fell below detection limit (50 CFU/l) and their numbers also decreased in showerpipes. Decontamination failed in some parts of the distribution systems where water temperature remained below 60 deg. C. (author) 26 refs.

  5. Peer bullying in seniors' subsidised apartment communities in Saskatoon, Canada: participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Heal-Salahub, Jennifer; PausJenssen, Elliot; James, George; Lidington, Joan

    2017-07-01

    Given that 'home' is the major physical-spatial environment of many older adults and that home, social and neighbourhood environments are well-recognised to impact both the ability to age in place and quality of life in this population, a better understanding of the nature of social interactions within seniors' communal living environments is critical for health promotion. This paper describes a two-phase participatory research study examining peer bullying by older adults conducted in April and May, 2016. Responding to needs expressed by tenants, the objectives of this study were to identify the nature, prevalence and consequences of peer bullying for tenants of two low-income senior apartment communities. In collaboration with the local Older Adult Abuse Task Force, a screening survey on bullying was distributed to all tenants. Findings (n = 49) indicated that 39% of tenants had witnessed peer bullying and 29% had experienced bullying by peers. An adapted version of a youth bullying survey was administered in follow-up face-to-face interviews with 13 tenants. The most common forms of peer bullying were deliberate social exclusion and hurtful comments. The majority of respondents indicated that bullying was a problem for seniors and that bullies hurt other people. Outcomes of bullying included feelings of dejection and difficulties conducting everyday activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Implementation of life cycle costing for a commercial building: case of a residential apartment at Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaming Peter F

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of a design process is very important in controlling the initial costs and future costs in possession of an investment project such as commercial building. Therefore, it should be wise to perform a life cycle cost analysis to determine the cost of any category contained in future cost of the building. The analysis also provide information to see how much the total cost incurred by a development project from initial to the future cost by implementing BS ISO 15686 part 5: 2008, regarding life cycle costing. The purpose of this study is to identify the cost proportion and make long-term plans of a commercial building in term of its life cycle costing from a case of a residential apartment in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Results of the study show that there are three groups that make up the life cycle cost: the cost of development of the building, the operating costs, and the cost of maintenance and replacement. For a long-term plan the life cycle cost for 25 years the percentage obtained as follows, initial development cost of 42%, operational costs 39%, maintenance and replacement costs 19%. The results would also make comparison with other existing commercial buildings.

  7. Life Cycle CO2 Assessment by Block Type Changes of Apartment Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonghoon Baek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The block type and structural systems in buildings affect the amount of building materials required as well as the CO2 emissions that occur throughout the building life cycle (LCCO2. The purpose of this study was to assess the life cycle CO2 emissions when an apartment housing with ‘flat-type’ blocks (the reference case was replaced with more sustainable ‘T-type’ blocks with fewer CO2 emissions (the alternative case maintaining the same total floor area. The quantity of building materials used and building energy simulations were analyzed for each block type using building information modeling techniques, and improvements in LCCO2 emission were calculated by considering high-strength concrete alternatives. By changing the bearing wall system of the ‘flat-type’ block to the ‘column and beam’ system of the ‘T-type’ block, LCCO2 emissions of the alternative case were 4299 kg-CO2/m2, of which 26% was at the construction stage, 73% was as the operational stage and 1% was at the dismantling and disposal stage. These total LCCO2 emissions were 30% less than the reference case.

  8. The Drosophila wings apart gene anchors a novel, evolutionarily conserved pathway of neuromuscular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Ginny R; Jaramillo, Carmelita T; Mikolajczak, Crystal M; Duong, Sandy; Jaramillo, Maryann S; Cripps, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    wings apart (wap) is a recessive, semilethal gene located on the X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for normal wing-vein patterning. We show that the wap mutation also results in loss of the adult jump muscle. We use complementation mapping and gene-specific RNA interference to localize the wap locus to the proximal X chromosome. We identify the annotated gene CG14614 as the gene affected by the wap mutation, since one wap allele contains a non-sense mutation in CG14614, and a genomic fragment containing only CG14614 rescues the jump-muscle phenotypes of two wap mutant alleles. The wap gene lies centromere-proximal to touch-insensitive larva B and centromere-distal to CG14619, which is tentatively assigned as the gene affected in introverted mutants. In mutant wap animals, founder cell precursors for the jump muscle are specified early in development, but are later lost. Through tissue-specific knockdowns, we demonstrate that wap function is required in both the musculature and the nervous system for normal jump-muscle formation. wap/CG14614 is homologous to vertebrate wdr68, DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 7, which also are expressed in neuromuscular tissues. Thus, our findings provide insight into mechanisms of neuromuscular development in higher animals and facilitate the understanding of neuromuscular diseases that may result from mis-expression of muscle-specific or neuron-specific genes.

  9. Correcting the Eyesight: Cosmopolitanism in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım AYDIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Correcting the Eyesight: Cosmopolitanism in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart Abstract  The evolutionary process of separatist efforts such as colonialism, imperialism, globalization, neo-colonialism or any nationalism are outdated because global resources are becoming scarce every day, so such terms as human solidarity, Cosmopolitanism, and co-existence will have to endure in order to make use of the resources in the most optimum way. Mankind will have to understand that global sameness has to prevail despite long years of hostility, violence and bloodshed. In line with such an understanding, cosmopolitanism, as a term refers to world citizenship and 'a tolerance for things and people who are different’ and 'morality which is not rooted locally, but globally.’ Chinua Achebe tries to change the African images created by the writers depending on Eurocentric and Afrocentric perspectives. He handles the same periphery from an unusual viewpoint that is because he utilizes a different approach in representing Africa and composes counter discourses in response to colonial, imperial and racial discourses presented in colonial contexts.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  11. A Fragmented Ukraine: Part of the West or Apart from the West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    reductionism. Marxism reduced the assortment of history, politics, ethnicity, culture into a few categorical pairs: bourgeoisie -proletariat...united elite. This is centered on the transformation towards democratic capitalism. As in France , the

  12. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    neutrons, liberating a little energy and creating complexity. Then, the expanding universe cooled some more, and neutrons and protons, no longer kept apart by immense temperatures, found themselves unstable and formed helium nuclei. Then, a little more cooling, and atomic nuclei and electrons were no longer kept apart, and the universe became transparent. Then a little more cooling, and the next instability began: gravitation pulled matter together across cosmic distances to form stars and galaxies. This instability is described as a "negative heat capadty" in which extracting energy from a gravitating system makes it hotter -- clearly the 2nd law of thermodynamics does not apply here! (This is the physicist's part of the answer to e e cummings' question: what is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart?) Then, the next instability is that hydrogen and helium nuclei can fuse together to release energy and make stars burn for billions of years. And then at the end of the fuel source, stars become unstable and explode and liberate the chemical elements back into space. And because of that, on planets like Earth, sustained energy flows support the development of additional instabilities and all kinds of complex patterns. Gravitational instability pulls the densest materials into the core of the Earth, leaving a thin skin of water and air, and makes the interior churn incessantly as heat flows outwards. And the heat from the sun, received mostly near the equator and flowing towards the poles, supports the complex atmospheric and oceanic circulations. And because or that, the physical Earth is full of natural chemical laboratories, concentrating elements here, mixing them there, raising and lowering temperatures, ceaselessly experimenting with uncountable events where new instabilities can arise. At least one of them was the new experiment called life. Now that we know that there are at least as many planets as there are stars, it is hard to imagine that nature's ceasess

  13. The ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism of a moth: when do males and females grow apart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig Stillwell

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high. We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults.

  14. Renewable-based heat supply of multi-apartment buildings with varied heat demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the cost and primary energy use to heat an existing multi-apartment building in Sweden, before and after deep energy efficiency renovation, with different types of renewable-based systems. District heating systems of different scales as well as local heat production based on bioelectric boilers, ground-source bioelectric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers with or without solar heating are considered. The annual energy demand of the building, calculated hour by hour, with and without energy efficiency improvements, are matched against the renewable-based heat supply options by techno-economic modeling to minimize cost for each considered heat supply option. The results show that the availability of heating technologies at the building site and the scale of the building's heat demand influence the cost and the primary energy efficiency of the heating options. District heat from large-scale systems is cost efficient for the building without energy-efficiency improvement, whereas electric heat pumps and wood pellet boilers are more cost efficient when implementing energy-efficiency improvement. However, the cost difference is small between these alternatives and sensitive to the size of building. Large-scale district heating with cogeneration of power is most primary energy efficient while heat pumps and medium-scale district heating are nearly as efficient. - Highlights: • Heating technologies influence costs and primary energy use of a building. • Large-scale district heating with cogeneration of power is primary energy efficient. • Large-scale district heating is cost efficient for buildings with large heat demand. • Heat pumps and pellet boilers are cost competitive in energy-efficient buildings.

  15. Primary energy implications of different design strategies for an apartment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of different design strategies on final and primary energy use for production and operation of a newly constructed apartment building. We analysed alternatives of the building “As built” as well as to energy efficiency levels of the Swedish building code and passive house criteria. Our approach is based on achieving improved versions of the building alternatives from combination of design strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demand and primary energy use, respectively. We found that the combination of design strategies resulting in the improved building alternatives varies depending on the approach. The improved building alternatives gave up to 19–34% reduction in operation primary energy use compared to the initial alternatives. The share of production primary energy use of the improved building alternatives was 39–54% of the total primary energy use for production, space heating, space cooling and ventilation over 50-year lifespan, compared to 31–42% for the initial alternatives. This study emphasises the importance of incorporating appropriate design strategies to reduce primary energy use for building operation and suggests that combining such strategies with careful choice of building frame materials could result in significant primary energy savings in the built environment. - Highlights: • Primary energy implications of different design strategies were analysed. • The improved building alternatives had 19–34% lower operation primary energy use. • The improved building alternatives had higher production primary energy use. • Still, the improved building alternatives had lower overall primary energy use. • Design strategies should be combined with careful building frame material choice.

  16. Soils apart from equilibrium – consequences for soil carbon balance modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wutzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many projections of the soil carbon sink or source are based on kinetically defined carbon pool models. Para-meters of these models are often determined in a way that the steady state of the model matches observed carbon stocks. The underlying simplifying assumption is that observed carbon stocks are near equilibrium. This assumption is challenged by observations of very old soils that do still accumulate carbon. In this modelling study we explored the consequences of the case where soils are apart from equilibrium. Calculation of equilibrium states of soils that are currently accumulating small amounts of carbon were performed using the Yasso model. It was found that already very small current accumulation rates cause big changes in theoretical equilibrium stocks, which can virtually approach infinity. We conclude that soils that have been disturbed several centuries ago are not in equilibrium but in a transient state because of the slowly ongoing accumulation of the slowest pool. A first consequence is that model calibrations to current carbon stocks that assume equilibrium state, overestimate the decay rate of the slowest pool. A second consequence is that spin-up runs (simulations until equilibrium overestimate stocks of recently disturbed sites. In order to account for these consequences, we propose a transient correction. This correction prescribes a lower decay rate of the slowest pool and accounts for disturbances in the past by decreasing the spin-up-run predicted stocks to match an independent estimate of current soil carbon stocks. Application of this transient correction at a Central European beech forest site with a typical disturbance history resulted in an additional carbon fixation of 5.7±1.5 tC/ha within 100 years. Carbon storage capacity of disturbed forest soils is potentially much higher than currently assumed. Simulations that do not adequately account for the transient state of soil carbon stocks neglect a considerable

  17. THE TRUE FACE OF PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA IN "THINGS FALL APART"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecevit Bekler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe is known to be one of the most influential African wri­ters and holds an important place in postcolonial studies. His main aim was to reconstruct the wrongly established beliefs, ideas, and thoughts of the Western world regarding Africa. To realize his aim, he made careful selections in his choice of language, which contributed greatly to sharing his observations, ideas, and beliefs with the rest of the world. He wrote his novels in English, believing that doing so would be more powerful in conveying the true face of pre-colonial Africa, rather than in Nigerian, which could not be as effective as the language of the colonizers. Achebe’s complaint was that the history of Africa had mainly been written by white men who did not belong to his continent and who would not judge life there fairly. With his novels, he changed the prejudices of those who had never been to Africa, and he managed to convert the negative ideas and feelings caused by the portrayal of his continent to positive ones. "Things Fall Apart" is a novel whose mission is to portray Africa in a very realistic and authentic environment, contrary to the one-sided point of view of the colonizers. The novel presents us, in very authentic language, with many details about the customs, rituals, daily life practices, ceremonies, beliefs, and even jokes of the African Igbos. Chinua Achebe thus realizes his aim in revealing that African tribes, although regarded as having a primitive life and being very far from civilization, in fact had their own life with traditions and a culture specific to themselves.

  18. Exploring of Wireless Technology to Provide Information Sharing Among Military, United Nations and Civilian Organizations During Complex Humanitarian Emergencies and Peacekeeping Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridges, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    ...) and peacekeeping operations. Humanitarian emergencies and peacekeeping operations are a complex mix of related activities that require the combined efforts of the UN, military, International Organizations (IOs...

  19. ‘Bowling apart?’ : Vier vragen over Nederlandse sportclubs en omgang tussen arm en rijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, Ruud van der; Ruiter, Stijn; Ultee, Wout

    2005-01-01

    ‘Bowling apart?’ Four questions on poor-rich contact in Dutch sports clubs This article tests Bourdieu’s and Putnam’s competing views on sports clubs as class mixers, using crosssectional Dutch survey data for the early 1980s and late 1990s. We calculate popularity and representativity indices.

  20. Reunifying versus Living Apart Together Across Borders: A Comparative Analysis of Sub-Saharan Migration to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beauchemin, C.; Nappa, J.; Schoumaker, B.; Baizan, P.; González-Ferrer, A.; Caarls, K.; Mazzucato, V.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the process of reunification in Europe among “living apart together across borders” (LATAB) couples of African origin (DR Congo, Ghana, and Senegal). Couple reunion is conceived as a multilevel process, wherein state selection (through immigration policies in destination

  1. The influence of multifamily apartment building occupants on energy and water consumption - the preliminary results of monitoring and survey campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, Karol; Hamerla, Miłosz; Szulc, Jowita; Koczyk, Halina

    2017-11-01

    Occupants' attitudes and behavior have a significant influence on energy and water consumption in buildings. To provide more robust solutions, energy efficient applications should consider occupant-building interaction. However, there is a question to be answered: which aspects of lodging and occupant behavior cause the most substantial increase in consumption of these mediums. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of household characteristics and occupants' behavior on level and variability in utilities consumption. The study uses the results of a measuring campaign and the questionnaire. The measuring campaign was carried out to monitor the consumption of energy used for space heating and domestic hot water, as well as electricity, gas and water. The questionnaire specifically focused on household characteristics and occupants' behavior. The research was carried out in four apartment buildings, all consisting of more than 100 apartments. Data from approximately 100 households was gathered and analyzed; the survey's respond rate was almost 50%. A quantitative analysis of the results confirms the assumption that both household characteristics and occupants' behavior (e.g. the use of heating control) are important factors for utilities consumption. Further work with the obtained data is planned in terms of including of greater number of apartments, assessment of ventilation effectiveness, as well as analysis of heat transfer between the apartments.

  2. Apar-T: code, validation, and physical interpretation of particle-in-cell results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzani, Mickaël; Winisdoerffer, Christophe; Walder, Rolf; Folini, Doris; Favre, Jean M.; Krastanov, Stefan; Messmer, Peter

    2013-10-01

    We present the parallel particle-in-cell (PIC) code Apar-T and, more importantly, address the fundamental question of the relations between the PIC model, the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, and real plasmas. First, we present four validation tests: spectra from simulations of thermal plasmas, linear growth rates of the relativistic tearing instability and of the filamentation instability, and nonlinear filamentation merging phase. For the filamentation instability we show that the effective growth rates measured on the total energy can differ by more than 50% from the linear cold predictions and from the fastest modes of the simulation. We link these discrepancies to the superparticle number per cell and to the level of field fluctuations. Second, we detail a new method for initial loading of Maxwell-Jüttner particle distributions with relativistic bulk velocity and relativistic temperature, and explain why the traditional method with individual particle boosting fails. The formulation of the relativistic Harris equilibrium is generalized to arbitrary temperature and mass ratios. Both are required for the tearing instability setup. Third, we turn to the key point of this paper and scrutinize the question of what description of (weakly coupled) physical plasmas is obtained by PIC models. These models rely on two building blocks: coarse-graining, i.e., grouping of the order of p ~ 1010 real particles into a single computer superparticle, and field storage on a grid with its subsequent finite superparticle size. We introduce the notion of coarse-graining dependent quantities, i.e., quantities depending on p. They derive from the PIC plasma parameter ΛPIC, which we show to behave as ΛPIC ∝ 1/p. We explore two important implications. One is that PIC collision- and fluctuation-induced thermalization times are expected to scale with the number of superparticles per grid cell, and thus to be a factor p ~ 1010 smaller than in real plasmas, a fact that we confirm with

  3. Exercise-induced bronchospasm and atopy in Ghana: two surveys ten years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and allergic diseases have increased in the developed countries. It is important to determine whether the same trends are occurring in the developing countries in Africa. We aimed to determine the time trend in the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB and atopic sensitisation over a ten-year period in Ghanaian schoolchildren.Two surveys conducted using the same methodology ten years apart (1993 and 2003 among schoolchildren aged 9-16 years attending urban rich (UR, urban poor (UP, and rural (R schools. Exercise provocation consisted of free running for six minutes. Children were skin tested to mite, cat, and dog allergen. 1,095 children were exercised in 1993 and 1,848 in 2003; 916 were skin tested in 1993 and 1,861 in 2003. The prevalence of EIB increased from 3.1% (95% CI 2.2%-4.3% to 5.2% (4.3%-6.3%; absolute percentage increase 2.1% (95% CI 0.6%-3.5%, p < 0.01; among UR, UP, and R children EIB had approximately doubled from 4.2%, 1.4%, and 2.2% to 8.3%, 3.0% and 3.9% respectively. The prevalence of sensitisation had also doubled from 10.6%, 4.7%, and 4.4% to 20.2%, 10.3%, and 9.9% (UR, UP, and R respectively. Mite sensitisation remained unchanged (5.6% versus 6.4%, but sensitisation to cat and dog increased considerably from 0.7% and 0.3% to 4.6% and 3.1%, respectively. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, sensitisation (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% CI 1.12-2.81, age (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98, school (the risk being was significantly lower in UP and R schools: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23-0.68 and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86, respectively and year of the study (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.13-2.66 remained significant and independent associates of EIB.The prevalence of both EIB and sensitisation has approximately doubled over the ten-year period amongst 9- to 16-year-old Ghanaian children irrespective of location, with both EIB and atopy being more common among the UR than the UP and R children.

  4. Comparison of cardiovascular disease patterns in two data sets of patients admitted at a tertiary care public hospital in Karachi five years apart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazim, S.F.; Itrat, A.; Butt, N.W.; Ishaq, M.

