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Sample records for unit administered activity

  1. Changes in activities of tissues enzymes in rats administered Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enzymes in the serum, liver, kidney and heart of albino rats. ... significant alteration in enzyme activities in the serum and tissues as well as relative organ ... powder using an electrical blender. ... (average weight 160 g) at the Central Animal.

  2. Effects of Image Gently and the North American guidelines: administered activities in children at 13 North American pediatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Ziniel, Sonja I; Manion, Dacie; Treves, S Ted

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this investigation was to assess the impact of the publication of the 2010 North American guidelines on the practice of nuclear medicine in children at 13 dedicated pediatric institutions within the United States and Canada by comparing results of similar surveys from 2007 and 2013. In 2013, a follow-up survey was performed of the original 13 dedicated pediatric institutions initially surveyed in 2007. Both surveys inquired about the administered activities for 16 nuclear medicine procedures commonly performed on children. The administered activity per body mass, the maximum activity, and the minimum activity for patients for each procedure were requested from each site. For each parameter the minimum and maximum reported values, as well as the median and the mean, were tabulated. The mean difference in the mean between 2007 and 2013 was calculated, as well as the 95% confidence intervals for the mean administered activity per body mass for both years. The factor of variation used with the previous survey for each parameter was calculated by taking the ratio of the maximum and minimum reported values. For the 8 procedures addressed in the 2010 North American guidelines, the percentage of institutions that were compliant (defined as within 20%) for each parameter were noted for both surveys. Institutions were asked whether they were familiar with "Image Gently," the North American guidelines, and the "Go with the Guidelines" campaign and whether they adjusted their administered activities on the basis of these guidelines. In general, the 13 pediatric institutions have reduced their administered activities in children, particularly for those procedures addressed by the 2010 North American guidelines. The average variability in the activity per body mass and the minimum activity as measured by the factor of variation were substantially reduced by 9.7% (from 3.1 to 2.8) and 24% (from 10.0 to 7.6). The average variability of the maximum activity was

  3. Recommended administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides in paediatric nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, J.S.; Beykan, S.; Lassmann, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Herrmann, K. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish a method for determining administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides. Dose calculations were based on the weight-independent effective dose model proposed by the EANM paediatric dosage card for use in paediatric nuclear medicine. Previously published time-integrated activity coefficients for {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC and {sup 68}Ga-pentixafor were used to calculate age-independent effective doses. Consequently, the corresponding weight-dependent effective dose coefficients were rescaled according to the formalism of the EANM dosage card to determine the radiopharmaceutical class of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides (''multiples'') and to calculate the baseline activities based on an upper limit for administered activity (185 MBq) in an adult. All calculated normalization factors suggest that the {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides are class ''B'' radiopharmaceuticals. The baseline activity for all compounds is 12.8 MBq. In analogy to {sup 18}F-fluoride, we recommend a minimum activity of 14 MBq. For paediatric nuclear medicine applications involving {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides, we suggest determining administered activities based on the formalism proposed in this work. The corresponding effective doses from these procedures will remain age-independent. (orig.)

  4. The relationship between administered radiopharmaceutical activity in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and imaging outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C.N.; Aswegen, A. van; Tout, D.A. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Julious, S.A. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Nunan, T.O. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H. [Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Tindale, W.B. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Underwood, S.R. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    Lower radiopharmaceutical activities are used for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in the UK than in other countries. There is no evidence to suggest that higher activities improve imaging or clinical outcome. We undertook a multicentre study of the relationship between radiopharmaceutical activity and imaging outcome. Fifty-one patients with clinical referrals for MPS followed a 2-day protocol with an injection of 1,000 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin for each of the stress and rest images. ECG-gated acquisition was performed in three rotations occupying 25, 35 and 40% of a standard acquisition, and rotations were summed to simulate administered activities of 250, 400, 750 and 1,000 MBq. Each set of images was reported by an experienced physician who was blinded to all clinical information and to the simulated activity. Scores were assigned for image quality, low count, attenuation and reconstruction artefact, segmental tracer uptake, segmental and global defect classification, and confidence in the global classification. The images were reported twice to assess intra-observer variability. Positive relationships were found between administered activity and overall image quality, observer confidence and intra-observer agreement of uptake score, and a negative relationship was found with low-count artefact. For the majority of comparisons, there was no additional improvement with increasing activity from 750 to 1,000 MBq. Intra-observer agreement was found to be better in female patients and in those below average body mass index. We conclude that higher administered radiopharmaceutical activities lead to better quality images and improved surrogate parameters for clinical outcome, but that activities above 750 MBq may be unnecessary in average patients. (orig.)

  5. Dissociable neural activity to self- vs. externally administered thermal hyperalgesia: a parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, C; Leyendecker, S; Helmchen, C

    2008-02-01

    Little is known regarding how cognitive strategies help to modulate neural responses of the human brain in ongoing pain syndromes to alleviate pain. Under pathological pain conditions, any self-elicited contact with usually non-painful stimuli may become painful. We examined whether the human brain is capable of dissociating self-controlled from externally administered thermal hyperalgesia in the experimental capsaicin model. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 17 male subjects were investigated in a parametric design with heat stimuli at topically capsaicin-sensitized skin. In contrast to external stimulation, self-administered pain was controllable. For both conditions application trials without noticeable thermal stimulation were introduced and used as high-level baseline (HLB) to account for the capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and other covariables. Following subtraction of the HLB, the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) but not the somatosensory cortices maintained parametric neural responses to thermal hyperalgesia. A stronger pain-related activity increase during self-administered stimuli was observed in the posterior insula. In contrast, prefrontal cortex showed stronger increases to uncontrollable external heat stimuli. In the state of ongoing pain (capsaicin), pain-intensity-encoding regions (anterior insula, ACC) but not those with sensory discriminative functions (SI, SII) showed graded, pain-intensity-related neural responses in thermal hyperalgesia. Some areas were able to dissociate between self- and externally administered stimuli in thermal hyperalgesia, which might be related to differences in perceived controllability. Thus, neural mechanisms maintain the ability to dissociate external from self-generated states of injury in thermal hyperalgesia. This may help to understand how cognitive strategies potentially alleviate chronic pain syndromes.

  6. Administered activity optimization in renal static scanning using 99m-Tc DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Marlen; Casas, Gladys [Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Dopico, Rolando; Estevez, Eric; Cabrera, Orlando [Hospital Universitario Celestino Hernandez Robau, Villa Clara (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum administered activity to patients, of the DMSA-Tc-99m looking for good image quality in gamma camera and a best radiological protection for the patient. Three protocols and two activity values in each protocol were tested (71.2 MBq and 132.8 MBq) in six patients each. An observer blinded to the administered activity, graded the rear view of both kidneys in the 36 patients. The relation of the Rois in kidney/bladder and kidney/liver, and the labeling yield were the most important parameters in the construction of a discriminatory function of image quality (r=0.56, r=0.33 and r=0.461 respectively). The correlation between the observer's opinion and the prediction of the function was r=0.429. The function classified 91.7% of the cases correctly. The best results for the patient's radiological protection were obtained by using 71.2 MBq and 700 k Counts as stopped criterion. When the labeling yield was lower than 98% it was better to applied 132.8 MBq and to stop the scanning after 3 minutes to guarantee a best image quality. (author)

  7. The Comparison of Procalcitonin Guidance Administer Antibiotics with Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients Admitted in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The empiric antibiotic therapy can result in antibiotic overuse, development of bacterial resistance and increasing costs in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of procalcitonin (PCT guide treatment on antibiotic use and clinical outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS.  A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups, cases that underwent antibiotic treatment based on serum level of PCT as PCT group (n=30 and patients who undergoing antibiotic empiric therapy as control group (n=30. Our primary endpoint was the use of antibiotic treatment. Additional endpoints were changed in clinical status and early mortality. Antibiotics use was lower in PCT group compared to control group (P=0.03. Current data showed that difference in SOFA score from the first day to the second day after admitting patients in ICU did not significantly differ (P=0.88. Patients in PCT group had a significantly shorter median ICU stay, four days versus six days (P=0.01. However, hospital stay was not statistically significant different between two groups, 20 days versus 22 days (P=0.23.  Early mortality was similar between two groups. PCT guidance administers antibiotics reduce antibiotics exposure and length of ICU stay, and we found no differences in clinical outcomes and early mortality rates between the two studied groups.

  8. Neuroprotective activity of peripherally administered liver growth factor in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gonzalo-Gobernado

    Full Text Available Liver growth factor (LGF is a hepatic mitogen purified some years ago that promotes proliferation of different cell types and the regeneration of damaged tissues, including brain tissue. Considering the possibility that LGF could be used as a therapeutic agent in Parkinson's disease, we analyzed its potential neuroregenerative and/or neuroprotective activity when peripherally administered to unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats. For these studies, rats subjected to nigrostriatal lesions were treated intraperitoneally twice a week with LGF (5 microg/rat for 3 weeks. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the last LGF treatment. The results show that LGF stimulates sprouting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive terminals and increases tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter expression, as well as dopamine levels in the denervated striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In this structure, LGF activates microglia and raises tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein levels, which have been reported to have a role in neuroregeneration and neuroprotection. Besides, LGF stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and CREB, and regulates the expression of proteins which are critical for cell survival such as Bcl2 and Akt. Because LGF partially protects dopamine neurons from 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra, and reduces motor deficits in these animals, we propose LGF as a novel factor that may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Dosimetric results in treatments of neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumors with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with implications for the activity to administer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mínguez, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.minguezgabina@osakidetza.net [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund 22185, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Gurutzeta/Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo 48903 (Spain); Flux, Glenn [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Genollá, José; Guayambuco, Sonía; Delgado, Alejandro; Fombellida, José Cruz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gurutzeta/Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo 48903 (Spain); Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate whole-body and red marrow absorbed doses in treatments of neuroblastoma (NB) and adult neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and to propose a simple method for determining the activity to administer when dosimetric data for the individual patient are not available. Methods: Nine NB patients and six NET patients were included, giving in total 19 treatments as four patients were treated twice. Whole-body absorbed doses were determined from dose-rate measurements and planar gamma-camera imaging. For six NB and five NET treatments, red marrow absorbed doses were also determined using the blood-based method. Results: Dosimetric data from repeated administrations in the same patient were consistent. In groups of NB and NET patients, similar whole-body residence times were obtained, implying that whole-body absorbed dose per unit of administered activity could be reasonably well described as a power function of the patient mass. For NB, this functional form was found to be consistent with dosimetric data from previously published studies. The whole-body to red marrow absorbed dose ratio was similar among patients, with values of 1.4 ± 0.6–1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NB treatments and between 1.5 ± 0.6 and 1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NET treatments. Conclusions: The consistency of dosimetric results between administrations for the same patient supports prescription of the activity based on dosimetry performed in pretreatment studies, or during the first administration in a fractionated schedule. The expressions obtained for whole-body absorbed doses per unit of administered activity as a function of patient mass for NB and NET treatments are believed to be a useful tool to estimate the activity to administer at the stage when the individual patient biokinetics has not yet been measured.

  10. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Administration of...

  11. Persistent cue-evoked activity of accumbens neurons after prolonged abstinence from self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghitza, Udi E; Fabbricatore, Anthony T; Prokopenko, Volodymyr; Pawlak, Anthony P; West, Mark O

    2003-08-13

    Persistent neural processing of information regarding drug-predictive environmental stimuli may be involved in motivating drug abusers to engage in drug seeking after abstinence. The addictive effects of various drugs depend on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system innervating the nucleus accumbens. We used single-unit recording in rats to test whether accumbens neurons exhibit responses to a discriminative stimulus (SD) tone previously paired with cocaine availability during cocaine self-administration. Presentation of the tone after 3-4 weeks of abstinence resulted in a cue-induced relapse of drug seeking under extinction conditions. Accumbens neurons did not exhibit tone-evoked activity before cocaine self-administration training but exhibited significant SD tone-evoked activity during extinction. Under extinction conditions, shell neurons exhibited significantly greater activity evoked by the SD tone than that evoked by a neutral tone (i.e., never paired with reinforcement). In contrast, core neurons responded indiscriminately to presentations of the SD tone or the neutral tone. Accumbens shell neurons exhibited significantly greater SD tone-evoked activity than did accumbens core neurons. Although the onset of SD tone-evoked activity occurred well before the earliest movements commenced (150 msec), this activity often persisted beyond the onset of tone-evoked movements. These results indicate that accumbens shell neurons exhibit persistent processing of information regarding reward-related stimuli after prolonged drug abstinence. Moreover, the accumbens shell appears to be involved in discriminating the motivational value of reward-related associative stimuli, whereas the accumbens core does not.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of human recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, administered intra-abdominally, in a rat peritonitis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; Bom, VJJ; van der Meer, J; Sluiter, WJ; Geerards, S; de Graaf, JS; Bleichrodt, RP; van der Schaaf, W

    1996-01-01

    Human recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA), administered intraperitoneally, may promote intraabdominal fibrinolysis in peritonitis, thereby preventing adhesion and abscess formation. The pharmacokinetics of a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.5 or 2.0 mg/ml human rtPA were assessed in

  13. Pharmacokinetics of human recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, administered intra-abdominally, in a rat peritonitis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; Bom, VJJ; van der Meer, J; Sluiter, WJ; Geerards, S; de Graaf, JS; Bleichrodt, RP; van der Schaaf, W

    1996-01-01

    Human recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA), administered intraperitoneally, may promote intraabdominal fibrinolysis in peritonitis, thereby preventing adhesion and abscess formation. The pharmacokinetics of a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.5 or 2.0 mg/ml human rtPA were assessed in

  14. Variability of [18F]FDG administered activities among patients undergoing PET examinations: an international multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Given the large number of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET examinations performed annually throughout the world, reduction of the administered activity without compromise of the clinical information being sought is encouraged. Guidelines issued by the SNMMI and European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) differ greatly on the choice of the activity that should be administered to patients: the EANM suggests a personalised activity based on the patient's body weight, whereas the SNMMI recommends the administration of fixed activities. The authors analysed a database of 24 716 [(18)F]FDG administrations performed worldwide in 15 PET centres to assess the degree of heterogeneity, in relation to available technology, operational protocols and reference guidelines. Median activities based on the patients' body weight were 43 % lower than fixed-activity administrations (p < 0.001). When TOF scanners are available, the median activity is lowered, but when comparing centres with the same technology or those that use the same operational protocols, weight-based activities are still significantly lower than fixed activities.

  15. Beyond current guidelines: reduction in minimum administered radiopharmaceutical activity with preserved diagnostic image quality in pediatric hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, Frederic; Markelewicz, Robert; Grant, Frederick; Drubach, Laura; Treves, S. Ted [Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Boston (United States); Zukotynski, Katherine [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Boston (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital, Departments of Anesthesia and Surgery, Boston (United States); Falone, Anthony; Vitello, Marie; Cao, Xinhua [Harvard Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Vija, A.H.; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Ding, Xinhong [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Molecular Imaging, Malvern, PA (United States); Bar-Sever, Zvi [Schneider Children' s Medical Center, Petach Tikvah (Israel); Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Gelfand, Michael [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To determine if the minimum administered radiopharmaceutical activity for hepatobiliary scintigraphy can be reduced while preserving diagnostic image quality using enhanced planar processing (EPP). A total of 40 infants between 10 and 270 days old (body mass 2.2 - 6.5 kg) had hepatobiliary scintigraphy during the period 2004 - 2010 following the intravenous administration of either {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin (18 patients) or {sup 99m}Tc-disofenin (22 patients). Due to the small size of these patients, they all received the minimum administered activity of 18.5 MBq consistent with the North American Consensus Guidelines. Six nuclear medicine physicians subjectively graded the acceptability of the image quality for clinical interpretation using a four-point scale (not acceptable, fair, good, excellent). Each physician independently graded seven image sets including the original study (full activity) and simulated reduced activity studies using binomial subsampling (50 % of full activity, 25 % of full activity and activity reduced by weight), with and without EPP. For full-activity studies, 98 % were deemed acceptable by the six physicians for clinical interpretation. The percentages of acceptable 50 % reduced activity studies with and without EPP were not significantly different from the percentage of acceptable full-activity studies (P = 0.193 and P = 0.998, respectively). The percentage of acceptable 25 % reduced activity studies without EPP was significantly different from the percentage of acceptable full-activity studies (P < 0.001); however, this difference vanished when EPP was applied (P = 0.482). The activity reduced by weight ranged from 1.85 to 4.81 MBq (10 % to 26 % of full dose) and the percentages of acceptable studies with and without EPP were significantly different from the percentage of acceptable full-activity studies (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Clinically interpretable hepatobiliary scintigraphy images can be obtained in infants when the

  16. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability.

  17. Optimization method for the administered activity to patients in Tc-99-HMPAO cerebral blood flow SPECT in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Diaz, Marlen [Central University of Las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba). Physics Dept.; Diaz Rizo, Oscar [Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Havana (Cuba); Estevez Aparicio, Eric; Roque Diaz, Reinaldo; Hernandez Rodriguez, Carlos [University Hospital Celestino Hernandez, Santa Clara (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    A method based on the construction of an image quality discriminant function is proposed. The parameters which characterise it are selected among the typical ones measured in a Tc{sup 99m} - HMPAO cerebral blood flow SPECT. The results are compared among groups of patient's studies who received different activity (430, 640 and 807 MBq), looking for the minimum that guaranty good image quality. A reduction in the administered {sup 99m} Tc-HMPAO activity to the patient down to 430 MBq was possible without affecting the tomographic image quality. The labelling yield was the main parameter that determined the image quality. (author)

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of orpanoxin administered orally and topically to rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R R; Bonk, K R; Decker, G E; Miller, K E

    1985-07-01

    Orpanoxin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lacking gastric ulcerogenic effects in the therapeutic dose range in rats, was compared with six reference NSAIDs for oral activity in the rat paw carrageenin-induced edema assay. Tested NSAIDs were ranked on the basis of oral mg/kg ED50 values: piroxicam, 0.55; orpanoxin, 35.6; diflunisal, 59.6; benoxaprofen, greater than 300; tolmetin sodium, greater than 300; and sulindac, greater than 300. Zomepirac sodium was inactive. Only the three most potent compounds produced greater than 60% inhibition of edema. Inhibition was generally greater at 4 h than at 6 h post carrageenin for all compounds. Oral activity of orpanoxin was also demonstrated in the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model (ED50 = 24.2 mg/kg p.o. when given 1 h before irradiation) and in the mouse ear croton oil induced edema test (ED50 value = 131 mg/kg p.o.). Topical activity of orpanoxin was assessed in both the guinea-pig and mouse models. In the guinea-pig u.v.-induced erythema model, application (1 h after u.v.) of 1, 5, and 10% (w/v) orpanoxin creams (containing 10% urea) significantly inhibited erythema at 2, 3, and 4 h post-irradiation. Orpanoxin, mefenamic acid, and indomethacin as 1% creams inhibited total erythema scores 70, 92 and 74%, respectively. Evidence for topical activity in the mouse ear assay was also obtained for orpanoxin in diethyl ether or 10% urea cream, but not in dimethylsulfoxide. It was concluded that orpanoxin has anti-inflammatory activity comparable to reference NSAIDs in the rat paw edema test, is active orally in rat, mouse, and guinea-pig models, and shows topical activity in the guinea-pig and the mouse.

  19. Efficacy of activated charcoal administered more than four hours after acetaminophen overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A; Winter, Mark L; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy; Bangh, Stacey A

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate whether administration of activated charcoal, in addition to standard N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy, after acetaminophen overdose provides additional patient benefit over NAC therapy alone, a 1-year non-randomized prospective, multi-center, observational case series was performed at three poison centers and one poison center system. Entrance criteria were all acute acetaminophen overdoses with: 1) an acetaminophen blood concentration determined to be in the toxic range by the Rumack-Matthew nomogram; and 2) all therapies, including NAC and activated charcoal, initiated between 4 and 16 h post-ingestion. There were 145 patients meeting entrance criteria, of whom 58 patients (40%) received NAC only and 87 patients (60%) received NAC and activated charcoal. Overall, 23 patients had elevations of AST or ALT greater than 1000 IU/L, of which 21 patients received NAC only (38% of total NAC only group) and 2 patients received NAC and activated charcoal (2% of total NAC+AC group). Administration of activated charcoal in this series of patients with toxic acetaminophen concentrations treated with NAC was associated with reduced incidence of liver injury, as measured by elevated serum transaminases and prothrombin times.

  20. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active beam model suitable for building energy simulations with the programming language Modelica. The model encapsulates empirical equations derived by a novel active beam terminal unit that operates with low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling systems....... Measurements from a full-scale experiment are used to compare the thermal behavior of the active beam with the one predicted by simulations. The simulation results show that the model corresponds closely with the actual operation. The model predicts the outlet water temperature of the active beam...... with a maximum mean absolute error of 0.18 °C. In term of maximum mean absolute percentage error, simulation results differ by 0.9%. The methodology presented is general enough to be applied for modeling other active beam units. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica. Available from: https...

  1. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased quality of Machine Translation output, human interaction will remain a crucial activity to guarantee the quality of the final translation products. Human-computer interaction in translation will likely be the more successful the more we understand the properties and compleme...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  2. Activity of alpha-fucosidase and beta-glucuronidase in serum and urine of patients administered parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowska, Katarzyna; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Raczkowski, Krzysztof; Zasadowska, Wioletta; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Kepka, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Knaś, Malgorzata; Snarska, Jadwiga; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Ladny, Jerzy Robert

    2013-01-01

    In hospital patients suffering from adverse clinical and biochemical symptoms of malnutrition, it is often necessary to employ parenteral nutrition to avoid the body's tissue becoming broken down by being metabolised. Thus, the patient's welfare and survival can be supported throughout any periods of medical crisis. Two of the enzymes responsible for metabolising glycoconjugates are alpha-fucosidase (FUC) and beta-glucuronidase (GLU), present in lysosomes. They release fucose or glucuronic acid from the non-reducing end of oligosaccharide chains. To determine the effect of parenteral nutrition administered to ill patients, on glycoconjugate metabolism, by measuring serum and urinary activities of FUC and GLU. Material and methods. Blood samples and the daily urine collection were taken from 23 patients' who had been undergoing parenteral nutrition for either 5 or 10 days, as well as from a baseline sample. Enzyme activities in serum and urine were determined by the method of Zwierz et al. Serum FUC activities were significantly lower after 10 days compared to 5, (p< 0.0172), whereas GLU activities were significantly lower after both 5 and 10 days, (p< 0.0007 and p< 0.0208 respectively), compared to levels before starting parenteral nutrition. GLU activities were however higher after 10 days than those after 5 days, (p< 0.0023). In urine, FUC activities were significantly decreased after 10 days compared to 5 days after starting parenteral nutrition, (p< 0.0245). Urine GLU activities were unaffected by parenteral nutrition nor was any effect seen on FUC or GLU activities when calculated per 1mg creatinine. Serum FUC and GLU activities can be used for assessing the effect of parenteral nutrition on glycoconjugate metabolism. The significant decreases of serum GLU activity observed after 5 and 10 days, may serve to indicate that the components of parental nutrition are appropriate and that the body has become suitably adapted to this form of nutrition.