    2009-01-01

    To compare the disease patterns in two data sets of patients, five years apart, at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), a tertiary care cardiac hospital in Karachi. The underlying objective was to determine any changes in cardiovascular disease patterns at an acute cardiac unit over a period of five years. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on patients admitted in West Ward, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi in September, 2000 and September, 2005. Patient's record files were reviewed and the relevant information was recorded on a proforma designed for the purpose. In September, 2000, a total of 414 patients were admitted. Of these 71.25% were males. Majority of patients (72.92%) were in the fifth decade of life or beyond. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was the commonest presentation, present in 39.8% of the patients. 27.3% had myocardial infarction (MI) while 10.34% were diagnosed with heart muscle diseases. The overall mortality was 3.4%. In September, 2005, a total of 446 patients were admitted. Of these, 63% were males. 71.29% were in the fifth, sixth, and seventh decades of life. 43.04% patients were admitted with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), 26% with myocardial infarction (MI) and 13.45% with heart muscle diseases. The overall mortality was 1.34%. The almost similar results in two data sets of patients five years apart suggests that the cardiovascular disease burden and pattern has not changed significantly at this center. There is a preponderance of cardiovascular illnesses in males and older age groups. ACS and MI account for majority of admissions. (author)

  5. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  6. Pemetaan batimetri sebagai informasi dasar untuk penempatan fish apartment di perairan Bangsring, Kabupaten Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur (Bathymetry mapping as basic information for fish apartment placement in Bangsring waters, Banyuwangi, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zainul Fuad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to map the bathymetry of the Bangsring coastal area, Banyuwangi. Depth data obtained are used to consider the suitable location for fish apartment placement. The depth of the water was measured using a single beam echosounder with a frequency of 50 Hz. The data obtained by sounding process corrected by Tidal data. The tidal data measured during sampling with the observation interval of 30 minutes. The tidal correction was performed to get the depth value relative to lowest Water Surface (LWS. The results showed the depth of the Bangsring coastal area ranged from 2-49 meters. The deepest region is in the southeast of the research area. Based on the depth of the waters, the locations that can be an alternative placement of fish apartment is located by distance of 200- 250 meters in front of Bangsring coastal area with total area  approximately 30 Ha Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan kedalaman perairan Bangsring, Banyuwangi. Data kedalaman yang didapat dari pemeruman selanjutnya digunakan sebagai pertimbangan untuk mencari alternatif lokasi penempatan fish apartment. Kedalaman perairan di ukur menggunakan Single Beam Echosounder dengan frekuensi 50 Hz. Pemeruman dilakukan selama 2 hari yaitu pada tanggal 17 dan 18 Maret 2016 dengan metode zig zag . Hasil pengukuran kedalaman selanjutnya di koreksi terhadap pasang surut. Pasang surut diukur selama pelaksanaan pemeruman dengan interval pengamatan 30 menit. Koreksi pasang surut dilakukan untuk mendapatkan nilai kedalaman relatif terhadap Lowest Water Surface (LWS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kedalaman Perairan Bangsring Berkisar antara 2-49 meter. Wilayah terdalam berada dibagian tenggara area penelitian. Berdasarkan kedalaman perairan tersebut, maka lokasi Perairan di Bangsring yang dapat dijadikan alternatif penempatan fish apartment adalah di perairan depan pantai bagian timur dengan jarak sejauh 200-250 meter dari garis pantai Bangsring dengan

  7. Reunifying Versus Living Apart Together Across Borders: A Comparative Analysis of sub-Saharan Migration to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin, Cris; Nappa Usatu, Jocelyn; Schoumaker, Bruno; Baizan Munoz, Pau; Gonzalez-Ferrer, Amparo; Mazzucato, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the process of reunification in Europe among “living apart together across borders” (LATAB) couples of African origin (DR Congo, Ghana, and Senegal). Couple reunion is conceived as a multilevel process, wherein state selection (through immigration policies in destination countries) interacts with self-selection (at the couple level), under influence of the social context at origin. Based on event history analyses of the MAFE project, empirical results show that LATAB is a...

  8. Una aproximación semiótica a la anomalía enunciativa "aparte" en el drama

    OpenAIRE

    Matamala Elorz, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    El presente artículo resume el estudio semiótico del aparte teatral en el texto dramático. Comienza por exponer brevemente metodología e hipótesis para luego extraer del corpus una taxonomía, de la cual puede obtenerse el paradigma y desde aquí el sintagma de la anomalía enunciativa, que precede a la presentación de las conclusiones con que finaliza el trabajo.

  9. Eurotheum Frankfurt/Main. New office and apartment building for cosmopolites; Eurotheum Frankfurt/Main. Buero- und Wohnhochhaus fuer Kosmopoliten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, O.E.

    2000-07-01

    The Eurotheum in Frankfurt is Germany's first and only high-rise building which houses both offices and private apartments. [German] Das Eurotheum stellt im Spannungsfeld der Frankfurter Buerohochhaeuser ein voellig neues Konzept dar: Es ist das erste und bisher einzige Hochhaus in Deutschland, in dem die Funktionen 'Arbeiten' und 'Wohnen' in einem Hochhaus verbunden werden. (orig.)

  10. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  11. Phthalocyanines with eight oligo(ethylene oxide) alkoxy units: thermotropic phase behavior, aggregate formation and ion complexation with redox-active ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, D.P.; Verheij, H.J.; Zuilhof, H.

    2003-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior of phthalocyanines (Pc's) with eight oligo(ethylene oxide) alkoxy side chains has been investigated. An increase in the number of ethylene oxide units results in a decrease in the solid-to-mesophase and isotropization temperatures. The investigated compounds display a

  12. Historical and current fire management practices in two wilderness areas in the southwestern United States: The Saguaro Wilderness Area and the Gila-Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly E. Hunter; Jose M. Iniguez; Calvin A. Farris

    2014-01-01

    Fire suppression has been the dominant fire management strategy in the West over the last century. However, managers of the Gila and Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex in New Mexico and the Saguaro Wilderness Area in Arizona have allowed fire to play a more natural role for decades. This report summarizes the effects of these fire management practices on key resources,...

  13. Lanthanide complexes of macrocyclic polyoxovanadates by VO4 units: synthesis, characterization, and structure elucidation by X-ray crystallography and EXAFS spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Masaki; Inami, Shinnosuke; Katayama, Misaki; Ozutsumi, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Yoshihito

    2012-01-16

    Reactions of a tetravanadate anion, [V(4)O(12)](4-), with a series of lanthanide(III) salts yield three types of lanthanide complexes of macrocyclic polyoxovanadates: (Et(4)N)(6)[Ln(III)V(9)O(27)] [Ln = Nd (1), Sm (2), Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6)], (Et(4)N)(5)[(H(2)O)Ho(III)(V(4)O(12))(2)] (7), and (Et(4)N)(7)[Ln(III)V(10)O(30)] [Ln = Er (8), Tm (9), Yb (10), Lu (11)]. Lanthanide complexes 1-11 are isolated and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Lanthanide complexes 1-6 are composed of a square-antiprism eight-coordinated Ln(III) center with a macrocyclic polyoxovanadate that is constructed from nine VO(4) tetrahedra through vertex sharing. The structure of 7 is composed of a seven-coordinated Ho(III) center, which exhibits a capped trigonal-prism coordination environment by the sandwiching of two cyclic tetravanadates with a capping H(2)O ligand. Lanthanide complexes 8-11 have a six-coordinated Ln(III) center with a 10-membered vanadate ligand. The structural trend to adopt a larger coordination number for a larger lanthanide ion among the three types of structures is accompanied by a change in the vanadate ring sizes. These lanthanide complexes are examined by EXAFS spectroscopies on lanthanide L(III) absorption edges, and the EXAFS oscillations of each of the samples in the solid state and in acetonitrile are identical. The Ln-O and Ln···V bond lengths obtained from fits of the EXAFS data are consistent with the data from the single-crystal X-ray studies, reflecting retention of the structures in acetonitrile.

  14. Development and Realisation of the Concept House ‘Delft’ Prototype : An Example of a Collaborative Concept Development for Energy Positive Apartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Delft Prototype is a single apartment from a not yet realized Concept House Urban Villa, which consists of 16 apartments on 4 floors. Both the urban villa and the prototype demonstrate the characteristics of high level industrial production with an extremely low ecological footprint, as well as

  15. Integrating Green Building Criteria Into Housing Design Processes Case Study: Tropical Apartment At Kebon Melati, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, V. L.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2018-05-01

    The implementation of Green Building criteria is relatively new in architectural practice, especially in Indonesia. Consequently, the integration of these criteria into design process has the potential to change the design process itself. The implementation of the green building criteria into the conventional design process will be discussed in this paper. The concept of this project is to design a residential unit with a natural air-conditioning system. To achieve this purpose, the Green Building criteria has been implemented since the beginning of the design process until the detailing process on the end of the project. Several studies was performed throughout the design process, such as: (1) Conceptual review, where several professionally proved theories related to Tropical Architecture and passive design are used for a reference, and (2) Computer simulations, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel simulation, used to represent the dynamic response of the surrounding environment towards the building. Hopefully this paper may become a reference for designing a green residential building.

  16. Borrelia carolinensis sp. nov., a new (14th) member of the Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato complex from the southeastern region of the United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2009), s. 134-141 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/1479 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : multilocus sequence analysis * B. burgdorferi sl complex * new borrelia species * Borrelia carolinensis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  17. "Where It Falls Apart": Barriers to Retention in HIV Care in Latino Immigrants and Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Julie H; Bogart, Laura M; Khan, Iman F; Mejia, Dianna; Amaro, Hortensia; Alegría, Margarita; Safren, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Latino immigrants in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Barriers to consistent attendance (retention) in HIV primary care constrain opportunities for HIV treatment success, but have not been specifically assessed in this population. We conducted semistructured interviews with 37 HIV-infected Latinos (aged ≥18 years and born in Puerto Rico or a Latin American Spanish-speaking country) and 14 HIV providers in metropolitan Boston (total n = 51). The Andersen Model of Healthcare Utilization informed a semistructured interview guide, which bilingual research staff used to explore barriers to HIV care. We used thematic analysis to explore the processes of retention in care. Six ubiquitous themes were perceived to influence HIV clinic attendance: (1) stigma as a barrier to HIV serostatus disclosure; (2) social support as a safety net during negative life circumstances; (3) unaddressed trauma and substance use leading to interruption in care; (4) a trusting relationship between patient and provider motivating HIV clinic attendance; (5) basic unmet needs competing with the perceived value of HIV care; and (6) religion providing a source of hope and optimism. Cultural subthemes were the centrality of family (familismo), masculinity (machismo), and trusting relationships (confianza). The timing of barriers was acute (e.g., eviction) and chronic (e.g., family conflict). These co-occurring and dynamic constellation of factors affected HIV primary care attendance over time. HIV-infected Latino immigrants and migrants experienced significant challenges that led to interruptions in HIV care. Anticipatory guidance to prepare for these setbacks may improve retention in HIV care in this population.

  18. The United States’ Engagement with International Law: An Analysis of the Social Complexities that Crystallized its Stance on Racial and Gender Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malia Lee Womack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD but has yet to sanction the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW. This article investigates what social costs drove the state to pass only one of the two anti-discrimination treaties. It finds that the state perceives the race convention to be less socially costly than the gender statute’s objective mandates in regards to content about social and cultural patterns, family planning resources, and in tensions about the proposed reservations, understandings, and declarations.

  19. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2–112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them. PMID:29725476

  20. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m 2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m 2 ) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

  1. Teasing apart the contributions of hard dietary items on 3D dental microtextures in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Ivan; Schulz, Ellen; Pinnow, Mona; Krohn, Susanne; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    3D dental microtexture analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing the diets of extinct primates. This method is based on the comparison of fossils with extant species of known diet. The diets of primates are highly diversified and include fruits, seeds, grass, tree leaves, bark, roots, tubers, and animal resources. Fruits remain the main component in the diets of most primates. We tested whether the proportion of fruit consumed is correlated with dental microtexture. Two methods of microtexture analysis, the scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) and the Dental Areal Surface Texture Analysis (DASTA; after ISO/FDIS 25178-2), were applied to specimens of eight primate species (Alouatta seniculus, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Macaca fascicularis, Pan troglodytes, Papio cynocephalus, Pongo abelii, Theropithecus gelada). These species largely differ in the mean annual proportion of fruit (from 0 to 90%) in their diet, as well as in their consumption of other hard items (seeds, bark, and insect cuticles) and of abrasive plants. We find the complexity and heterogeneity of textures (SSFA) to correlate with the proportion of fruits consumed. Textural fill volume (SSFA) indicates the proportion of both fruits and other hard items processed. Furthermore, anisotropy (SSFA) relates to the consumption of abrasive plants like grass and other monocots. ISO parameters valley height, root mean square height, material volume, density of peaks, and closed hill and dale areas (DASTA) describe the functional interaction between food items and enamel facets during mastication. The shallow, plastic deformation of enamel surfaces induced by small hard particles, such as phytoliths or dust, results in flat microtexture relief, whereas the brittle, deep fracture caused by large hard items such as hard seeds creates larger relief. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of indoor concentration of 0.5-4 µm particles of outdoor origin in an uninhabited apartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, T.; Jensen, K.A.; Clausen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor particle size distributions, indoor-outdoor pressure difference, indoor air-exchange rate, and meteorological conditions were measured at an uninhabited apartment located in a busy street in Copenhagen during 1-month long fall, winter and spring campaigns. Particle penetration...... was estimated from concentration rebound measurements following HEPA filtering of the indoor air by fitting a simple deterministic model. The model included measured air exchange rates and published surface deposition loss rates. This model was then used to predict indoor particle concentration. The model...

  3. Control characteristics and heating performance analysis of automatic thermostatic valves for radiant slab heating system in residential apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byung-Cheon [Department of Building Equipment System Engineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam City (Korea); Song, Jae-Yeob [Graduate School, Building Equipment System Engineering, Kyungwon University, Seongnam City (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    Computer simulations and experiments are carried out to research the control characteristics and heating performances for a radiant slab heating system with automatic thermostatic valves in residential apartments. An electrical equivalent R-C circuit is applied to analyze the unsteady heat transfer in the house. In addition, the radiant heat transfer between slabs, ceilings and walls in the room is evaluated by enclosure analysis method. Results of heating performance and control characteristics were determined from control methods such as automatic thermostatic valves, room air temperature-sensing method, water-temperature-sensing method, proportional control method, and On-Off control method. (author)

  4. Patterns and processes underlying evolutionary significant units in the Platypleura stridula L. species complex (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B W; Barker, N P; Villet, M H

    2007-06-01

    Cicadas have been shown to be useful organisms for examining the effects of distribution, plant association and geographical barriers on gene flow between populations. The cicadas of the Platypleura stridula species complex are restricted to the biologically diverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. They are thus an excellent study group for elucidating the mechanisms by which hemipteran diversity is generated and maintained in the CFR. Phylogeographical analysis of this species complex using mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) and ribosomal 16S sequence data, coupled with preliminary morphological and acoustic data, resolves six clades, each of which has specific host-plant associations and distinct geographical ranges. The phylogeographical structure implies simultaneous or near-simultaneous radiation events, coupled with shifts in host-plant associations. When calibrated using published COI and 16S substitution rates typical for related insects, these lineages date back to the late Pliocene - early Pleistocene, coincident with vegetation change, altered drainage patterns and accelerated erosion in response to neotectonic crustal uplift and cyclic Pleistocene climate change, and glaciation-associated changes in climate and sea level.

  5. Assessment and remediation of odor emissions from a complex industrial facility (Ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boose, T.; Reusing, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a review and presents examples of ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States. State and provincial odor regulations were reviewed and other metropolitan cities or counties (regions) that have separate odor regulations were also included. The key topics addressed in this paper include an assessment of the methods used for odor regulation and the methods used to evaluate the odor impact to determine compliance with the regulation. Three types of ambient air odor regulations were identified: 1. 28 States, Provinces and regions (jurisdictions) have specific odor regulations. These regulations generally define what constitutes an odor impact and typically provide requirements for remedial measures; 2. 25 jurisdictions regulate odors by a general prohibition regulation. These regulations define odor in ambient air as a condition of air pollution, nuisance or objectionable odor that would typically prevent persons from the enjoyment of life and property; and 3. 13 jurisdictions do not have specific or general prohibition regulations regarding odors. For the jurisdictions that have specific or general prohibition odor regulations, there are a number of different techniques used to define what constitutes an odor impact. Odor impacts are typically defined in a regulation by one (or more) of the following techniques: dilution to threshold, or odor unit limit; determination of odor emission rates; odor concentration limits for selected chemicals (ppm); comparison with the n-butanol intensity scale (1 to 8); and investigation by an agency investigator. Compliance with odor regulations is typically determined using one (or more) of the following field methods: odor stack testing and dispersion modelling; odor panel analysis of stack or ambient air samples; chemical monitoring (ppm); odor school certified / agency investigator; and scentometer. (author)

  6. Basic Study on Term of Warranty Liability for Water Supply, Drainage, and Sanitation Arrangement Work Defect in Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junmo; Seo, DeokSeok

    2017-06-01

    The defect lawsuit of the apartment which is the representative residential style of Korea continues and becomes a social problem. In the defect lawsuit, the term of warranty liability is a period that can demand the defect repair according to defect occurrence, and the exclusion period of the exercise of rights. However, the term of warranty liability stipulated in relevant laws such as Enforcement Decree of the Housing Act is being changed arbitrarily, without any established grounds. Therefore, a reasonable standard for establishing the term of warranty liability is required. In this study, the defects of water supply, drainage and sanitation arrangement work were studied. As a result of analyzing the number of defect occurrence in the apartment, it was shown that the defects in water supply, drainage and sanitation arrangement work occurred more than 80% in the 1st ∼ 2nd year after completion. However, the occurrence of defects from the 3rd year was extremely slight. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the defect occurrence continued until fairly late point of time as the end point of time of the defects was in the 7th to 9th years.

  7. Risk Factors of Building Apartments for University Talent through the Agent Construction Mode in China: Interrelationship and Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengrong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apartments for university talent (AUT, are apartments provided to staff at non-market price, in order to attract outstanding scholars from around the world to work in universities and improve educational quality. This has been a critical issue in achieving social sustainability in China during rapid urbanization and industrialization. The agent construction mode has been adopted to build AUT because universities usually lack relevant management experience. The agent construction mode is a type of turnkey engineer construction based on the principal-agent model, project bidding mode, engineering contracting projects, and project supervision system. Risk factors are important considerations for both universities and agent construction companies. Although some studies have investigated the risk factors, only a few studies have identified the hierarchical structure of relevant risk factors. Therefore, the interrelationship and prioritization of the risk factors remain unknown, and this situation presents a barrier to better risk management. This paper investigates the interrelationship of risk factors with interpretative structural modeling (ISM. In addition, fuzzy MICMAC (matric d’impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classemen analysis was conducted to prioritize the risk factors. The findings provide useful references for better risk management of building AUT through the agent construction mode. Although this study focuses on China, the analytical process can also be generalized to other research topics and other countries.

  8. RESIDENTS CLOSE THEIR MACEIO SEASHORE APARTMENT VERANDAHS: ADAPTATION TO A NEW LIFESTYLE OR NON-ADAPTATION TO THE CLIMATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Márcio Toledo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available : This paper aims to verify the reason why the apartments verandahs are being closed, a tendency mainly observed at beach cities, and as well the new uses for the rooms, stuffs and typologies in the closing. The methodology applied consisted in photographic surveys and questionnaire applications with residents from nine apartment buildings in the city of Maceio who made up the verandah closure, focusing the handling of door and windows and on the perception of the natural ventilation on summertime and wintertime. It was claimed that the excessive ventilation and the unwished incidence of rain as the major environmental reasons to verandahs closure. It was verified that after the closure, the residents started to utilize it more frequently, keeping the original usage or modifying it. This paper contributes to understand the residents’ reasons, perceptions and choices about the verandahs, creating the conception of new spaces that more and more focus their needs, bringing up elements of projects to architects and project designers.

  9. The analysis of the hot water consumption and energy performance before and after renovation in multi-apartment buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, K.; Borodinecs, A.; Geikins, A.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of hot water supply system analysis. Taking into account that the current consumption of hot water differs from normative values, real measured data of hot water consumption in multi-apartment buildings from year 2013 until year 2015 have been analyzed. Also, the thermal energy consumption for hot water preparation has been analyzed. Based on aggregated data and taking into account the fact that renovated systems of hot water supply in existing multi-apartment buildings have same pipelines’ diameters, it was analyzed how these systems are economically and energy efficient. For the study, residential buildings in Riga, which have different architectural and engineering solutions for hot water supply systems, were selected. The study was based on thermal energy consumption measurements, which were taken at the individual heating system’s manifolds. This study was done in order to develop database on hot water consumption in civil buildings and define difference in key performance criteria in unclassified buildings. Obtained results allows to reach European Regional Development Fund project “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS” Nr. 1.1.1.116A048 main targets.