  3. Patient-specific optimisation of administered activity and acquisition times for (18)F-FDG PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Fred; McMeekin, Helena; Burniston, Maria; McCool, Daniel; Pencharz, Deborah; Skillen, Annah; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify a method for optimising the administered activity and acquisition time for (18)F-FDG PET imaging, yielding images of consistent quality for patients with varying body sizes and compositions, while limiting radiation doses to patients and staff. Patients referred for FDG scans had bioimpedance measurements. They were injected with 3 MBq/kg of (18)F up to 370 MBq and scanned on a Siemens Biograph mCT at 3 or 4 min per bed position. Data were rebinned to simulate 2- and 1-min acquisitions. Subjective assessments of image quality made by an experienced physician were compared with objective measurements based on signal-to-noise ratio and noise equivalent counts (NEC). A target objective measure of image quality was identified. The activity and acquisition time required to achieve this were calculated for each subject. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify expressions for the activity and acquisition time required in terms of easily measurable patient characteristics. One hundred and eleven patients were recruited, and subjective and objective assessments of image quality were compared for 321 full and reduced time scans. NEC-per-metre was identified as the objective measure which best correlated with the subjective assessment (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0.77) and the best discriminator for images with a subjective assessment of "definitely adequate" (area under the ROC curve 0.94). A target of 37 Mcount/m was identified. Expressions were identified in terms of patient sex, height and weight for the activity and acquisition time required to achieve this target. Including measurements of body composition in these expressions was not useful. Using these expressions would reduce the mean activity administered to this patient group by 66 MBq compared to the current protocol. Expressions have been identified for the activity and acquisition times required to achieve consistent image quality in FDG imaging

  4. Metrological aspects in the estimate of the administered activity in nuclear medicine patients; Aspectos metrologicos na estimativa da atividade administrada em pacientes de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzarin, A.; Iwahara, A.; Tahuata, L., E-mail: anelise@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil), Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes; Xavier, A.M. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2014-07-01

    In order to investigate the performance quality of routine measurements of Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation/Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (LNMRI/IRD) has been conducting, since 1998, a program of comparison for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. (author)

  5. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Kinoshita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide the information that is necessary for making the proper use of kampo medicines, we have proposed the adequate methodology focused on the following issues: (i kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in max of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages.

  6. Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kien Hoa; Trüschel, Anna; Jarl, Linnea; Magnusson, Susanna; Windahl, Tove; Johansson, Robert; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-09

    Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness. Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study. General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements. 40 participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder received a BA treatment, and 41 participants received a mindfulness treatment. 9 participants were lost at the post-treatment. An 8-week long behaviour programme administered via a smartphone application. Mindfulness: An 8-week long mindfulness programme, administered via a smartphone application. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9). 81 participants were randomised (mean age 36.0 years (SD=10.8)) and analysed. Results showed no significant interaction effects of group and time on any of the outcome measures either from pretreatment to post-treatment or from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up. Subgroup analyses showed that the BA treatment was more effective than the mindfulness treatment among participants with higher initial severity of depression from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 362.1)=5.2, p<0.05). In contrast, the mindfulness treatment worked better than the BA treatment among participants with lower initial severity from pretreatment to the 6-month follow-up (PHQ-9: F (1, 69.3)=7.7, p<0.01); BDI-II: (F(1, 53.60)=6.25, p<0.05). The two interventions did not differ significantly from one another. For participants with higher severity of depression, the treatment based on BA was superior to the treatment based on mindfulness. For participants with lower initial severity, the treatment based on mindfulness worked significantly better than the treatment based on BA. Clinical Trials

  7. Seromucosal transport of intravenously administered carbamazepine is not enhanced by oral doses of activated charcoal in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, Florian; Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi; Witte, Andreas; Poethko, Thorsten; Henke, Julia; Zilker, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The fate of carbamazepine after intravenous injection in rats (n = 24) and the influence of activated charcoal on the kinetics was investigated. After randomization to four groups (n = 6, each), plasma concentration and the quantities of carbamazepine and metabolites excreted into bile, urine and intestine were determined using an in situ perfusion model of the small intestine (Ringer's solution) with or without orally administered activated charcoal (AC+; AC-) and with or without bile duct cannulation (BD+; BD-). The cumulative amount of carbamazepine and metabolites exsorbed into the small intestine within 3.5 hr after intravenous injection was about 15% in BD- animals and about 3% in BD+ animals. About 20% of the dose was detected in the externalized bile. Activated charcoal did not influence the amount exsorbed into the small intestine. Terminal half-life in plasma ranged from 159 min. to 194 min. within the four treatment groups without statistical significant difference (P = 0.751). Correspondingly, the area under the curve did not vary significantly and ranged between 1.13 and 1.41 g/min./l (P = 0.378). Excretion of carbamazepine and metabolites into urine varied between 3% and 6% of dose within all groups and showed close correlation with diuresis. In an identical experimental approach using a 2-fold intestinal perfusion rate (50 ml/hr; n = 8), no fundamental changes compared to the main experiment regarding pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine were observed. The lack of effect of activated charcoal on the elimination of carbamazepine and metabolites must be contributed to the small amount of the drug being exsorbed into the intestine and may be further influenced by reduced intestinal permeability of carbamazepine and metabolites or inadequate luminal stirring.

  8. Under oath: content analysis of oaths administered in ADA-Accredited Dental Schools in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Aaron B; Peterson, Erin M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2009-06-01

    This study reviews and analyzes the content of dental school oaths taken by students in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico in 2006. Each oath was qualitatively reviewed to determine its consistency with each of the five principles set forth in the American Dental Association (ADA)'s Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct. Fifty-eight oaths were received from sixty-one of sixty-six schools in response to information requests regarding use of oaths and manner of administration. Of these, thirty-nine employ one oath, administered at either graduation or ceremonies marking transition to clinical training; twelve employ an oath at both occasions, with five repeating the same oath; and ten have no formal oaths. Eighteen oaths follow the wording of "The Dentist's Pledge," nine follow the "Oath to the Profession/Professional Pledge," three follow the Modern Hippocratic Oath, and twenty-eight are idiosyncratic. All five of the ADA principles (autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity) are addressed in thirteen oaths, four principles in nine oaths, and three or fewer principles in thirty-six oaths. Eleven make reference to care for the underserved. As oath-taking is an opportunity to instill and reinforce to students dentistry's most important ethical obligations, recommendations are offered to make the content more meaningful and comprehensive.

  9. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  10. Adjuvant activity of chicken interleukin-12 co-administered with infectious bursal disease virus recombinant VP2 antigen in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bor Sheu; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Lin, Cheng Chung; Shien, Jui Hung; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-02-15

    A recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/VP2) expressing infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV) VP2 gene has been constructed. After purification and identification of rFPV/VP2, the adjuvant activity of the recombinant chicken IL-12 (rchIL-12), synthesized by our previous construct of rFPV/chIL-12, in rFPV/VP2-expressed rVP2 antigen was assessed in one-week-old specific-pathogen free chickens. The results indicated that rchIL-12 alone or rchIL-12 plus mineral oil (MO) co-administered with rVP2 antigen significantly enhanced the production of serum neutralization (SN) antibody against IBDV, compared to those with MO alone. The SN titers in groups receiving rVP2 antigen with MO alone were more inconsistent after vaccination. On the other hand, rchIL-12 significantly stimulated IFN-γ production in serum and in splenocyte cultured supernatant, suggesting that rchIL-12 alone or plus MO significantly induced a cell-mediated immune response. Finally, bursal lesion protection from very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) challenge in chickens receiving rVP2 antigen with rchIL-12 alone or plus MO was much more effective than that with MO alone at two weeks after boosting. Taken together, rchIL-12 alone augmented in vivo the induction of a primary and also a secondary SN antibody production and a cell-mediated immunity against IBDV rVP2 antigen, which conferred the enhancement of bursal lesion protective efficacy from vvIBDV challenge. These data indicated that a potential for chIL-12 as immunoadjuvant for chicken vaccine development such as IBDV rVP2 antigen.

  11. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  12. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  13. Comparison of oral psoralen-UV-A with a portable tanning unit at home vs hospital-administered bath psoralen-UV-A in patients with chronic hand eczema - An open-label randomized controlled trial of efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, AM; Kamphof, WG; van Sonderen, E; Bruynzeel, DP; Coenraads, PJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study whether oral psoralen-UV-A (PUVA) with a portable tanning unit at home is as effective as hospital-administered bath PUVA in patients with chronic hand eczema. Design: Open-label randomized controlled trial, with a 10-week treatment period and an 8-week follow-up period. Setting:

  14. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndazo S Minka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  15. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  16. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  17. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmonier, C B; McFadden, R-M T; Hill, F M; Schreiner, R; Ramalingam, R; Besselsen, D G; Ghishan, F K; Kiela, P R

    2013-07-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D₃ has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D₃ plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D₃ supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10-/- CD4⁺ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D₃ metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D₃ diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D₃ group. Our data suggest that vitamin D₃, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D₃ supplementation in patients with active IBD.

  18. The absorbed dose to the blood is a better predictor of ablation success than the administered {sup 131}I activity in thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Lassmann, Michael; Reiners, Christoph; Haenscheid, Heribert [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeder, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, Wuerzburg (Germany); Luster, Markus [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The residence time of {sup 131}I in the blood is likely to be a measure of the amount of {sup 131}I that is available for uptake by thyroid remnant tissue and thus the radiation absorbed dose to the target tissue in {sup 131}I ablation of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). This hypothesis was tested in an investigation on the dependence of the success rate of radioiodine remnant ablation on the radiation absorbed dose to the blood (BD) as a surrogate for the amount of {sup 131}I available for iodine-avid tissue uptake. This retrospective study included 449 DTC patients who received post-operative {sup 131}I ablation in our centre in the period from 1993 to 2007 and who returned to us for diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy. The BD was calculated based on external dose rate measurements using gamma probes positioned in the ceiling. Success of ablation was defined as a negative diagnostic {sup 131}I whole-body scan and undetectable thyroglobulin levels at 6 months follow-up. Ablation was successful in 56.6% of the patients. The rate of successful ablation correlated significantly with BD but not with the administered activity. Patients with blood doses exceeding 350 mGy (n = 144) had a significantly higher probability for successful ablation (63.9%) than the others (n = 305, ablation rate 53.1%, p = 0.03). In contrast, no significant dependence of the ablation rate on the administered activity was observed. The BD is a more powerful predictor of ablation success than the administered activity. (orig.)

  19. Behavioural activation versus mindfulness-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Kien Hoa; Trüschel, Anna; Jarl, Linnea; Magnusson, Susanna; Windahl, Tove; Johansson, Robert; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of two smartphone-delivered treatments: one based on behavioural activation (BA) and other on mindfulness. DESIGN: Parallel randomised controlled, open, trial. Participants were allocated using an online randomisation tool, handled by an independent person who was separate from the staff conducting the study. SETTING: General community, with recruitment nationally through mass media and advertisements. PARTICIPANTS: 40 participants diagno...

  20. Mutational analysis of the role of ADP-ribosylation activity and G(M1)-binding activity in the adjuvant properties of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin towards intranasally administered keyhole limpet hemocyanin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L; Feil, IK; Verweij, WR; Holtrop, M; Hol, WGJ; Agsteribbe, E; Wilschut, J

    1998-01-01

    The Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is known for its potent mucosal immunoadjuvant activity towards co-administered antigens. LT is composed of one A subunit, which has ADP-ribosylation activity, and a homopentameric B subunit, which has high affinity for the toxin receptor, gangliosid

  1. Gamma-irradiated influenza A virus provides adjuvant activity to a co-administered poorly immunogenic SFV vaccine in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle eBabb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many currently available inactivated vaccines require 'adjuvants' to maximise the protective immune responses generated against the antigens of interest. Recent studies in mice with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU have shown its superior efficacy compared to other forms of inactivated FLU vaccines and its ability to induce both potent type-I interferon (IFN-I responses and the IFN-I associated partial lymphocyte activation. Commonly, IFN-I responses induced by adjuvants, combined in vaccine preparations, have been shown to effectively enhance the immunogenicity of the antigens of interest. Therefore, we investigated the potential adjuvant activity of γ-FLU and the possible effect on antibody responses against co-administrated antigens, using gamma-irradiated Semliki Forest Virus (γ-SFV as the experimental vaccine in mice. Our data show that co-vaccination with γ-FLU and γ-SFV resulted in enhanced SFV-specific antibody responses in terms of increased titres by 6 fold and greater neutralisation efficacy, when compared to vaccination with γ-SFV alone. This study provides promising evidence related to the possible use of γ-FLU as an adjuvant to poorly immunogenic vaccines without compromising the vaccine efficacy of γ-FLU.

  2. Orally administered betaine reduces photodamage caused by UVB irradiation through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Lee, Hee Jeong; Youn, Ui Joung; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Betaine is widely distributed in plants, microorganisms, in several types of food and in medical herbs, including Lycium chinense. The administration of 100 mg betaine/kg body weight/day is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet irradiation‑induced skin damage. The present study aimed to determine the preventive effects of betaine on ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation‑induced skin damage in hairless mice. The mice were divided into three groups: Control (n=5), UVB‑treated vehicle (n=5) and UVB‑treated betaine (n=5) groups. The level of irradiation was progressively increased between 60 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 1 (one minimal erythematous dose = 60 mJ/cm2) and 90 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 7. The formation of wrinkles significantly increased following UVB exposure in the UVB‑treated vehicle group. However, treatment with betaine suppressed UVB‑induced wrinkle formation, as determined by the mean length, mean depth, number, epidermal thickness and collagen damage. Furthermore, oral administration of betaine also inhibited the UVB‑induced expression of mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9). These findings suggested that betaine inhibits UVB‑induced skin damage by suppressing increased expression of MMP‑9 through the inhibition of MEK and ERK.

  3. Pre- and postnatally administered ACTH, Organon 2766 and CRF facilitate or inhibit active avoidance task performance in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honour, L C; White, M H

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning/memory-related neuropeptides on behavioral task performance in later life. A 1 mg/kg dosage of adrenocorticotropic hormone 4-9, Organon 2766, ACTH/MSH 4-10, ACTH 1-24, CRF, or diluent was subcutaneously injected into either pregnant females or into newborn pups during specific neural developmental windows. Each of the progeny was trained in an active-avoidance task and tested for acquisition on postpartum days 35-37. The mice were then tested for memory task performance and reacquisition on days 42-44 postpartum using the identical experimental paradigm as that used in the training sessions. Prenatal treatment with these memory-related neuropeptides resulted in significant facilitation of learning/memory task performance in male and female mice treated with Organon 2766 (p less than 0.001), and a significant inhibition of learning/memory task performance in males and females treated with ACTH 1-24 (p less than 0.01). Additional sex-specific performance facilitations and inhibitions resulted from the pre- or postnatal administration of the various neuropeptides used in this study. These results suggest that neuropeptides, when available in increased amounts during specific neural developmental windows, can significantly improve or suppress related behavioral performance capability in later life.

  4. Orally Administered Salacia reticulata Extract Reduces H1N1 Influenza Clinical Symptoms in Murine Lung Tissues Putatively Due to Enhanced Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Egashira, Masayo; Harada, Yuri; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Oda, Yuriko; Ueda, Fumitaka; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE), a plant rich in phytochemicals, such as salacinol, kotalanol, and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response, including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  5. Orally administered Salacia reticulata extract reduces H1N1 influenza clinical symptoms in murine lung tissues putatively due to enhanced natural killer cell activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Romero-Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major cause of respiratory tract infection. Although most cases do not require further hospitalization, influenza periodically causes epidemics in humans that can potentially infect and kill millions of people. To countermeasure this threat, new vaccines need to be developed annually to match emerging influenza viral strains with increased resistance to existing vaccines. Thus, there is a need for finding and developing new anti-influenza viral agents as alternatives to current treatments. Here, we tested the antiviral effects of an extract from the stems and roots of Salacia reticulata (SSRE, a plant rich in phytochemicals such as salacinol, kotalanol and catechins, on H1N1 influenza virus-infected mice. Following oral administration of 0.6 mg/day of SSRE, the incidence of coughing decreased in 80% of mice, and only one case of severe pulmonary inflammation was detected. Moreover, when compared with mice given Lactobacillus casei JCM1134, a strain previously shown to help increase in vitro NK cell activity, SSRE-administered mice showed greater and equal NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells, respectively, at high effector cell:target cell ratios. Next, to test whether or not SSRE would exert protective effects against influenza in the absence of gut microbiota, mice were given antibiotics before being inoculated influenza virus and subsequently administered SSRE. SSRE administration induced an increase in NK cell activity in splenocytes and pulmonary cells at levels similar to those detected in mice not treated with antibiotics. Based on our results, it can be concluded that phytochemicals in the SSRE exerted protective effects against influenza infection putatively via modulation of the immune response including enhancement of NK cell activity, although some protective effects were not necessarily through modulation of gut microbiota. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

  6. Activation of signaling pathways following localized delivery of systemically administered neurotrophic factors across the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound and microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseri, Babak; Choi, James J.; Deffieux, Thomas; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Olumolade, Oluyemi; Small, Scott A.; Morrison, Barclay, III; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2012-04-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to have broad neuroprotective effects in addition to its therapeutic role in neurodegenerative disease. In this study, the efficacy of delivering exogenous BDNF to the left hippocampus is demonstrated in wild-type mice (n = 7) through the noninvasively disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) using focused ultrasound (FUS). The BDNF bioactivity was found to be preserved following delivery as assessed quantitatively by immunohistochemical detection of the pTrkB receptor and activated pAkt, pMAPK, and pCREB in the hippocampal neurons. It was therefore shown for the first time that systemically administered neurotrophic factors can cross the noninvasively disrupted BBB and trigger neuronal downstream signaling effects in a highly localized region in the brain. This is the first time that the administered molecule is tracked through the BBB and localized in the neuron triggering molecular effects. Additional preliminary findings are shown in wild-type mice with two additional neurotrophic factors such as the glia-derived neurotrophic factor (n = 12) and neurturin (n = 2). This further demonstrates the impact of FUS for the early treatment of CNS diseases at the cellular and molecular level and strengthens its premise for FUS-assisted drug delivery and efficacy.

  7. CMS Grid Activities in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Fisk; J.Amundson; 等

    2001-01-01

    The CMS groups in the USA are actively involved in several grid-elated projects,including the DoE-funded Particle Physics Data Grid(PPDG)and the NSFfunded Grid Physics Network(GriPhyN).We present developments of :the Grid data Management Pilot (GDMP) software;a Java Analysis Studio-based prototype remote analysis service for CMS data;tools for automating job submission schemes for large scale distributed simulation and reconstruction runs for CMS;modeling and development of job scheduling schemes using the MONARC toolkit;a robust execution service for distributed processors.The deployment and use of these tools at prototype Tier1 and Tier2 computing centers in the USA is described.

  8. Should β-lactam antibiotics be administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients? A survey of Australia and New Zealand intensive care unit doctors and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Menino O; Dulhunty, Joel M; Roberts, Jason A; Myburgh, John; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Although there is a biological precedent for administration of β-lactam antibiotics by continuous or extended infusion, there is no definitive evidence of a survival benefit compared with intermittent administration. The aim of this study was to explore clinician uncertainty with regard to the administration of β-lactam antibiotics by continuous infusion. Doctors and pharmacists in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs) were surveyed to investigate current β-lactam antibiotic administration practices as well as the degree of uncertainty regarding the benefit of continuous infusion of two commonly used broad-spectrum β-lactams, namely meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP). There were 111 respondents to the survey. Intermittent infusion was reported as standard practice for meropenem (73.9%) and TZP (82.0%). A greater proportion of pharmacists compared with doctors believed continuous infusion to be more effective than intermittent administration (85.4% vs. 34.3%, respectively; P infusion resulted in better patient outcomes (65.9% and 74.6%, respectively; P = 0.85). Overall, 91.0% of respondents were prepared to enrol eligible patients into a definitive randomised controlled trial on β-lactam antibiotic administration. In conclusion, there is equipoise among clinicians working in Australian and New Zealand ICUs as to whether administration by continuous infusion offers a survival benefit in critically ill patients.

  9. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  10. The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlbring Per

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1 physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2 physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3 behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4 behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930

  11. Oxidative stress parameters and erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe Pinnata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that according to the World Health Organization affects more than 382 million people. The rise in diabetes mellitus coupled with the lack of an effective treatment has led many to investigate medicinal plants to identify a viable alternative. Objective: To evaluate red blood cell (RBC membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase activities and antioxidant levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered aqueous preparation of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Diabetic rats were then treated with aqueous K. pinnata preparation (three mature leaves ~ 9.96 g/70 kg body weight or about 0.14 g/kg body weight/day for 30 days. Serum glucose, RBC membrane ATPase activities, and antioxidant levels were determined. Results: We noted weight loss and reduced food consumption in the treated diabetic group. Serum glucose levels were reduced in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were not significantly elevated in the treated group compared to the diabetic group. However, serum catalase activity was significantly (P < 0.05 increased in the treated diabetic group compared to the other groups. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were not significantly altered among the groups. There was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in Mg2+ ATPase activity and a nonsignificant increase in Na+/K+ ATPase activity in the RBC membrane of the treated diabetic group compared to the diabetic group. Conclusion: The consumption of aqueous preparation of K. pinnata may accrue benefits in the management of diabetes by lowering oxidative stress often associated with the disease and improving the availability of cellular magnesium through an increase in the magnesium ATPase pump in the RBC membrane for increased cellular metabolism

  12. Validity of a practitioner-administered observational tool to measure physical activity, nutrition, and screen time in school-age programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebekka M; Emmons, Karen M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Barrett, Jessica L; Kenney, Erica L; Cradock, Angie L; Giles, Catherine M; deBlois, Madeleine E; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2014-11-28

    Nutrition and physical activity interventions have been effective in creating environmental changes in afterschool programs. However, accurate assessment can be time-consuming and expensive as initiatives are scaled up for optimal population impact. This study aims to determine the criterion validity of a simple, low-cost, practitioner-administered observational measure of afterschool physical activity, nutrition, and screen time practices and child behaviors. Directors from 35 programs in three cities completed the Out-of-School Nutrition and Physical Activity Observational Practice Assessment Tool (OSNAP-OPAT) on five days. Trained observers recorded snacks served and obtained accelerometer data each day during the same week. Observations of physical activity participation and snack consumption were conducted on two days. Correlations were calculated to validate weekly average estimates from OSNAP-OPAT compared to criterion measures. Weekly criterion averages are based on 175 meals served, snack consumption of 528 children, and physical activity levels of 356 children. OSNAP-OPAT validly assessed serving water (r = 0.73), fruits and vegetables (r = 0.84), juice >4oz (r = 0.56), and grains (r = 0.60) at snack; sugary drinks (r = 0.70) and foods (r = 0.68) from outside the program; and children's water consumption (r = 0.56) (all p activity time offered were correlated with accelerometer estimates (minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity r = 0.59, p = 0.02; vigorous physical activity r = 0.63, p = 0.01). The reported proportion of children participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity was correlated with observations (r = 0.48, p = 0.03), as were reports of computer (r = 0.85) and TV/movie (r = 0.68) time compared to direct observations (both p activity environments and behaviors in afterschool settings. Phase 1 of this measure validation was conducted during a study registered at

  13. Oral Migalastat HCl Leads to Greater Systemic Exposure and Tissue Levels of Active α-Galactosidase A in Fabry Patients when Co-Administered with Infused Agalsidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Warnock

    Full Text Available Migalastat HCl (AT1001, 1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin is an investigational pharmacological chaperone for the treatment of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A deficiency, which leads to Fabry disease, an X-linked, lysosomal storage disorder. The currently approved, biologics-based therapy for Fabry disease is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with either agalsidase alfa (Replagal or agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme. Based on preclinical data, migalastat HCl in combination with agalsidase is expected to result in the pharmacokinetic (PK enhancement of agalsidase in plasma by increasing the systemic exposure of active agalsidase, thereby leading to increased cellular levels in disease-relevant tissues. This Phase 2a study design consisted of an open-label, fixed-treatment sequence that evaluated the effects of single oral doses of 150 mg or 450 mg migalastat HCl on the PK and tissue levels of intravenously infused agalsidase (0.2, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg in male Fabry patients. As expected, intravenous administration of agalsidase alone resulted in increased α-Gal A activity in plasma, skin, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs compared to baseline. Following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase, α-Gal A activity in plasma was further significantly increased 1.2- to 5.1-fold compared to agalsidase administration alone, in 22 of 23 patients (95.6%. Importantly, similar increases in skin and PBMC α-Gal A activity were seen following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase. The effects were not related to the administered migalastat HCl dose, as the 150 mg dose of migalastat HCl increased α-Gal A activity to the same extent as the 450 mg dose. Conversely, agalsidase had no effect on the plasma PK of migalastat. No migalastat HCl-related adverse events or drug-related tolerability issues were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01196871.

  14. Environmental activism and dynamics of unit-based pricing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert [SEOR-ECRi and Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Room H 7-25, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Gradus, Raymond [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and ECRi, De Boelelaan 1105, Room 1E-66, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    It is well-known that unit-based pricing systems have a significant effect on the quantity of collected waste. Part of this effect may, however, result from a selection bias or environmental activism effect. Based on a pooled cross-section for the Netherlands for 1998-2005 we show that despite the correction for environmental activism the effect of the weight and bag unit-based pricing system on the quantity of waste is sizeable. Moreover, this environmental activism effect is decreasing over time, so that the most environmental friendly municipalities implement unit-based pricing systems at first. In addition, we show that the volume effects of the different unit-based pricing systems are rather stable over time. Although we find some evidence for a learning effect, nearly no evidence is found for an awareness erosion effect. This means at least that the effect of unit-based pricing does not decrease over time, which is reassuring from an environmental point of view. Pricing waste helps. (author)

  15. Strategic Priorities for Physical Activity Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Berrigan, David; Carlson, Cynthia; Dorn, Joan M; Heath, Gregory W; Kohl, Harold W; Lee, I-Min; Lee, Sarah M; Másse, Louise C; Morrow, James R; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Pivarnik, James M; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Rodgers, Anne B; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Troiano, Richard P; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Wendel, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Develop strategic priorities to guide future physical activity surveillance in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine convened a scientific roundtable of physical activity and measurement experts. Participants summarized the current state of aerobic physical activity surveillance for adults, focusing on practice and research needs in three areas: 1) behavior, 2) human movement, and 3) community supports. Needs and challenges for each area were identified. At the conclusion of the meeting, experts identified one overarching strategy and five strategic priorities to guide future surveillance. The identified overarching strategy was to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance similar to the U.S. National Physical Activity Plan for promotion. The purpose of the plan would be to enhance coordination and collaboration within and between sectors, such as transportation and public health, and to address specific strategic priorities identified at the roundtable. These strategic priorities were used 1) to identify and prioritize physical activity constructs; 2) to assess the psychometric properties of instruments for physical activity surveillance; 3) to provide training and technical assistance for those collecting, analyzing, or interpreting surveillance data; 4) to explore accessing data from alternative sources; and 5) to improve communication, translation, and dissemination about estimates of physical activity from surveillance systems. This roundtable provided strategic priorities for physical activity surveillance in the United States. A first step is to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance that would provide an operating framework from which to execute these priorities.

  16. Hypoglycemic activity and oral bioavailability of insulin-loaded liposomes containing bile salts in rats: the effect of cholate type, particle size and administered dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mengmeng; Lu, Yi; Hovgaard, Lars; Guan, Peipei; Tan, Yanan; Lian, Ruyue; Qi, Jianping; Wu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Oral delivery of protein or polypeptide drugs remains a challenge due to gastric and enzymatic degradation as well as poor permeation across the intestinal epithelia. In this study, liposomes containing bile salts were developed as a new oral insulin delivery system. The primary goal was to investigate the effect of cholate type, particle size and dosage of the liposomes on the hypoglycemic activity and oral bioavailability. Liposomes containing sodium glycocholate (SGC), sodium taurocholate (STC) or sodium deoxycholate (SDC) were prepared by a reversed-phase evaporation method. After oral administration, all liposomes elicited a certain degree of hypoglycemic effect in parallel with an increase in blood insulin level. The highest oral bioavailability of approximately 8.5% and 11.0% could be observed with subcutaneous insulin as reference for SGC-liposomes in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, respectively. Insulin-loaded liposomes showed slower and sustained action over a period of over 20 h with peak time around 8-12h. SGC-liposomes showed higher oral bioavailability than liposomes containing STC or SDC and conventional liposomes. The hypoglycemic effect was size-dependent with the highest at 150 nm or 400 nm and was proportionally correlated to the administered dose. The results supported the hypothesis of insulin absorption as intact liposomes.

  17. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Watabe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11C-Donepezil (DNP and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. METHODS: The distribution of (11C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g. A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq. The whole-body distribution of the (11C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. RESULTS: The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11C-DNP in the body (following the liver (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3, respectively, indicating that the distribution of (11C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively, indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  18. Distribution of intravenously administered acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and acetylcholinesterase activity in the adrenal gland: 11C-donepezil PET study in the normal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Tadashi; Naka, Sadahiro; Ikeda, Hayato; Horitsugi, Genki; Kanai, Yasukazu; Isohashi, Kayako; Ishibashi, Mana; Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have been used for patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, its pharmacokinetics in non-target organs other than the brain has not been clarified yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the whole-body distribution of intravenously administered (11)C-Donepezil (DNP) and the AChE activity in the normal rat, with special focus on the adrenal glands. The distribution of (11)C-DNP was investigated by PET/CT in 6 normal male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, body weight  = 220 ± 8.9 g). A 30-min dynamic scan was started simultaneously with an intravenous bolus injection of (11)C-DNP (45.0 ± 10.7 MBq). The whole-body distribution of the (11)C-DNP PET was evaluated based on the Vt (total distribution volume) by Logan-plot analysis. A fluorometric assay was performed to quantify the AChE activity in homogenized tissue solutions of the major organs. The PET analysis using Vt showed that the adrenal glands had the 2nd highest level of (11)C-DNP in the body (following the liver) (13.33 ± 1.08 and 19.43 ± 1.29 ml/cm(3), respectively), indicating that the distribution of (11)C-DNP was the highest in the adrenal glands, except for that in the excretory organs. The AChE activity was the third highest in the adrenal glands (following the small intestine and the stomach) (24.9 ± 1.6, 83.1 ± 3.0, and 38.5 ± 8.1 mU/mg, respectively), indicating high activity of AChE in the adrenal glands. We demonstrated the whole-body distribution of (11)C-DNP by PET and the AChE activity in the major organs by fluorometric assay in the normal rat. High accumulation of (11)C-DNP was observed in the adrenal glands, which suggested the risk of enhanced cholinergic synaptic transmission by the use of AChE inhibitors.

  19. The effect of systemic antibiotics administered during the active phase of non-surgical periodontal therapy or after the healing phase: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretuza FRITOLI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this systematic review was to compare the clinical effectiveness of systemic antibiotics administered in the active stage of periodontal treatment or after the healing phase. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA statement. A manual search of the reference list of selected studies and of review articles was also performed up to November 2013. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT that evaluated the systemic administration of antibiotics as adjuvants to scaling and root planning (SRP at different phases of periodontal treatment were included. Systematic reviews and studies that evaluated subjects with systemic diseases and those that used subantimicrobial doses of antibiotics were excluded. Results The initial search identified 1,039 articles, of which seven were selected, and only one met the inclusion criteria. This study showed that subjects taking metronidazole and amoxicillin at the initial phase of treatment exhibited statistically significantly greater reduction in pocket depth and gain in clinical attachment level in initially deep sites (PD≥7 mm than subjects taking antibiotics after healing (p<0.05. This comparison was conducted 2 months after antibiotic intake, at the healing phase. Conclusion To date, only one short-term RCT has directly compared different moments of systemic antibiotics administration, as adjuncts to SRP, in the treatment of periodontitis. Although the results of this study suggested some benefits for antibiotics intake during the active phase of therapy, these findings need to be confirmed by larger placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials with longer follow-up periods.

  20. Activation of exchange protein activated by cAMP in the rat basolateral amygdala impairs reconsolidation of a memory associated with self-administered cocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wan

    Full Text Available The intracellular mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation critically involve cAMP signaling. These events were originally attributed to PKA activation by cAMP, but the identification of Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP (Epac, as a distinct mediator of cAMP signaling, suggests that cAMP-regulated processes that subserve memory reconsolidation are more complex. Here we investigated how activation of Epac with 8-pCPT-cAMP (8-CPT impacts reconsolidation of a memory that had been associated with cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine on an FR-1 schedule, in which each cocaine delivery was paired with a tone+light cue. Lever pressing was then extinguished in the absence of cue presentations and cocaine delivery. Following the last day of extinction, rats were put in a novel context, in which the conditioned cue was presented to reactivate the cocaine-associated memory. Immediate bilateral infusions of 8-CPT into the basolateral amygdala (BLA following reactivation disrupted subsequent cue-induced reinstatement in a dose-dependent manner, and modestly reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement. When 8-CPT infusions were delayed for 3 hours after the cue reactivation session or were given after a cue extinction session, no effect on cue-induced reinstatement was observed. Co-administration of 8-CPT and the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP (10 nmol/side rescued memory reconsolidation while 6-Bnz alone had no effect, suggesting an antagonizing interaction between the two cAMP signaling substrates. Taken together, these studies suggest that activation of Epac represents a parallel cAMP-dependent pathway that can inhibit reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories and reduce the ability of the cue to produce reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

  1. Physical Activity and Reported Barriers to Activity Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaabi, Juma; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Afandi, Bachar; Parkar, Hasratali; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the physical activity practice among type 2 diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients who participated in the outpatient clinics in Al-Ain District, during 2006. The patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and measurements of blood pressure, body mass index, body fat, abdominal circumference, glycemic control (HbA1c), and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: Of the 390 patients recruited, only 25% reported an increase in their physical activity levels following the diagnosis of diabetes, and only 3% reported physical activity levels that meet the recommended guidelines. More than half of the study subjects had uncontrolled hypertension (53%) and unacceptable lipid profiles; 71% had a high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 73% had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and 59% had hypertriglyceridemia. Forty-four percent were obese and a further 34% were overweight. Abdominal obesity was also common (59%). Only 32% had an acceptable glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: The physical activity practice of type 2 diabetic patients in the UAE is largely inadequate to meet the recommended level necessary to prevent or ameliorate diabetic complications. Interventions aiming at overcoming the barriers to physical activity are urgently needed. PMID:20043039

  2. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  3. Zero loss magnetic metamaterials using powered active unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2009-08-31

    We report the design and experimental measurement of a powered active magnetic metamaterial with tunable permeability. The unit cell is based on the combination of an embedded radiofrequency amplifier and a tunable phase shifter, which together control the response of the medium. The measurements show that a negative permeability metamaterial with zero loss or even gain can be achieved through an array of such metamaterial cells. This kind of active metamaterial can find use in applications that are performance limited due to material losses.

  4. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  5. Assembling optically active and nonactive metamaterials with chiral units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials constructed with chiral units can be either optically active or nonactive depending on the spatial configuration of the building blocks. For a class of chiral units, their effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which originate from the induced surface electric current upon illumination of incident light, can be collinear at the resonant frequency. This feature provides significant advantage in designing metamaterials. In this paper we concentrate on several examples. In one scenario, chiral units with opposite chiralities are used to construct the optically nonactive metamaterial structure. It turns out that with linearly polarized incident light, the pure electric or magnetic resonance (and accordingly negative permittivity or negative permeability can be selectively realized by tuning the polarization of incident light for 90°. Alternatively, units with the same chirality can be assembled as a chiral metamaterial by taking the advantage of the collinear induced electric and magnetic dipoles. It follows that for the circularly polarized incident light, negative refractive index can be realized. These examples demonstrate the unique approach to achieve certain optical properties by assembling chiral building blocks, which could be enlightening in designing metamaterials.

  6. Hippocampal unit activity during classical aversive and appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M; Disterhoft, J F; Olds, J

    1972-02-18

    Rats were trained with a tone being followed by either food or electric shock, on alternate days. Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from the dorsal hippocampus. The results indicate differentiation of the hippocampal system. Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. The hippocampus proper responds by augmentation in both situations. The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. These data cast light on the functions of the dorsal dentate-hippocampal connections and the hippocampus proper during aversive and appetitive conditioning.

  7. Orally administered fatty acids enhance anorectic potential but do not activate central fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Cristina; Bonacic, Kruno; Soengas, José L; Morais, Sofia

    2017-02-15

    Studies in fish have reported the presence and function of fatty acid (FA)-sensing systems comparable in many aspects to those known in mammals. Such studies were carried out in juvenile and adult fish, but the presence of FA-sensing systems and control of food intake have never been evaluated in early life stages, despite the importance of establishing when appetite regulation becomes functional in larval fish. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the possible effects of different specific FAs on neural FA-sensing systems and neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake in Senegalese sole post-larvae. To achieve this, we orally administered post-larvae with different solutions containing pure FA - oleate (OA), linoleate (LA), α-linolenate (ALA) or eicosapentaenoate (EPA) - and evaluated changes in mRNA abundance of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake and of transcripts related to putative FA-sensing systems, 3 and 6 h post-administration. The changes in neuropeptide gene expression were relatively consistent with the activation of anorectic pathways (enhanced cart4 and pomcb) and a decrease in orexigenic factors (npy) following intake of FA. Even though there were a few differences depending on the nature of the FA, the observed changes appear to suggest the existence of a putative anorectic response in post-larvae fish to the ingestion of all four tested FAs. However, changes in neuropeptides cannot be explained by the integration of metabolic information regarding FAs in circulation through FA-sensing mechanisms in the brain. Only the reduction in mRNA levels of the FA metabolism gene acc in OA-treated (6 h), ALA-treated (3 h) and EPA-treated (3 and 6 h) post-larvae could be indicative of the presence of a FA-sensing system, but most genes either were not significantly regulated (fat/cd36-lmp2, acly, kir6.x, srebp1c) or were affected in a way that was inconsistent with FA-sensing mechanisms (fat/cd36-pg4l, fas, cpt1.1, cpt1

  8. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  9. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  10. Recovering activity and illusion: the nephrology day care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remón Rodríguez, C; Quirós Ganga, P L; González-Outón, J; del Castillo Gámez, R; García Herrera, A L; Sánchez Márquez, M G

    2011-01-01

    Day Care Units are an alternative to hospital care that improves more efficiency. The Nephrology, by its technical characteristics, would be benefit greatly from further development of this care modality. The objectives of this study are to present the process we have developed the Nephrology Day Care Unit in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain). For this project we followed the Deming Management Method of Quality improvement, selecting opportunities, analyzing causes, select interventions, implement and monitor results. The intervention plan includes the following points: 1) Define the place of the Day Care Unit in the organization of our Clinical Department of Nephrology, 2) Define the Manual of organization, 3) Define the structural and equipment resources, 4) Define the Catalogue of services and procedures, 5) Standards of Care Processes. Protocols and Clinical Pathways; and 6) Information and Registration System. In the first 8 months we have been performed nearly 2000 procedures, which corresponds to an average of about 10 procedures per day, and essentially related to Hemodialysis in critical or acute patients, the Interventional Nephrology, the Clinical Nephrology and Peritoneal Dialysis. The development of the Nephrology Day Care Units can help to increase our autonomy, our presence in Hospitals, recover the progressive loss of clinical activity (diagnostic and therapeutic skills) in the past to the benefit of other Specialties. It also contributes to: Promote and develop the Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology; improve the clinical management of patients with Primary Health Level, promote the Health Education and Investigation, collaborate in the Resources Management, and finally, to make more attractive and exciting our Specialty, both for nephrologists to training specialists.

  11. Dog Walking and Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Ham, MS

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dog walking is a purposeful physical activity that may have health benefits for humans and canines. A descriptive epidemiology of the contribution of dog walking to physically active lifestyles among dog walkers in the United States has not been previously reported. Methods Data on youth and adults who reported walking for pet care trips (N = 1282 on the National Household Travel Survey 2001 were analyzed for number of trips, proportion walking a dog for at least 10 minutes on one trip, and accumulation of 30 minutes or more in 1 day of walks lasting at least 10 minutes. Results In 1 day, 58.9% of dog walkers took two or more walks, 80.2% took at least one walk of 10 minutes or more, and 42.3% accumulated 30 minutes or more from walks lasting at least 10 minutes each. There were no significant differences by sex, family income, or categories of urbanization. Conclusion Walking a dog may contribute to a physically active lifestyle and should be promoted as a strategy that fits within the framework set forth by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services for Physical Activity.

  12. Administered activities of {sup 18}F-FDG PET clinics in pediatrics patients in Brazil- preliminary study; Atividades administradas de {sup 18}F-FDG aos pacientes pediatricos nas clinicas PET no Brasil - estudo preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio Miri, E-mail: cmo@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sa, Lidia V. de, E-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the Brazilian clinical PET, with the purpose of investigating the activities administered to pediatric oncology patients and assess whether significant differences between the protocols adopted. In addition, this survey can cooperate to the suggestion diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in nuclear medicine. Although the methodology for delivering doses by most clinics be based on patient's weight, the results showed variations of up to 191, 6% between the activities administered in clinics, even for similar devices. The average value of the distribution of activities reported was 4.46 {+-} 1,6 MBq /kg. These data demonstrate the need for harmonization and optimization of {sup 18}F-FDG/PET procedures, as well as training for professionals involved in the clinical routine.

  13. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc -DMSA in Cuba; Optimizacion de actividad a administrar para estudios de gammagrafia renal con {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-07-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  14. A simple approach to calculate active power of electrosurgical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Regis Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Despite of more than a hundred years of electrosurgery, only a few electrosurgical equipment manufacturers have developed methods to regulate the active power delivered to the patient, usually around an arbitrary setpoint. In fact, no manufacturer has a method to measure the active power actually delivered to the load. Measuring the delivered power and computing it fast enough so as to avoid injury to the organic tissue is challenging. If voltage and current signals can be sampled in time and discretized in the frequency domain, a simple and very fast multiplication process can be used to determine the active power. Methods This paper presents an approach for measuring active power at the output power stage of electrosurgical units with mathematical shortcuts based on a simple multiplication procedure of discretized variables – frequency domain vectors – obtained through Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT applied on time-sampled voltage and current vectors. Results Comparative results between simulations and a practical experiment are presented – all being in accordance with the requirements of the applicable industry standards. Conclusion An analysis is presented comparing the active power analytically obtained through well-known voltage and current signals against a computational methodology based on vector manipulation using DFT only for time-to-frequency domain transformation. The greatest advantage of this method is to determine the active power of noisy and phased out signals with neither complex DFT or ordinary transform methodologies nor sophisticated computing techniques such as convolution. All results presented errors substantially lower than the thresholds defined by the applicable standards.

  15. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  16. Aeroelastic code development activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Designing wind turbines to be fatigue resistant and to have long lifetimes at minimal cost is a major goal of the federal wind program and the wind industry in the United States. To achieve this goal, we must be able to predict critical loads for a wide variety of different wind turbines operating under extreme conditions. The codes used for wind turbine dynamic analysis must be able to analyze a wide range of different wind turbine configurations as well as rapidly predict the loads due to turbulent wind inflow with a minimal set of degrees of freedom. Code development activities in the US have taken a two-pronged approach in order to satisfy both of these criteria: (1) development of a multi-purpose code which can be used to analyze a wide variety of wind turbine configurations without having to develop new equations of motion with each configuration change, and (2) development of specialized codes with minimal sets of specific degrees of freedom for analysis of two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines and calculation of machine loads due to turbulent inflow. In the first method we have adapted a commercial multi-body dynamics simulation package for wind turbine analysis. In the second approach we are developing specialized codes with limited degrees of freedom, usually specified in the modal domain. This paper will summarize progress to date in the development, validation, and application of these codes. (au) 13 refs.

  17. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better.

  18. Caffeine consumption among active duty United States Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Austin, Krista G; McGraw, Susan M; Leahy, Guy D; Lieberman, Harris R

    2017-07-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicated that 89% of Americans regularly consumed caffeinated products, but these data did not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine consumption prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with caffeine intake in active duty United States (US) Air Force personnel. Service members (N = 1787) stationed in the US and overseas completed a detailed questionnaire describing their intake of caffeine-containing products in addition to their demographic, lifestyle, and military characteristics. Overall, 84% reported consuming caffeinated products ≥1 time/week with caffeine consumers ingesting a mean ± standard error of 212 ± 9 mg/day (224 ± 11 mg/day for men, 180 ± 12 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated products (% users) were sodas (56%), coffee (45%), teas (36%), and energy drinks (27%). Multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine consumption (≥1 time/week) included older age, ethnicity other than black, tobacco use, less aerobic training, and less sleep; energy drink use was associated with male gender, younger age, tobacco use, and less sleep. Compared to NHANES data, the prevalence of caffeine consumption in Air Force personnel was similar but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors administered in combination with metformin result in an additive increase in the plasma concentration of active GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migoya, E M; Bergeron, R; Miller, J L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, of metformin, and of the combination of the two agents, on incretin hormone concentrations. Active and inactive (or total) incretin plasma concentrations, plasma DPP-4 activity, and preproglucagon (...