  10. Country report: United Kingdom. Bifunctional bisphosphonate complexes with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re for the diagnosis and therapy of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Martin de Rosales, Rafael; Blower, P.J., E-mail: rafael.torres@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: philip.blower@kcl.ac.uk [Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College London, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, St. Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    1,1-Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a family of compounds extensively used in the management of disorders of bone metabolism.{sup 1} They accumulate in areas of high bone metabolism, such as bone metastases, and consequently have been receiving increasing attention as molecular imaging probes and pain palliation treatments.{sup 2} Imaging bone metastases with BPs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or planar scintigraphy is one of the most often-performed clinical imaging procedures. Beta-emitting analogues capable of producing a therapeutic effect have also been developed.{sup 3} In particular, the rhenium compounds {sup 186/188}Re-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate ({sup 186/188}Re-HEDP) have shown promise as palliative agents for bone metastases in recent clinical trials.{sup 4} The radiochemicals consist of a complex of a BP (e.g. methylene diphosphonate, MDP) with gamma- ({sup 99m}Tc) or beta- ({sup 186/186}Re) emitters.

  11. PM1 and PM2.5 ionic composition and VOCs measurements in two typical apartments in Athens, Greece: investigation of smoking contribution to indoor air concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, Dikaia E; Maggos, Thomas; Helmis, Constantinos G; Michopoulos, John; Bartzis, John G; Vasilakos, Christos

    2010-08-01

    During the last decades, the air quality of the city of Athens has been quite aggravated. Scientific interest has been focused on health effects caused by both outdoor and indoor air pollution. The purpose of this study was the presentation of results from air quality measurements in two similar typical Athenian apartments in the same suburban area. In addition, smoking contribution is investigated, as it is the main factor which differentiates the two apartments. The results showed that it is the outdoor environment that mainly contributes to the air quality of the non-smokers' house. In the second apartment, PM2.5, PM1, and benzene concentrations were found significantly higher due to smoking activity. In contrast, no clear difference in particulate matter ionic composition between the two areas was observed, although in the smoker's house, ion concentrations were found elevated. This observation amplifies the assumption that in the smoker's apartment, significant outdoor sources' contribution cannot be excluded.

  12. Study on the Development of an Optimal Heat Supply Control Algorithm for Group Energy Apartment Buildings According to the Variation of Outdoor Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kurl Kwak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have developed an optimal heat supply algorithm which minimizes the heat loss through the distribution pipe line in a group energy apartment. Heating load variation of a group energy apartment building according to the outdoor air temperature was predicted by a correlation obtained from calorimetry measurements of all households in the apartment building. Supply water temperature and mass flow rate were simultaneously controlled to minimize the heat loss rate through the distribution pipe line. A group heating apartment building located in Hwaseong city, Korea, which has 1473 households, was selected as the object building to test the present heat supply algorithm. Compared to the original heat supply system, the present system adopting the proposed control algorithm reduced the heat loss rate by 10.4%.

  13. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  14. The Reconfiguration of the Theatre Space and the Relationship between Public and Private in the Case of Apartment Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Gabriela Lupu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the means of theatre space reconfiguration in the apartment theater (lorgean theater, simultaneously analyzing the relation between public and private specific to this form of art. Structured around both a theoretical analysis and a qualitative empirical investigation, this paper emphasizes the traits of the theatre space as component of an artistic product received by the audience, and its value in the process of artistic production, within the theatre sector. The case study of lorgean theater, including a participant observation and an individual interview, enables the understanding of these two aspects of the spatial configuration, emphasizing its hybrid nature in terms of spatial configuration and the public-private relation as well as the act of reappropriation of the domestic space through an alternative practice of theatre consumption.

  15. Small might be beautiful, but bigger performs better: Scale economies in “green” refurbishments of apartment housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelsen, Claus; Rosenschon, Sebastian; Schulz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the residential housing stock plays a key role in strategies to mitigate climate change and global warming. In this context, it is frequently argued that private investment and the quality of thermal upgrades are too low in the light of the challenges faced and the potential energy cost savings. While many authors address the potential barriers for investors to increase energy efficiency, studies on the capabilities of different investors to reduce energy requirements of their property are scarce. This study investigates potential advantages of housing company's size, i.e. economies of scale, economies of scope and institutional learning in thermal upgrades of residential housing. Based on unique data on energy consumption in 102,307 apartment buildings in Germany, we present new evidence for the advantages and disadvantages of a housing company's size in “green” retrofitting projects. Our estimations show, that large housing companies outperform private landlords by far in high effort refurbishment projects. In contrast, private landlords appear to have advantages in low effort, incremental refurbishment activities. We demonstrate that a substantial share of the advantages of larger firms can be associated with specialization (i.e. repeated projects). The results offer new options for policy makers to refine the support schemes toward a low carbon housing stock. - Highlights: • First study to analyze the effects of housing companies size on “green” refurbishment • Economies of scale, scope and learning all affect energy efficiency refurbishments. • Specialization on distinct refurbishments influences outcome of thermal upgrades. • Analysis based on a large and unique sample of apartment buildings in Germany

  16. A Space Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  17. Is China falling apart?

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2012-01-01

    On 1 October 1949 Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic of China. On Tiananmen Square that day was Li Shenzhi, together with tens of thousand of other young, idealistic and excited Communists. “China”, wrote Li when later he was to describe this day, “had said farewell forever to the past … to backwardness, to poverty and to ignorance, and had set out on a completely new road, to liberty, equality and fraternity”. But this is not how it turned out. “The nearly thirty years of th...

  18. Living Together Apart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Vervoort

    2011-01-01

    Together with the rise in ethnic residential concentration, attention for the potential negative consequences of ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood for ethnic minorities' integration has also increased in recent years. And although many neighbourhood interventions have been

  19. Worlds Apart Trading Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    This study sets out to replace the out-dated notion of ‘Indo-Roman trade’ with a more informed perspective integrating the new findings of the last 30 years.In order to accomplish this, a perspective focusing on concrete demand from the ground up is adopted, also shedding light on the role...... of the market in long-distance exchange. Accordingly, the analysis conducted demonstrates that an economically highly substantial trade took place between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean in the 1st–6th century CE, altering patterns of consumption and modes of production in India andSouth Arabia as well...... as the Roman Empire.Significantly, it can be documented that this trade was organised at the centres of demand and supply, in Rome and India, respectively, by comparable urban associations, the transport in-between being handled by equally well-organised groups of seagoing merchants.Consequently, this study...

  20. Two Worlds Apart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppelaars, Caelesta; Scholten, P.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Immigrant integration has become an intractable policy controversy in the Netherlands. One facet of this controversy involves the different ways in which immigrant integration has been framed by national and local governments. National government has formulated a "citizenship approach" to immigrant

  1. eerst apart paart beter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Een praktijkproef van ing. van Emous, onderzoeker bij de divisie Veehouderij van Animal Sciences Group van Wageningen UR in Lelystad, wijst uit dat het goed mogelijk is hennen en hanen overdag enkele uren te scheiden. Dit lijkt het paargedrag te stimuleren en heeft goede uitkomstresultaten.

  2. Families Falling Apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Reviews trends in Black male unemployment, out-of-wedlock births, and the number of Aid to Families with Dependent Children cases over the past 25 years. Argues that family breakdown is creating a state of urban social chaos that could lead to martial law. (FMW)

  3. Consuming apart, together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity

  4. Together and Apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Sheller, Mimi; Wind, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the affective, emotional, and familial dimensions of urban everyday mobility. Drawing on theoretical inspiration from phenomenology, nonrepresentational theory, and mobilities research on the relational mobilities of children and families, the paper explores the everyday...... mobility of 11 households with children in the multimodal context of Copenhagen, Denmark. Following the conceptualization of everyday mobility practices as heterogeneous ‘negotiation in motion’, the empirical analysis investigates how the strong relational dynamics between household members are organized...

  5. Gamma radiation in apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindborg, J.-E.

    1983-05-01

    This investigation forms the basis for the description of methods for the detection of gamma radiation. The aim is to control that the dose limit will not exceed 50 μR/h in a room where people reside. The distribution of dose rates in different rooms has been calculated and the results have been compared with experimental data. Various instruments have been calibrated and their specifications are discussed. (G.B.)

  6. Budget impact analysis of liposomal amphotericin B and amphotericin B lipid complex in the treatment of invasive fungal infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongbo; Chaudhari, Paresh; Zhou, Zheng-Yi; Wu, Eric Q; Patel, Chad; Horn, David L

    2014-02-01

    Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) and amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) are both indicated for treating invasive fungal infections (IFIs) caused by Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus spp. among patients who are refractory to or intolerant of conventional amphotericin B (CAB). Prior studies have suggested similar efficacies but differences in adverse event (AE) profiles between L-AMB and ABLC. Our objective was to conduct a cost-minimisation and budget impact analysis for the treatment of IFIs with L-AMB and ABLC in a US hospital setting. A Microsoft® Excel-based budget impact model was developed to estimate the costs associated with using L-AMB and ABLC for the treatment of adult patients with Aspergillus, Candida and Cryptococcus spp. infections, who are refractory to or intolerant of CAB, during a hospital stay. The model was built from a hospital perspective, and included drug costs of L-AMB and ABLC, and costs for treating drug-related AEs (i.e. nephrotoxicity with/without dialysis, infusion-related reactions, anaphylaxis, hypomagnesaemia and hypokalaemia). Average sales price was used as the drug cost estimate in the base-case analyses. The treatment duration and rates of AEs for L-AMB and ABLC were mainly obtained from a retrospective study of these two drugs in the target population using the Cerner Health Facts data. Treatment costs of AEs were obtained from the publicly available sources. The budget impact ($US, year 2011 values) was evaluated for a hypothetical hospital with 100 administrations where L-AMB and ABLC are used for the treatment of the target population by changing the market share of L-AMB and ABLC from 32/68% to an anticipated market share of 60/40% in the base-case analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying drug costs, rates of AEs, costs of AEs and anticipated market shares of L-AMB and ABLC. The estimated per-patient cost per hospital episode associated with L-AMB and ABLC use were $US14,563 and $US16,748, respectively

  7. The Argentina Premature Asthma and Respiratory Team (APART: objectives, design, and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study of viruses and wheezing in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Plachco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma and wheezing account for a substantial disease burden around the world. Very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 grams infants are at an increased risk for the development of severe acute respiratory illness (ARI and recurrent wheeze/asthma. The role of respiratory viruses in asthma predisposition in premature infants is not well understood. Preliminary evidence suggests that infection with human rhinovirus (RV early in life may contribute to greater burden of asthma later in life. Methods: A prospective cohort study of premature VLBW infants from Buenos Aires, Argentina, was enrolled year-round during a three-year period in the neonatal intensive care unit and followed during every ARI and with monthly well visits during the first year of life. Longitudinal follow-up up until age five years is ongoing. Results: This report describes the objectives, design, and recruitment results of this prospective cohort. Two hundred and five patients were enrolled from August 2011 through January 2014, and follow-up is ongoing. A total of 319 ARI episodes were observed from August 2011 to July 2014, and 910 well visits occurred during this time period. Conclusions: The Argentina Premature Asthma and Respiratory Team (APART is a unique cohort consisting of over 200 patients and over 1200 specimens who have been and will continue to be followed intensively from NICU discharge to capture baseline risk factors and every ARI, with interceding well visits during the first year of life, as well as longitudinal follow-up to age 5 years for asthma and atopy outcomes.

  8. Fault Length Vs Fault Displacement Evaluation In The Case Of Cerro Prieto Pull-Apart Basin (Baja California, Mexico) Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Garcia Arthur, M. A.; Orozco, L.; Brassea, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin is located in the southern part of San Andreas Fault system, and is characterized by high seismicity, recent volcanism, tectonic deformation and hydrothermal activity (Lomnitz et al, 1970; Elders et al., 1984; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008). Since the Cerro Prieto geothermal field production started, in 1973, significant subsidence increase was observed (Glowacka and Nava, 1996, Glowacka et al., 1999), and a relation between fluid extraction rate and subsidence rate has been suggested (op. cit.). Analysis of existing deformation data (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, Sarychikhina 2011) points to the fact that, although the extraction changes influence the subsidence rate, the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. Tectonic faults act as water barriers in the direction perpendicular to the fault, and/or separate regions with different compaction, and as effect the significant part of the subsidence is released as vertical displacement on the ground surface along fault rupture. These faults ruptures cause damages to roads and irrigation canals and water leakage. Since 1996, a network of geotechnical instruments has operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. To date, the network (REDECVAM: Mexicali Valley Crustal Strain Measurement Array) includes two crackmeters and eight tiltmeters installed on, or very close to, the main faults; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 minutes range. Additionally, there are benchmarks for measuring vertical fault displacements for which readings are recorded every 3 months. Since the crackmeter measures vertical displacement on the fault at one place only, the question appears: can we use the crackmeter data to evaluate how long is the lenth of the fractured fault, and how quickly it grows, so we can know where we can expect fractures in the canals or roads? We used the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relations between

  9. Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    In this study the life cycle primary energy use and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission of an eight-storey wood-framed apartment building are analyzed. All life cycle phases are included, including acquisition and processing of materials, on-site construction, building operation, demolition and materials disposal. The calculated primary energy use includes the entire energy system chains, and carbon flows are tracked including fossil fuel emissions, process emissions, carbon stocks in building materials, and avoided fossil emissions due to biofuel substitution. The results show that building operation uses the largest share of life cycle energy use, becoming increasingly dominant as the life span of the building increases. The type of heating system strongly influences the primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission; a biomass-based system with cogeneration of district heat and electricity achieves low primary energy use and very low CO{sub 2} emissions. Using biomass residues from the wood products chain to substitute for fossil fuels significantly reduces net CO{sub 2} emission. Excluding household tap water and electricity, a negative life cycle net CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved due to the wood-based construction materials and biomass-based energy supply system. This study shows the importance of using a life cycle perspective when evaluating primary energy and climatic impacts of buildings. (author)

  10. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  11. ANALISIS FAKTOR KESEHATAN DAN KESELAMATAN KERJA (K3 YANG SIGNIFIKAN MEMPENGARUHI KECELAKAAN KERJA PADA PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN APARTEMENT STUDENT CASTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni Waruwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Health and Safety (K3 is an effort to create a safe working atmosphere, comfortable and achieve the goal of maximum productivity. K3 is very important to be implemented in all areas of employment without exception building projects such as apartments, hotels, malls. However, to prevent any risk of workplace accidents is not as easy as turning the palm of the hand. Occupational accidents disebab by several factors, among others, occupational safety and health training (X1, the commitment of top management (X2, work environment (X3, awareness of workers (X4, regulations and safety and health procedures (X5, availability rambu- occupational health and safety signs (X6 in the workplace, and communication workers (X7. The most significant factor affecting the accidents are the top management commitment (X2 with a value of 36.4% koefien regression and awareness of workers (X4 of 30.1%. If both of these factors add up the total is 66.5%.

  12. Setting apart the affected: the use of behavioral criteria in animal models of post traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Zohar, Joseph; Matar, Michael A; Zeev, Kaplan; Loewenthal, Uri; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2004-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects about 20-30% of exposed individuals. Clinical studies of PTSD generally employ stringent criteria for inclusion in study populations, and yet in animal studies the data collection and analysis are generally expressed as a function of exposed vs nonexposed populations, regardless of individual variation in response. Prior data support an approach to animal models analogous to inclusion criteria in clinical studies. This series of studies sought to assess prevalence rates of maladaptive vs adaptive responses determined according to a more stringent approach to the concept of inclusion/exclusion criteria (cutoff behavioral criteria-CBC), consisting of two successive behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response tests). The rats were exposed to stressors in two different paradigms; exposure to a predator and underwater trauma. The prevalence rates of maladaptive responses to stress in these two distinct models dropped over time from 90% in the acute phase to 25% enduring/maladaptive response at 7 days, to remain constant over 30 days. As setting the affected individuals apart from the unaffected approximates clinical studies, it might also help to clarify some of the pending issues in PTSD research.

  13. apART: system for the acquisition, processing, archiving, and retrieval of digital images in an open, distributed imaging environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Strack, Ruediger

    1992-04-01

    apART reflects the structure of an open, distributed environment. According to the general trend in the area of imaging, network-capable, general purpose workstations with capabilities of open system image communication and image input are used. Several heterogeneous components like CCD cameras, slide scanners, and image archives can be accessed. The system is driven by an object-oriented user interface where devices (image sources and destinations), operators (derived from a commercial image processing library), and images (of different data types) are managed and presented uniformly to the user. Browsing mechanisms are used to traverse devices, operators, and images. An audit trail mechanism is offered to record interactive operations on low-resolution image derivatives. These operations are processed off-line on the original image. Thus, the processing of extremely high-resolution raster images is possible, and the performance of resolution dependent operations is enhanced significantly during interaction. An object-oriented database system (APRIL), which can be browsed, is integrated into the system. Attribute retrieval is supported by the user interface. Other essential features of the system include: implementation on top of the X Window System (X11R4) and the OSF/Motif widget set; a SUN4 general purpose workstation, inclusive ethernet, magneto optical disc, etc., as the hardware platform for the user interface; complete graphical-interactive parametrization of all operators; support of different image interchange formats (GIF, TIFF, IIF, etc.); consideration of current IPI standard activities within ISO/IEC for further refinement and extensions.

  14. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for operation of the hostels, apartments and ancillary premises run by the CERN Housing Service. Following a market survey carried out among 32 firms in ten Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2404/AS/Rev.) was sent on 5 April 2000 to one firm and three consortia in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the firm and the three consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium VIENNA INTERNATIONAL HOTEL MANAGEMENT (AT) - SEREG (CH), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of five years, to enter into force on 1 January 2001, for a total amount of 6 871 850 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 31 December 2001. The contract will include an option for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-60%, AT-...

  15. Homosexuality, Manliness and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    units upon completion of basic and advanced training. Nowadays, most servicemembers live in apartment style quarters, where they may share...grown up in an era where differing sexual orientation was far more acceptable than in previous generations, which subsequently leads to the second...changed over time from pre- Victorian to World War I. Focusing the majority of his research on Canadian youth in Ontario during the build-up to World

  16. Homosexuality, Manliness, and the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    units upon completion of basic and advanced training. Nowadays, most servicemembers live in apartment style quarters, where they may share...grown up in an era where differing sexual orientation was far more acceptable than in previous generations, which subsequently leads to the second...changed over time from pre- Victorian to World War I. Focusing the majority of his research on Canadian youth in Ontario during the build-up to World

  17. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  18. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  19. Cognition through montage and mechanisms of individual memory in Bogusław Bachorczyk's art on the example of the artist's apartment-studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antos, Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text discusses Bogusław Bachorczyk's apartment-studio in Krakow. The decorations he has been making there since 2003 have transformed into a kind of work-in-progress. These decorations, just like Bachorczyk's art, are related to the issues of memory and identity. In 2013 he started the transformation of his apartment by "lacing up the wall" with polychrome in the library room, later to embrace also other rooms. He installed into existing polychromes new elements according to the rule of montage, which has recently constituted the basic strategy of his work.