  20. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, and published in the "Catalog of Information on Water Data, Index to Water Quality Section, Edition 1970." This is one of four indexes, each of which is a separate section of the Catalog. Three of the indexes, "Index to Water-Quality Section," "Index to Surface-Water Section," and "Index to Ground-.Water Stations," contain information on data acquired on a recurrent basis at specific locations for a period of 3 years or more. The fourth section, "Index to Areal Investigations and Miscellaneous Activities," is concerned with specific projects or shorter-term data activities that involve field or laboratory measurements or observations not included in any other section of the Catalog. The Catalog is a record of activities throughout the country (and in some places along the international border between the United States and Canada) conducted by Federal and non-Federal agencies engaged in the acquisition of water data and who furnish such information for presentation in the Catalog. The Catalog itself is an outgrowth of an assignment to the Department of the Interior and in turn to the Geological Survey, by the Office of Management and Budget, through the medium of OMB Circular A-67. This Circular states in part that one of the assigned responsibilities will be maintenance of a "central catalog of information on...water data and on Federal activities being planned or conducted to acquire such data." As an extension of this activity, non-Federal agencies are solicited to participate in the program. In this report, information is presented by means of tables and illustrations preceded by brief explanations. It includes the agencies collecting the data, the number of stations located on surface and ground waters where temperature measurements are made, the distribution of stations by States and by the 21 regions of the Water Resources Council (WRC) (a Federal agency created in accordance with the Water Resources Planning Act of

  1. Reducing costs by clustering maintenance activities for multiple critical units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram; Klingenberg, Warse; Teunter, Ruud; Tinga, Tiedo

    Advances in sensor technology have enabled companies to make significant progress towards achieving condition-based maintenance (CBM). CBM provides the opportunity to perform maintenance actions more effectively. However, scheduling maintenance at the unit level may imply a high maintenance

  2. Behavioral activation-based guided self-help treatment administered through a smartphone application: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Kien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for cost-effective interventions for people suffering from major depressive disorders is essential. Behavioral activation is an intervention that can largely benefit from the use of new mobile technologies (for example smartphones. Therefore, developing smartphone-based behavioral activation interventions might be a way to develop cost-effective treatments for people suffering from major depressive disorders. The aim of this study will be to test the effects of a smartphone-delivered behavioral activation treatment. Methods The study will be a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 120 participants, with 60 patients in each group. The treatment group includes an 8-week smartphone-based behavioral activation intervention, with minimal therapist contact. The smartphone-based intervention consists of a web-based psychoeducation, and a smartphone application. There is also a back-end system where the therapist can see reports from the patients or activities being reported. In the attention control group, we will include brief online education and then recommend use of a smartphone application that is not directly aimed at depression (for example, ‘Effective meditation’. The duration of the control condition will also be 8 weeks. For ethical reasons we will give the participants in the control group access to the behavioral activation treatment following the 8-week treatment period. Discussions We believe that this trial has at least three important implications. First, we believe that smartphones can be integrated even further into society and therefore may serve an important role in health care. Second, while behavioral activation is a psychological treatment approach for which there is empirical support, the use of a smartphone application could serve as the therapist’s prolonged arm into the daily life of the patient. Third, as we have been doing trials on guided Internet treatment for more than 10

  3. Phase I/II trials of {sup 186}Re-HEDP in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: post-hoc analysis of the impact of administered activity and dosimetry on survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis-Bacelar, Ana M.; Chittenden, Sarah J.; Divoli, Antigoni; Flux, Glenn D. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Joint Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, David P.; Johnson, Bernadette [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); O' Sullivan, Joe M. [Queen' s University Belfast, Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Belfast (United Kingdom); McCready, V.R. [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Du, Yong [The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    To investigate the role of patient-specific dosimetry as a predictive marker of survival and as a potential tool for individualised molecular radiotherapy treatment planning of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer, and to assess whether higher administered levels of activity are associated with a survival benefit. Clinical data from 57 patients who received 2.5-5.1 GBq of {sup 186}Re-HEDP as part of NIH-funded phase I/II clinical trials were analysed. Whole-body and SPECT-based absorbed doses to the whole body and bone lesions were calculated for 22 patients receiving 5 GBq. The patient mean absorbed dose was defined as the mean of all bone lesion-absorbed doses in any given patient. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, Cox's proportional hazards model and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for overall survival (OS) and correlation analyses. A statistically significantly longer OS was associated with administered activities above 3.5 GBq in the 57 patients (20.1 vs 7.1 months, hazard ratio: 0.39, 95 % CI: 0.10-0.58, P = 0.002). A total of 379 bone lesions were identified in 22 patients. The mean of the patient mean absorbed dose was 19 (±6) Gy and the mean of the whole-body absorbed dose was 0.33 (±0.11) Gy for the 22 patients. The patient mean absorbed dose (r = 0.65, P = 0.001) and the whole-body absorbed dose (r = 0.63, P = 0.002) showed a positive correlation with disease volume. Significant differences in OS were observed for the univariate group analyses according to disease volume as measured from SPECT imaging of {sup 186}Re-HEDP (P = 0.03) and patient mean absorbed dose (P = 0.01), whilst only the disease volume remained significant in a multivariable analysis (P = 0.004). This study demonstrated that higher administered activities led to prolonged survival and that for a fixed administered activity, the whole-body and patient mean absorbed doses correlated with the extent of disease, which, in turn, correlated

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity and MIC quality control guidelines of RPR 106972 (RPR 112808/RPR106950): a novel orally administered streptogramin combination. The Quality Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, S D; Jones, R N; Johnson, D M

    1997-07-01

    RPR 106972 is a novel oral streptogramin combination with reported therapeutic potency against Gram-positive and certain respiratory tract pathogens. MICs for RPR 106972, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and seven comparison drugs were determined by the reference methods against 337 strains selected to define spectrum and potency. RPR 106972 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ranges of 0.12 to 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 to 2 micrograms/ml, respectively), and coagulase-negative staphylococci were also inhibited by RPR 106972 (MIC90, RPR 106972 was highly active with MIC results at RPR 106972 inhibited Corynebacterium jeikeium (MIC90, 0.5 microgram/ml). Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), and some Haemophilus influenzae (MIC50, 2 micrograms/ml). RPR 106972 and quinupristin/dalfopristin demonstrated little activity against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90s, 4 to 32 micrograms/ml) as compared to Enterococcus faecium (MIC90s, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml) and other Enterococcus ssp. (MIC90s, 1 microgram/ml). Studies to establish MIC quality-control guidelines indicated the following ranges: for E. faecalis ATCC 29212, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml; for S. aureus ATCC 29213, 0.25 to 1 microgram/ml; and for Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro activity of RPR 106972 against Gram-positive bacteria and selected Gram-negative respiratory organisms is promising and warrants additional studies of pharmacokinetics, and in vivo infection model dynamics.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone), a highly potent Nrf2 activator with a reversible covalent mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostov, Rumen V.; Knatko, Elena V.; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J. [Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zheng, Suqing [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Chemical Biology & Drug Discovery, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States); Huang, Jeffrey T.-J. [Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Honda, Tadashi [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Chemical Biology & Drug Discovery, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States); Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T., E-mail: a.dinkovakostova@dundee.ac.uk [Jacqui Wood Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205 (United States)

    2015-09-25

    The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone) TBE-31 is a highly potent cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action; its best-characterized target being Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), the cellular sensor for oxidants and electrophiles. TBE-31 reacts with cysteines of Keap1, impairing its ability to target nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) for degradation. Consequently, Nrf2 accumulates and orchestrates cytoprotective gene expression. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TBE-31 in C57BL/6 mice. After a single oral dose of 10 μmol/kg (∼200 nmol/animal), the concentration of TBE-31 in blood exhibited two peaks, at 22.3 nM and at 15.5 nM, 40 min and 4 h after dosing, respectively, as determined by a quantitative stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method. The AUC{sub 0–24h} was 195.5 h/nmol/l, the terminal elimination half-life was 10.2 h, and the k{sub el} was 0.068 h{sup −1}. To assess the pharmacodynamics of Nrf2 activation by TBE-31, we determined the enzyme activity of its prototypic target, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and found it elevated by 2.4- and 1.5-fold in liver and heart, respectively. Continuous feeding for 18 days with diet delivering the same daily doses of TBE-31 under conditions of concurrent treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine had a similar effect on Nrf2 activation without any indications of toxicity. Together with previous reports showing the cytoprotective effects of TBE-31 in animal models of carcinogenesis, our results demonstrate the high potency, efficacy and suitability for chronic administration of cysteine targeting reversible covalent drugs. - Highlights: • TBE-31 is a cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action. • After a single oral dose, the blood concentration of TBE-31 exhibits two peaks. • Oral TBE-31 is a potent activator of Nrf2-dependent enzymes in

  6. Managing Highway Maintenance: Maintenance Activities, Work Units, and Classifying Work, Unit 6, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit explains how maintenance work should be described, measured, and classified. It is designed for supervisors who need to know the mechanics of describing work. The format is a programed, self-instruction approach in which information is presented in progressive segments or…

  7. Evaluation of abatacept administered subcutaneously in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis: impact of withdrawal and reintroduction on immunogenicity, efficacy and safety (phase Iiib ALLOW study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaine, Jeffrey; Gladstein, Geoffrey; Strusberg, Ingrid; Robles, Manuel; Louw, Ingrid; Gujrathi, Sheila; Pappu, Ramesh; Delaet, Ingrid; Pans, Miranda; Ludivico, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of a temporary interruption in subcutaneous (SC) abatacept on immunogenicity, safety and efficacy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate in a phase III trial. Methods Following a 12-week open-label introduction (period I; intravenous abatacept loading dose and weekly fixed-dose SC abatacept 125 mg), patients were randomised 2:1 to double-blind SC placebo or SC abatacept for 12 weeks (period II). At the end of period II, patients receiving SC abatacept continued treatment and patients on placebo were reintroduced to SC abatacept (12-week open-label period III). The co-primary end points were ELISA-detected immunogenicity rate and safety at the end of period II. Efficacy was also monitored. Results Of 167 patients entering period I, 72% qualified for period II; during periods II and III, three patients discontinued treatment. Mean (SD) disease duration was 6.6 (6.5) years and Disease Activity Score 28 was 4.8 (0.8). The primary end point was met, with a non-significant increase in immunogenicity upon withdrawal (7/73 placebo vs 0/38 abatacept in period II; p=0.119) which was reversed upon reintroduction of SC abatacept (2/73 vs 1/38, end period III). Safety was comparable regardless of withdrawal, with no unexpected events upon reintroduction. Two patients experienced reactions at the SC injection site. On withdrawal, patients experienced slight worsening in efficacy which improved following reintroduction. Conclusions Overall immunogenicity to SC abatacept is low, consistent with intravenous abatacept, and is not significantly affected by a 3-month interruption and reintroduction. This stop–start schedule was well tolerated, with little impact on safety and efficacy. These are important considerations for the clinical use of SC abatacept. ClinicalTrials gov Identifier NCT00533897 PMID:21917824

  8. Palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas Case: Administer Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Vänttinen, Sakari

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas sähköisen taloushallinnon palveluntarjoajalle Administer Oy:lle. Työn päätavoitteena oli luoda palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas Administer Oy:n sisäiseen käyttöön. Perehdytysoppaan on tarkoitus tukea ja selkeyttää uusien palkanlaskijoiden työn aloittamista ja työtehtävien omaksumista. Perehdytysoppaan tavoitteena on lisäksi nopeuttaa ja helpottaa perehdyttäjien työtä perehdytysprosessin aikana. Työ keskittyy vain palkanlaskentapalveluun...

  9. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  10. [Effect of iontophoretically administered L-DOPA and ketamin on the impulse activity of the somatomotor cortex neurons during the conditioned placing movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorievin, V I

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between the neuronal dopamine and NMDA glutamate receptors were investigated by iontophoresis of L-DOPA and ketamin to 19 single cortical neurons of the somatomotor cortex neurons in cats performing the operant reflex. L-DOPA producing bursts of 8-12 impulses that led to the significant increase of the total number of spikes related to the movements and insignificant decreased the power or the average number of spikes in a conditional response. Effects of ketamin on impulse activity were multidirectional resulting in most cases (16 cells) in the significant increase of the response power and in other three cells producing the suppression of discharges related to movements. It is supposed that following the ketamin iontophoresis the facilitation of conditional responses was caused by the blocking of the NMDA-glutamatergic transmission to intracortical inhibitory neurons, whereas inhibition of conditioned responses of other cortical cells was produced by blocking NMDA-glutamatergic transmission to pyramidal neurons. The total number of spikes associated with the performance of movements following the joint application of L-DOPA and ketamin was significantly higher compared with the effect of the isolated L-DOPA iontophoresis. These data indicate the NMDA-glutamatergic transmission, which plays an important role in shaping the cortical neuron responses in the performance of behavioral reactions may be modulated by L-DOPA.

  11. 31 CFR 538.531 - Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. 538.531 Section 538.531 Money and Finance: Treasury....531 Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. (a)...

  12. Applying Modern Techniques and Carrying Out English .Extracurricular—— On the Model United Nations Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXiaoyu; WangJian

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the extracurricular activity of the Model United Nations in Northwestern Polyteehnical University (NPU) and it focuses on the application of the modem techniques in the activity and the pedagogical theories applied in it. An interview and questionnaire research will reveal the influence of the Model United Nations.

  13. Smart panel with active damping units. Implementation of decentralized control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cristóbal González; Paulitsch, Christoph; Gardonio, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    This paper contains the second part of a study on a smart panel with five decentralized velocity feedback control units using proof mass electrodynamic actuators [Gonzalez Diaz et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 886 (2008)]. The implementation of five decentralized control loops is analyzed, both theoretically and experimentally. The stability properties of the five decentralized control units have been assessed with the generalized Nyquist criterion by plotting the loci of the eigenvalues of the fully populated matrix of frequency response functions between the five error signals and five input signals to the amplifiers driving the actuators. The control performance properties have been assessed in terms of the spatially averaged response of the panel measured with a scanning laser vibrometer and the total sound power radiated measured in an anechoic room. The two analyses have shown that reductions of up to 10 dB in both vibration response and sound radiation are measured at low audio frequencies, below about 250 Hz.

  14. Motor unit activity after eccentric exercise and muscle damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, J G

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.

  15. Leveraging the Reserve Component: Associating Active and Reserve Aviation Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    capabilities, forces for large-scale conventional campaigns, balance stress across the Total Force, include a larger portion of American citizenry defending...Integration will also relieve stress on the Active Duty force and provide a cost-effective force multiplier. Finally, it will leverage the high...heavily.18 Other identified organizational challenges included cross- acculturation between active and reserve component career

  16. A review of recent activity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, H.L.; Petrie, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Either an overabundance or a deficiency of trace metals in the food chain can ultimately affect adversely the health of livestock and man. Increasing interest in the United States in the distribution of metals in the environment and in metal pollutants has led to widespread interdisciplinary research sponsored by governmental, private and academic groups concerning the availability of trace elements for absorption by plants and animals, and the effects of trace elements throughout the food chain. Effects on the environment of coal-fired power plants, the mining and processing of metals, asbestos, and phosphate, and the disposal of industrial and nuclear wastes have also received much attention in the past few years.-Authors

  17. Volume of activity and occupancy rate in intensive care units. Association with mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iapichino, G; Gattinoni, L; Radrizzani, D; Simini, B; Bertolini, G; Ferla, L; Mistraletti, G; Porta, F; Miranda, DR

    Objective. Mortality after many procedures is lower in centers where more procedures are done. It is controversial whether this is true for intensive care units, too. We examined the relationship between the volume of activity of intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality by a measure of

  18. [Motor unit activities of human masseter muscle during sustained voluntary contractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motor unit activities of the human masseter muscle during sustained the bite force at a constant level. The electrical activities recorded with surface and inserted electrodes were studied, with the following results. 1. The masseter muscle had the changes of activities in two phases as a contraction progressed. 2. In the first phase, surface EMG activities decreased and discharge frequency of motor units also decreased. 3. In the second phase, surface EMG activities increased and discharge frequency of motor units also increased. 4. In the first phase, it was suggested that the bite force was maintained by an increase in the twitch tension produced by a motor unit and that there were no recruitment of additional motor units. 5. In the second phase, it was indicated that the bite force was maintained by the recruitment of new motor units and an increase in the discharge frequency of motor units to compensate a loss of force resulted from the contractile element fatigue.

  19. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  20. Effects of Methamphetamine on Single Unit Activity in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhwa Jang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex changes in an animal model of schizophrenia, we recorded single unit activity in the medial prefrontal cortex of urethane-anesthetized and awake rats following methamphetamine (MA administration. Systemic MA injection (4 mg/kg, IP induced inconsistent changes, that is, both enhancement and reduction, in unit discharge rate, with a subset of neurons transiently (<30 min elevating their activities. The direction of firing rate change was poorly predicted by the mean firing rate or the degree of burst firing during the baseline period. Also, simultaneously recorded units showed opposite directions of firing rate change, indicating that recording location is a poor predictor of the direction of firing rate change. These results raise the possibility that systemic MA injection induces random bidirectional changes in prefrontal cortical unit activity, which may underlie some of MA-induced psychotic symptoms.

  1. Physical Activity Patterns of Acute Stroke Patients Managed in a Rehabilitation Focused Stroke Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya West

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Comprehensive stroke unit care, incorporating acute care and rehabilitation, may promote early physical activity after stroke. However, previous information regarding physical activity specific to the acute phase of stroke and the comprehensive stroke unit setting is limited to one stroke unit. This study describes the physical activity undertaken by patients within 14 days after stroke admitted to a comprehensive stroke unit. Methods. This study was a prospective observational study. Behavioural mapping was used to determine the proportion of the day spent in different activities. Therapist reports were used to determine the amount of formal therapy received on the day of observation. The timing of commencement of activity out of bed was obtained from the medical records. Results. On average, patients spent 45% (SD 25 of the day in some form of physical activity and received 58 (SD 34 minutes per day of physiotherapy and occupational therapy combined. Mean time to first mobilisation out of bed was 46 (SD 32 hours post-stroke. Conclusions. This study suggests that commencement of physical activity occurs earlier and physical activity is at a higher level early after stroke in this comprehensive stroke unit, when compared to studies of other acute stroke models of care.

  2. Intrinsic activation of human motoneurons: possible contribution to motor unit excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorassini, Monica; Yang, Jaynie F; Siu, Merek; Bennett, David J

    2002-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to estimate the contribution of intrinsic activation of human motoneurons (e.g., by plateau potentials) during voluntary and reflexive muscle contractions. Pairs of motor units were recorded from either the tibialis anterior or soleus muscle during three different conditions: 1) during a brief muscle vibration followed by a slow relaxation of a steady isometric contraction; 2) during a triangular isometric torque contraction; and 3) during passive sinusoidal muscle stretch superimposed on a steady isometric contraction. In each case, the firing rate of a tonically firing control motor unit was used as a measure of the effective synaptic excitation (i.e., synaptic drive) to a slightly higher-threshold test motor unit that was recruited and de-recruited during a contraction trial. The firing rate of the control unit was compared at recruitment and de-recruitment of the test unit. This was done to determine whether the estimated synaptic drive needed to recruit a motor unit was less than the amount needed to sustain firing as a result of an added depolarization produced from intrinsic sources. After test unit recruitment, the firing rate of the control unit could be decreased significantly (on average by 3.6 Hz from an initial recruitment rate of 9.8 Hz) before the test unit was de-recruited during a descending synaptic drive. Similar decreases in control unit rate occurred in all three experimental conditions. This represents a possible 40% reduction in the estimated synaptic drive needed to maintain firing of a motor unit compared with the estimated amount needed to recruit the unit initially. The firing rates of both the control and test units were modulated together in a highly parallel fashion, suggesting that the unit pairs were driven by common synaptic inputs. This tight correlation further validated the use of the control unit firing rate as a monitor of synaptic drive to the test motor unit. The estimates of intrinsically

  3. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: Large number of units

    CERN Document Server

    Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina; Kostić, Srđan; Burić, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    We study the activation process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the threshold-like behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly activation process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fix...

  4. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

    2012-07-01

    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles.

  5. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  8. Rectification of SEMG as a tool to demonstrate synchronous motor unit activity during vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebik, Oguz; Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Türker, Kemal S

    2013-04-01

    The use of surface electromyography (SEMG) in vibration studies is problematic since motion artifacts occupy the same frequency band with the SEMG signal containing information on synchronous motor unit activity. We hypothesize that using a harsher, 80-500 Hz band-pass filter and using rectification can help eliminate motion artifacts and provide a way to observe synchronous motor unit activity that is phase locked to vibration using SEMG recordings only. Multi Motor Unit (MMU) action potentials using intramuscular electrodes along with SEMG were recorded from the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) of six healthy male volunteers. Data were collected during whole body vibration, using vibration frequencies of 30 Hz, 35 Hz, 40 Hz or 50 Hz. A computer simulation was used to investigate the efficacy of filtering under different scenarios: with or without artifacts and/or motor unit synchronization. Our findings indicate that motor unit synchronization took place during WBV as verified by MMU recordings. A harsh filtering regimen along with rectification proved successful in demonstrating motor unit synchronization in SEMG recordings. Our findings were further supported by the results from the computer simulation, which indicated that filtering and rectification was efficient in discriminating motion artifacts from motor unit synchronization. We suggest that the proposed signal processing technique may provide a new methodology to evaluate the effects of vibration treatments using only SEMG. This is a major advantage, as this non-intrusive method is able to overcome movement artifacts and also indicate the synchronization of underlying motor units.

  9. The practice of active rest by workplace units improves personal relationships, mental health, and physical activity among workers

    OpenAIRE

    Michishita, Ryoma; Jiang, Ying; Ariyoshi, Daisuke; Yoshida, Marie; Moriyama, Hideko; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to clarify the effects of active rest, with a focus on the practice of short-time group exercise by workplace units, on personal relationships, mental health, physical activity, and work ability among workers. Methods: Fifty-nine white-collar workers (40 males and 19 females) performed our active rest (short-time exercise) program, which consists of warm-up, cognitive functional training, aerobic exercise, resistance training and cool-down for 10 minutes per day, ...

  10. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  11. Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....

  12. Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul;

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....

  13. The practice of active rest by workplace units improves personal relationships, mental health, and physical activity among workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Jiang, Ying; Ariyoshi, Daisuke; Yoshida, Marie; Moriyama, Hideko; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2017-03-28

    This study was designed to clarify the effects of active rest, with a focus on the practice of short-time group exercise by workplace units, on personal relationships, mental health, physical activity, and work ability among workers. Fifty-nine white-collar workers (40 males and 19 females) performed our active rest (short-time exercise) program, which consists of warm-up, cognitive functional training, aerobic exercise, resistance training and cool-down for 10 minutes per day, 3 times per week during their lunch breaks for 10 weeks. Participants from a workplace unit were randomly allocated to the intervention (five workplaces, n=29) or control groups (six workplaces, n=30). The participants' anthropometric measurements, and their Profile of Mood States (POMS) 2, Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), physical activity levels and Work Ability Index were examined at the baseline and after the 10-week intervention. After 10 weeks, physical activity levels, especially the time spent in moderate and vigorous intensity, increased in the intervention group (pchange in "vigor-activity" in POMS 2 (r=0.467, p=0.011). These results suggest that the practice of active rest by workplace units is important for improving personal relationships, mental health, and physical activity among workers.

  14. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Activity Status in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) was launched by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The Initiative aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities, creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications, and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has conducted a series of outreach activities and expert meetings bringing together participants from around the world. HSTI will also be implementing science and educational activities in relevant areas to raise the capacities, particularly in developing countries, in pursuit of the development goals of the United Nations, thus contributing to promoting the peaceful uses of outer space.

  15. A Pilot Project Demonstrating that Combat Medics Can Safely Administer Parenteral Medications in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Steven G; Cunningham, Cord W; Fisher, Andrew D; DeLorenzo, Robert A

    2017-08-15

    Introduction Select units in the military have improved combat medic training by integrating their functions into routine clinical care activities with measurable improvements in battlefield care. This level of integration is currently limited to special operations units. It is unknown if regular Army units and combat medics can emulate these successes. The goal of this project was to determine whether US Army combat medics can be integrated into routine emergency department (ED) clinical care, specifically medication administration. Project Design This was a quality assurance project that monitored training of combat medics to administer parenteral medications and to ensure patient safety. Combat medics were provided training that included direct supervision during medication administration. Once proficiency was demonstrated, combat medics would prepare the medications under direct supervision, followed by indirect supervision during administration. As part of the quality assurance and safety processes, combat medics were required to document all medication administrations, supervising provider, and unexpected adverse events. Additional quality assurance follow-up occurred via complete chart review by the project lead. Data During the project period, the combat medics administered the following medications: ketamine (n=13), morphine (n=8), ketorolac (n=7), fentanyl (n=5), ondansetron (n=4), and other (n=6). No adverse events or patient safety events were reported by the combat medics or discovered during the quality assurance process. In this limited case series, combat medics safely administered parenteral medications under indirect provider supervision. Future research is needed to further develop this training model for both the military and civilian setting. Schauer SG , Cunningham C W, Fisher AD , DeLorenzo RA . A pilot project demonstrating that combat medics can safely administer parenteral medications in the emergency department.

  16. Prevalence of Physical Activity in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Ainsworth, PhD, MPH

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The health benefits of regular cardiovascular exercise are well-known. Such exercise, however, has traditionally been defined as vigorous physical activity, such as jogging, swimming, or aerobic dance. Exercise of moderate intensity also promotes health, and many U.S. adults may be experiencing the health benefits of exercise through lifestyle activities of moderate intensity, such as yard work, housework, or walking for transportation. Until recently, public health surveillance systems have not included assessments of this type of physical activity, focusing on exercise of vigorous intensity. We used an enhanced surveillance tool to describe the prevalence and amount of both moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity among U.S. adults. Methods We analyzed data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based, random-digit–dialed telephone survey administered to U.S. adults aged 18 years and older (n = 82,834 men and 120,286 women. Physical activity behavior was assessed using questions designed to quantify the frequency of participation in moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activities performed during leisure time or for household chores and transportation. Results Overall, 45% of adults (48% of men and 43% of women were active at recommended levels during nonworking hours (at least 30 minutes five or more days per week in moderate-intensity activities, equivalent to brisk walking, or at least 20 minutes three or more days per week in vigorous activities, equivalent to running, heavy yard work, or aerobic dance. Less than 16% of adults (15% of men and 17% of women reported no moderate or vigorous activity in a usual week. Conclusion Integrating surveillance of lifestyle activities into national systems is possible, and doing so may provide a more accurate representation of the prevalence of recommended levels of physical activity. These results, however, suggest that the majority of U

  17. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Peggy Doyle

    2014-03-01

    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance.

  18. Teen Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and Childbearing among Latinos in the United States. Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    The Latino population is the fastest-growing major racial/ethnic group in the United States. By 2020, approximately 16 percent of the population will be Latino. This increase will be even more pronounced among teens. This fact sheet summarizes data from the National Vital Statistics Reports on reported sexual activity, pregnancy rates, and…

  19. What can Prudent Public Regulators Learn from the United Kingdom Government’s Nanotechnological Regulatory Activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorbeck-Jung, Bärbel

    2007-01-01

    This contribution discusses the United Kingdom (UK) government’s regulatory activities related to nanotechnological development. The central question is what other prudent public regulation can learn from the UK government’s regulatory strategy, its regulatory attitude and its large variety of regul

  20. Activities of Partisan Units within Donetsk District (October, 1941 – July, 1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Shkribitko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problem of partisan movement within Donetsk District in October, 1941 – July, 1942, describes combat activity of partisan units and warfare groups together with regular parts of the Red Army, focuses on partisans manpower and executive personnel training and arming, draws a conclusion, concerning high efficiency of partisan movement in Donbass.

  1. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  2. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    2002-01-01

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce incremen

  3. Synchronization of lower limb motor unit activity during walking in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Naja L; Hansen, S; Christensen, L. O. D.

    2001-01-01

    Synchronization of motor unit activity was investigated during treadmill walking (speed: 3-4 km/h) in 25 healthy human subjects. Recordings were made by pairs of wire electrodes inserted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and by pairs of surface electrodes placed over this muscle and a number...

  4. The regulation of visitors conduction activity in the State System os Brazilian Conservation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alves Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond to conserving biodiversity, conservation units must promote public use in contact with nature, assisting in increasing the economic resource of the area, approximating the society to nature and promoting their sustainable use. In Brazil, there are rules of the Ministry of Environment and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation that regulate the conduction of visitors in federal conservation units. Remains to know how the activity is regulated in other spheres of the National Conservation Units System. Therefore, this article purpose to identify the legal basis for the conduction of visitors in the state conservation units and their adherence to guidelines of the Ministry of Environment. The methodology consisted in documentary research and data survey of the legal basis, done through visits to websites and sending e-mails to state management agencies. Adherence to the guidelines of the regulations was done through the evaluation to fulfillment or not from them. Legal basis were found in 18.5% of federal units of Brazil, being that only Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro meet almost all of the guideline. The conclusion was that there is a long way to go forward as the creation of rules and procedures that simultaneously encourage visitation accompanied to qualified conductors and biodiversity conservation. It is recommended greater efforts of state management agencies for the development of these legal basis, promoting improvements in desenvolviment of the activity and awareness of society.

  5. Design and simulation of an activated sludge unit associated to a continuous reactor to remove heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Avila, J.S.; Nascimento, R.R. [Ambientec Consultoria Ltda., Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A software was developed to design and simulate an activated sludge unit associated to a new technology to remove heavy metals from wastewater. In this process, a continuous high efficiency biphasic reactor operates by using particles of activated peat in conjugation with the sludge unit. The results obtained may be useful to increase the efficiency or to reduce the design and operational costs involved in a activated sludge unit. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin against Contemporary Bacterial Pathogens from the United States and Europe, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.; Sader, H. S.; Rhomberg, P. R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The in vitro activities of delafloxacin and comparator antimicrobial agents against 6,485 bacterial isolates collected from medical centers in Europe and the United States in 2014 were tested. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and beta-hemolytic streptococci and had activity similar to that of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against certain members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, the broadest coverage of the tested pathogens (Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli) was observed with meropenem and tigecycline in both Europe and the United States. Delafloxacin was shown to be active against organisms that may be encountered in acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections. PMID:28167542

  7. 10 CFR 50.13 - Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United... destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities. An applicant for a license to... an enemy of the United States, whether a foreign government or other person, or (b) use or...

  8. Proposal for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual active microring optical integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhang, Xiaobei; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2008-11-01

    A novel approach for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual microring optical integrators is proposed and studied. The optical integrator, which can generate an optical step function for data storing, is synthesized using active media for loss compensation and a tunable phase shifter for data reading at any time. The input data into the memory is return-to-zero (RZ) signal, and the output data read from the memory is also RZ format with a narrower pulse width. An optical digital register based on the proposed optical memory unit is also investigated and simulated, which shows the potential for large scale data storage and serial-to-parallel data conversion. A great number of such memory units can be densely integrated on a photonic circuit for future large scale data storage and buffer.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF ACTIVITIES FOR CONTROLLING ADMINISTRATIVE AND ECONOMIC LIFE OF ARMY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlebnikov V. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we consider main objectives of system approach, as a research method of difficult objects, administrative activity supervision and analyses, components of which are processes of check and comparison of the actual results to the set parameters. The theory of decision-making focused on development and search of optimum results on various problems with a significant amount of communications and dependences, restrictions and versions of decisions has been developed. Optimization of economic activity supervision in a military unit and, in particular, competence of officials is considered. The use of assessment results of the subordinated divisions (services administrative activity on the basis of experts' opinion at adoption of administrative decisions. Introduction of mathematical methods in the monitoring procedure of administrative activity is analyzed. Ways to improve the organization of administrative activity supervision by means of expert assessment method on the basis of introduction of the settlement network Expert program are offered. This software product provides fast data input and an efficiency assessment of administrative activity in a division (service of a military unit. To judge the quantitative characteristics of administrative activity and evident representation of a change tendency of the observed values on the monitor screen of the automated workplace of the official, the information in the form of a tabular and graphic representation (charts is displayed

  10. PRE-AND POST-ACTIVITY STRETCHING PRACTICES OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Jennifer K; Bellar, David; Hoover, Donald L; Craig, Bruce W; Leitzelar, Brianna N; Wanless, Elizabeth A; Judge, Lawrence W

    2015-02-14

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of collegiate-certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States. Participants (n= 521) were provided an overview of the study, as well as a hyperlink to a web-based survey. The "Pre- and Post-Activity Practices in Athletic Training Questionnaire" consisted of demographic items and elements to measure knowledge and practices related to pre- and post-activity stretching routines. In previous studies, the survey demonstrated construct validity, α = .722. Pearson chi-square test was used to evaluate goodness of fit, and kappa was calculated to measure agreement between items. Only 32.2% of ATs recommended dynamic stretching (DS) to be performed pre-activity, whereas a larger percentage (42.2%) recommended a combination of static stretching (SS) and DS. ATs reported that only 28.0% of athletes are performing DS prior to activity. Conversely, 60.6% of collegiate ATs recommended SS post-exercise, and 61.0% of athletes agree and perform post-workout static stretching (κ=0.761, P<0.001). Collegiate ATs appear to under-utilize the current research evidence, which indicates that DS is more beneficial than SS when used pre-activity, and ATs continue to regularly incorporate SS in their pre-activity routines. However, there is evidence that collegiate ATs in the United States emphasize SS post-activity in a manner consistent with current research.

  11. Hurricane intensification along United States coast suppressed during active hurricane periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossin, James P

    2017-01-19

    The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.

  12. Hurricane intensification along United States coast suppressed during active hurricane periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossin, James P.

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.

  13. Comparison of total costs of administering calcium polycarbophil and psyllium mucilloid in an institutional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, R; Cimino, J A; Cooperman, J M; Kugel, R

    1990-01-01

    The total cost of administering calcium polycarbophil per unit dose (two tablets) was compared with that of administering psyllium mucilloid (one packet dissolved in 8 oz of water) in 20 elderly nursing-home residents. Times for printing labels, checking and initialing labels, gathering materials needed, and preparing and administering the medications were recorded during at least 50 observations in each treatment group. Total cost included nurses' and pharmacists' time, materials, and medications. Calcium polycarbophil doses were prepared and administered more quickly (mean, 49.5 sec) than psyllium mucilloid (105.3 sec). The mean cost of preparing and administering a unit dose was 28.2 for calcium polycarbophil tablets and 59.9 for psyllium mucilloid. The results suggest that the use of calcium polycarbophil tablets would save time and money in institutions in which laxatives are frequently administered.

  14. Age independent and position-dependent alterations in motor unit activity of the biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, B; Edwards, D L; Jakobi, J M

    2010-09-01

    In the biceps brachii, age-related differences in synaptic excitability and muscle architecture may affect motor unit (MU) activity differently depending on the position of the forearm. It was hypothesised that as a result of these age-related differences, greater changes in MU activity would accompany a change in forearm position in old when compared with young men. Six young (22 +/- 3 years) and six old (84 +/- 3 years) men maintained isometric elbow flexion at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during changes in forearm position. Forty-nine MUs in the short (SBB) and long (LBB) heads of the biceps brachii were followed. Motor unit recruitment and de-recruitment thresholds, motor unit discharge rates (MUDRs), and MU discharge variability were measured. Although an age-related decrease in MU recruitment thresholds, and increase in MU discharge variability was evident, changes in forearm position influenced MUDRs similarly in young and old men (P = 0.27). Motor unit recruitment thresholds of the SBB were highest in the pronated position (8.2 +/- 2.9 %MVC), whereas in the LBB they were highest in the supinated position (8.6 +/- 2.0 %MVC). Motor unit discharge rates of the LBB did not change with forearm position. In the SBB, MUDRs were highest when the forearm was supinated, and also greater when compared with the LBB in this position. No position-dependent changes were observed for MU discharge variability in the LBB, but the SBB exhibited greatest MU discharge variability in the pronated position. The results suggest that MU activity is modulated following a change in forearm position, but the response is similar in young and old adults.

  15. Coherence of EMG activity and single motor unit discharge patterns in human rhythmical force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Vaillancourt, David E; Larsson, Lars; Newell, Karl M

    2005-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of the motor neuronal pool as a function of task dynamics. Specifically, we investigated the effects of task frequency on the single motor unit discharge pattern, electromyogram (EMG) activity and effector force output. Myoelectric activity and effector force were recorded while young adults isometrically abducted their first dorsal interosseus at five sinusoidal targets (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz) and at two force levels (5% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). Individual motor unit spike trains were isolated from the EMG. Auto-spectral and coherence analyses were performed on the force output, EMG and motor unit spike trains. The frequency of maximal coherence between the EMG and force output closely corresponded to the target frequency in all conditions. There was a broadband distribution of power with multiple peaks in the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 0.5 Hz and 1 Hz targets. However, the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz targets were characterized by an increasingly narrower band of activity with one dominant peak that closely corresponded to the target. There is high coherence between EMG output and target force frequency, but the relative contribution of the fast and slow neuromuscular bands are differentially influenced by the task frequency. The rhythmical organization of neuromuscular output in the 0.5 Hz task is relatively broadband and similar to that shown previously for constant level force output. The frequency structure of neuromuscular organization becomes increasingly more narrowband as the frequency of the target increases (2-4 Hz). The modulation of the motor neuronal pool is adaptive and depends on the relative contribution of feedback and feedforward control processes, which are driven by the task demands.

  16. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....

  17. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State...

  18. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  19. Exercise and limitations in physical activity levels among new dialysis patients in the United States: an epidemiologic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies of physical activity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of physical activity among new dialysis patients in the United States.

  20. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Kinser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities (HD continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP, can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.

  1. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2015-05-17

    Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran.‎ This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS.‎ The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department.

  2. The Removal of Composite Reactive Dye from Dyeing Unit Effluent Using Sewage Sludge Derived Activated Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY, Sajjala SREEDHAR

    2006-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from dried municipal sewage sludge and batch mode adsorption experiments were conducted to study its potential to remove composite reactive dye from dyeing unit effluent. Adsorption parameters for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined and the effects of effluent pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. The toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP) was used to assess the acceptability of sewage ...

  3. Activity-based costing in radiology. Application in a pediatric radiological unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, J; Suramo, I; Brommels, M; Tolppanen, E M; Koivukangas, P; Lanning, P; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, G

    2000-03-01

    To get an informative and detailed picture of the resource utilization in a radiology department in order to support its pricing and management. A system based mainly on the theoretical foundations of activity-based costing (ABC) was designed, tested and compared with conventional costing. The study was performed at the Pediatric Unit of the Department of Radiology, Oulu University Hospital. The material consisted of all the 7,452 radiological procedures done in the unit during the first half of 1994, when both methods of costing where in use. Detailed cost data were obtained from the hospital financial and personnel systems and then related to activity data captured in the radiology information system. The allocation of overhead costs was greatly reduced by the introduction of ABC compared to conventional costing. The overhead cost as a percentage of total costs dropped to one-fourth of total costs, from 57% to 16%. The change of unit costs of radiological procedures varied from -42% to +82%. Costing is much more detailed and precise, and the percentage of unspecified allocated overhead costs diminishes drastically when ABC is used. The new information enhances effective departmental management, as the whole process of radiological procedures is identifiable by single activities, amenable to corrective actions and process improvement.

  4. Properties of human motor units after prolonged activity at a constant firing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K V B; Edwards, S C; Van Tongeren, C; Bawa, P

    2004-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine if there are changes in the intrinsic properties of spinal motoneurons after prolonged submaximal contractions. To do this, we assessed whether or not the synaptic drive to motoneurons needs to increase in order to maintain a constant firing rate of a motor unit. Recruitment of new units and an increase in total electromyographic (EMG) activity of the muscle of interest were taken as estimates of an increase in synaptic drive. Subjects were asked to maintain a constant firing rate of a clearly identifiable (targeted) motor unit from the first dorsal interosseous muscle for approximately 10 min, while surface EMG and force were recorded simultaneously. For the 60 units studied, the duration of the constant-firing-rate period ranged from 73 to 1,140 s (448 +/- 227 s; mean +/- SD). There was a significant increase ( t-test, prate suggesting an increase in the net excitatory input to the motoneuron pool. Changes occurring simultaneously in other parameters, namely, variability in interspike interval, magnitude of force fluctuations, the duration of motor unit action potentials, and the median power frequency of surface EMG were also computed. The firing rates of 16 concurrently firing motoneurons, not controlled by the subject, remained constant. The key finding of this study is that after prolonged activity, a motoneuron requires a stronger excitatory input to maintain its firing rate. Additional results are indicative of significant changes in the characteristics of the synaptic inputs, changes at the neuromuscular junction (both pre- and postsynaptic regions) and the sarcolemma.

  5. Cutaneous responsiveness of rat single motor units activated by natural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, R; Herrero, J F

    1997-05-16

    Recordings of withdrawal reflexes have been used extensively to study sensory-motor integration and processing of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. We describe here a new technique for the manufacture of improved EMG electrodes that permit the characterisation of the physiological properties of single motor units as well as the easy location of the muscles studied. Individual motor units from three rat hind-limb muscles: peroneus longus, tibialis cranialis and extensor digitorum longus, were activated by thermal and mechanical stimulation applied to their cutaneous receptive fields, which were located mainly on the 4th and 5th toes. Thresholds for thermal and mechanical (Von Frey hairs) stimulation were similar in the three muscles studied, with a value of 44 +/- 1 degrees C and 100 mN (median), respectively. However, when a mechanical pincher with a stimulus area of 14 mm2 was used, the values seen were similar for peroneus longus and tibialis cranialis (342 +/- 23 and 330 +/- 71 mN, respectively, mean +/- S.E.M.) but lower for extensor digitorum longus (220 +/- 37 mN, mean +/- S.E.M.). The firing rate of the single motor units was similar for all types of stimulation at threshold intensity, and showed a linear relationship with stimulus intensity, except for units of the tibialis cranialis, which showed a greater degree of adaptation.

  6. THE EXCLUSION OF ILEGALLY ADMINISTERED EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Emanuela IONIŢĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both judicial practice and specialized texts have brought up the problem of what the punishment for breaking the legal provisions in the activity of evidence administration is, if a matter of fact had been presented by means that are not legally specified or if a piece of evidence was administered by means that are legally specified, but with the violation of legal provisions. Romania has adhered to the most important international juridical instruments adopted in the sphere of human rights by the adoption, modification or completion of internal legislation. As such, for the first time in Romanian criminal procedural legislation, a sanction for the exclusion of evidence has been introduced, as a corollary for the principle of legality and of loyalty in administering evidence. The New Criminal Procedure Code provides the sanction of exclusion as well, but this time the legislator didn’t resume his or herself to a mere conceptual regulation of the sanction, providing both a specific invalidation procedure as well as procedural solutions. In the New Criminal Procedure Code it is shown that in the sphere of evidence-showing a set of rules has been introduced that establishes the principle of loyalty in the obtainment of evidence. These rules, that provide the sanction of excluding evidence obtained through illegal or unloyal means, will determined the growth of professionalism in the ranks of the judiciary bodies on the subject of obtaining evidence and, on the other hand, will guarantee the firm upholding of the parties rights to a fair trial. “Truth, like all other good things, may be loved unwisely – may be pursued too keenly – may cost too much…” Lord Justice Sir James Lewis Knight-Bruce ”It is a deeply ingrained value in our democratic system that the ends do not justify the means. In particular, evidence or convictions may, at times, be obtained at too high a price”. – Antonio Lamer Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

  7. [Analysis of cost and efficiency of a medical nursing unit using time-driven activity-based costing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi

    2011-08-01

    Time-driven activity-based costing was applied to analyze the nursing activity cost and efficiency of a medical unit. Data were collected at a medical unit of a general hospital. Nursing activities were measured using a nursing activities inventory and classified as 6 domains using Easley-Storfjell Instrument. Descriptive statistics were used to identify general characteristics of the unit, nursing activities and activity time, and stochastic frontier model was adopted to estimate true activity time. The average efficiency of the medical unit using theoretical resource capacity was 77%, however the efficiency using practical resource capacity was 96%. According to these results, the portion of non-added value time was estimated 23% and 4% each. The sums of total nursing activity costs were estimated 109,860,977 won in traditional activity-based costing and 84,427,126 won in time-driven activity-based costing. The difference in the two cost calculating methods was 25,433,851 won. These results indicate that the time-driven activity-based costing provides useful and more realistic information about the efficiency of unit operation compared to traditional activity-based costing. So time-driven activity-based costing is recommended as a performance evaluation framework for nursing departments based on cost management.

  8. Renal and hepatic histopathology of intraperitoneally administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... The biochemistry and histopathology of intraperitoneally administered potassium ... and necrosis of crops in birds. ..... The stressful behavior of respiratory impairment .... specific bile acid transport system) which is responsible.

  9. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Motor unit activity during isometric and concentric-eccentric contractions of the human first dorsal interosseus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J N; Fuglevand, A J; Walsh, M L; Bigland-Ritchie, B

    1995-08-01

    1. Motor unit activity was recorded with intramuscular fine wire electrodes during isometric, concentric, and eccentric activity in the human first dorsal interosseus muscle. Twenty-one units from 11 subjects were sampled. 2. During isotonic cycles of shortening and lengthening, 18 of 21 units were recruited during the concentric phase, increased their discharge rates as the concentric movement progressed, then decreased their discharge rate during the eccentric phase, and were derecruited. 3. A different pattern of recruitment was observed in recordings from three units. These units were recruited during the eccentric phase, at a time when other units were decreasing their discharge rate or being derecruited. In two of the units selectively recruited during the eccentric phase, it was possible to determine their isometric thresholds, which were higher than those of units exhibiting the more common pattern of recruitment. 4. For two of the three units exhibiting selective recruitment during eccentric contraction, the unit was recorded simultaneously with different pairs of recording wires separated by 5-10 mm. Each discharge of these units was detected by both electrodes, making it unlikely that movement artifact was responsible for the initiation or cessation of discharge. 5. The recruitment patterns observed suggest that changes in the type or distribution of synaptic inputs to motoneurons during movement can, in some instances, override pre- and postsynaptic factors that shape recruitment order in isometric conditions.

  11. Design, Synthesis, Activity and Docking Study of Sorafenib Analogs Bearing Sulfonylurea Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunjiang; Wang, Min; Tang, Qidong; Luo, Rong; Chen, Le; Zheng, Pengwu; Zhu, Wufu

    2015-10-23

    Two series of novel sorafenib analogs containing a sulfonylurea unit were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, MS spectrum and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against A549, Hela, MCF-7, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Some of the compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity, especially compounds 1-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6c) and 1-(4-bromophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6f) with the IC50 values against four cancer cell lines ranging from 16.54±1.22 to 63.92±1.81 μM, respectively. Inhibitory rates against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR) kinase at 10 μM of target compounds were further carried out in this paper in order to investigate the target of these compounds. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and docking studies indicated that the sulfonylurea unit was important to these kinds of compounds. None of the substitutions in the phenoxy group and small halogen atoms such as 2,4-difluoro substitution of the aryl group contributed to the activity. The results suggested that sulfonylurea sorafenib analogs are worthy of further study.

  12. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance.

  13. Intensified dust storm activity and Valley fever infection in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Daniel Q.; Wang, Julian X. L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Lei, Hang; Wang, Binyu

    2017-05-01

    Climate models have consistently projected a drying trend in the southwestern United States, aiding speculation of increasing dust storms in this region. Long-term climatology is essential to documenting the dust trend and its response to climate variability. We have reconstructed long-term dust climatology in the western United States, based on a comprehensive dust identification method and continuous aerosol observations from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. We report here direct evidence of rapid intensification of dust storm activity over American deserts in the past decades (1988-2011), in contrast to reported decreasing trends in Asia and Africa. The frequency of windblown dust storms has increased 240% from 1990s to 2000s. This dust trend is associated with large-scale variations of sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean, with the strongest correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We further investigate the relationship between dust and Valley fever, a fast-rising infectious disease caused by inhaling soil-dwelling fungus (Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii) in the southwestern United States. The frequency of dust storms is found to be correlated with Valley fever incidences, with a coefficient (r) comparable to or stronger than that with other factors believed to control the disease in two endemic centers (Maricopa and Pima County, Arizona).

  14. Activities of the Climate Forecast Unit (CFU) on regional decadal prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemas, V.; Prodhomme, C.; Doblas-Reyes, F.; Volpi, D.; Caron, L. P.; Davis, M.; Menegoz, M.; Saurral, R. I.; Bellprat, O.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Forecasting Unit (CFU) is a research unit devoted to develop climate forecast systems to contribute to the creation of climate services that aims to 1) develop climate forecast systems and prediction methodologies, 2) investigate the potential sources of skill and understand the limitation of state-of-the-art forecast systems, 3) formulate reliable climate forecasts that meet specific user needs and 4) contribute to the development of climate services. This presentation will provide an overview of the latest results of this research unit in the field of regional decadal prediction focusing on 1) an assessment of the relative merits of the full-field and the anomaly initialisation techniques, 2) a description of the forecast quality of North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and South Pacific climate, 3) an evaluation of the impact of volcanic aerosol prescription during decadal forecasts, and 4) the strategy for the development of a climate service to ensure that forecasts are both useful and action-oriented. Results from several European projects, SPECS, PREFACE and EUPORIAS, will be used to illustrate these findings.