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of pull-apart basins: implications for the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Rafael; ten Brink, Uri S.; Lin, Jian

    1995-01-01

    We model the three-dimensional (3-D) crustal deformation in a deep pull-apart basin as a result of relative plate motion along a transform system and compare the results to the tectonics of the Dead Sea Basin. The brittle upper crust is modeled by a boundary element technique as an elastic block, broken by two en echelon semi-infinite vertical faults. The deformation is caused by a horizontal displacement that is imposed everywhere at the bottom of the block except in a stress-free “shear zone” in the vicinity of the fault zone. The bottom displacement represents the regional relative plate motion. Results show that the basin deformation depends critically on the width of the shear zone and on the amount of overlap between basin-bounding faults. As the width of the shear zone increases, the depth of the basin decreases, the rotation around a vertical axis near the fault tips decreases, and the basin shape (the distribution of subsidence normalized by the maximum subsidence) becomes broader. In contrast, two-dimensional plane stress modeling predicts a basin shape that is independent of the width of the shear zone. Our models also predict full-graben profiles within the overlapped region between bounding faults and half-graben shapes elsewhere. Increasing overlap also decreases uplift near the fault tips and rotation of blocks within the basin. We suggest that the observed structure of the Dead Sea Basin can be described by a 3-D model having a large overlap (more than 30 km) that probably increased as the basin evolved as a result of a stable shear motion that was distributed laterally over 20 to 40 km.

  1. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Holmgren, O.; Reisbacka, H.; Vinha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH 50 , i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is -1 . Pressure differences in Finnish low-rise residential houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h -1 , the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100 % in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h -1 . This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations. (authors)

  2. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  3. The Association Between Apartment Layout and Depressive Symptomology among Hispanic/Latino Residents in Low-Income Housing: the AHOME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Earle C; Bafna, Sonit; Machry, Herminia

    2018-02-01

    In this study of low-income Hispanic/Latino adults living in 291 individual apartments in the Bronx, New York, the apartment layout was significantly associated with the odds of depressive symptomology. Women living in apartments in which the most central rooms were the living, dining, or kitchen (i.e., rooms commonly used for communal activities) were less likely to have depressive symptomology (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.22-0.86) than women in apartments where the central rooms were lobbies or corridors, adjusting for demographics, health conditions, and housing and neighborhood characteristics. No statistically significant association was observed in men. We present the logic underlying the use of layout variables in this study and discuss the implications it may have for understanding the role of the home environment on psychological distress among inhabitants. The results of this study show how space syntax analysis can be used to better understanding disparities in the risk of depression and offer an additional opportunity for public health stakeholders to identify those most at risk for depression.

  4. Energy retrofitting of a typical old Danish multi-family building to a “nearly-zero” energy building based on experiences from a test apartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Rønby, Leif; Mikkelsen, Svend Erik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research described in this paper was to demonstrate that an old Danish multi-family building built in 1896 could be retrofitted to a “nearly-zero” energy building. Three types of retrofit measures were implemented in a “test” apartment to obtain practical experiences. The first...

  5. The influence of multifamily apartment building occupants on energy and water consumption – the preliminary results of monitoring and survey campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandurski Karol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupants’ attitudes and behavior have a significant influence on energy and water consumption in buildings. To provide more robust solutions, energy efficient applications should consider occupant-building interaction. However, there is a question to be answered: which aspects of lodging and occupant behavior cause the most substantial increase in consumption of these mediums. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of household characteristics and occupants’ behavior on level and variability in utilities consumption. The study uses the results of a measuring campaign and the questionnaire. The measuring campaign was carried out to monitor the consumption of energy used for space heating and domestic hot water, as well as electricity, gas and water. The questionnaire specifically focused on household characteristics and occupants’ behavior. The research was carried out in four apartment buildings, all consisting of more than 100 apartments. Data from approximately 100 households was gathered and analyzed; the survey’s respond rate was almost 50%. A quantitative analysis of the results confirms the assumption that both household characteristics and occupants’ behavior (e.g. the use of heating control are important factors for utilities consumption. Further work with the obtained data is planned in terms of including of greater number of apartments, assessment of ventilation effectiveness, as well as analysis of heat transfer between the apartments.

  6. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaee, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart" and "No Longer at Ease" in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Postmodernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of…

  7. Surface composition of pull-apart bands in Argadnel Regio, Europa: Evidence of localized cryovolcanic resurfacing during basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M.; Shirley, James H.; Dalton, James B.; Kamp, L.

    2017-03-01

    We combine Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data to investigate the composition of pull-apart bands in Europa's Argadnel Regio. Using spectral linear mixture modeling employing cryogenic laboratory reference spectra, we find that bands of intermediate age ("grey" bands) are compositionally distinct from bands that are stratigraphically younger ("dark" bands). The grey bands have higher abundances of larger ice grains and lower abundances of hydrated salts than the dark bands; both of these tendencies are statistically significant at the 1% level. The grey and dark bands have similar abundances of hexahydrite, a material which is relatively stable under irradiation; however, the derived abundances of frozen magnesium sulfate brine and of mirabilite, which are more susceptible to fragmentation by radiation, are significantly higher in the dark bands than in the grey bands. These results are consistent with a physical model in which the differences in composition and in ice grain sizes are linked to space weathering and radiolytic processing levels; the grey bands have presumably undergone higher levels of processing, due to being exposed on Europa's surface for a longer period of time. One prominent wedge-shaped band exhibits an anomalous albedo variation across its northern portion, appearing dark in its top third, and grey in its southernmost two-thirds. We find that the dark part of the band has a modeled composition that is in-family with other dark bands, while the grey portion has a modeled composition that is indistinguishable from other grey bands in the study area. Because these variations cannot easily be attributed to the band's formation mechanism (bands open sequentially along a central axis), we surmise that the northern part has been resurfaced, probably in response to the formation of a large topographic basin that cuts through the band. Faulting accompanying basin formation may provide conduits allowing

  8. [Evolution of food supply (apart from school catering) between 2004/2005 and 2009/2010 in middle- and high-schools of Aquitaine, France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, C; Carriere, C; Delmas, C; Péchaud, M; Barberger-Gateau, P; Maurice, S; Thibault, H

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of food supply (apart from school catering) between school years 2004/2005 and 2009/2010, in middle- and high-schools from the Aquitaine region (southwest France), in order to evaluate the impact of actions conducted within the framework and the program Nutrition, Prevention and Health of children and adolescents in Aquitaine (southwest France). Two surveys were carried out among all middle- and high-schools of the Aquitaine region in 2004/2005 (n=536) and 2009/2010 (n=539) within the framework of a regional multidisciplinary public health program "Nutrition, prevention and health of children and teenagers in Aquitaine". For both 2004/2005 and 2009/2010, data were collected using the same questionnaire and dealt with school characteristics and modalities of food supply (apart from school catering). Response rate was 84.1% in 2004/2005 and 79.6% in 2009/2010. The proportion of schools offering food to pupils (apart from school catering) significantly decreased in 5 years (from 80.1% to 50.1%, Pcatering) has also been improved: less sweet and fat food, more bread and fruits. This study shows an overall improvement of food supply apart from school catering (food sale, free food and vending machines) in middle- and high-schools from the Aquitaine region (southwest France) between 2004/2005 and 2009/2010. This improvement is related to the proportion of schools offering food (quantitative improvement), as well as to the composition of food supply (qualitative improvement). These results show an improvement of food supply (apart from school catering), suggesting that actions implemented in the framework of the program "Nutrition, prevention and health of children and adolescents in Aquitaine" may have led to these improvements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Unified Computational Intelligence for Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Seiffertt, John

    2010-01-01

    Computational intelligence encompasses a wide variety of techniques that allow computation to learn, to adapt, and to seek. That is, they may be designed to learn information without explicit programming regarding the nature of the content to be retained, they may be imbued with the functionality to adapt to maintain their course within a complex and unpredictably changing environment, and they may help us seek out truths about our own dynamics and lives through their inclusion in complex system modeling. These capabilities place our ability to compute in a category apart from our ability to e

  10. benzimidazole metal complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aUnité de Recherche de Chimie de l'Environnement et Moléculaire Structurale, Université des Frères. Mentouri .... determine the quantum chemical parameters for the title ..... retical study of benzazole thioether and its zinc complex.

  11. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  12. The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders diagnosed with epilepsy referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex Observation Unit in terms of section 77 and/or 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Marais

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Limited information regarding the relation between psychopathology associated with epilepsy, crime and the legal aspects thereof is available in South Africa. Objectives: The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of alleged offenders diagnosed with epilepsy and referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC Observation Unit from 2001 to 2006, was investigated. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Results: Of the 69 alleged offenders, aged 17–79 years (median 30 years, 94.2% were male, 81.2% Black, 72.5% single, and 69.9% unemployed. The median qualification was grade six. Offences were violent in nature and committed against a person in 75% of cases. A direct link between epilepsy and the alleged offences occurred in 7% of cases. Generalised epilepsy (34.8% and interictal psychosis (20.3% were the most commonly diagnosed conditions. Twenty-nine (42% alleged offenders lacked criminal responsibility and were not fit to stand trial. Most observati (79.2% diagnosed with generalised epilepsy were criminally liable and fit to stand trial. The highest rate of criminal incapacity was found among observati with interictal psychoses (85.7% and comorbid mental retardation (90%. Almost 60% of referred cases were declared as state patients by the court. Conclusion: In only 16% of cases, observati were found unaccountable because of epilepsy (automatisms or postictal confusional states. Our findings confirmed an increased prevalence of violent behaviour during seizure-free periods. This contributes to evidence that factors associated with epilepsy, rather than the epilepsy itself, play an important role in the possible increased risk of violent behaviour in people with epilepsy.

  13. Factors associated with secondhand smoke incursion into the homes of non-smoking residents in a multi-unit housing complex: a cross-sectional study in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghoon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a multi-unit housing (MUH complex, secondhand smoke (SHS can pass from one living space to another. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SHS incursion, and to establish the relationship between SHS incursion and socio-demographic and built environmental factors in MUH in Korea. Methods A population-based sample of 2600 residents (aged ≥19 years living in MUH from across the city of Seoul, Korea, was obtained through a web-based selection panel. The residents completed a questionnaire detailing socio-demographic factors, smoking status, frequency of SHS incursion, and built environmental factors. The presence of a personal smoke-free home rule was determined by residents declaring that no one smoked inside the home. Results Of the 2600 participants, non-smoking residents who lived in homes with a personal smoke-free rule were selected for further analysis (n = 1784. In the previous 12 months, 74.7% of residents had experienced SHS incursion ≥1 times. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated that residents who spent more time at home, lived with children, supported the implementation of smoke-free regulations in MUH, lived in small homes, lived in homes with natural ventilation provided by opening a front door or the windows and front door, and lived in homes with more frequent natural ventilation were more likely to report SHS incursion into their homes. Conclusions The majority of the non-smoking residents experienced SHS incursion, even with a personal smoke-free rule in their homes. A smoke-free policy in MUH is needed to protect residents from SHS exposure when they are at home.

  14. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  15. Unit 06 - Sampling the World

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 06, CC in GIS; Parson, Charles; Nyerges, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    This unit begins the section on data acquisition by looking at how the infinite complexity of the real world can be discretized and sampled. It considers sampling techniques and associated issues of accuracy and standards.

  16. Thermal comfort and market niches for apartment buildings: impact of the current Thermal Regulation in the private real estate market in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas Pino, Felipe; De Herde, André; Aguirre Núñez, Carlos; Marmolejo Duarte, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Almost a decade has passed since Chile begins to implement a Thermal Regulation for dwellings, which established a minimum requirement for each building component, according to different climatic zones. This article proposes a series of dynamic simulations, in order to assess the thermal comfort (during winter and summer) of apartments in Santiago de Chile for lower and upper middle class. Some building typologies were defined by means of the two stage clustering methodology. These were built...

  17. First experiences with apartment buildings built in monolithic construction to Passivhaus standard; Erste Erfahrungen mit Mehrfamilien-Passivhaeusern in monolithischer Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messari-Becker, Lamia; Bollinger, Klaus; Grohmann, Manfred [Bollinger + Grohmann Ingenieure GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    For the first time, apartment buildings are being built in monolithic construction that meet the most exacting requirements regarding energy efficiency and sustainability. These buildings are under construction in the northern district of Kalbach Sued in Frankfurt (Main) by ABG Frankfurt Holding. The architectural design was produced by Scheffler and Partners, the Frankfurt structural engineers Bollinger + Grohmann undertook the structural design including building physics and energy related aspects, and Baumgartner Engineers took charge of M and E design. These apartment buildings are the first monolithically constructed apartment buildings built to Passivhaus standard. They therefore represent a milestone in single-skin monolithic construction in connection with an exacting energy standard. The challenge for architects and engineers was to consider a range of different aspects and accommodate them in the design. In addition to given parameters such as the urban development plan, client requirements such as the number of apartments, aspects of family living and barrier-free standards, the briefing called for the highest construction standard in terms of efficient use of resources in the widest sense. This meant that the emphasis was not only on energy efficiency. Cost efficiency throughout the entire lifecycle of the building was equally as important in order to ensure long term economic sustainability for users and owners. The experience gained on this project will also provide answers to important questions regarding research and development in sustainable building, which is not in any conflict with the creativity and diversity of our architectural culture. (Copyright copyright 2011 Ernst and Sohn Verlag fuer Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH and Co. KG, Berlin)

  18. Quantifying fine particle emission events from time-resolved measurements: Method description and application to 18 California low-income apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W R; Logue, J M; Wu, X; Klepeis, N E; Fisk, W J; Noris, F; Singer, B C

    2018-01-01

    PM 2.5 exposure is associated with significant health risk. Exposures in homes derive from both outdoor and indoor sources, with emissions occurring primarily in discrete events. Data on emission event magnitudes and schedules are needed to support simulation-based studies of exposures and mitigations. This study applied an identification and characterization algorithm to quantify time-resolved PM 2.5 emission events from data collected during 224 days of monitoring in 18 California apartments with low-income residents. We identified and characterized 836 distinct events with median and mean values of 12 and 30 mg emitted mass, 16 and 23 minutes emission duration, 37 and 103 mg/h emission rates, and pseudo-first-order decay rates of 1.3 and 2.0/h. Mean event-averaged concentrations calculated using the determined event characteristics agreed to within 6% of measured values for 14 of the apartments. There were variations in event schedules and emitted mass across homes, with few events overnight and most emissions occurring during late afternoons and evenings. Event characteristics were similar during weekdays and weekends. Emitted mass was positively correlated with number of residents (Spearman coefficient, ρ=.10), bedrooms (ρ=.08), house volume (ρ=.29), and indoor-outdoor CO 2 difference (ρ=.27). The event schedules can be used in probabilistic modeling of PM 2.5 in low-income apartments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Turning Smart Water Meter Data Into Useful Information : A case study on rental apartments in Södertälje

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Anna; Dahlström, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Managing water in urban areas is an ever increasingly complex challenge. Technology enables sustainable urban water management and with integrated smart metering solutions, massive amounts of water consumption data from the end users can be collected. However, the possibility of generating data from the end user holds no value in itself. It is with the use of data analysis the vast amount of the collected data can provide more insightful information creating potential benefits. It is recogniz...

  20. “Not Just an Apartment Building”: Residents’ Quality of Life in a Social Housing Co-operative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Eileen Wisniewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact that two social housing complexes have had on their residents' quality of life. These two complexes, known as Tannery Court Co-operative Ltd., target a specific segment of the affordable housing market: non-elderly singles. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the quality of life of residents. The data collection strategy used semi-structured interviews conducted with the help of a questionnaire. A total of 43 interviews were completed at the two building sites. Analysis of interview and questionnaire data identified six areas of improvement in residents' quality of life. These are life in general (an overarching dimension, housing (the focus of the Tannery Court intervention, neighbourhood (including safety and appearance, food, self-confidence (an enabling dimension for future development of projects and goals among the residents, and financial situation (a key dimension because of its multiple impacts on other aspects of life. / L'objectif de cette recherche était d'évaluer l'impact des deux complexes de logements coopératifs Tannery Court sur la qualité de vie des résidants. Ces complexes ciblent un segment particulier du marché du logement social, les célibataires d'âge actif et vivant en deçà du seuil de la pauvreté. Cette étude utilise une méthodologie mixte pour évaluer la situation et la qualité de vie des résidants. La stratégie de cueillette de données s'appuie sur des entrevues semi-dirigées effectuées à l'aide d'un questionnaire. Au total, nous avons complété 43 entrevues. Six aspects de la qualité de vie se sont améliorés de façon significative. Il s'agit de la vie en général (une dimension globale, le logement (l'objectif premier visé par l'équipe de Tannery Court, le quartier de résidence (dimensions importantes de la localisation d'un complexe comme la sécurité et l'apparence la confiance en soi (une dimension clé pour le d

  1. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  2. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  3. Linearization: Geometric, Complex, and Conditional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Qadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lie symmetry analysis provides a systematic method of obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear (systems of differential equations, whether partial or ordinary. Of special interest is the procedure that Lie developed to transform scalar nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations to linear form. Not much work was done in this direction to start with, but recently there have been various developments. Here, first the original work of Lie (and the early developments on it, and then more recent developments based on geometry and complex analysis, apart from Lie’s own method of algebra (namely, Lie group theory, are reviewed. It is relevant to mention that much of the work is not linearization but uses the base of linearization.

  4. Modelling and Accuracy in a Bim Environment for Planned Conservation: the Apartment of Troia of Giulio Romano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, A.; Scala, B.; Spezzoni, A.

    2017-02-01

    Modeling of Cultural Heritage in a BIM environment, and in general of existing buildings, requires special attention because there are two diametrically opposed possibilities. On the one hand the attempt is to realize a very complex and accurate model, in order to provide the most comprehensive representation of the architecture as possible. The opposite position leads to build a very schematic and symbolic model of as-built architecture. It is not easy to determine which is the right balance between these two attitudes because each architecture requires a personalized approach and not standards. It's, however, necessary to find rules to figure out which items are represented, what is the minimum level of detail to consider adequate and how to deal with alterations from simple and linear geometries. These two facing possibilities deal with different goals and tools. In the field of restoration or planned conservation, that is the most common approach for existing buildings, the attention focuses on the exceptions and particularities of each architecture: the important aspect is to understand and describe exactly each part as a singularity (as it is). In this context it is very difficult to find a standard or a common solution. The first possibility of modelling seems to be very close to this approach, but it clashes with two important aspects. A first problem concerns the modelling software. Usually commercial BIM modelling software doesn't allow to realize very complex and high detailed solutions. They prefer working with predefined families and try to categorize each element in standard solution. The possibility to build new families is expected, but it often requires a lot of time. The second difficulty is the real efficiency of such an accurate model. In fact, it could be very difficult to link external elements to the model or use it in many traditional BIM applications. In this paper, we suggest another possible approach that represents the first result of a

  5. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  6. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  7. Softball Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  8. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and ... Results: The UV and IR spectra of the complex showed an additive effect of polydatin-lecithin, in which .... Monochromatic Cu Ka radiation (wavelength =.

  9. A-Part Gel, an adhesion prophylaxis for abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled phase I-II safety study [NCT00646412].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Reinhold; Baumann, Petra; Schmoor, Claudia; Odermatt, Erich K; Wente, Moritz N; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal surgical intervention can cause the development of intra-peritoneal adhesions. To reduce this problem, different agents have been tested to minimize abdominal adhesions; however, the optimal adhesion prophylaxis has not been found so far. Therefore, the A-Part(®) Gel was developed as a barrier to diminish postsurgical adhesions; the aim of this randomized controlled study was a first evaluation of its safety and efficacy. In this prospective, controlled, randomized, patient-blinded, monocenter phase I-II study, 62 patients received either the hydrogel A-Part-Gel(®) as an anti-adhesive barrier or were untreated after primary elective median laparotomy. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of peritonitis and/or wound healing impairment 28 ± 10 days postoperatively. As secondary endpoints anastomotic leakage until 28 days after surgery, adverse events and adhesions were assessed until 3 months postoperatively. A lower rate of wound healing impairment and/or peritonitis was observed in the A-Part Gel(®) group compared to the control group: (6.5 vs. 13.8 %). The difference between the two groups was -7.3%, 90 % confidence interval [-20.1, 5.4 %]. Both treatment groups showed similar frequency of anastomotic leakage but incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events were slightly lower in the A-Part Gel(®) group compared to the control. Adhesion rates were comparable in both groups. A-Part Gel(®) is safe as an adhesion prophylaxis after abdominal wall surgery but no reduction of postoperative peritoneal adhesion could be found in comparison to the control group. This may at least in part be due to the small sample size as well as to the incomplete coverage of the incision due to the used application. NCT00646412.