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  16. Prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity by race/ethnicity--United States, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-06

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables and participation in regular physical activity are associated with a lower risk for several chronic diseases and conditions. The National Cholesterol Education Program and the American Cancer Society both emphasize lifestyle modifications that include diet and physical activity to reduce disease risk. These are also two of the strategies implemented by states participating in CDC's Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases. To examine the combined prevalence of 1) consumption of fruits and vegetables five or more times per day and 2) regular physical activity among U.S. adults by race/ethnicity, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the combined prevalence of these two behavioral strategies was higher among men of multiple/other races (16.5%) compared with non-Hispanic white men (12.6%). In addition, only 12.6% of non-Hispanic black women and 14.8% of Hispanic women, compared with 17.4% of non-Hispanic white women, engaged in these two behavioral strategies. These results underscore the need to promote diets high in fruits and vegetables and regular physical activity among all populations in the United States and among racial and ethnic minority communities in particular.

  17. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd W.

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  18. Tristable and multiple bistable activity in complex random binary networks of two-state units

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Simon; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    We study complex networks of stochastic two-state units. Our aim is to model discrete stochastic excitable dynamics with a rest and an excited state. These two states are assumed to possess different waiting time distributions. The rest state is treated as an activation process with an exponentially distributed life time, whereas the latter in the excited state shall have a constant mean which may originate from any distribution. The activation rate of any single unit is determined by its neighbors according to a random complex network structure. In order to treat this problem in an analytical way, we use a heterogeneous mean-field approximation yielding a set of equations general valid for uncorrelated random networks. Based on this derivation we focus on random binary networks where the network is solely comprised of nodes with either of two degrees. The ratio between the two degrees is shown to be a crucial parameter. Dependent on the composition of the network the steady states show the usual transition f...

  19. Best Practices for Administering Concept Inventories

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2014-01-01

    There are a plethora of concept inventories in physics available for faculty to use, but it is not always clear exactly why you would use these tests, or how you should administer them and interpret the results. These multiple-choice research-based tests about physics concepts are valuable because they allow for standardized comparisons among institutions, instructors, or over time. In order for these comparisons to be meaningful, you should use best practices for administering the tests. Here we discuss best practices for administering concept inventories including background on these types of tests and specifics of how to give them online or in-class. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of different incentives you could give your students, interpretation of scores and common concerns you may have about using concept inventories.

  20. 12 CFR 347.113 - Restrictions applicable to activities by a foreign organization in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign organization engages in the United States are incidental to its international or foreign business... representative office. (2) The following activities are incidental to international or foreign business: (i... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING §...

  1. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L.; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M.; Morton, Douglas C.; Collatz, G. James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  2. Hippocampal and Cerebellar Single-Unit Activity During Delay and Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John T.; Arenos, Jeremy D.

    2007-01-01

    In delay eyeblink conditioning, the CS overlaps with the US and only a brainstem-cerebellar circuit is necessary for learning. In trace eyeblink conditioning, the CS ends before the US is delivered and several forebrain structures, including the hippocampus, are required for learning, in addition to a brainstem-cerebellar circuit. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between CS onset and US onset is perhaps the most important factor in classical conditioning, but studies comparing delay and trace conditioning have typically not matched these procedures in this crucial factor, so it is often difficult to determine whether results are due to differences between delay and trace or to differences in ISI. In the current study, we employed a 580-ms CS-US interval for both delay and trace conditioning and compared hippocampal CA1 activity and cerebellar interpositus nucleus activity in order to determine whether a unique signature of trace conditioning exists in patterns of single-unit activity in either structure. Long-Evans rats were chronically implanted in either CA1 or interpositus with microwire electrodes and underwent either delay eyeblink conditioning, or trace eyeblink conditioning with a 300-ms trace period between CS offset and US onset. On trials with a CR in delay conditioning, CA1 pyramidal cells showed increases in activation (relative to a pre-CS baseline) during the CS-US period in sessions 1-4 that was attenuated by sessions 5-6. In contrast, on trials with a CR in trace conditioning, CA1 pyramidal cells did not show increases in activation during the CS-US period until sessions 5-6. In sessions 5-6, increases in activation were present only to the CS and not during the trace period. For rats with interpositus electrodes, activation of interpositus neurons on CR trials was present in all sessions in both delay and trace conditioning. However, activation was greater in trace compared to delay conditioning in the first half of the CS-US interval (during the

  3. [Community vegetable gardens as a health promotion activity: an experience in Primary Healthcare Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Christiane Gasparini Araújo; Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Ribeiro, Silvana Maria; Salandini, Marcia Fernanda de Sousa; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2015-10-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is being practiced in different settings, contributing to the improvement of health in communities and healthier environments. In order to identify the meanings and implications of the practice of UPA in Primary Healthcare Units (PHU) as an activity of health promotion (HP), and to what extent its therapeutic dimension characterizes it as an activity aligned with complementary and integrative practices (CIP), a qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in Embu das Artes, State of São Paulo. From the analysis, the following main themes arose: health concept, health outcomes, the return to traditional practices and habits and the reorientation of health services. It was possible to identify the close link between the cultivation of vegetable gardens and HP guidelines and fields of action, such as creating healthier environments, boosting community actions, developing personal skills, stimulating autonomy and empowerment and demands for the reorientation of services. The garden activities, set up in PHU areas, proved to be an implementation strategy of CIP. The conclusion reached is that vegetable gardening activities in community gardens are seen to be health promotion practices that integrate key elements of CIP.

  4. Acute two-photon imaging of the neurovascular unit in the cortex of active mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cam Ha T.; Gordon, Grant R.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo two-photon scanning fluorescence imaging is a powerful technique to observe physiological processes from the millimeter to the micron scale in the intact animal. In neuroscience research, a common approach is to install an acute cranial window and head bar to explore neocortical function under anesthesia before inflammation peaks from the surgery. However, there are few detailed acute protocols for head-restrained and fully awake animal imaging of the neurovascular unit during activity. This is because acutely performed awake experiments are typically untenable when the animal is naïve to the imaging apparatus. Here we detail a method that achieves acute, deep-tissue two-photon imaging of neocortical astrocytes and microvasculature in behaving mice. A week prior to experimentation, implantation of the head bar alone allows mice to train for head-immobilization on an easy-to-learn air-supported ball treadmill. Following just two brief familiarization sessions to the treadmill on separate days, an acute cranial window can subsequently be installed for immediate imaging. We demonstrate how running and whisking data can be captured simultaneously with two-photon fluorescence signals with acceptable movement artifacts during active motion. We also show possible applications of this technique by (1) monitoring dynamic changes to microvascular diameter and red blood cells in response to vibrissa sensory stimulation, (2) examining responses of the cerebral microcirculation to the systemic delivery of pharmacological agents using a tail artery cannula during awake imaging, and (3) measuring Ca2+ signals from synthetic and genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in astrocytes. This method will facilitate acute two-photon fluorescence imaging in awake, active mice and help link cellular events within the neurovascular unit to behavior. PMID:25698926

  5. Acute two-photon imaging of the neurovascular unit in the cortex of active mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cam Ha Thai Tran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In vivo two-photon scanning fluorescence imaging is a powerful technique to observe physiological processes from the millimeter to the micron scale in the intact animal. In neuroscience research, a common approach is to install an acute cranial window and head bar to explore neocortical function under anesthesia before inflammation peaks from the surgery. However, there are few detailed acute protocols for head-restrained and fully awake animal imaging of the neurovascular unit during activity. This is because acutely performed awake experiments are typically untenable when the animal is naïve to the imaging apparatus. Here we detail a protocol that achieves acute, deep-tissue two-photon imaging of neocortical astrocytes and microvasculature in behaving mice. A week prior to experimentation, implantation of the head bar alone allows mice to train for head-immobilization on an easy-to-learn air-supported ball treadmill. Following just two brief familiarization sessions to the treadmill on separate days, an acute cranial window can subsequently be installed for immediate imaging. We demonstrate how running and whisking data can be captured simultaneously with two-photon fluorescence signals with acceptable movement artifacts during active motion. We also show possible applications of this technique by 1 monitoring dynamic changes to microvascular diameter and red blood cells movements in response to vibrissa sensory stimulation, 2 examining responses of the cerebral microcirculation to the systemic delivery of pharmacological agents using a tail artery cannula during awake imaging, and 3 measuring Ca2+ signals from synthetic and genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in astrocytes. This method will facilitate acute two-photon fluorescence imaging in awake, active mice and help link cellular events within the neurovascular unit to behaviour.

  6. Volume of activity and occupancy rate in intensive care units. Association with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Gaetano; Gattinoni, Luciano; Radrizzani, Danilo; Simini, Bruno; Bertolini, Guido; Ferla, Luca; Mistraletti, Giovanni; Porta, Francesca; Miranda, Dinis R

    2004-02-01

    Mortality after many procedures is lower in centers where more procedures are done. It is controversial whether this is true for intensive care units, too. We examined the relationship between the volume of activity of intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality by a measure of risk-adjusted volume of activity specific for ICUs. Prospective, multicenter, observational study. Eighty-nine ICUs in 12 European countries. During a 4-month study period, 12,615 patients were enrolled. Demographic and clinical statistics, severity at admission and a score of nursing complexity and workload were collected. Total volume of activity was defined as the number of patients admitted per bed per year, high-risk volume as the number of high-risk patients admitted per bed per year (selected combining of length of stay and severity of illness). A multi-step risk-adjustment process was planned. ICU volume corresponding both to overall [odds ratio (OR) 0.966] and 3,838 high-risk (OR 0.830) patients was negatively correlated with mortality. Relative mortality decreased by 3.4 and 17.0% for every five extra patients treated per bed per year in overall volume and high-risk volume, respectively. A direct relationship was found between mortality and the ICU occupancy rate (OR 1.324 and 1.351, respectively). Intensive care patients, whatever their level of risk, are best treated where more high-risk patients are treated. Moreover, the higher the ICU occupancy rate, the higher is the mortality.

  7. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  8. Unit Activity of Hippocampal Interneurons before Spontaneous Seizures in an Animal Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2015-04-22

    Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristics during theta and sharp waves suggested that a parvalbumin-positive basket cell and putative bistratified cells, but not oriens lacunosum moleculare cells, were activated preictally. Preictal changes occurred much earlier than those described by most previous in vitro studies. Preictal activation of interneurons began earliest (>4 min before seizure onset), increased most, was most prevalent in the subiculum, and was minimal in CA3. Preictal inactivation of interneurons was most common in CA1 (27% of interneurons) and included a putative ivy cell and parvalbumin-positive basket cell. Increased or decreased preictal activity correlated with whether interneurons fired faster or slower, respectively, during theta activity. Theta waves were more likely to occur before seizure onset, and increased preictal firing of subicular interneurons correlated with theta activity. Preictal changes by other hippocampal interneurons were largely independent of theta waves. Within seconds of seizure onset, many interneurons displayed a brief pause in firing and a later, longer drop that was associated with reduced action potential amplitude. These findings suggest that many interneurons inactivate during seizures, most increase their activity preictally, but some fail to do so at the critical time before seizure onset.

  9. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  10. Nursing activities score (NAS): a proposal for practical application in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leilane Andrade; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Cardoso Sousa, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    For over 30 years in an attempt to demonstrate the cost-benefit ratio of the intensive care unit (ICU) a variety of tools have been developed to measure not only the severity of illness of the patient but also to capture the true cost of nursing workload. In this context, the nursing activities score (NAS) was developed as a result of modifications to the therapeutic interventions scoring system-28 (TISS-28). The NAS is a tool to measure nursing workload ICU and it has been shown to be twice as effective in measuring how nurses spend their time caring for critically ill patients than the TISS-28. This paper discuss the introduction of the NAS into everyday use in an intensive care unit in Brazil and highlights the challenges of standardisation of operational definitions, training requirements and accurate completion of the documentation when using such a tool. The rationale and steps undertaken to achieve this are outlined and the benefits of such a process are highlighted.

  11. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  12. Modeling and experimental testing activity of the Voltage Optimization Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Hu, Junjie; Marinelli, Mattia

    cost investments of to the system operator, thus a proactive tap algorithm is developed and tested in this project, relying on local measurements. In addition, we also compared the experimental result with the one simulated in the DigSilent PowerFactory software environment (the software used...... the voltage problems in presence of photovoltaic distributed generation, using Bistrup distribution grid (DONG Energy) as a test case. This second report presents the experimental results of the testing activity of the Voltage Optimization Unit (VOU), i.e., a distribution transformer with single-phase on......-load tap changers (OLTC) in an experimental low voltage grid. Both the transformer internal behavior and its effective operations under different unbalanced bidirectional power flow conditions have been investigated. Moreover, different control logics are analyzed based on their control objectives and control...

  13. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  14. Substantia nigra dopaminergic unit activity in behaving cats: effect of arousal on spontaneous discharge and sensory evoked activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, R E; Jacobs, B L

    1985-12-30

    Single-unit activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was recorded in freely moving cats during a variety of conditions designed to shed light on the hypotheses that these neurons are involved in the regulation of arousal-stress and/or selective attention. Both aversive and non-aversive arousing experimental conditions were used, including tail pinch, immersion of feet in ice-water, white noise, inaccessible food, feeding, grooming, inaccessible rats, and somatosensory stimulation. None of these conditions had an effect on tonic neuronal discharge rate. However, these neurons did exhibit brief excitatory and inhibitory responses to phasic auditory or visual stimuli presented when the cat was sitting quietly. These responses were dramatically attenuated if these stimuli were presented during the aforementioned conditions of behavioral arousal. This sharply contrasts with the inability of these same conditions to influence spontaneous discharge rate. The sensitivity of this neuronal sensory response to the concurrent behavioral condition supports the hypothesis that these neurons are involved in attentional processes or selective responding. The lack of responsiveness of these neurons to a variety of arousal/stress manipulations supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic neurons play a permissive, rather than an active, role in these processes.

  15. Survival and catabolic activity of natural and genetically engineered bacteria in a laboratory-scale activated-sludge unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, N.C.; Fry, J.C.; Weightman, A.J. (Univ. of Wales College of Cardiff (Wales))

    1991-02-01

    The survival of selected naturally occurring and genetically engineered bacteria in a fully functional laboratory-scale activated-sludge unit (ASU) was investigated. The effect of the presence of 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) on the survival of Pseudomonas putida UWC1, with or without a chimeric plasmid, pD10, which encodes 3CB catabolism, was determined. P. putida UWC1(pD10) did not enhance 3CB breakdown in the ASU, even following inoculation at a high concentration (3 x 10(8) CFU/ml). The emergence of a natural, 3CB-degrading population appeared to have a detrimental effect on the survival of strain UWC1 in the ASU. The fate of two 3CB-utilizing bacteria, derived from activated-sludge microflora, was studied in experiments in which these strains were inoculated into the ASU. Both strains, AS2, an unmanipulated natural isolate which flocculated readily in liquid media, and P. putida ASR2.8, a transconjugant containing the recombinant plasmid pD10, survived for long periods in the ASU and enhanced 3CB breakdown at 15 degrees C. The results reported in this paper illustrate the importance of choosing strains which are well adapted to environmental conditions if the use of microbial inoculants for the breakdown of target pollutants is to be successful.

  16. The number of active motor units and their firing rates in voluntary contraction of human brachialis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanosue, K; Yoshida, M; Akazawa, K; Fujii, K

    1979-01-01

    To make clear the control mechanism of force generation in human muscle, the electrical activity of the brachialis muscle was studied at various levels of contraction force by recording single motor unit discharges as well as mass electromyograms (EMGs). The firing rate of motor units increased with force along an S-shaped curve. At low levels of force, motor units increased their firing rates steeply with force. At intermediate levels of force, each motor unit increased its firing rate linearly with force at lower rates. As the maximum of force was approached, the firing rate increased very steeply, reaching as high as 50 Hz or more. By applying a new method of statistical processing to mass EMGs, the number of active motor units and the size of action potential were estimated at each level of force. The number of active motor units increased monotonously with muscle force. Motor units recruited at high levels of force had larger amplitudes of action potentials than those recruited at lower levels. Calculations were made to determine how the relative contribution to an increase in muscle force is varied between recruitment and the increase in firing rate. The contribution of recruitment gradually decreased with the increase in force. Up to about 70% of the maximum force, recruitment is the major mechanism for increasing the force of contraction.

  17. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of the firing intervals of motor units has been suggested as a diagnostic tool in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Part of the increase in number of turns seen in patients with myopathy could be secondary to the decrease in motor unit firing intervals at threshold force...... of the motor units, as noted in previous studies. In the brachial biceps muscle we have studied the firing intervals of 164 motor units in 14 controls, 140 motor units in 13 patients with myopathy and 86 motor units in 8 patients with neurogenic disorders, and related the findings to those of the turns...... analysis and the analysis of properties of individual motor unit potentials. To ensure comparable conditions we have examined motor unit firing intervals and turns at a force of 10% of maximum. The average of motor unit firing intervals and of interval variability was the same in controls and in patients...

  18. [Experimental sialadenitis in castrated rats administered estrogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M M; Rins de David, M L; Gendelman, H

    1989-01-01

    Salivary glands are dependent on sexual hormones. The aim of the present work is to study the behavior of inflammatory response induced in animals that were castrated and injected with estrogens. Male adult wistar castrated rats (60-90 days) were used. A phlogogen pellet (zinc-oxide-turpentine essence) was placed between their sublingual and submaxillary glands and they were daily injected with 5 units of estrogen. The rats were killed after 8 and 12 days of treatment; submandibular pack was weighed, dissected and fixed in phormol Ph7 for its morphohistochemical study. Phlogogen pellet breaks out an acute inflammatory response that appears attenuated in castrated animals. Such character is enhanced when estrogens are used, disappearing ductal ectasis, becoming evident a granulation tissue of strange body in phagocytic activity and in contact with the pellet. As a consequence its follows that estrogen administration in castrated animals attenuates acute inflammatory response broken out by phlogogen pellet, determining characters with tendency to chronicity and giant cells differentiation of strange body.

  19. Predictability of Operant Behavior of Rats by Prefrontal Multiple Unit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sei-Etsu; Akema, Tatsuo; Izaki, Yoshinori

    To investigate the possibility of a brain computer interface (BCI) constructed using activities of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we analyzed PFC multiple unit activities (MUAs) during a delayed reinforcement (DRF) lever press task in rats. In the DRF task, each trial consisted of two lever press responses (R1, R2): R1 as the trial initiation, R2 as a pre-conditioned response to a stimulus (buzzer) for a reward. Between R1 and the buzzer, rats were required to inhibit the lever press (waiting phase). The trial was evaluated as incorrect if rats pressed the lever during the waiting phase. Results show that the mean firing rate (MFR) was significantly lower around the time of R1 compared with the pre-trial time in correct trials, although no significant changes were found in incorrect trials. From a neuroengineering perspective, the MFR of each single trial was calculated. Most correct trials showed decreasing MFR around the time of R1. The PFC MUA might be useful for BCI.

  20. Multiple unit activity recorded longitudinally in rats from pubescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmo, H P; Malmo, R B

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal multiple unit activity (MUA) recordings of excellent quality over time periods as long as 26 months are described. The validity of the method was demonstrated by showing persistence of specific and idiosyncratic MUA responses to controlled sensory stimulation over these long time periods. This longitudinal MUA method was used to study level of localization neuronal activity as a function of aging. In agreement with deoxyglucose data from Sokoloff's laboratory, we found significant age-related declines in inferior and superior colliculi. In addition, our results showed the advantage of a longitudinal method over a cross-sectional one in following progressive changes into old age. The further declines in midbrain MUA level (though not in forebrain level) from middle age to old age that we observed were highly significant. The deoxyglucose method, on the other hand, had failed to show this kind of progression in those midbrain sites, probably because of a survival effect, a common sampling artifact in cross-sectional studies of aging.

  1. Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) in an activated sludge unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Eker, Serkan; Uygur, Ahmet

    2005-08-01

    Chlorophenol compounds present in many chemical industry wastewaters are resistant to biological degradation because of the toxic effects of such compounds on microorganisms. Synthetic wastewater containing different concentrations of 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP) was subjected to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit. Effects of feed DCP concentration on COD, DCP, and toxicity removals and on sludge volume index were investigated at a constant sludge age of 10 days and hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 25 h. The Resazurin method based on dehydrogenase activity was used for assessment of toxicity for the feed and effluent wastewater. Percent COD, DCP, and toxicity removals decreased and the effluent COD, DCP, and toxicity levels increased with increasing feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) because of inhibitory effects of DCP. Biomass concentration in the aeration tank decreased and the sludge volume index (SVI) increased with feed DCP concentrations above 150 mgl(-1) resulting in lower COD and DCP removal rates. The system should be operated at feed DCP concentrations of less than 150 mgl(-1) in order to obtain high COD, DCP, and toxicity removals.

  2. Overview of electromagnetic methods applied in active volcanic areas of western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokan, Catherine K.

    1993-06-01

    A better understanding of active volcanic areas in the United States through electromagnetic geophysical studies received foundation from the many surveys done for geothermal exploration in the 1970's. Investigations by governmental, industrial, and academic agencies include (but are not limited to) mapping of the Cascades. Long Valley/Mono area, the Jemez volcanic field, Yellowstone Park, and an area in Colorado. For one example — Mt. Konocti in the Mayacamas Mountains, California — gravity, magnetic, and seismic, as well as electromagnetic methods have all been used in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the subsurface structure. In each of these volcanic regions, anomalous zones were mapped. When conductive, these anomalies were interpreted to be correlated with hydrothermal activity and not to represent a magma chamber. Electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can offer valuable information in the understanding of volcanoes by being the method which is most sensitive to change in temperature and, therefore, can best map heat budget and hydrological character to aid in prediction of eruptions.

  3. Electroencephalographic and autonomic effects of centrally administered dermorphin in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, A; Maurelli, M; Marchioni, E

    1985-01-01

    Dermorphin, administered into the third ventricle of conscious rabbits, induces an increase of the total power density spectrum of the cortex and a decrease of the total power of the hippocampus. The electrocortical pattern is similar to that found with other opiates and reported as specific of mu agonists. Simultaneously the peptide causes respiratory depression, bradycardia and hypothermia. Naloxone (0.5 mg/kg IV) quickly and completely inverts all these effects. The activity of serotoninergic, Gabaergic, catecholaminergic and cholinergic systems does not seem to be required for these dermorphin actions. Thus, the hypothesis that dermorphin acts directly in modifying cerebral electrical activity is put forward.

  4. Structure–Activity Relationship of Oligomeric Flavan-3-ols: Importance of the Upper-Unit B-ring Hydroxyl Groups in the Dimeric Structure for Strong Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Hamada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, which are composed of oligomeric flavan-3-ol units, are contained in various foodstuffs (e.g., fruits, vegetables, and drinks and are strongly biologically active compounds. We investigated which element of the proanthocyanidin structure is primarily responsible for this functionality. In this study, we elucidate the importance of the upper-unit of 4–8 condensed dimeric flavan-3-ols for antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae and cervical epithelioid carcinoma cell line HeLa S3 proliferation inhibitory activity. To clarify the important constituent unit of proanthocyanidin, we synthesized four dimeric compounds, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(+-catechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, and (+-catechin-[4,8]-(−-epigallocatechin and performed structure–activity relationship (SAR studies. In addition to antimicrobial activity against S. cerevisiae and proliferation inhibitory activity on HeLa S3 cells, the correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups was low. On the basis of the results of our SAR studies, we concluded that B-ring hydroxyl groups of the upper-unit of the dimer are crucially important for strong and effective activity.

  5. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Daniel J.; Compton, Jana E.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Singh, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of damage costs attributable to source at management-relevant scales could inform decisions in areas where anthropogenic N leakage causes harm. We used recently compiled data describing N inputs in the conterminous United States (US) to assess potential damage costs associated with anthropogenic N. We estimated fates of N leaked to the environment (air/deposition, surface freshwater, groundwater, and coastal zones) in the early 2000s by multiplying watershed-level N inputs (8-digit US Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Codes; HUC8s) with published coefficients describing nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching losses, and gaseous emissions. We scaled these N leakage estimates with mitigation, remediation, direct damage, and substitution costs associated with human health, agriculture, ecosystems, and climate (per kg of N) to calculate annual damage cost (US dollars in 2008 or as reported) of anthropogenic N per HUC8. Estimates of N leakage by HUC8 ranged from effects of atmospheric N pollution were important across HUC8s. However, significant data gaps remain in our ability to fully assess N damages, such as damage costs from harmful algal blooms and drinking water contamination. Nationally, potential health and environmental damages of anthropogenic N in the early 2000s totaled 210 billion yr-1 USD (range: 81-441 billion yr-1). While a number of gaps and uncertainties remain in these estimates, overall this work represents a starting point to inform decisions and engage stakeholders on the costs of N pollution.

  6. Study of active noise control system for a commercial HVAC unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineni, Naga

    Acoustic noise is a common problem in everyday life. If the appliances that are present in the work and living areas generate noise then it's a serious problem. One such appliance is the Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning system (HVAC) in which blower fan and compressor units are housed together. Operation of a HVAC system creates two kinds of noise. One is the noise due to the air flow and the other is the result of the compressor. Both of them exhibit different signal properties and need different strategies to control them. There has been previous efforts in designing noise control systems that can control noise from the HVAC system. These include passive methods which use sound absorption materials to attenuate noise and active methods which cancel noise by generating anti-noise. Passive methods are effective in limiting the high frequency noise, but are inefficient in controlling low frequency noise from the compressor. Compressor noise is one of the strong low frequency components that propagate through the walls, therefore there is need for deploying active signal processing methods that consider the signal properties into consideration to cancel the noise acoustically. The quasi periodic nature of the compressor noise is exploited in noise modeling which aids in implementing an adaptive linear prediction filter in estimating the anti noise [12]. In this thesis, a multi channel architecture has been studied for a specific HVAC system in order to improve noise cancellation by creating larger quiet zone. In addition to the multi-channel architecture, a real time narrow band Active Noise Control (ANC) was employed to cancel noise under practical conditions.

  7. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  8. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    analysis and the analysis of properties of individual motor unit potentials. To ensure comparable conditions we have examined motor unit firing intervals and turns at a force of 10% of maximum. The average of motor unit firing intervals and of interval variability was the same in controls and in patients......, and the diagnostic yield of the motor unit firing intervals analysis was none. Although the number of turns increased with decreasing motor unit firing intervals, this relation was physiological rather than pathophysiological. In patients with neurogenic disorders, interval variability indicated unstable firing...

  9. Protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and erdosteine on activities of purine-catabolizing enzymes and level of nitric oxide in red blood cells of isoniazid-administered rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, H R; Uz, E; Gökalp, O; Ozçelik, N; Ciçek, E; Ozer, M K

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) in the pathogenesis of isoniazid (INH)-induced oxidative damage in red blood cells (RBCs), and also to show the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and erdosteine, antioxidants, in decreasing this toxicity. A total of 25 adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control group (n = 7), INH-treated group (n = 6), INH + CAPE-treated group (n = 6), and INH + erdosteine-treated group (n = 6). INH, INH-CAPE, and INH-erdosteine-treated groups were treated orally with INH 50 mg/kg daily and with the tap water for 15 days. Control group was given only tap water. CAPE was intraperitoneally injected for 15 days at a dose of 10 micromol/kg. Erdosteine was treated orally for 15 days at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. The injection of INH led to a significant increase in the activities of ADA, XO, and NO levels in RBCs of rats. Co-treatment with CAPE caused a significant decrease in the activities of ADA and XO and the levels of NO in RBCs. In addition, co-treatment with erdosteine caused a significant decrease in the activities of ADA and XO and the levels of NO in RBCs. The results of this study showed that ADA, XO, and NO may play an important role in the pathogenesis of INH-induced oxidative stress in RBCs. CAPE and erdosteine may have protective potential in this process and they may become a promising drug in the prevention of this undesired side effect of INH.

  10. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both for endosco...... for sedation, and can be used as basis for further comparison. NAPS for endoscopic procedures is safe when performed by personnel properly trained in airway handling and sedation with propofol, and has considerable advantages compared with conventional sedation for endoscopy....

  11. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  12. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  13. Mathematical modeling of copper(II) ion inhibition on COD removal in an activated sludge unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoglu, M Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-07-19

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the Cu(II) ion inhibition on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from synthetic wastewater containing 15 mg l(-1) Cu(II) in an activated sludge unit. Experimental data obtained at different sludge ages (5-30 days) and hydraulic residence times (HRT) (5-25 h) were used to determine the kinetic, stoichiometric and inhibition constants for the COD removal rate in the presence and absence of Cu(II) ions. The inhibition pattern was identified as non-competitive, since Cu(II) ion inhibitions were observed both on maximum specific substrate removal rate (k) and on the saturation constant (Ks) with the inhibition constants of 97 and 18 mg l(-1), respectively, indicating more pronounced inhibition on Ks. The growth yield coefficient (Y) decreased and the death rate constant (b) increased in the presence of Cu(II) ions due to copper ion toxicity on microbial growth with inhibition constants of 29 and 200 mg l(-1), respectively indicating more effective inhibition on the growth yield coefficient or higher maintenance requirements. The mathematical model with the predetermined kinetic constants was able to predict the system performance reasonably well especially at high HRT operations.

  14. Arbitrary units are a composite and useful measure of muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Tushar P; Kulkarni, Hemant; Mamtani, Manju R; Smith, Michael

    2009-08-01

    In humans, the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) signal is challenging to detect, record and analyze. Several methods exist that attempt to capture the latent construct of MSNA. We directly compared the performance of five MSNA parameters: burst frequency, burst incidence, median burst amplitude, arbitrary units (AU) and fractal dimension (FD). The MSNA signal was recorded in 33 subjects for approximately 30 min before, during and after the application of a graded cold pressor test stimulus at 18 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 2 degrees C in random order with an adequate wash-out period. Using coefficient of variation, Shannon's entropy and principal component analysis, we observed that these five parameters defined two physical and conceptual domains of MSNA-frequency and amplitude. Since AU combines information from both these domains, we observed that it explained maximum inter-subject and inter-experimental segment variation. FD did not explain the inter-subject variability and was identified as a unique parameter in the factor analysis. Epidemiological studies that attempt to quantify MSNA may consistently use AU as the parameter for quantification of MSNA.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation from VDT units: study of the effectiveness of an active shielding device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, R; Casciardi, S; Giliberti, C; Moleti, A

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and low frequency magnetic fields emitted by a set of video display terminal (VDT) units are reported. The field values measured at the position normally occupied by the user are below the safety limits. This is because the field amplitudes decrease rapidly (following a 1/R3 law) with the distance from the source, as has been verified in this work. Measurements with a commercial shielding device consisting of small plastic balls filled with a water solution of rare earth elements were also performed. The only physical mechanism that could be hypothesized to produce an active suppression of the VDT field is that rare earth atoms, which probably were chosen due to their large magnetic moment, behave as oscillating magnetic dipoles capable of emitting a secondary magnetic field that, along some particular directions, has a phase that is opposite to that of the exciting field. Unfortunately, if one analyzes this mechanism quantitatively, it is easy to show that the secondary magnetic field is absolutely negligible, as was confirmed by experimental measurements performed in this study.

  16. Nursing Activities Score: an updated guideline for its application in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Grillo Padilha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe nursing workload in Intensive Care Units (ICU in different countries according to the scores obtained with Nursing Activities Score (NAS and to verify the agreement among countries on the NAS guideline interpretation. Method This cross-sectional study considered 1-day measure of NAS (November 2012 obtained from 758 patients in 19 ICUs of seven countries (Norway, the Netherlands, Spain, Poland, Egypt, Greece and Brazil. The Delphi technique was used in expertise meetings and consensus. Results The NAS score was 72.8% in average, ranging from 44.5% (Spain to 101.8% (Norway. The mean NAS score from Poland, Greece and Egypt was 83.0%, 64.6% and 57.1%, respectively. The NAS score was similar in Brazil (54.0% and in the Netherlands (51.0%. There were doubts in the understanding of five out 23 items of the NAS (21.7% which were discussed until researchers’ consensus. Conclusion NAS score were different in the seven countries. Future studies must verify if the fine standardization of the guideline can have a impact on differences in the NAS results.

  17. Full-cost determination of different levels of care in the intensive care unit. An activity-based costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J J; Casciano, J P; Arikian, S R; Mauskopf, J; Paul, J E

    1996-10-01

    We applied an activity-based costing methodology to determine the full cost of intensive care service at a community hospital, a university hospital and a health maintenance organisation (HMO)-affiliated hospital. A total of 5 patient care units were analysed: the intensive care unit (ICU) and surgical ICU (SICU) at the university setting, the ICU at the community setting, and the SICU and cardiac care unit at the HMO setting. The selection of the different ICU types was based on the types of critical care units that were found in each setting (e.g. the HMO did not have an ICU). Institution-specific cost data and clinical management parameters were collected through surveys and site visits from the 3 respective organisation types. The analysis revealed a marked increase in patient-minute cost associated with mechanical ventilation. Higher costs associated with prolonged neuromuscular blockade have important economic implications with respect to selection of an appropriate neuromuscular blocking agent.

  18. Characteristics and outcomes of end-stage renal disease patients with active tuberculosis followed in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulasli Sevinc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure. In intensive care units, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of TB is common. Therefore, a description of characteristics of active TB in patients with renal failure followed in intensive care units is important to reduce mortality and transmission of the disease. This study was performed to describe the characteristics of patients with renal failure admitted to the intensive care units and having active TB and evaluate predictive factors for in hospital mortality. The hospital records of 24 patients (11 women, 13 men having ESRD and TB between 2001-2006 were reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on admission were recorded. Possible parameters contributing to in-hospital mortality were obtained from the medical records. In-hospital mortality rate was 66.6%. Factors associated with mortality were decreased partial pressure of oxygen and malnutrition. Fever was reported in 8 patients and hemoptysis was reported in 3 patients. Eight patients had consolidation on chest radiograph, while 4 had normal findings Seventeen patients had pulmonary involvement, and 11 had extra pulmonary involvement. The mortality rate in TB patients followed in intensive care units is high, with 3 factors contributing to in-hospital mortality. Clinicians should consider active TB in renal failure patients being followed in the intensive care unit, even when results of a chest radiograph are normal especially in patients with unexplained poor general health or respiratory failure.

  19. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported.

  20. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  1. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  2. Peripherally administered orexin improves survival of mice with endotoxin shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Irukayama-Tomobe, Yoko; Murakoshi, Nobuyuki; Kiyama, Maiko; Ishikawa, Yui; Hosokawa, Naoto; Tominaga, Hiromu; Uchida, Shuntaro; Kimura, Saki; Kanuka, Mika; Morita, Miho; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru; Hayashi, Yu; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, accounting for the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Here, we report that peripheral administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin improves the survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxin shock, a well-studied septic shock model. The effect is accompanied by a suppression of excessive cytokine production and an increase of catecholamines and corticosterone. We found that peripherally administered orexin penetrates the blood-brain barrier under endotoxin shock, and that central administration of orexin also suppresses the cytokine production and improves the survival, indicating orexin’s direct action in the central nervous system (CNS). Orexin helps restore body temperature and potentiates cardiovascular function in LPS-injected mice. Pleiotropic modulation of inflammatory response by orexin through the CNS may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for septic shock. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21055.001 PMID:28035899

  3. Enhancing Information Usefulness by Line Managers’ Involvement in Cross-Unit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Rodgers, Waymond

    2011-01-01

    of line managers’ prior involvement with Corporate Audit using Throughput Modeling. This model allows us to understand how line managers’ cross-unit involvement influenced the way they process information received from Corporate Audit. Our results show that managers’ cross-unit involvement positively...... influences their assessment of information from Corporate Audit in a way that influences their propensity to use information from that unit. The results indicate that cross-unit involvement is more than an effective means of transmitting information – it can also be used as a means of building boundary......Organization and management scholars have long advocated that efficient use of information is critical for firms to compete successfully in the modern marketplace. This study examines whether the use of managerial cross-unit involvement in an organization enhances managers’ propensity to use useful...

  4. Self-Efficacy and Participation in Physical and Social Activity among Older Adults in Spain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Multhaup, Kristi S.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Barton, Cole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We explored Bandura's self-efficacy theory as applied to older adult (aged 63-92) participation in physical and social activity in a cross-cultural study. Design and Methods: Older adults in Spain (n = 53) and the United States (n = 55) completed questions regarding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and participation in physical and…

  5. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  6. Influence of Negotiations between Preservice Teachers and Pupils on Instruction within Multi-Activity and Sport Education Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of negotiations between pupils and preservice teachers (PTs) on PTs' instruction within multi-activity (MA) teaching and sport education (SE). Participants were 17 PTs engaged in a secondary early field experience in which they taught 12-lesson MA and SE soccer units. Data were collected using…

  7. Interruptions of activities experienced by nursing professionals in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Daniele de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo

    2016-09-09

    to analyze the interruptions experienced by nursing professionals while undertaking care activities. an observational study undertaken in two intensive care units. Two nurses observed 33 nursing professionals for three hours. The data were recorded in real time, using a semistructured instrument. after 99 hours of observation of 739 activities, it was identified that 46.82% were interrupted, resulting in 7.85 interruptions per hour. On average, the interruptions compromised 9.42% of the nursing professionals' worktime. The activities geared towards indirect care of the patient suffered the highest number of interruptions (56.65%), with the nursing records being the activity interrupted most. The principal source of the interruptions was external, coming from the health professionals (51%), and the main causes were those related to the patients (34.70%) and to interpersonal communication (26.47%). the activity of nursing suffers a high number of interruptions, mainly caused by the health professionals themselves, indicating that the work environment needs to undergo interventions aiming to reduce the risk of compromising of the professional's performance and to increase the patients' safety. analisar as interrupções experienciadas por profissionais de enfermagem durante realização de atividades assistenciais. estudo observacional realizado em duas unidades de tratamento intensivo. Dois enfermeiros observaram 33 profissionais de enfermagem, por três horas. Os dados foram registrados em tempo real, usando um instrumento semiestruturado. após 99 horas de observação de 739 atividades, foi identificado que 46,82% sofreram interrupções, perfazendo 7,85 interrupções por hora. As interrupções comprometeram, em média, 9,42% do tempo de trabalho dos profissionais de enfermagem. As atividades direcionadas ao cuidado indireto do paciente foram as que sofreram maior número de interrupções (56,65%), sendo o registro de enfermagem a atividade mais interrompida. A

  8. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  9. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  10. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2017-09-05

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units (IMU) to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with two IMUs (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n=10), consisting of seven team handball specific tasks, or field assessment (n=12) conducted in twelve training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufactures software. IMA count was divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5m·s(-1)), medium (2.5-3.5m·s(-1)), high (>3.5m·s(-1)), medium/high (>2.5m·s(-1)), and total (>1.5m·s(-1)). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment : IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV: 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more complex tasks. Field assessment : Total IMA count (CV: 1.8%, SWD: 2.5%), PlayerLoad™ (CV: 0.9 % SWD: 2.1%), and its associated variables (CV: 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA count were good, when data was displayed as total, high or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad™ and associated variables was evident. The CV of the aforementioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye IMU and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  11. Active Mines and Mineral Processing Plants in the United States in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes mineral and metal operations in the United States. The data represent commodities monitored by the National Minerals Information Center of...

  12. Task-dependent activity of motor unit populations in feline ankle extensor muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodson-Tole, E.F.; Pantall, A.; Maas, H.; Farrell, B.J.; Gregor, R.J.; Prilutsky, B.I.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the functional significance of the morphological diversity of ammalian skeletal muscles is limited by technical difficulties of estimating the contribution of motor units with different properties to unconstrained motor behaviours. Recently developed wavelet and principal components an

  13. Active Mines and Mineral Processing Plants in the United States in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes mineral and metal operations in the United States. The data represent commodities monitored by the National Minerals Information Center of the...

  14. Evaluation of administered dose using portal images in craniospinal irradiation of pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina Marques; Calçada, Raquel; Rodrigues, Sofia; Barragán, Juan Antonio; Sá, Ana Cravo; Macedo, Ana Paula; de Fátima Monsanto, Maria

    2017-03-21

    This study aimed to assess the administered dose based on portal imaging in craniospinal pediatric irradiation by evaluating cases in which portal images did or did not account for the total administered dose. We also intended to calculate the mean increase in total administered dose. Data were collected from General University Hospital Gregorio Marañón; we evaluated the total dose administered, total dose planned, number of portal images per treatment and corresponding monitor units of two different groups: one in which the dose from portal images is deducted from the total administered dose (D), and another in which it was not (N). We used descriptive statistics to analyze the collected data, including the mean and respective standard deviation. We used the Shapiro-Wilk and Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests and estimated the linear regression coefficients. Patients in group D received a mean dose of 29.00 ± 10.28 cGy based on the verification portal images, a quantity that was deducted from the planned dose to match the total administered dose. Patients in group N received a mean dose of 41.50 ± 30.53 cGy, which was not deducted from the planned dose, evidencing a mean increase of 41.50 ± 30.55 cGy over the total administered dose. The acquisition of the set-up verification portal images, without their inclusion in the total administered dose, reflects an average increase in total dose for craniospinal irradiation of pediatric patients. Subtraction of the monitor units used to acquire the verification images is recommended.

  15. Ionic liquid-impregnated activated carbon for biohydrogen purification in an adsorption unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, N. Y.; Masdar, M. S.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Nordin, D.; Husaini, T.; Majlan, E. H.; Rejab, S. A. M.; Chew, C. L.

    2017-06-01

    Biological methods for hydrogen production (biohydrogen) are known as energy intensive and can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure; however, consecutive productions such as purification and separation processes still remain challenging in the industry. Various techniques are used to purify and separate hydrogen. These techniques include the use of sorbents/solvents, membranes and cryogenic distillation. In this study, carbon dioxide (CO2) was purified and separated from biohydrogen to produce high purity hydrogen gas. CO2 capture was studied using the activated carbon (AC) modified with the ionic liquid (IL) choline chloride as adsorbent. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents were characterized through XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, TGA, and BET analyses. The effects of IL loading, flow rate, temperature, and gas mixture were also investigated based on the absorption and desorption of CO2. The CO2 level in the biohydrogen composition was analyzed using a CO2 gas analyzer. The SEM image indicated that the IL homogeneously covered the AC surface. High IL dispersion inlet enhanced the capability of the adsorbent to capture CO2 gas. The thermal stability and presence of the functionalized group of ILs on AC were analyzed by TGA and FTIR techniques, respectively. CO2 adsorption experiments were conducted using a 1 L adsorber unit. Hence, adsorption technologies exhibit potential for biohydrogen purification and mainly affected by adsorbent ability and operating parameters. This research presents an improved biohydrogen technique based on adsorption technology with novel adsorbents. Two different types of commercial CO2 adsorbents were used in the experiment. Results show that the IL/AC exhibited properties suitable for CO2 adsorption. The IL/AC sample presented a high CO2 uptake of 30 wt. % IL when treated at 30 °C for 6 h under a flow rate of 1 L/min. The presence of IL increased the selectivity of CO2 removal during the adsorption process. This IL

  16. Sustainability in a global context: How does local factor affect the outcomes of CSR activities in international business units?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Lauring, Jakob

    In recent years CSR has become increasingly important for the activities and branding of MNCs. While some studies have investigated CSR management and branding in domestic situations, fewer studies exist in the case of international business units (subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises...... as CSR branding outcomes). Our findings show that local values were positively associated with external CSR engagement and that employee relations were positively related to both internal and external CSR engagement. None of the local factors were significantly associated with CSR branding outcomes......). In this study, we use a sample consisting of 119 Danish business units that are located in China. We set out to investigate the relationship between local factors (the local business unit’s Chinese values and internal employee relations in the unit) and CSR outcomes (internal and external CSR engagement as well...

  17. Single-unit activity in piriform cortex during slow-wave state is shaped by recent odor experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald A

    2010-02-03

    Memory and its underlying neural plasticity play important roles in sensory discrimination and cortical pattern recognition in olfaction. Given the reported function of slow-wave sleep states in neocortical and hippocampal memory consolidation, we hypothesized that activity during slow-wave states within the piriform cortex may be shaped by recent olfactory experience. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and allowed to spontaneously shift between slow-wave and fast-wave states as recorded in local field potentials within the anterior piriform cortex. Single-unit activity of piriform cortical layer II/III neurons was recorded simultaneously. The results suggest that piriform cortical activity during slow-wave states is shaped by recent (several minutes) odor experience. The temporal structure of single-unit activity during slow waves was modified if the animal had been stimulated with an odor within the receptive field of that cell. If no odor had been delivered, the activity of the cell during slow-wave activity was stable across the two periods. The results demonstrate that piriform cortical activity during slow-wave state is shaped by recent odor experience, which could contribute to odor memory consolidation.

  18. Action unit classification using active appearance models and conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent modern computer vision and machine learning techniques can assist social psychology research by automatically recognizing facial expressions. To this end, we develop a system that automatically recognizes the action units defined in the facial action codi

  19. 76 FR 28058 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0068, Unitization, Extension of a Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: 1010-0068, Unitization, Extension of a Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... collection (1010-0068). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), BOEMRE is inviting... Blundon, 381 Elden Street, MS-4024, Herndon, Virginia 20170-4817. Please reference ICR 1010-0068 in...

  20. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  1. People Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume V. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on "people around us" that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  2. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  3. Action unit classification using active appearance models and conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent modern computer vision and machine learning techniques can assist social psychology research by automatically recognizing facial expressions. To this end, we develop a system that automatically recognizes the action units defined in the facial action codi

  4. Action unit classification using active appearance models and conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate to what extent modern computer vision and machine learning techniques can assist social psychology research by automatically recognizing facial expressions. To this end, we develop a system that automatically recognizes the action units defined in the facial action

  5. Corrective Action Management Unit Report of Post-Closure Care Activities Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) consisted of a containment cell, two treatment systems, four associated waste staging and storage areas, and support areas; all were used for management of remediation wastes between 1997 and 2003.

  6. Striking antitumor activity of a methinium system with incorporated quinoxaline unit obtained by spontaneous cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bříza, T; Králová, J; Dolenský, B; Rimpelová, S; Kejík, Z; Ruml, T; Hajdúch, M; Džubák, P; Mikula, I; Martásek, P; Poučková, P; Král, V

    2015-03-01

    A novel pentamethinium salt was synthesized with an unforeseen expanded conjugated quinoxaline unit directly incorporated into a pentamethinium chain. The compound exhibited high fluorescence intensity, selective mitochondrial localization, high cytotoxicity, and selectivity toward malignant cell lines, and resulted in remarkable in vivo suppression of tumor growth in mice.