  10. Research on Indemnificatory Apartments Based on PPP Financing Mode in China%中国保障性安居工程PPP融资模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恒; 汤永鸿; 单海鹏

    2015-01-01

    Indemnificatory Apartments project is the housing security measures provided by government for the low-income families and housing difficulties families.PPP ( public -private -partnership ) is a new financing model, designed to guide social capital to participate in the development, construction and operation of the public projects.In Indemnificatory Apartments project especially construction of the low-rent housing and public rental housing , PPP can help the government reduce financial burden and management cost .And it can bring us efficient use of the social capital , organic combination between government goals and social capital business goals, high im-provement of the social economic benefit and high service level of the Indemnificatory Apartments construction.%保障性安居工程是中国政府针对城市低收入家庭和住房困难家庭出台的住房保障措施。政府和社会资本合作( Public-Private-Partnership,PPP)是一种新型融资模式,旨在引导和利用社会资本参与政府投资的公共项目的开发、建设和运营。在保障性安居工程尤其是廉租房、公租房建设中引入PPP,可以帮助政府减轻财政负担、降低管理成本,同时可使社会资本获得更高效地利用,达到政府公共目标和社会资本商业目标的有机结合,提高保障性安居工程建设的社会经济效益和服务水平。

  11. Poles Apart: The “Bipolar” Pteropod Species Limacina helicina Is Genetically Distinct Between the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarsek, Nina; Linse, Katrin; Nelson, R. John; Pakhomov, Evgeny; Seibel, Brad; Steinke, Dirk; Würzberg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The shelled pteropod (sea butterfly) Limacina helicina is currently recognised as a species complex comprising two sub-species and at least five “forma”. However, at the species level it is considered to be bipolar, occurring in both the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Due to its aragonite shell and polar distribution L. helicina is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. As a key indicator of the acidification process, and a major component of polar ecosystems, L. helicina has become a focus for acidification research. New observations that taxonomic groups may respond quite differently to acidification prompted us to reassess the taxonomic status of this important species. We found a 33.56% (±0.09) difference in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences between L. helicina collected from the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. This degree of separation is sufficient for ordinal level taxonomic separation in other organisms and provides strong evidence for the Arctic and Antarctic populations of L. helicina differing at least at the species level. Recent research has highlighted substantial physiological differences between the poles for another supposedly bipolar pteropod species, Clione limacina. Given the large genetic divergence between Arctic and Antarctic L. helicina populations shown here, similarly large physiological differences may exist between the poles for the L. helicina species group. Therefore, in addition to indicating that L. helicina is in fact not bipolar, our study demonstrates the need for acidification research to take into account the possibility that the L. helicina species group may not respond in the same way to ocean acidification in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems. PMID:20360985

  12. Poles apart: the "bipolar" pteropod species Limacina helicina is genetically distinct between the Arctic and Antarctic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian; Strugnell, Jan; Bednarsek, Nina; Linse, Katrin; Nelson, R John; Pakhomov, Evgeny; Seibel, Brad; Steinke, Dirk; Würzberg, Laura

    2010-03-23

    The shelled pteropod (sea butterfly) Limacina helicina is currently recognised as a species complex comprising two sub-species and at least five "forma". However, at the species level it is considered to be bipolar, occurring in both the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Due to its aragonite shell and polar distribution L. helicina is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. As a key indicator of the acidification process, and a major component of polar ecosystems, L. helicina has become a focus for acidification research. New observations that taxonomic groups may respond quite differently to acidification prompted us to reassess the taxonomic status of this important species. We found a 33.56% (+/-0.09) difference in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences between L. helicina collected from the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. This degree of separation is sufficient for ordinal level taxonomic separation in other organisms and provides strong evidence for the Arctic and Antarctic populations of L. helicina differing at least at the species level. Recent research has highlighted substantial physiological differences between the poles for another supposedly bipolar pteropod species, Clione limacina. Given the large genetic divergence between Arctic and Antarctic L. helicina populations shown here, similarly large physiological differences may exist between the poles for the L. helicina species group. Therefore, in addition to indicating that L. helicina is in fact not bipolar, our study demonstrates the need for acidification research to take into account the possibility that the L. helicina species group may not respond in the same way to ocean acidification in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems.

  13. Validation and utilization of a TFE3 break-apart FISH assay for Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma and alveolar soft part sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Dinesh; Roy, Somak; Quiroga-Garza, Gabriela; Cieply, Kathleen; Mahaffey, Alyssa L; Bastacky, Sheldon; Dhir, Rajiv; Parwani, Anil V

    2015-09-29

    Xp11.2 or TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) are characterized by chromosome translocations involving the Xp11.2 breakpoint resulting in transcription factor TFE3 gene fusions. The most common translocations documented in TFE3 RCCs are t(X;1) (p11.2;q21) and t(X;17) (p11.2;q25) which leads to fusion of TFE3 gene on Xp11.2 with PRCC or ASPL respectively. TFE3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been inconsistent over time due to background staining problems in part related to fixation issues. Karyotyping to detect TFE3 gene rearrangement requires typically unavailable fresh tissue. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is generally very challenging due to degradation of RNA in archival material. The study objective was to develop and validate a TFE3 break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to confirm Xp11 translocation RCCs and ASPS. Representative sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were selected in 40 possible cases. Approximately 60 tumor cells were analyzed in the targeted region. The validation of TFE3 FISH was done with 11 negative and two positive cases. Cut off for a positive result was validated as >7.15 % positive nuclei with any pattern of break-apart signals. FISH evaluation was done blinded of the immunohistochemical or karyotype data. Three out of forty cases were positive for the TFE3 break-apart signals by FISH. The negative cases were reported as clear cell RCC with papillary features (10), clear cell RCC with sarcomatoid areas (2), Papillary RCC with clear cell areas (9), Chromophobe RCC (2), RCC, unclassified type (3) and renal medullary carcinoma (1). 3 of the negative cases were consultation cases for renal tumor with unknown histology. Seven negative cases were soft tissue tumor suspicious for ASPS. Our study validates the utility of TFE3 break-apart FISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections for diagnosis and confirmation of

  14. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy use and costs of the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) which provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat that would normally be rejected to the environment is compared to a conventional system purchasing electricity from a utility and a phosphoric acid fuel cell powered system. The analysis showed that for a 500-unit apartment complex a fuel OS/IES would be about 10% more energy conservative in terms of total coal consumption than a diesel OS/IES system or a conventional system. The fuel cell OS/IES capital costs could be 30 to 55% greater than the diesel OS/IES capital costs for the same life cycle costs. The life cycle cost of a fuel cell OS/IES would be lower than that for a conventional system as long as the cost of electricity is greater than $0.05 to $0.065/kWh. An analysis of several parametric combinations of fuel cell power plant and state-of-art energy recovery systems and annual fuel requirement calculations for four locations were made. It was shown that OS/IES component choices are a major factor in fuel consumption, with the least efficient system using 25% more fuel than the most efficient. Central air conditioning and heat pumps result in minimum fuel consumption while individual air conditioning units increase it, and in general the fuel cell of highest electrical efficiency has the lowest fuel consumption.

  15. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  16. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  17. Subsurface imaging in a sector of Cerro Prieto transform fault near to pull-apart basin, Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, based on crooked lines 2D seismic reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Agüero, M. A.; González-Escobar, M.; Arregui, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the transition zone between San Andres continental transformation system and the coupled transform faults system and rifting of Gulf of California is located the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin delimitated by Imperial fault (northeast) and Cerro Prieto fault (CPF) (southwest), this last, is the limit west of Cerro Prieto geothermic field (CPGF). Crooked lines 2D seismic reflection, covering a portion near the intersection of CPF and CPGF are processed and interpreted. The seismic data were obtained in the early 80's by Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). By decades, technical and investigation works in Cerro Prieto geothermic field and its vicinity had mapped faults at several depths but do not stablish a clear limit where this faults and CPF interact due the complex hydrothermal effects imaging the subsurface. The profiles showing the presence of a zone of uplift effect due to CPF. Considering the proximity of the profiles to CPF, it is surprising almost total absence of faults. A strong reflector around 2 km of depth, it is present in all profiles. This seismic reflector is considered a layer of shale, result of the correlation with a well located in the same region.

  18. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  19. Fiscal 1976 Sunshine Project result report (Drawings). R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system (R and D on the system for apartment houses); 1976 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho zumenshu. Shugo jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Working design was made on an apartment house for R and D on solar cooling/heating and hot water supply system, and its drawings were prepared. The design was made on the experimental medium-rise square pyramid apartment house (3- storied, 28 dwelling units, RC structure, 1,566.63m{sup 2} in building area, 2,309.05m{sup 2} in total floor area). The house was equipped with normal high-voltage receiving panel, indoor cubicle of 300kVA, common antenna TV, telephone piping, door chime, direct water supply system with individual meters, LPG gas piping with individual meters, central hot water supply system with individual meters, and central cooling/heating system with individual fan coil units. The exterior of the house was finished with asphalt-waterproofing normal concrete-finished roofs of 1/50 in gradient, epoxy system resin-coated exposed concrete exterior walls, Al sash slide pair-glass window and alumite-finished Al door openings, and foamed polystyrene insulation plates (60mm, 50mm and 50mm thick for roofs, floors and walls, respectively). (NEDO)

  20. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  1. [Evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Aline O; Souza, Aline D; Feliciano, Eveline A; Rodrigues, André F S F; D'Agosto, Marta; Daemon, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. This study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between February and August 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. The ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. The occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining blood smears from sample taken from the dogs'ears. The blood smears were stained with Giemsa and 100 fields per slide were examined, studying the erythrocytes to determine parasitism. From among the dogs living in apartments, we found (with respective prevalence and mean intensity): Ctenocephalides felis (12%), (3.3+/-2.0); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2%); and ixodid nymphs (2%). In this environment in the dogs were not found hemoparasites. From the houses with grassy yards, we observed the following prevalence levels and mean intensities: C. felis (14%), (2.28+/-1.9); R. sanguineus (35%), (7.8+/-9.8); ixodid nymph (18%), (1.4+/-0.7); and ixodid larvae (4%), (12+/-14.4). The hemoparasites found were: Ehrlichia canis (16%) and Babesia canis (2%).

  2. Subgroup complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview of a research area that combines geometries for groups (such as Tits buildings and generalizations), topological aspects of simplicial complexes from p-subgroups of a group (in the spirit of Brown, Quillen, and Webb), and combinatorics of partially ordered sets. The material is intended to serve as an advanced graduate-level text and partly as a general reference on the research area. The treatment offers optional tracks for the reader interested in buildings, geometries for sporadic simple groups, and G-equivariant equivalences and homology for subgroup complexes.

  3. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  4. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  5. 47 CFR 76.2000 - Exclusive access to multiple dwelling units generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gated community, mobile home park, or garden apartment); provided however, that MDU shall not include... Communities, Designated 76.51 Community, Principal contour 76.5 Community unit 76.5 Consumer education-selector switches 76.66 Cross-ownership 76.501 D Definitions, Part 76 76.5 Designated communities 76.51...

  6. Convex modeling and optimization of a vehicle powertrain equipped with a generator-turbine throttle unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkov, S.; Murgovski, N.; de Jager, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates an internal combustion (gasoline) engine throttled by a generator-turbine unit. Apart from throttling, the purpose of this device is to complement the operation of a conventional car alternator and support its downsizing by introducing an additional source of energy for the

  7. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  8. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  9. Escape tectonism in the Gulf of Thailand: Paleogene left-lateral pull-apart rifting in the Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H

    2010-01-01

    The Malay Basin represents one of the largest rift basins of SE Asia. Based on a comprehensive 2-D seismic database tied to wells covering mainly Vietnamese acreage, the evolution of the Vietnamese part of the basin is outlined and a new tectonic model is proposed for the development of the basin....... The Vietnamese part of the Malay Basin comprises a large and deep Paleogene pull-apart basin formed through Middle or Late Eocene to Oligocene left-lateral strike-slip along NNW-trending fault zones. The Tho Chu Fault Zone constitutes a significant Paleogene left-lateral strike-slip zone most likely associated......–Strending faults in the central part of the basin. However, the lack of inversion in Vietnamese territory only seems to merit a few kilometers of dextral inversion....

  10. Radiological and micro-computed tomography analysis of the bone at dental implants inserted 2, 3 and 4 mm apart in a minipig model with platform switching incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elian, Nicolas; Bloom, Mitchell; Dard, Michel; Cho, Sang-Choon; Trushkowsky, Richard D; Tarnow, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inter-implant distance on interproximal bone utilizing platform switching. Analysis of interproximal bone usually depends on traditional two-dimensional radiographic assessment. Although there has been increased reliability of current techniques, there has been an inability to track bone level changes over time and in three dimensions. Micro-CT has provided three-dimensional imaging that can be used in conjunction with traditional two-dimensional radiographic techniques. This study was performed on 24 female minipigs. Twelve animals received three implants with an inter-implant distance of 3 mm on one side of the mandible and another three implants on the contra-lateral side, where the implants were placed 2 mm apart creating a split mouth design. Twelve other animals received three implants with an inter-implant distance of 3 mm on one side of the mandible and another three implants on the contra-lateral side, where the implants were placed 4 mm apart creating a split mouth design too. The quantitative evaluation was performed comparatively on radiographs taken at t 0 (immediately after implantation) and at t 8 weeks (after termination). The samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify the first bone to implant contact (fBIC) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). Mixed model regressions using the nonparametric Brunner-Langer method were used to determine the effect of inter-implant distance on the measured outcomes. The change in bone level was determined using radiography and its mean was 0.05 mm for an inter-implant distance of 3 and 0.00 mm for a 2 mm distance (P = 0.7268). The mean of this outcome was 0.18 mm for the 3 mm and for 4 mm inter-implant distance (P = 0.9500). Micro-computed tomography showed that the fBIC was always located above the reference, 0.27 and 0.20 mm for the comparison of 2-3 mm (P = 0.4622) and 0.49 and 0.34 mm for the inter-implant distance of 3 and 4 mm (P

  11. Investigating the Female Subaltern, Colonial Discourse and False Consciousness: A Spivakian Marxist-Postcolonialist Reading of Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mostafaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research study attempts to investigate Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease in terms of Gayatri Spivak Marxist-Post colonialist conceptions of subaltern, colonial discourse and false consciousness. In Post-modernist fiction, there is anxiety that historical concerns such as the scale of violence in the Second World War, the Nazi genocide, the paranoiac politics of the Cold War and European colonialism have made fiction a medium for history. Chinua Achebe’s novels, indeed, are manifestation of colonialism and its subsequent impact on the literary text and dominant discourse. In exploring these terms, this dissertation endeavors to closely examine Gayatri Spivak’s concept of subaltern in the Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease. Furthermore, the present paper demonstrates Spivak’s voice to differences: that is, class categorization and marginalized subaltern subjects. By the emergence of colonialism, the significance of social class and social discourse became predominant; therefore, colonial discourses instilled into the social, cultural construction and literary text, particularly novel. In this regard, the investigation of the dominate discourses is pursued, and this helps to show how colonialism resulted in discourse inculcation. The resistant perspective against ruling ideology, as the Italian Marxist political activist, Antonio Gramsci calls it cultural hegemony is presented through language, tradition, and customs. Finally, the study focuses on Marxist concept of false consciousness from the viewpoint of Antonio Gramsci to Louis Althusser. Keywords: Colonial discourse, Subaltern, False Consciousness, Social Class, Change and Tradition, Language, Culture

  12. Living Apart Together in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Aubel; F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA couple of years ago Joschka Fischer, the German minister of Foreign Affairs articulated his European dream, calling for a specification of the 'Finalität', that is the ultimate goal of the process of European integration. It came at a moment that Europe is challenged by two conflicting

  13. Church mediation - een vak apart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annelies Klinefelter; dr Hans A.J. Jonker

    2009-01-01

    Welke rol kan mediation in de kerk spelen in de diverse geledingen en specifieke activiteiten? In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op kerkelijke conflicten, gelaagdheid in church mediation, en specifieke dilemma's van church mediation. Daarnaast komen enkele benaderingen aan bod zoals: helende

  14. Love will tear us apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramming, Pia; Johnsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    to their leaders, each others and their jobs in terms of love. To be able to encourage emotions of love in call centre workers can be seen as very successful transformational leadership, while challenging our basic assumptions about love as an authentic, higher order feeling. We use Plato's classic work on love...

  15. Apartes desde la inteligencia artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Torres Soler

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y desarrollo de la inteligencia artificial no debe centrarse sólo en la creación de software o hardware que permita realizar procesos algorítmicos o heurísticos en el computador, de tal forma que produzcan soluciones óptimas y eficientes al resolver un problema complejo, ya sea de manejo de información o de toma de decisiones, o crear máquinas que tengan buena apariencia del ser humano; se debe, sobre todo, analizar la parte neurológica y sicológica que presenta el individuo al solucionar problemas. Además, es importante conocer la capacidad intelectual de la persona, de ahí la variedad de carreras profesionales que existen; no puede quedar por fuera de los sistemas inteligentes la concepción del amor o admiración.

  16. Deterministic hydrodynamics: Taking blood apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John A.; Inglis, David W.; Morton, Keith J.; Lawrence, David A.; Huang, Lotien R.; Chou, Stephen Y.; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-10-01

    We show the fractionation of whole blood components and isolation of blood plasma with no dilution by using a continuous-flow deterministic array that separates blood components by their hydrodynamic size, independent of their mass. We use the technology we developed of deterministic arrays which separate white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets from blood plasma at flow velocities of 1,000 μm/sec and volume rates up to 1 μl/min. We verified by flow cytometry that an array using focused injection removed 100% of the lymphocytes and monocytes from the main red blood cell and platelet stream. Using a second design, we demonstrated the separation of blood plasma from the blood cells (white, red, and platelets) with virtually no dilution of the plasma and no cellular contamination of the plasma. cells | plasma | separation | microfabrication

  17. Apartes desde la inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Torres Soler

    1998-01-01

    El estudio y desarrollo de la inteligencia artificial no debe centrarse sólo en la creación de software o hardware que permita realizar procesos algorítmicos o heurísticos en el computador, de tal forma que produzcan soluciones óptimas y eficientes al resolver un problema complejo, ya sea de manejo de información o de toma de decisiones, o crear máquinas que tengan buena apariencia del ser humano; se debe, sobre todo, analizar la parte neurológica y sicológica que presenta el individuo al sol...

  18. Phenomenology and hermeneutics - poles apart?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kurt Dauer; Feilberg, Casper

    A key dispute within qualitative methodology is the choice between top-down (deductive) and bottom-up (inductive) research approaches. Abduction, on the other hand, has received little attention, even though it would often seem to be a more promising methodology. The phenomenological tradition is...... to qualitative methodology. Thus, like abductive approaches, Ricoeur argues for the necessity of an interplay between explanatory theory and description of the lived understanding of the informant in the development of interpretation....... is marked by a similar dichotomy, whereas hermeneutical phenomenologists argue for the necessity of preunderstanding and theorethical perspectives (van Manen), Husserlian phenomenologists insist on the importance of the epoché together with reduction. The existential phenomenology of Heidegger and Merleau...

  19. What set's the officer apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.M.; Moelker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Officer Corps constitutes the backbone of the military. Privates and NCOs come and go. Political leaders are replaced. But the officer corps, the military profession per se, endures. The focus of this paper is how the military profession is maintained by military academies. A profession is

  20. ESP--Things Fall Apart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    This paper asserts that a gap is developing in English for Special Purposes (ESP) between theory and practice, between received wisdom and grassroots activity that are important to understand when considering the future of ESP. Evidence for these gaps in ESP are discussed in detail in the context of course design, academic input, and the…

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  2. A Transatlantic Bargain for the 21st Century: The United States, Europe, and the Transatlantic Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    THE 21ST CENTURY: THE UNITED STATES, EUROPE, AND THE TRANSATLANTIC ALLIANCE The burdens of global citizenship continue to bind us together. A change...had led Europe and America to drift apart, he argued that the “the burdens of global citizenship continue to bind us together,” requiring allies...capabilities, including Norway, Belgium, Italy, and Denmark. Qatar , the United Arab Emirates, Morocco, Jordan, and Swe- den also played key operational roles

  3. Stellar complexes in spiral arms of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.

    The history of the introduction and development of the star complexes conception is briefly described. These large groups of stars were picked out and named as such ones in our Galaxy with argumentation and evidence for their physical unity (using the Cepheid variables the distances and ages of which are easy determined from their periods); anyway earlier the complexes were noted along the spiral arms of the Andromeda galaxy, but were not recognized as a new kind of star group. The chains of complexes along the spiral arms are observed quite rarely; their origin is explained by magneto- gravitational or purely gravitational instability developing along the arm. It is not clear why these chains are quite a rare phenomenon - and more so why sometimes the regular chain of complexes are observed in one arm only. Probably intergalactic magnetic field participated in formation of such chains. Apart from the complexes located along the arms, there are isolated giant complexes known (up to 700 pc in diameter) which look like super-gigantic but rather rarefied globular clusters. Until now only two of these formations are studied, in NGC 6946 and M51.

  4. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  5. Design of Dolos Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1993-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used. Many of the recent failures are such rubble mound breakwaters revealed that there is an imbalance between strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements......) of the armour layers. The paper deals only with dolos armour and presents the first design diagrammes and formulae where stresses from static, quasistatic and impact loads are implemented as well as the hydraulic stability. The dolos is treated as a multi shape unit where the thickness can be adjusted...

  6. Microcontroller Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulaev, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Geotectonic structural interpretation of the basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge, in Guanhaes and Gouveia region, based on an integration of their U/Pb and K/Ar geochronology united

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Salvador, E.D.; Siga Junior, O.; Sato, K.; Dossin, I.A.; Dossin, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    The basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge is composed of predominantly gneissic rocks which were subjected to migmatization and granitization. Overall the area shows complex tectonic evolution with recurrence of tectonomagmatic and metamorphic events as supported by geological, geochronological and structural studies. The Rb/Sr geochronology carried out on the basement rocks and metavolcanics from the Espinhaco interpreted together with the published U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar data defines the following scenario for the Precambrian crustal evolution. 1. Primary origin of a sialic crust at 2.97-2.84 Ga. ago as supported by U-Pb zircon ages. 2. Crustal reworking of the Archean crust and subordinate juvenile accretion from upper mantle during the 2.2-2.OGa. period, as suggested by the isochrons. 3. Recurrence of Middle Proterozoic events over the basement rocks (gneisses and charnockites) and metavolcanics of the Espinhaco as showed by isochrons. 4. Development of Late Proterozoic migmatization over the basement rocks (0.75 Ga., R.I.= 0.787) is association with Collisional tectonics and resetting of K-Ar mineral systems. (author)

  8. Metal complexes with 5-aminotetrazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenova, L.G.; Larionov, S.V.; Grankina, Z.A.; Ikorskij, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate and chloride complexes of Co(2), Ni(2), Cu(2), Cd(2), Hg(2), Pb(2) with 5 aminotetrazole (ATE) and compoUnds Zn(ATE') 2 and Cd(ATEE') 2 , where ATE' is a 5 aminotetrazole ano /nion. On the base of spectroscopic data (spectrophotometry, IR- spectra, EPR and magnetic measurements assumptions on M(2) coordination in complexes are made. Most probably ATE is a bridge ligand which is joined by two nitrogen atoms to various M(2) ions. In Co(2), Ni(2) and Cu(ATE) 3 -Cl 2 compounds the metal has a distorted actahedral coordination and forms MN 6 unit, which suggests the interaction of metal ions with ATE nitrogen atoms along the Z-axis. In the Cu(ATE) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 octahedral complex the CuN 4 O 2 coordination unit is realized at the expense of participation of nitratogroups in coordination

  9. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  10. Biomedical Activity of Chitin/Chitosan Based Materials—Influence of Physicochemical Properties Apart from Molecular Weight and Degree of N-Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko X. Weinhold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical nature of chitin and chitosan, which influences the biomedical activity of these compounds, is strongly related to the source of chitin and the conditions of the chitin/chitosan production process. Apart from widely described key factors such as weight-averaged molecular weight (MW and degree of N-acetylation (DA, other physicochemical parameters like polydispersity (MW/MN, crystallinity or the pattern of acetylation (PA have to be taken into consideration. From the biological point of view, these parameters affect a very important factor—the solubility of chitin and chitosan in water and organic solvents. The physicochemical properties of chitosan solutions can be controlled by manipulating solution conditions (temperature, pH, ionic strength, concentration, solvent. The degree of substitution of the hydroxyl and the amino groups or the degree of quaternization of the amino groups also influence the mechanical and biological properties of chitosan samples. Finally, a considerable research effort has been directed towards developing safe and efficient chitin/chitosan-based products because many factors, like the size of nanoparticles, can determine the biomedical characteristics of medicinal products. The influence of these factors on the biomedical activity of chitin/chitosan-based products is presented in this report in more detail.

  11. Energy efficiency façade design in high-rise apartment buildings using the calculation of solar heat transfer through windows with shading devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, P. T. H.

    2018-04-01

    The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.

  12. Whole-slide imaging is a robust alternative to traditional fluorescent microscopy for fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging using break-apart DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Camille; Guérin, Maxime; Frenois, François-Xavier; Thuries, Valérie; Jalabert, Laurence; Brousset, Pierre; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2013-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization is an indispensable technique used in routine pathology and for theranostic purposes. Because fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques require sophisticated microscopic workstations and long procedures of image acquisition with sometimes subjective and poorly reproducible results, we decided to test a whole-slide imaging system as an alternative approach. In this study, we used the latest generation of Pannoramic 250 Flash digital microscopes (P250 Flash digital microscopes; 3DHISTECH, Budapest, Hungary) to digitize fluorescence in situ hybridization slides of diffuse large B cells lymphoma cases for detecting MYC rearrangement. The P250 Flash digital microscope was found to be precise with better definition of split signals in cells containing MYC rearrangement with fewer truncated signals as compared to traditional fluorescence microscopy. This digital technique is easier thanks to the preview function, which allows almost immediate identification of the tumor area, and the panning and zooming functionalities as well as a shorter acquisition time. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using the digital technique appeared to be more reproducible between pathologists. Finally, the digital technique also allowed prolonged conservation of photos. In conclusion, whole-slide imaging technologies represent rapid, robust, and highly sensitive methods for interpreting fluorescence in situ hybridization slides with break-apart probes. In addition, these techniques offer an easier way to interpret the signals and allow definitive storage of the images for pathology expert networks or e-learning databases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between the choice of high-rise apartment and dweller prime s life style. Seikatsu style to chokoso jutaku kyoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T [Nara Women' s University, Nara (Japan). Faculty of Home Economics

    1991-11-30

    This study notes the life styles of people who reside in apartment houses, investigates the habitat segregation in the shapes of houses and living stories preferred according to the life styles, and clarifies what common facilities and services are demanded by the residents. Based on two axes of urban life orientation and positiveness toward community activities, three life style groups were extracted, namely, the urban type, community type and negative type groups. The urban type group has the features that many of them are of smali family, have a high ratio of self-engaged or free-time business, and have high incomes. Expanding the front desk reception service seems to give residents more satisfaction than increasing the number of common facilities. The community type group puts more importance on the neighborhood relationship. Medium-rise housing appears to be more suitable for them. Two or more of common facilities and common spaces are required to meet residents {prime} demand for community activities and interchanges with neighbors. The negative type group neither uses the common facilities and services very often nor demands much about them. 9 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Measuring distances between complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Roberto F.S.; Miranda, Jose G.V.; Pinho, Suani T.R.; Lobao, Thierry Petit

    2008-01-01

    A previously introduced concept of higher order neighborhoods in complex networks, [R.F.S. Andrade, J.G.V. Miranda, T.P. Lobao, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 046101] is used to define a distance between networks with the same number of nodes. With such measure, expressed in terms of the matrix elements of the neighborhood matrices of each network, it is possible to compare, in a quantitative way, how far apart in the space of neighborhood matrices two networks are. The distance between these matrices depends on both the network topologies and the adopted node numberings. While the numbering of one network is fixed, a Monte Carlo algorithm is used to find the best numbering of the other network, in the sense that it minimizes the distance between the matrices. The minimal value found for the distance reflects differences in the neighborhood structures of the two networks that arise only from distinct topologies. This procedure ends up by providing a projection of the first network on the pattern of the second one. Examples are worked out allowing for a quantitative comparison for distances among distinct networks, as well as among distinct realizations of random networks

  15. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN TABRIZ PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Abduli, M. Abbasi, T. Nasrabadi, H. Hoveidi, N. Razmkhah

    2006-01-01

    Tabriz petrochemical complex is located in the northwest of Iran. Major products of this industry include raw plastics like, polyethylene, polystyrene, acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene, etc. Sources of waste generation include service units, health and cure units, water, power, steam and industrial processes units. In this study, different types of solid waste including hazardous and non hazardous solid wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management ...

  16. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  17. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  18. New Transition metal assisted complex borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesha Srinivasan; Elias Lee Stefanakos; Yogi Goswami

    2006-01-01

    High capacity hydrogen storage systems are indeed essential for the on-board vehicular application that leads to the pollution free environment. Apart from the various hydrogen storage systems explored in the past, complex hydrides involving light weight alkali/alkaline metals exhibits promising hydrogenation/ dehydrogenation characteristics. New transition metal assisted complex borohydrides [Zn(BH 4 ) 2 ] have been successfully synthesized by an inexpensive mechano-chemical process. These complex hydrides possesses gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of ∼8.4 wt.% at around 120 C. We have determined the volumetric hydrogen absorption and desorption of these materials for a number of cycles. Another complex borohydride mixture LiBH 4 /MgH 2 catalyzed with ZnCl 2 has been synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques. (authors)

  19. Synchronization and emergence in complex systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... complex systems. Fatihcan M Atay. Synchronization, Coupled Systems and Networks Volume 77 Issue 5 November 2011 pp 855-863 ... We show how novel behaviour can emerge in complex systems at the global level through synchronization of the activities of their constituent units. Two mechanisms are suggested for ...

  20. Temporal and spatial comparisons of the reproductive biology of northern Gulf of Mexico (USA) red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) collected a decade apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaw, Dannielle H; Cowan, James H; Jackson, Melissa W

    2017-01-01

    In studies done a decade apart, we provide evidence of a recent shift toward a slower progression to sexual maturity as well as reduced egg production, especially among young, small female red snapper, in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf). Slower maturation rates (among fish ≤6 years old), lower GSI values and decreased spawning frequency were observed, and were especially pronounced in the northwestern Gulf. Furthermore, an Index of Reproductive Importance showed that young fish (ages 2-7) are contributing far less to the spawning stock in recent years, while older fish (>8 years) are contributing more, when compared to fish from the same age groups sampled in the previous decade. Coincident with these changes in reproductive output, fishing pressure has steadily declined gulf-wide, and spawning stock biomass and spawning potential ratio have increased. Thus, it is possible that the age structure of the red snapper stock is becoming less truncated, or that reproductive effort observed is due to the temporary influence of recent strong year classes produced in 2004 and 2006 as they begin to reach full reproductive potential. If the latter is true, careful documentation of the stock's reproductive dynamics during a time of population growth provides new understanding at the meta-population spatial and decadal temporal scales. In contrast, if the former is true, a truncated age structure due to overharvest can limit the productivity of the Gulf red snapper stock. In addition, we have learned that red snapper females in the northwestern Gulf collected on natural reefs and banks have much higher reproductive output than those on artificial reefs in the form of standing and toppled oil and gas platforms, thus making the need to know the relative abundance of females found on these disparate habitats an important next step toward better-understanding factors impacting the reproductive dynamics of this species.

  1. Determinants of wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry--results from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-06-01

    This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m(3) (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m(3) (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to 'increase' dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (furniture industry in Viborg County, further improvements are possible. There should be more focus on improved exhaust ventilation, professional cleaning methods and avoiding use of compressed air.

  2. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (furniture industry in Viborg County, further improvements are possible. There should be more focus on improved exhaust ventilation, professional cleaning methods and avoiding use of compressed air. PMID:18407937

  3. Geometry and structure of the pull-apart basins developed along the western South American-Scotia plate boundary (SW Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, F. D.; Tassone, A.; Isola, J. I.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    The South American-Scotia plate boundary is a left-lateral fault system which runs roughly E-W for more than 3000 km across the SW Atlantic Ocean and the Tierra del Fuego Island, reaching to the west the southern Chile Trench. Analyses of a large dataset of single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired offshore has allowed to map the trace of the plate boundary from Tierra del Fuego to the Malvinas Trough, a tectonic depression located in the eastern part of the fault system, and to reconstruct the shape and geometry of the basins formed along the principal displacement zone of the fault system. Three main Neogene pull-apart basins that range from 70 to 100 km in length, and from 12 to 22 km in width, have been identified along this segment of the plate boundary. These basins have elongated shapes with their major axes parallel to the ENE-WSW direction of the fault zone. The sedimentary architecture and the infill geometry of the basins suggest that they represent mostly strike-slip dominated transtension basins which propagated from E to W. The basins imaged by seismic data show in some cases geometrical and structural features linked to the possible reactivation of previous wedge-top basins and inherited structures pertaining to the external front of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust compression belt, along which the South American-Scotia fault system has been superimposed. It is suggested that the sequence of the elongated basins occur symmetrically to a thorough going strike-slip fault, in a left-stepping geometrical arrangement, in a manner similar to those basins seen in other transcurrent environments.

  4. Break-apart interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma: on the road to optimizing the cut-off level for RET/PTC rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colato, Chiara; Vicentini, Caterina; Cantara, Silvia; Pedron, Serena; Brazzarola, Paolo; Marchetti, Ivo; Di Coscio, Giancarlo; Chilosi, Marco; Brunelli, Matteo; Pacini, Furio; Ferdeghini, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene is one of the most common molecular events in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, their pathogenic role and clinical significance are still debated. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in a cohort of BRAF WT PTCs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and to search a reliable cut-off level in order to distinguish clonal or non-clonal RET changes. Forty BRAF WT PTCs were analyzed by FISH for RET rearrangements. As controls, six BRAFV600E mutated PTCs, 13 follicular adenomas (FA), and ten normal thyroid parenchyma were also analyzed. We performed FISH analysis on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercially available RET break-apart probe. A cut-off level equivalent to 10.2% of aberrant cells was accepted as significant. To validate FISH results, we analyzed the study cohort by qRT-PCR. Split RET signals above the cut-off level were observed in 25% (10/40) of PTCs, harboring a percentage of positive cells ranging from 12 to 50%, and in one spontaneous FA (1/13, 7.7%). Overall, the data obtained by FISH matched well with qRT-PCR results. Challenging findings were observed in five cases showing a frequency of rearrangement very close to the cut-off. FISH approach represents a powerful tool to estimate the ratio between broken and non-broken RET tumor cells. Establishing a precise FISH cut-off may be useful in the interpretation of the presence of RET rearrangement, primarily when this strategy is used for cytological evaluation or for targeted therapy. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Do co-residence and intentions make a difference? Relationship satisfaction in married, cohabiting, and living apart together couples in four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui-o Tai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large body of research has compared relationship satisfaction and quality in cohabiting versus married relationships. Despite increased recognition of couples in living apart together (LAT relationships, very little research has examined the experiences of couples in LAT relationships compared to co-residential unions. Objective: Our aim is to develop knowledge about the experiences of different union types by investigating relationship satisfaction of people in LAT, cohabiting, and marital relationships. We differentiate those with intentions to marry for cohabiters, and those with intentions to marry or live together in LAT relationships. We also examine differences by gender and country. Methods: Using data from Wave 1 of the Generations and Gender Survey in France, Germany, Australia, and Russia (n = 9,604, OLS regressions are estimated to investigate a differences in relationship satisfaction across relationship types, and b across countries. Results: Married people have the highest levels of relationship satisfaction. People in non-marital unions with intentions to marry or live together are significantly more satisfied than those without marriage or cohabitation intentions. Those in LAT relationships with no intentions to live together have the lowest levels of relationship satisfaction. There is evidence of cross-national variation with differences in relationship satisfaction by union type most pronounced in Australia and Russia. Gender differences are found with women reporting lower levels of relationship satisfaction than men. Conclusions: LAT relationships are qualitatively different to co-residential unions. It is important to further develop our understanding of the experiences of couples in these relationships.

  6. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Weischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77, current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3, increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14, physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17, but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10. At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300 and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27, but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  7. SPOKEN AYACUCHO QUECHUA, UNITS 11-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARKER, GARY J.; SOLA, DONALD F.

    THE ESSENTIALS OF AYACUCHO GRAMMAR WERE PRESENTED IN THE FIRST VOLUME OF THIS SERIES, SPOKEN AYACUCHO QUECHUA, UNITS 1-10. THE 10 UNITS IN THIS VOLUME (11-20) ARE INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE, AND PRESENT THE STUDENT WITH LENGTHIER AND MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS AS WELL…

  8. SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA, UNITS 13-24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA; SOLA, DONALD F.

    UNITS 13-24 OF THE SPOKEN COCHABAMBA QUECHUA COURSE FOLLOW THE GENERAL FORMAT OF THE FIRST VOLUME (UNITS 1-12). THIS SECOND VOLUME IS INTENDED FOR USE IN AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED COURSE AND INCLUDES MORE COMPLEX DIALOGS, CONVERSATIONS, "LISTENING-INS," AND DICTATIONS, AS WELL AS GRAMMAR AND EXERCISE SECTIONS COVERING ADDITIONAL…

  9. Demonstration of airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 between simulated pig units located at close range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was studied as the percentage of air needed to establish airborne transmission from an infected pig unit into a neighbouring non-infected pig unit. The experiment was carried out in two containers constructed as pig units, placed 1 m apart...... and connected by pipes. By manipulating the air pressure in the two units, the amount of ventilation air transferred from the infected pigs (unit A) to the non-infected pigs (unit B) was controlled and measured. In three experiments, between 48 and 50 specific pathogen free-pigs were randomly assigned to each...... of the two units. In unit A, five pigs (experiment 1) or eight pigs (experiments 2 and 3) were inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. In experiments 1 and 3, 10% of the air was transferred from unit A to B; in experiment 2, 70% of the air was transferred. In the non-infected unit (B), 36...

  10. Supramolecular Complexes Formed by the Self-assembly of Hydrophobic Bis(Zn(2+)-cyclen) Complexes, Copper, and Di- or Triimide Units for the Hydrolysis of Phosphate Mono- and Diesters in Two-Phase Solvent Systems (Cyclen=1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yuya; Yoneda, Kakeru; Miyauchi, Miki; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Aoki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported on supramolecular complexes 4 and 5, formed by the 4 : 4 : 4 or 2 : 2 : 2 assembly of a dimeric zinc(II) complex (Zn2L(1)) having 2,2'-bipyridyl linker, dianion of cyanuric acid (CA) or 5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (Bar), and copper(II) ion (Cu(2+)) in an aqueous solution. The supermolecule 4 possesses Cu2(μ-OH)2 centers and catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphate monoester dianion, mono(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (MNP), at neutral pH. In this manuscript, we report on design and synthesis of hydrophobic supermolecules 9 and 10 by 4 : 4 : 4 and 2 : 2 : 2 self-assembly of hydrophobic Zn2L(2) and Zn2L(3) containing long alkyl chains, CA or Bar, and Cu(2+) and their phosphatase activity for the hydrolysis of MNP and bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNP) in two-phase solvent systems. We assumed that the Cu2(μ-OH)2 active sites of 9 and 10 would be more stable in organic solvent than in aqueous solution and that product inhibition of the supermolecules might be avoided by the release of HPO4(2-) into the aqueous layer. The findings indicate that 9 and 10 exhibit phosphatase activity in the two-phase solvent system, although catalytic turnover was not observed. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of BNP catalyzed by the hydrophobic 2 : 2 : 2 supermolecules in the two-phase solvent system is described.