  7. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity.

  8. Absence of lateral gastrocnemius activity and differential motor unit behavior in soleus and medial gastrocnemius during standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Martin E; Dakin, Christopher J; Luu, Billy L; Inglis, John Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-15

    In a standing position, the vertical projection of the center of mass passes in front of the ankle, which requires active plantar-flexor torque from the triceps surae to maintain balance. We recorded motor unit (MU) activity in the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius muscle and the soleus (SOL) in standing balance and voluntary isometric contractions to understand the effect of functional requirements and descending drive from different neural sources on motoneuron behavior. Single MU activity was recorded in seven subjects with wire electrodes in the triceps surae. Two 3-min standing balance trials and several ramp-and-hold contractions were performed. Lateral gastrocnemius MU activity was rarely observed in standing. The lowest thresholds for LG MUs in ramp contractions were 20-35 times higher than SOL and MG MUs (P triceps surae motoneurons.

  9. An in vitro method for recording single unit afferent activity from mesenteric nerves innervating isolated segments of rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, K A; Cervero, F

    1986-04-01

    A technique has been developed for recording single unit afferent activity from mesenteric nerves in isolated segments of rat distal ileum in vitro. The preparation consists of a 3-cm segment of ileum, containing a single neurovascular bundle, held horizontally in an organ bath. One end of the segment is attached to a tension transducer to record changes in longitudinal tension of the gut muscle and the other is connected to a pressure transducer to record changes in intra-luminal pressure. Electromyographic activity of the smooth muscle is recorded using glass-insulated tungsten microelectrodes inserted in the wall of the gut. Afferent nerve activity is recorded with a monopolar platinum wire electrode from filaments of the mesenteric nerves that run between the artery and vein supplying the segment. This preparation permits the detailed analysis of the electrical activity of intestinal afferent nerve fibres correlated with mechanical and chemical events occurring naturally in the gut or imposed experimentally on it.

  10. Intensive care unit admission in patients following rapid response team activation: call factors, patient characteristics and hospital outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, M P; Tobin, A E; Reid, D

    2015-03-01

    Rapid Response Systems (RRSs) have been widely introduced throughout hospital health systems, yet there is limited research on the characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) following RRS activation. Using database extraction, this study examined the factors associated with ICU admission and patient outcome in patients receiving RRS activation in a tertiary level hospital between 2009 and 2013. Of 3004 RRS activations, 392 resulted in ICU admissions. Call factors associated with ICU admission and increased hospital mortality included tachypnoea (P Medical Emergency Team call triggers breached simultaneously (P admission included young age (P admission and hospital mortality post RRS activation. This information may be useful for risk stratification of deteriorating patients and determination of appropriate escalation.

  11. Periodic Modulation of Motor-Unit Activity in Extrinsic Hand Muscles During Multidigit Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie A.; Winges, Sara A.; Santello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We recently examined the extent to which motor units of digit flexor muscles receive common input during multidigit grasping. This task elicited moderate to strong motor-unit synchrony (common input strength, CIS) across muscles (flexor digitorum profundus, FDP, and flexor pollicis longus, FPL) and across FDP muscle compartments, although the strength of this common input was not uniform across digit pairs. To further characterize the neural mechanisms underlying the control of multidigit grasping, we analyzed the relationship between firing of single motor units from these hand muscles in the frequency domain by computing coherence. We report three primary findings. First, in contrast to what has been reported in intrinsic hand muscles, motor units belonging to different muscles and muscle compartments of extrinsic digit flexors exhibited significant coherence in the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-Hz frequency ranges and much weaker coherence in the higher 10–20 Hz range (maximum 0.0025 and 0.0008, respectively, pooled across all FDP compartment pairs). Second, the strength and incidence of coherence differed considerably across digit pairs. Third, contrary to what has been reported in the literature, across-muscle coherence can be stronger and more prevalent than within-muscle coherence, as FPL–FDP2 (thumb-index digit pair) exhibited the strongest and most prevalent coherence in our data (0.010 and 43% at 3 Hz, respectively). The heterogeneous organization of common input to these muscles and muscle compartments is discussed in relation to the functional role of individual digit pairs in the coordination of multiple digit forces in grasping. PMID:15744006

  12. Synthesis of marine ecosystem monitoring activities for the United States Virgin Islands: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The ecological integrity of coral reef ecosystems in the U.S. Caribbean is widely considered to have deteriorated in the last three decades due to a range of threats and stressors from both human and non-human processes Rothenberger 2008, Wilkinson 2008). In response to the threats to Caribbean coral reef ecosystems and other regions around the world, the United States Government authorized the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to: (1) preserve, sustain, and restore the condition of coral r...

  13. Determination of the fate of alcohol ethoxylate homologues in a laboratory continuous activated-sludge unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, T; Stephenson, R J; Eadsforth, C V; Sherren, A; Toy, R

    2006-05-01

    Environmental monitoring indicates that the distribution of alcohol ethoxylate (AE) homologues in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents differs from the distribution in commercial AE products, with a relative higher proportion of fatty alcohol (AOH, which is AE with zero ethoxylation). To determine the contribution of AE-derived AOH to the total concentration of AE and AOH in WWTP effluents, we conducted a laboratory continuous activated-sludge study (CAS). This consisted of a test unit fed with AE-amended synthetic sewage and a control unit fed with only synthetic sewage to avoid AE contamination from the feed. The removal efficiencies of some 114 AE homologues were determined by the application of a specific and sensitive analytical method. The extent of the removal of AE ranged from 99.70% for C18 compounds to > 99.98% for C12-16. Relatively high-AOH concentrations were observed in the effluents from blank and test units. By building the concentration difference from the test minus the control unit, the AE in the CAS effluent originating from AE in the influent was determined. Thus, it could be shown that AOH represented only 19% of the total AE (EO0-18) in the CAS, while monitoring in 29 WWTP effluents (European, Canadian, and US) revealed in total a mean AOH fraction of 55% (5-82%) of the total AE (EO0-18). This shows that only a small fraction of AOH in WWTP effluents originates from AE entering the WWTP.

  14. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    -99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

  15. Leisure-time physical activity among older adults. United States, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, H R; Croft, J B; Giles, W H; Anda, R F; Casper, M L; Caspersen, C J; Jones, D A

    1996-06-24

    To investigate the prevalence and selected correlates of leisure-time physical activity in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 65 years or older. Data from 2783 older male and 5018 older female respondents to the 1990 National Health Interview Survey were used. Regular physical activity was defined as participation in leisure-time physical activities 3 times or more per week for 30 minutes or more during the previous 2 weeks. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from multivariate logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of regular physical activity was 37% among older men and 24% among older women. Correlates of regular physical activity included the perception of excellent to good health (men: OR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.9; women: OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9), correct exercise knowledge (men: OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.9-3.1; women: OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.2-3.4), no activity limitations (men: OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6; women: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0) and not perceiving "a lot" of stress during the previous 2 weeks (men: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4; women: OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6). Among those who had been told at least twice that they had high blood pressure, physician's advice to exercise was associated with regular physical activity (men: OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3; women: OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9). The 2 major activities among active older adults were walking (men, 69%; women, 75%) and gardening (men, 45%; women, 35%). Prevalence of regular physical activity is low among older Americans. Identifying the correlates of physical activity will help to formulate strategies to increase physical activity in this age group.

  16. Contemporary antimicrobial activity of triple antibiotic ointment: a multiphased study of recent clinical isolates in the United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Li, Qing; Kohut, Bruce; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bell, Jan; Turnidge, John D

    2006-01-01

    Triple antibiotic ointment (TAO) containing neomycin, polymyxin B, and bacitracin was launched in the 1950s in the United States (USA) as a prescription product and then was used over the counter (OTC) since the 1970s (USA) to prevent superficial wound infections. In Australia, TAO has been restricted to prescription use. This study 1) determined cross-resistance patterns of neomycin compared with other aminoglycosides; 2) determined the level and trend of resistance to TAO and individual components especially versus mupirocin-resistant strains (USA); and 3) established the baseline TAO activity level against pathogens from Australia. A total of 200 strains (> or =50% gentamicin-resistant) from the United States were used for the cross-resistance study including Staphylococcus aureus (110), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 50), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Escherichia coli (20), and other Enterobacteriaceae (10) tested against TAO, bacitracin, polymyxin B, neomycin, amikacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, and mupirocin. Fifty gentamicin-resistant isolates from each year (1997-2002) were used to determine the activity of TAO over time. Baseline resistance rates of TAO among 300 Australian isolates (AGARS Program, 2002-2003) were also studied. Reference broth microdilution methods were used in all phases of this study. At a 1:100 dilution of the ointment concentration, TAO inhibited all CoNS, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae isolates, and resistance to TAO among Staphylococcus aureus at this concentration was only 5% in the cross-resistance study. Patterns of susceptibility in the United States did not significantly vary from 1997 to 2002. Australian pathogens showed that TAO was 98% active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 100% for Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, CoNS, and P. aeruginosa, the rates equivalent to those observed in the United States. Mupirocin-resistant S. aureus (5%) and Co

  17. Muscle-Strengthening Activities and Participation among Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustalot, Fleetwood; Carlson, Susan A.; Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe those who reported meeting the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" ("2008 Guidelines") muscle-strengthening standard of 2 or more days per week, including all seven muscle groups, and to assess the type and location of muscle-strengthening activities performed. Method: Data from HealthStyles…

  18. Muscle-Strengthening Activities and Participation among Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustalot, Fleetwood; Carlson, Susan A.; Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe those who reported meeting the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" ("2008 Guidelines") muscle-strengthening standard of 2 or more days per week, including all seven muscle groups, and to assess the type and location of muscle-strengthening activities performed. Method: Data from HealthStyles…

  19. Active dynamic balancing unit for controlled shaking force and shaking moment balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2010-01-01

    For a mechanism with many elements that needs to be shaking-force and shaking-moment balanced with a low addition of mass, a low addition of inertia, and a low addition of complexity, the use of actively computer-controlled balancing elements is promising. With these actively controlled elements the

  20. 78 FR 78788 - Nondiscrimination in Programs or Activities Conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... compliance and complaint processing activities to better protect the rights of USDA customers. OASCR's.... This amendment is intended to encourage the early resolution of customer complaints. Finally, USDA... rights compliance and complaint processing activities to better protect the rights of USDA's...

  1. Data on nation-wide activity in intensive cardiac care units in France in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Roubille

    2017-08-01

    A French nation-wide database on 277,845 admissions in 270 ICCUs”.(10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.04.002 (Roubille et al., 2017 [1]: the main characteristics of the pathologies managed in the intensive cardiac care units (ICCUs, the details on the interventions performed and the main differences between centers following the size of the centers and a figure presenting the monthly variations of admissions in the ICCUs in France in a total of 277,845 patients in 270 centers admitted at least one time in the ICCUs in 2014 (exhaustive data.

  2. Endogenous chloride channels of insect sf9 cells. Evidence for coordinated activity of small elementary channel units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Gabriel, S. E.; Stutts, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    ) openings interrupted by similar long closures. In the open state, channels exhibited fast burst-like closures. Since the patches normally contained more than a single channel, it was not possible to measure open and closed dwell-time distributions for comparing single-Cl- channel activity with the kinetic....../150) of approximately 3.5 pS and approximately 35 pS, respectively. All states reversed near the same membrane potential, and they exhibited similar halide ion selectivity, P1 > PCl approximately PBr. Accordingly, Cl- current amplitudes larger than current flow through the smallest channel unit resolved seem to result...... from simultaneous open/shut events of two or more channel units....

  3. Acid sphingomyelinase serum activity predicts mortality in intensive care unit patients after systemic inflammation: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kott

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acid sphingomyelinase is involved in lipid signalling pathways and regulation of apoptosis by the generation of ceramide and plays an important role during the host response to infectious stimuli. It thus has the potential to be used as a novel diagnostic marker in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of our study was to evaluate acid sphingomyelinase serum activity (ASM as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in a mixed intensive care unit population before, during, and after systemic inflammation. METHODS: 40 patients admitted to the intensive care unit at risk for developing systemic inflammation (defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome plus a significant procalcitonin [PCT] increase were included. ASM was analysed on ICU admission, before (PCT before, during (PCT peak and after (PCT low onset of SIRS. Patients undergoing elective surgery served as control (N = 8. Receiver-operating characteristics curves were computed. RESULTS: ASM significantly increased after surgery in the eight control patients. Patients from the intensive care unit had significantly higher ASM on admission than control patients after surgery. 19 out of 40 patients admitted to the intensive care unit developed systemic inflammation and 21 did not, with no differences in ASM between these two groups on admission. In patients with SIRS and PCT peak, ASM between admission and PCT before was not different, but further increased at PCT peak in non-survivors and was significantly higher at PCT low compared to survivors. Survivors exhibited decreased ASM at PCT peak and PCT low. Receiver operating curve analysis on discrimination of ICU mortality showed an area under the curve of 0.79 for ASM at PCT low. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, ASM was generally higher in patients admitted to the intensive care unit compared to patients undergoing uncomplicated surgery. ASM did not indicate onset of systemic inflammation. In contrast to PCT however

  4. Analysis of activity of motor units in the biceps brachii muscle after intercostal-musculocutaneous nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuta, Naoki; Sasaki, Sei-Ichi; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2005-04-01

    We examined respiratory activity of motor units (MUs) in the internal intercostal nerves (IICNs)-transferred biceps brachii muscle (IC-biceps) in cats. MUs of IC-biceps showed respiratory discharges in inspiratory and expiratory phases, and these were enhanced by CO2 inhalation. Narrowing the airway also enhanced inspiratory and expiratory MUs activity. A mechanical load to the thorax immediately enhanced inspiratory MUs activity and weakened expiratory MUs activity. We analyzed the cross-correlation of MUs activity in interchondral muscle and IC-biceps to characterize the respiratory spinal descending inputs to motoneurons. We confirmed the short-term synchronization from interchondral muscles indicating divergence of a single respiratory presynaptic axon to thoracic motoneurons, but could not find synchronization from IC-biceps. The motor axonal conduction velocity (axonal CV) of IC-biceps MUs was lower than that of interchondral muscles. There was no correlation between the respiratory recruitment order of IC-biceps MUs and their axonal CV. These results indicate that IC-biceps shows the respiratory activities and afferent inputs from intercostal muscle spindles in the neighboring segments remain influential on activity of IC-biceps. In addition, the short-term synchronization from IC-biceps could not be found, suggesting that the intercostal nerve transfer alters the respiratory spinal descending inputs to thoracic motoneurons.

  5. EPI-001, A Compound Active against Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Targets Transactivation Unit 5 of the Androgen Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mol, Eva; Fenwick, R Bryn; Phang, Christopher T W; Buzón, Victor; Szulc, Elzbieta; de la Fuente, Alex; Escobedo, Albert; García, Jesús; Bertoncini, Carlos W; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; McEwan, Iain J; Riera, Antoni; Salvatella, Xavier

    2016-09-16

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is the lethal condition suffered by prostate cancer patients that become refractory to androgen deprivation therapy. EPI-001 is a recently identified compound active against this condition that modulates the activity of the androgen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is essential for disease progression. The mechanism by which this compound exerts its inhibitory activity is however not yet fully understood. Here we show, by using high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that EPI-001 selectively interacts with a partially folded region of the transactivation domain of the androgen receptor, known as transactivation unit 5, that is key for the ability of prostate cells to proliferate in the absence of androgens, a distinctive feature of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our results can contribute to the development of more potent and less toxic novel androgen receptor antagonists for treating this disease.

  6. Grafting synthetic transmembrane units to the engineered low-toxicity α-hemolysin to restore its hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ui, Mihoko; Harima, Kousuke; Takei, Toshiaki; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki; Endo, Sumire; Akiyama, Kimio; Muraoka, Takahiro; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-12-01

    The chemical modification of proteins to provide desirable functions and/or structures broadens their possibilities for use in various applications. Usually, proteins can acquire new functions and characteristics, in addition to their original ones, via the introduction of synthetic functional moieties. Here, we adopted a more radical approach to protein modification, i.e., the replacement of a functional domain of proteins with alternative chemical compounds to build "cyborg proteins." As a proof of concept model, we chose staphylococcal α-hemolysin (Hla), which is a well-studied, pore-forming toxin. The hemolytic activity of Hla mutants was dramatically decreased by truncation of the stem domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the membrane. However, the impaired hemolytic activity was significantly restored by attaching a pyrenyl-maleimide unit to the cysteine residue that was introduced in the remaining stem domain. In contrast, negatively charged fluorescein-maleimide completely abolished the remaining activity of the mutants.

  7. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 2: Mechanics II, Momentum, Energy, Rotational and Harmonic Motion, and Chaos (Units 8 - 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including: Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

  8. 76 FR 55088 - Information Collection Activity: Unitization, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... agreements.'' The Independent Offices Appropriations Act (31 U.S.C. 9701), the Omnibus Appropriations Bill... normal course of their activities. We consider these to be usual and customary and took that into...

  9. Single unit activity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and surrounding neurons during the wake-sleep cycle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K

    2014-02-28

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus contains a circadian clock for timing of diverse neuronal, endocrine, and behavioral rhythms, such as the cycle of sleep and wakefulness. Using extracellular single unit recordings, we have determined, for the first time, the discharge activity of individual SCN neurons during the complete wake-sleep cycle in non-anesthetized, head restrained mice. SCN neurons (n=79) were divided into three types according to their regular (type I; n=38) or irregular (type II; n=19) discharge activity throughout the wake-sleep cycle or their quiescent activity during waking and irregular discharge activity during sleep (type III; n=22). The type I and II neurons displayed a long-duration action potential, while the type III neurons displayed either a short-duration or long-duration action potential. The type I neurons discharged exclusively as single isolated spikes, whereas the type II and III neurons fired as single isolated spikes, clusters, or bursts. The type I and II neurons showed wake-active, wake/paradoxical (or rapid eye movement) sleep-active, or state-unrelated activity profiles and were, respectively, mainly located in the ventral or dorsal region of the SCN. In contrast, the type III neurons displayed sleep-active discharge profiles and were mainly located in the lateral region of the SCN. The majority of type I and II neurons tested showed an increase in discharge rate following application of light to the animal's eyes. Of the 289 extra-SCN neurons recorded, those displaying sleep-active discharge profiles were mainly located dorsal to the SCN, whereas those displaying wake-active discharge profiles were mainly located lateral or dorsolateral to the SCN. This study shows heterogeneity of mouse SCN and surrounding anterior hypothalamic neurons and suggests differences in their topographic organization and roles in mammalian circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

  10. The Use of Twitter to Predict the Level of Influenza Activity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    forecast the level of influenza activity. The rise in the popularity of social media websites such as Flickr, Twitter and Facebook has transformed...The CDC requires a tool that can forecast the level of influenza activity. The rise in the popularity of social media websites such as Flickr... impacted world societies, economies and tourism . In order to prevent such influenza pandemics, U.S. health agencies need to be alerted of the danger

  11. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in korean nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yang So

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  12. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hang Rae; So, Ji Yang [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  13. United States Pharmacopeia activities in the area of vaccines, virology and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tina S

    2005-03-18

    The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) develops public standards for medical products that are enforceable by FDA. USP general information chapters have been providing industrial and academic researchers alike with crucial guidance especially in areas where there is absence of regulatory guidance. In an effort to meet the challenge of rapid advances in vaccine research and manufacturing, the Council of Experts Committee for Vaccines, Virology, and Immunology of the US Pharmacopeia has recently initiated two new general chapters to provide advice for researchers and manufacturers in the vaccine and virology fields and beyond. Chapter 1235 Vaccines and Vaccine Test Methods will focus on manufacturing and analytical requirements for the different types of vaccines currently in manufacture and development. Chapter 1237 Virology Test Methods will discuss modern diagnostic virology techniques and a variety of tests as applicable to vaccine and biologics manufacturing.

  14. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

  15. Exploring the Linkage between Activity-Friendly Zoning, Inactivity, and Cancer Incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-03-07

    Background: Physical activity (PA) protects against cancer and enhances cancer survivorship. Given high inactivity rates nationwide, population-level physical activity facilitators are needed. Several authoritative bodies have recognized that zoning and planning helps create activity-friendly environments. This study examined the association between activity-friendly zoning, inactivity, and cancer in 478 of the most populous U.S. counties.Methods: County geocodes linked county-level data: cancer incidence and smoking (State Cancer Profiles), inactivity (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 11 zoning measures (compiled by the study team), and covariates (from the American Community Survey and NAVTEQ). For each zoning measure, single mediation regression models and Sobel tests examined whether activity-friendly zoning was associated with reduced cancer incidence, and whether inactivity mediated those associations. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs and significance at the P Zoning for crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths were associated with reduced cancer incidence (β between -0.71 and -1.27, P zoning. Except for crosswalks, each association was mediated by inactivity. However, county smoking attenuated these results, with only crosswalks remaining significant. Results were similar for males (with zoning for bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths), but not females, alone.Conclusions: Zoning can help to create activity-friendly environments that support decreased inactivity, and possibly reduced cancer incidence.Impact: Given low physical activity levels nationwide, cross-sectoral collaborations with urban planning can inform cancer prevention and public health efforts to decrease inactivity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1-9. ©2017 AACR.See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population

  16. Sustainability in a global context: How does local factor affect the outcomes of CSR activities in international business units?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Lauring, Jakob

    In recent years CSR has become increasingly important for the activities and branding of MNCs. While some studies have investigated CSR management and branding in domestic situations, fewer studies exist in the case of international business units (subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises...... as CSR branding outcomes). Our findings show that local values were positively associated with external CSR engagement and that employee relations were positively related to both internal and external CSR engagement. None of the local factors were significantly associated with CSR branding outcomes...

  17. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...... improvement in GPU dynamic performances. This progress is achieved by utilising the proposed FCHB converter to an ANPC converter and using the suggested modulation method. This leads to diminish the size and cost and enhance the feasibility and reliability of the converter. Applying the proposed modulation...

  18. Should losartan be administered following brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alon; Bar-Klein, Guy; Serlin, Yonatan; Parmet, Yisrael; Heinemann, Uwe; Kaufer, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Brain injury is a major health concern and associated with delayed neurological complications, including post-injury epilepsy, cognitive and emotional disabilities. Currently, there is no strategy to prevent post-injury delayed complications. We recently showed that dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier, often reported in brain injuries, can lead to epilepsy and neurodegeneration via activation of inflammatory TGF-β signaling in astrocytes. We further showed that the FDA approved angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, losartan, blocks brain TGF-β signaling and prevents epilepsy in the albumin or blood-brain barrier breakdown models of epileptogenesis. Here we discuss the potential of losartan as an anti-epileptogenic and a neuroprotective drug, the rationale of its use following brain injury and the challenges of designing clinical trials. We highlight the urgent need to develop reliable biomarkers for epileptogenesis (and other complications) after brain injury as a pre-requisite to challenge neuroprotective therapies.

  19. Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, H; Ranebo, Y; Rääf, C L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of (57)Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free (58)Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free (58)Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated (57)Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived (57)Co and (58)Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical health functioning among United Methodist clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; LeGrand, Sara

    2012-09-01

    United Methodist clergy have been found to have higher than average self-reported rates of obesity, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, and high blood pressure. However, health diagnoses differ from physical health functioning, which indicates how much health problems interfere with activities of daily living. Ninety-five percent (n = 1726) of all actively serving United Methodist clergy in North Carolina completed the SF-12, a measure of physical health functioning that has US norms based on self-administered survey data. Sixty