  11. Considerations on the hyperbolic complex Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrych, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes and consolidates investigations on hyperbolic complex numbers with respect to the Klein-Gordon equation for fermions and bosons. The hyperbolic complex numbers are applied in the sense that complex extensions of groups and algebras are performed not with the complex unit, but with the product of complex and hyperbolic unit. The modified complexification is the key ingredient for the theory. The Klein-Gordon equation is represented in this framework in the form of the first invariant of the Poincare group, the mass operator, in order to emphasize its geometric origin. The possibility of new interactions arising from hyperbolic complex gauge transformations is discussed.

  12. How does continental lithosphere break-apart? A 3D seismic view on the transition from magma-poor rifted margin to magmatic oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, M.; Lescanne, M.; Picazo, S.; Tomasi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, high-quality seismic data and drilling results drastically challenged our ideas about how continents break apart. New models address their observed variability and are presently redefining basics of rifting as well as exploration potential along deepwater rifted margins. Seafloor spreading is even more constrained by decades of scientific exploration along Mid Oceanic Ridges. By contrast, the transition between rifting and drifting remains a debated subject. This lithospheric breakup "event" is geologically recorded along Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT) at the most distal part of margins before indubitable oceanic crust. Often lying along ultra-deepwater margin domains and buried beneath a thick sedimentary pile, high-quality images of these domains are rare but mandatory to get strong insights on the processes responsible for lithospheric break up and what are the consequences for the overlying basins. We intend to answer these questions by studying a world-class 3D seismic survey in a segment of a rifted margin exposed in the Atlantic. Through these data, we can show in details the OCT architecture between a magma-poor hyper-extended margin (with exhumed mantle) and a classical layered oceanic crust. It is characterized by 1- the development of out-of-sequence detachment systems with a landward-dipping geometry and 2- the increasing magmatic additions oceanwards (intrusives and extrusives). Geometry of these faults suggests that they may be decoupled at a mantle brittle-ductile interface what may be an indicator on thermicity. Furthermore, magmatism increases as deformation migrates to the future first indubitable oceanic crust what controls a progressive magmatic crustal thickening below, above and across a tapering rest of margin. As the magmatic budget increases oceanwards, full-rate divergence is less and less accommodated by faulting. Magmatic-sedimentary architectures of OCT is therefore changing from supra-detachment to magmatic

  13. Will America Fall Apart Like the Maya? Grade 7 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    If a civilization as powerful and technologically advanced during its time as the Maya could disappear, can the same tragic outcome befall the United States? In this lesson, students work in teams to research the ancient Mayan civilization, specifically the circumstances of its demise. Student teams prepare a report of their findings and recommend…

  14. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology and Phylogeny Reveal Complex Spatial Dynamics in Areas Where Canine Parvovirus Is Endemic ▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S. R.; Coyne, K. P.; Parker, J.; Dawson, S.; Godsall, S. A.; Pinchbeck, G.; Cripps, P. J.; Gaskell, R. M.; Radford, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a severe enteric pathogen of dogs, causing high mortality in unvaccinated dogs. After emerging, CPV-2 spread rapidly worldwide. However, there is now some evidence to suggest that international transmission appears to be more restricted. In order to investigate the transmission and evolution of CPV-2 both nationally and in relation to the global situation, we have used a long-range PCR to amplify and sequence the full VP2 gene of 150 canine parvoviruses obtained from a large cross-sectional sample of dogs presenting with severe diarrhea to veterinarians in the United Kingdom, over a 2-year period. Among these 150 strains, 50 different DNA sequence types (S) were identified, and apart from one case, all appeared unique to the United Kingdom. Phylogenetic analysis provided clear evidence for spatial clustering at the international level and for the first time also at the national level, with the geographical range of some sequence types appearing to be highly restricted within the United Kingdom. Evolution of the VP2 gene in this data set was associated with a lack of positive selection. In addition, the majority of predicted amino acid sequences were identical to those found elsewhere in the world, suggesting that CPV VP2 has evolved a highly fit conformation. Based on typing systems using key amino acid mutations, 43% of viruses were CPV-2a, and 57% CPV-2b, with no type 2 or 2c found. However, phylogenetic analysis suggested complex antigenic evolution of this virus, with both type 2a and 2b viruses appearing polyphyletic. As such, typing based on specific amino acid mutations may not reflect the true epidemiology of this virus. The geographical restriction that we observed both within the United Kingdom and between the United Kingdom and other countries, together with the lack of CPV-2c in this population, strongly suggests the spread of CPV within its population may be heterogeneously subject to limiting factors. This cross

  16. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  17. 3D complex: a structural classification of protein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D Levy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the proteins in a cell assemble into complexes to carry out their function. It is therefore crucial to understand the physicochemical properties as well as the evolution of interactions between proteins. The Protein Data Bank represents an important source of information for such studies, because more than half of the structures are homo- or heteromeric protein complexes. Here we propose the first hierarchical classification of whole protein complexes of known 3-D structure, based on representing their fundamental structural features as a graph. This classification provides the first overview of all the complexes in the Protein Data Bank and allows nonredundant sets to be derived at different levels of detail. This reveals that between one-half and two-thirds of known structures are multimeric, depending on the level of redundancy accepted. We also analyse the structures in terms of the topological arrangement of their subunits and find that they form a small number of arrangements compared with all theoretically possible ones. This is because most complexes contain four subunits or less, and the large majority are homomeric. In addition, there is a strong tendency for symmetry in complexes, even for heteromeric complexes. Finally, through comparison of Biological Units in the Protein Data Bank with the Protein Quaternary Structure database, we identified many possible errors in quaternary structure assignments. Our classification, available as a database and Web server at http://www.3Dcomplex.org, will be a starting point for future work aimed at understanding the structure and evolution of protein complexes.

  18. Universal correlators for multi-arc complex matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G.

    1997-01-01

    The correlation functions of the multi-arc complex matrix model are shown to be universal for any finite number of arcs. The universality classes are characterized by the support of the eigenvalue density and are conjectured to fall into the same classes as the ones recently found for the Hermitian model. This is explicitly shown to be true for the case of two arcs, apart from the known result for one arc. The basic tool is the iterative solution of the loop equation for the complex matrix model with multiple arcs, which provides all multi-loop correlators up to an arbitrary genus. Explicit results for genus one are given for any number of arcs. The two-arc solution is investigated in detail, including the double-scaling limit. In addition universal expressions for the string susceptibility are given for both the complex and Hermitian model. (orig.)

  19. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  20. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  1. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  2. Frame Complexity and the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Jan; Schultz, Friederike; Oegema, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    . The financial crisis in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany (2007–2012) offers an example. An automated content analysis was applied to over 160,000 newspaper articles. Frame complexity decreased until the spotlight fell on the demise of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers (2008). The subsequent...... gradual recovery was only partly interrupted by the euro crisis. A Vector AutoRegression time series analysis shows that increasing frame complexity may indeed have fostered the recovery of financial markets and consumer confidence....

  3. Methodology for Measuring the Complexity of Enterprise Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Holub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of enterprise information systems is currently a challenge faced not only by IT professionals and project managers, but also by the users of such systems. Current methodologies and frameworks used to design and implement information systems do not specifically deal with the issue of their complexity and, apart from few exceptions, do not at all attempt to simplify the complexity. This article presents the author's own methodology for managing complexity, which can be used to complement any other methodology and which helps limit the growth of complexity. It introduces its own definition and metric of complexity, which it defines as the sum of entities of the individual UML models of the given system, which are selected according to the MMDIS methodology so as to consistently describe all relevant content dimensions of the system. The main objective is to propose a methodology to manage information system complexity and to verify it in practice on a real-life SAP implementation project.

  4. Complexity index indicates refinery capability, value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D.

    1996-01-01

    Refinery size usually is measured in terms of distillation capacity. Relative size, however, can be measured using refinery complexity--a concept developed by W.L. Nelson in the 1960s. Nelson developed the complexity index to quantify the relative cost of components that make up a refinery. It is a pure cost index that provides a relative measure of the construction costs of a particular refinery based on its crude and upgrading capacity. The Nelson index compares the costs of various upgrading units--such as a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit or a catalytic reformer--to the cost of a crude distillation unit. Computation of the index is an attempt to quantify the relative cost of a refinery based on the added cost of various upgrading units and the relative upgrading capacity. A review of complexity calculations, and an explanation of how indices have changed, provide a simple means of determining the complexity of single refineries or refining regions. The impact of complexity on product slate is also examined in this paper

  5. Project risk management in complex petrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirin Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of risk in complex industrial systems, as well as evaluation of main factors influencing decision making and implementation process using large petrochemical company as an example, has proved the importance of successful project risk management. This is even more emphasized when analyzing systems with complex structure, i.e. with several organizational units. It has been shown that successful risk management requires modern methods, based on adequate application of statistical analysis methods.

  6. SI units in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1978-11-01

    The proposal of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements that the special units of radiation and radioactivity-roentgen, rad, rem and curie-be replaced by the International System (SI) of Units has been accepted by international bodies. This paper reviews the resons for introducing the new units and their features. The relation between the special units and the corresponding SI units is discussed with examples. In spite of anticipated difficulties, the commission recommends a smooth and efficient changeover to the SI units in ten years.

  7. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental & Chemical Technology

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  8. Brokering leadership in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study, set in the United States, presents an in-depth analysis of leadership in schools and community-based organizations that helped connect students and families to vital education resources. Data were collected from 132 interviews with those who experienced the social and organizational complexities of homelessness. The findings suggest that brokering leadership supports learning, symbolism, identity development, and responsibility. The study indicates that brokering leadership has promise for cultivating opportunities for those who are traditionally disconnected from important resources and relationships.

  9. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  10. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  11. ASIC For Complex Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petilli, Stephen G.; Grimm, Michael J.; Olson, Erlend M.

    1995-01-01

    Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performs 24-bit, fixed-point arithmetic operations on arrays of complex-valued input data. High-performance, wide-band arithmetic logic unit (ALU) designed for use in computing fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and for performing ditigal filtering functions. Other applications include general computations involved in analysis of spectra and digital signal processing.

  12. Ab initio lattice dynamics of complex structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, density functional theory is applied in a study of thermodynamic properties of so-called complex metal hydrides, which are promising materials for hydrogen storage applications. Since the unit cells of these crystals can be relatively large with many symmetrically inequivalent ato...

  13. GPU Accelerated Surgical Simulators for Complex Morhpology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Jesper; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2005-01-01

    a springmass system in order to simulate a complex organ such as the heart. Computations are accelerated by taking advantage of modern graphics processing units (GPUs). Two GPU implementations are presented. They vary in their generality of spring connections and in the speedup factor they achieve...

  14. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  15. Synthesis and structure of cerium nitrosocarbonylcyanmethanid complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimenko, H.; Scopenko, V.V.; Kapshuk, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The complex compound [CeL 4 Dy 2 ]Na*2Ac (where L- nitrosocarbonylcyanmethanid, Dy -- dipyridile, Ac - acetone) were synthesised by interaction of cerium chloride and sodium nitrosocarbonylcyanmethanid from acetone solution. After two hours of mixing the dipyridil solution in acetone was added for complex stabilization. After filtration solution was put to desiccator for crystallisation. The complex was studied using IR- and UV-spectroscopy. The structure of the complex was determined using X-ray structure analysis. It was found that the structure of the complex belongs to orthorhombic Pna2(1) syngony with the unit cell parameters 17.010, 16.280 and 16.340Angstroms, respectively. It was found that cerium in the compound was eight co-ordinated. Four nitroso ligands were co-ordinated by bidentate bridge method and two dipyridiles by bidentate-cycle method

  16. Metric for Calculation of System Complexity based on its Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Braga de Paiva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology based on system connections to calculate its complexity. Two study cases are proposed: the dining Chinese philosophers’ problem and the distribution center. Both studies are modeled using the theory of Discrete Event Systems and simulations in different contexts were performed in order to measure their complexities. The obtained results present i the static complexity as a limiting factor for the dynamic complexity, ii the lowest cost in terms of complexity for each unit of measure of the system performance and iii the output sensitivity to the input parameters. The associated complexity and performance measures aggregate knowledge about the system.

  17. Structure and dynamics of weakly bound complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouteris, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of weakly bound complexes involving a methane molecule. Studies of these Van der Waals complexes can give valuable information on the relevant intermolecular dynamics and promote the understanding of the interactions between molecules (which can ultimately lead to chemical reactions). Especially interesting are complexes involving molecules of high symmetry (e.g. tetrahedral, such as methane) because of the unusual effects arising from it (selection rules, nuclear Spin statistical weights etc.). The infrared spectrum of the Van der Waals complex between a CH 4 and a N 2 O molecule has been recorded and most of it has been assigned in the region of the N - O stretch (approximately 2225.0 cm -1 ). Despite the fact that this is really a weakly bound complex, it is nevertheless rigid enough so that the standard model for asymmetric top spectra can be applied to it with the usual quantum numbers. From the value of the inertial defect, it turns out that the methane unit is locked in a rigid configuration within the complex rather than freely rotating. The intermolecular distance as well as the tilting angle of the N 2 O linear unit are determined from the rotational constants. The complex itself turns out to have a T - shaped configuration. The infrared spectrum of the Ar - CH 4 complex at the ν 4 (bending) band of methane is also assigned. This is different from the previous one in that the methane unit rotates almost freely Within the complex. As a result, the quantum numbers used to classify rovibrational energy levels include these of the free unit. The concept of 'overall symmetry' is made use of to rationalise selection rules in various sub-bands of the spectrum. Moreover, new terms in the potential anisotropy Hamiltonian are calculated through the use of the overall symmetry concept. These are termed 'mixed anisotropy' terms since they involve both rotational and vibrational degrees of

  18. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  19. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin.

  20. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  1. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  2. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. Rebuilding lives and identities: The role of place in recovery among persons with complex needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Smith, Bikki; Padgett, Deborah K; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2015-05-01

    Photo-elicitation interviews (PEIs) were conducted to explore the role of place in recovery - specifically, narrative identity reconstruction - among persons with complex needs. PEIs with 17 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring disorders in New York City produced 243 photos. Content analysis of photos revealed three categories - apartment, neighborhood and people. Two narrative themes - having my own and civic identity - were mapped onto the apartment and neighborhood categories, respectively. Three additional cross-categorical narrative themes were identified: (re)negotiating relationships and boundaries, moving beyond old identities and future possibilities. Housing was central across themes. Understanding of recovery is enhanced when viewed through participant-controlled visual methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of 2 doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine administered 2, 6 or 12 months apart in older adults: Results of a phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Himal; Poder, Airi; Campora, Laura; Geeraerts, Brecht; Oostvogels, Lidia; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Heineman, Thomas C

    2018-01-02

    In phase III trials, 2 doses of a herpes zoster (HZ) subunit vaccine (HZ/su; 50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] and AS01 B Adjuvant System) administered 2-months apart in older adults (≥50 and ≥70 years) demonstrated >90% efficacy in preventing HZ and had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Here we report immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety following administration of 2 HZ/su doses at intervals longer than 2 months. In this Phase III, open-label trial conducted in the US and Estonia, 354 adults ≥50 years were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 2 HZ/su doses 2, 6, or 12 months apart. gE-specific humoral immune responses were evaluated at pre-vaccination, 1 and 12 months post-dose 2. Co-primary objectives were to compare immune responses to HZ/su 1 month post-dose 2 when given 6-months or 12-months apart to those administered 2-months apart. For each participant, safety information was collected from dose 1 to 12 months post-dose 2. 346 participants completed the study and 343 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. One month post-dose 2, vaccine response rates were 96.5% (97.5% confidence interval [CI]: 90.4; 99.2) and 94.5% (97.5% CI: 87.6; 98.3) for the 0, 6- and 0, 12-month schedules, respectively, both schedules meeting the pre-defined criterion. Non-inferiority of anti-gE geometric mean concentrations was demonstrated for HZ/su administered on 0, 6-month compared to a 0, 2-month schedule; however, HZ/su administered on a 0, 12-month schedule did not meet the non-inferiority criterion. Injection site pain was the most commonly reported solicited adverse event (AE). 26 participants each reported at least 1 serious AE; none were assessed as related to vaccination. Immune responses to HZ/su administered at 0, 6-month were non-inferior to those elicited by a 0, 2-month schedule. HZ/su exhibited a clinically acceptable safety profile for all dosing intervals. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01751165

  6. ComplexRec 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  7. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  8. Complex behavior in chains of nonlinear oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Leandro M

    2017-06-01

    This article outlines sufficient conditions under which a one-dimensional chain of identical nonlinear oscillators can display complex spatio-temporal behavior. The units are described by phase equations and consist of excitable oscillators. The interactions are local and the network is poised to a critical state by balancing excitation and inhibition locally. The results presented here suggest that in networks composed of many oscillatory units with local interactions, excitability together with balanced interactions is sufficient to give rise to complex emergent features. For values of the parameters where complex behavior occurs, the system also displays a high-dimensional bifurcation where an exponentially large number of equilibria are borne in pairs out of multiple saddle-node bifurcations.

  9. Solvation Effect on Complexation of Alkali Metal Cations by a Calix[4]arene Ketone Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Požar, Josip; Nikšić-Franjić, Ivana; Cvetnić, Marija; Leko, Katarina; Cindro, Nikola; Pičuljan, Katarina; Borilović, Ivana; Frkanec, Leo; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2017-09-14

    The medium effect on the complexation of alkali metal cations with a calix[4]arene ketone derivative (L) was systematically examined in methanol, ethanol, N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile. In all solvents the binding of Na + cation by L was rather efficient, whereas the complexation of other alkali metal cations was observed only in methanol and acetonitrile. Complexation reactions were enthalpically controlled, while ligand dissolution was endothermic in all cases. A notable influence of the solvent on NaL + complex stability could be mainly attributed to the differences in complexation entropies. The higher NaL + stability in comparison to complexes with other alkali metal cations in acetonitrile was predominantly due to a more favorable complexation enthalpy. The 1 H NMR investigations revealed a relatively low affinity of the calixarene sodium complex for inclusion of the solvent molecule in the calixarene hydrophobic cavity, with the exception of acetonitrile. Differences in complex stabilities in the explored solvents, apart from N,N-dimethylformamide and acetonitrile, could be mostly explained by taking into account solely the cation and complex solvation. A considerable solvent effect on the complexation equilibria was proven to be due to an interesting interplay between the transfer enthalpies and entropies of the reactants and the complexes formed.

  10. Self-assembled decanuclear Na(I)2Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 complexes: from discrete clusters to 1-D and 2-D structures, with the Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 unit displaying a large spin ground state and probable SMM behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2011-12-07

    The synthesis, magnetic characterization and X-ray crystal structures are reported for five new manganese compounds, [Mn(III)(teaH(2))(sal)]·(1/2)H(2)O (1), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(4)]·6MeOH (2), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·7MeOH (3), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·2MeOH·Et(2)O (4) and [K(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n)·5MeOH (5). Complex 1 is a mononuclear compound, formed via the reaction of Mn(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, triethanolamine (teaH(3)) and salicylic acid (salH(2)) in a basic methanolic solution. Compound 2 is a mixed-valent hetero-metallic cluster made up of a Mn(8)Na(2) decanuclear core and is formed via the reaction of sodium azide (NaN(3)) with 1. Compounds 3-5 are isolated as 1- or 2-D coordination polymers, each containing the decanuclear Mn(8)M(2) (M = Na(+) or K(+)) core building block as the repeating unit. Compound 3 is isolated when 1 is reacted with NaN(3) over a very short reaction time and forms a 1-D coordination polymer. Each unit displays inter-cluster bridges via the O-atoms of teaH(2-) ligands bonding to the sodium ions of an adjacent cluster. Increasing the reaction time appears to drive the formation of 4 which forms 2-D polymeric sheets and is a packing polymorph of 3. The addition of KMnO(4) and NaN(3) to 1 resulted in compound 5, which also forms a 1-D coordination polymer of the decanuclear core unit. The 1-D chains are now linked via inter-cluster potassium and salicylate bridges. Solid state DC susceptibility measurements were performed on compounds 1-5. The data for 1 are as expected for an S = 2 Mn(III) ion, with the isothermal M vs. H data being fitted by matrix diagonalization methods to give values of g and the axial (D) and rhombic (E) zero field splitting parameters of 2.02, -2.70 cm(-1) and 0.36 cm(-1) respectively. The data for 2-5, each with an identical Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4

  11. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  12. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  13. Bhakra Beas complex - socio economic and ecological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhani, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    Bhakra Beas complex (comprising Bhakra Nangal Project and Beas Project Unit I and II) is one of the major multi-purpose Valley Projects of India. The socio economic and ecological impacts of the project are discussed. (author)

  14. Complex Correspondence Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  15. Uranium thiolate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverd, Pascal C.

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis proposes a new approach to the chemistry of uranium thiolate complexes as these compounds are very promising for various uses (in bio-inorganic chemistry, in some industrial processes like oil desulphurization). It more particularly addresses the U-S bond or more generally bonds between polarizable materials and hard metals. The author thus reports the study of uranium organometallic thiolates (tricyclo-penta-dienic and mono-cyclo-octa-tetraenylic complexes), and of uranium homoleptic thiolates (tetra-thiolate complexes, hexa-thiolate complexes, reactivity of homoleptic thiolate complexes) [fr

  16. K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating of the Palaeozoic metamorphic complex from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., Central Dinarides, Bosnia and Hercegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamic, J.; Balogh, K.; Hrvatovic, H.; Balen, D.; Palinkas, L.; Jurkovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    K-Ar and Ar-Ar whole rock and mineral ages are presented for 25 samples of metamorphic rocks from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., representing one of the largest allochthonous Palaeozoic terranes incorporated within the Internal Dinarides. Four main age groups can be distinguished: 1) Variscan (∼ 343 Ma), 2) post-Variscan (288-238 Ma), 3) Early Cretaceous (mainly 121-92 Ma), and 4) Eocene (59--35 Ma) ages. Apart from this, an Oligocene (31 Ma) age was obtained on Alpine vein hyalophane. The radiometric dating indicates a polyphase metamorphic evolution of the Palaeozoic formations and suggests a pre-Carboniferous age of the volcano-sedimentary protoliths, an Early Carboniferous age of Variscan metamorphism and deformation, post-Variscan volcanism, an Early Cretaceous metamorphic overprint related to out-of-sequence thrusting of the Palaeozoic complex, and an Eocene and Oligocene metamorphic overprint related to the main Alpine compressional deformation and subsequent strike-slip faulting, and uplift of the metamorphic core. Accordingly, the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts. can be correlated in its multistage geodynamic evolution with some Palaeozoic tectonostratigraphic units from the Austroalpine domain in the Eastern Alps. (author)

  17. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  18. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  19. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  20. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  1. Lanthanide complexes with pivaloylacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, S.V.; Chugarov, N.V.; Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Nichiporuk, R.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Complexes Ln(pa) 3 ·2H 2 O (Ln=La, Gd, Lu, Hpa - pivaloylacetone) are synthesized and investigated by the methods of element, IR spectroscopic and thermal analyses. Behaviour of the complexes during heating in vacuum is compared with such one for acetylacetonates and dipivaloylmethanates. Structure of the complexes in solution is studied by 1 H NMR and MALDI-MS [ru

  2. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradoz, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes. [fr

  3. Nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-03-01

    In this book, GAO characterizes DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study as a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's safety and environmental problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies to use for new tritium production, and what to do with excess plutonium. The total cost for reconfiguring and modernizing the complex is still uncertain, and some management issues remain unresolved. Congress faces a difficult task in making test decisions given the conflicting demands for scarce resources in a time of growing budget deficits and war in the Persian Gulf

  4. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  5. Generating functional analysis of complex formation and dissociation in large protein interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, A C C; Rabello, S

    2009-01-01

    We analyze large systems of interacting proteins, using techniques from the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of disordered many-particle systems. Apart from protein production and removal, the most relevant microscopic processes in the proteome are complex formation and dissociation, and the microscopic degrees of freedom are the evolving concentrations of unbound proteins (in multiple post-translational states) and of protein complexes. Here we only include dimer-complexes, for mathematical simplicity, and we draw the network that describes which proteins are reaction partners from an ensemble of random graphs with an arbitrary degree distribution. We show how generating functional analysis methods can be used successfully to derive closed equations for dynamical order parameters, representing an exact macroscopic description of the complex formation and dissociation dynamics in the infinite system limit. We end this paper with a discussion of the possible routes towards solving the nontrivial order parameter equations, either exactly (in specific limits) or approximately.

  6. Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

  7. Division in a Binary Representation for Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blest, David C.; Jamil, Tariq

    2003-01-01

    Computer operations involving complex numbers, essential in such applications as Fourier transforms or image processing, are normally performed in a "divide-and-conquer" approach dealing separately with real and imaginary parts. A number of proposals have treated complex numbers as a single unit but all have foundered on the problem of the…

  8. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  9. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  10. Unit-time scheduling problems with time dependent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tautenhahn, T.; Woeginger, G.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of scheduling problems, where the operations consume certain amounts of renewable resources which are available in time-dependent quantities. In particular, we consider unit-time open shop problems and unit-time scheduling problems with identical parallel

  11. Block diagrams of the radar interface and control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Interface and Control Unit is the heart of the radar module, which occupies one complex channel of the High-Speed Data Acquisition System of the Goldstone Solar System Radar. Block diagrams of the interface unit are presented as an aid to understanding its operation and interconnections to the rest of the radar module.

  12. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  13. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  14. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  15. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  16. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  17. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  18. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.

    1986-01-01

    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  19. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  20. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  1. Study Heart Rate by Tools from Complex Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.; Wdowczyk-Szulc, J.; Zarczynska-Buchowiecka, M.; Gruchala, M.; Rynkiewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate measured as beat-to-beat time intervals varies in time. It is believed that time intervals between subsequent normal heart contractions carry information about the regulatory system of the heart. How to quantify such signals is not clear and because of that heart rate variability is still apart from the clinic routine. In the following, we propose a method for representing a heart rate signal as a directed network. Then we study the signal properties by complex network tools. The signals to study were collected from patients recovering after the heart transplantation. The aim is to classify the progress of adapting of the new heart - graft. Moreover, it is expected that the method allows for visual classification. Our investigations are preliminary, however the obtained results are promising. (authors)

  2. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  3. Apartment building built to passive-house standard with solar balanced ventilation system; Mehrfamilien-Passivhaus mit solarem Luftsystem. Lueftung/Luftheizung/WRG/Solarfassade an der Rychenbergstrasse, Winterthur - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetermann, A.

    2002-04-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with an apartment building in Winterthur, Switzerland, built to passive-house standards and equipped with a solar balanced ventilation system. The building and its convective solar facade are described, as are the fan-assisted, balanced ventilation systems used. The operation of the systems in winter, during transitional periods and in summer is discussed. Domestic hot water preparation is looked at. The energy balance of the building is examined, as is the economic viability of the energy systems. The building, its energy installations and the measurement concept used are considered in detail. Finally, the findings of the study are summarised and commented on.

  4. Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-05-02

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys(466) gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly(81) and GyrB-Glu(466) residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases.

  5. Neighbors United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  6. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  7. From Molecules to Life: Quantifying the Complexity of Chemical and Biological Systems in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Life is a complex phenomenon and much research has been devoted to both understanding its origins from prebiotic chemistry and discovering life beyond Earth. Yet, it has remained elusive how to quantify this complexity and how to compare chemical and biological units on one common scale. Here, a mathematical description of molecular complexity was applied allowing to quantitatively assess complexity of chemical structures. This in combination with the orthogonal measure of information complexity resulted in a two-dimensional complexity space ranging over the entire spectrum from molecules to organisms. Entities with a certain level of information complexity directly require a functionally complex mechanism for their production or replication and are hence indicative for life-like systems. In order to describe entities combining molecular and information complexity, the term biogenic unit was introduced. Exemplified biogenic unit complexities were calculated for ribozymes, protein enzymes, multimeric protein complexes, and even an entire virus particle. Complexities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as multicellular organisms, were estimated. Thereby distinct evolutionary stages in complexity space were identified. The here developed approach to compare the complexity of biogenic units allows for the first time to address the gradual characteristics of prebiotic and life-like systems without the need for a definition of life. This operational concept may guide our search for life in the Universe, and it may direct the investigations of prebiotic trajectories that lead towards the evolution of complexity at the origins of life.

  8. What is complex in the complex world? Niklas Luhmann and the theory of social systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Eckert Baeta Neves

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Niklas Luhmann's understanding of complexity, its function in the theory and the different ways of its use. It starts with the paradigmatic change that occurred in the field of general Science, with the rupture of the Newtonian model. In the 20th century, the paradigm of order, symmetry, regularity, regulation of the intellect to things, collapses.Based on new formulations of Physics, Chemistry, etc., a new universe is built on bases radically opposed to those of modern Science.Chaos, the procedural irreversibility, indeterminism, the observer and the complexity are rehabilitated.This new conceptual context served as substratum to Niklas Luhmann's theoretical reflection.With his Theory of Social Systems, he proposes the reduction of the world's complexity.Social systems have the function of reducing complexity because of their difference in relation to the environment.On the other hand, the reduction of complexity also creates its own complexity. Luhmann defines complexity as the moment when it is not possible anymore for each element to relate at any moment with all the others. Complexity forces the selection, what means contingency and risk. Luhmann expands the concept of complexity when he introduces the figure of the observer and the distinction of complexity as a unit of a multiplicity. He also deals with the limit of relations in connection, the time factor, the self-reference of operations and the representation of complexity in the form of sense. To conclude, the paper discusses the complexity in the system of science, the way it reduces internal and external complexity, in accordance in its own operative basis.

  9. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  10. Instrumented Propulsion Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Jet Engines are tested on Pacer Comet III automated engine test cells, of which there are only three in the United States. The other two are at engine depots. This...

  11. Antibiotic Policies in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Saltoglu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial management of patients in the Intensive Care Units are complex. Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem. Effective strategies for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in ICUs have focused on limiting the unnecessary use of antibiotics and increasing compliance with infection control practices. Antibiotic policies have been implemented to modify antibiotic use, including national or regional formulary manipulations, antibiotic restriction forms, care plans, antibiotic cycling and computer assigned antimicrobial therapy. Moreover, infectious diseases consultation is a simple way to limit antibiotic use in ICU units. To improve rational antimicrobial using a multidisiplinary approach is suggested. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 299-309

  12. A dream – a small apartment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Černič Mali

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with changes in the housing market in Slovenia after the new Law on Housing was accepted, especially on the secondary market, meaning housing which isn’t newly built. Presented are the results of a survey, conducted by telephone and the data of real-estate agencies.

  13. Growing old but not growing apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    of cognitive ability, depression symptomatology and hand grip strength in a cross-sectional sample of 2,332 like-sex pairs of Danish twins age 46-96 years. All three outcomes were strongly correlated with age, indicating that the three phenotypes analyzed are not developmentally static. Nonetheless......, in moderated regression analysis we found no evidence of declining twin similarity for any of the three outcomes in either zygosity group. Moreover, biometric analysis of the twin data revealed minimal differences in heritability estimates across the age range sampled. While small sample size limits our...

  14. Two worlds apart: experiential learning in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Sharon Douglass; Winters-Moorhead, Carol

    2009-07-01

    As our society becomes more diverse, it is important for nursing students to become culturally competent and to view the world from a global perspective. Traveling abroad enlightens the senses and expands the worldview. Traveling for study abroad is more than taking a vacation; it affords students the opportunity to learn experientially and it can be a transforming encounter that influences the way an evolving nurse will practice. Nursing students at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina, had the opportunity to bridge two worlds, urban life at the university and village life in Dodowa, Ghana, West Africa. The purpose of this article is to explore the role that studying abroad has in nurturing experiential learning. The experiences of students from a southern historically Black university that were enrolled concurrently in two summer independent study courses focusing on global healthcare in Ghana, West Africa, are described.

  15. Turgot en Smith; een paar apart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Anne-Claire Hoyng deed onderzoek naar het boek The Wealth of Nations van Adam Smith (1723-1790). Ze concludeert dat Smith voor het schrijven van zijn boek een werk van de Fransman Anne-Robert Jacques Turgot (1727-1781) als inspiratiebron gebruikte (Réflexions sur la Formation et la distribution des

  16. Things Fall Apart: A Recurrence of Tiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    A study investigates recurrence relations, sequences in which each term is determined by one or more previous terms. Results provide another approach to the problem of finding closed forms for recursively-defined sequences.

  17. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mattheis, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kunkle, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Howard, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lubliner, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  18. Exploring overlapping functional units with various structure in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Zhang

    Full Text Available Revealing functional units in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks are important for understanding cellular functional organization. Current algorithms for identifying functional units mainly focus on cohesive protein complexes which have more internal interactions than external interactions. Most of these approaches do not handle overlaps among complexes since they usually allow a protein to belong to only one complex. Moreover, recent studies have shown that other non-cohesive structural functional units beyond complexes also exist in PPI networks. Thus previous algorithms that just focus on non-overlapping cohesive complexes are not able to present the biological reality fully. Here, we develop a new regularized sparse random graph model (RSRGM to explore overlapping and various structural functional units in PPI networks. RSRGM is principally dominated by two model parameters. One is used to define the functional units as groups of proteins that have similar patterns of connections to others, which allows RSRGM to detect non-cohesive structural functional units. The other one is used to represent the degree of proteins belonging to the units, which supports a protein belonging to more than one revealed unit. We also propose a regularizer to control the smoothness between the estimators of these two parameters. Experimental results on four S. cerevisiae PPI networks show that the performance of RSRGM on detecting cohesive complexes and overlapping complexes is superior to that of previous competing algorithms. Moreover, RSRGM has the ability to discover biological significant functional units besides complexes.

  19. Quantitative risk assessment: is more complex always better? Simple is not stupid and complex is not always more correct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwietering, Marcel H

    2009-08-31

    In quantitative risk assessments a large variety of complexities can be found, from simple and deterministic to very extensive and stochastic. This publication advocates that both simple and complex approaches have their value and should be done in parallel. The simple analysis gives much insight and can help to detect main factors and potential errors in the complex analysis. Extensive analysis with increased complexity suggests better precision but might not increase the accuracy, due to the uncertainty in the additional parameters. However, complex analysis supplies more confidence in certain phenomena and might also increase insight. This is shown with two examples. The first is the effectiveness of sampling plans for powdered infant formula, for factories operating at various levels of contamination. The results of a simple determination, an analysis including a within batch variability and an analysis including both within batch and between batch variability will be compared. The last approach has as advantage that apart from determining the probability of rejection of a batch, it can determine also the reduction of the health risk in the population following a certain sampling plan; it is more complex but it also does bring additional information. However the conclusions still contain large uncertainty, due to the difficulty of obtaining realistic values of the within batch and between batch variability. The second example is dose-response relations comparing the exponential model (one parameter), the beta-Poisson model (two parameters) and the Weibull-gamma model (three parameters). The conclusion is not that simple is best, but that simple is not stupid, and provides valuable information. Complex, on the other hand, is not always by definition more correct, but also does have its merits.

  20. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  1. Software Accelerates Computing Time for Complex Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ames Research Center awarded Newark, Delaware-based EM Photonics Inc. SBIR funding to utilize graphic processing unit (GPU) technology- traditionally used for computer video games-to develop high-computing software called CULA. The software gives users the ability to run complex algorithms on personal computers with greater speed. As a result of the NASA collaboration, the number of employees at the company has increased 10 percent.

  2. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  3. Nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1992-04-01

    In addition to long-standing safety and environmental problems plaguing the nuclear weapons complex, this paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) faces a major new challenge-how to reconfigure the weapons complex to meet the nation's defense needs in the 21st century. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex; where, if necessary, to relocate various operations; what technologies to use for new tritium production; and what to do with excess weapons-grade material. The choices confronting DOE and Congress are difficult given the conflicting demands for limited resources

  4. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society...... in the form of 7 individual vignette interviews with municipal mid-level managers and professional consultants in five Danish municipalities. The study finds that the regulation is more complex than it looks, and that the complexity is handled through simplifying decision-making patterns that can be seen...

  5. Strategies and Rubrics for Teaching Chaos and Complex Systems Theories as Elaborating, Self-Organizing, and Fractionating Evolutionary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, Lynn S.; Pyle, E. J.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    To say Earth systems are complex, is not the same as saying they are a complex system. A complex system, in the technical sense, is a group of -agents (individual interacting units, like birds in a flock, sand grains in a ripple, or individual units of friction along a fault zone), existing far from equilibrium, interacting through positive and…

  6. [Problems of dental services in closed administrative units assessed by a survey of dentists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujba, V V; Olesova, V N; Khavkina, E Yu; Novozemtseva, T N; Shmakov, A N; Chuyanova, E Yu

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of the survey of 150 dentists from 10 closed administrative units of FMBA health care system of Russia in connection with the dynamics of dental staff withdrawal and reduce of volume of preventive work in schools and factories. These problems were found to be associated with the lack of regulations on mandatory preventive dental examinations of workers with occupational hazards, low tariffs for dental services in obligatory medical insurance program, poor wages an lack of apartments for young dentists.

  7. Energy saving in refineries and petrochemical complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, L

    1975-01-01

    Possible measures applicable in the design of refineries and petrochemical complexes, to effect energy savings were investigated. This was not limited to the single process unit problems, on the contrary the attention is mainly addressed to the identification of the interrelations between different units, emphasizing possible integrations. Particularly, the optimization of the pressure levels and number of the utility networks for steam distribution inside plant facilities, is considered, in order to maximize heat recovery in the process units, and electric power production in the central steampower generation plant. A computer program of general application, based on profitability evaluation at various fuel oil prices and different project configurations, has been developed for these purposes. The general measures applicable within certain limits are then briefly examined. The task of the process engineer is discussed in the perspective of the ''energy saving'' goal.

  8. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  9. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  10. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  11. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  12. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  13. Power grid complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    2011-07-01

    ''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)

  14. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased

  15. Complex and unpredictable Cardano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-08-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers.

  16. Coxeter-like complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Babson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the Coxeter complex associated to a Coxeter system (W,S, we introduce a simplicial regular cell complex Δ(G,S with a G-action associated to any pair (G,S where G is a group and S is a finite set of generators for G which is minimal with respect to inclusion. We examine the topology of Δ(G,S, and in particular the representations of G on its homology groups. We look closely at the case of the symmetric group S n minimally generated by (not necessarily adjacent transpositions, and their type-selected subcomplexes. These include not only the Coxeter complexes of type A, but also the well-studied chessboard complexes.

  17. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  18. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinual increase in the diversity of life over evolutionary time. Ways of ... Centre for Ecological. Scienc'es .... plants evolved flowers to attract pollinators and reward them with .... with the evolving complexity of their interactions in communi- ties.

  19. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  20. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss)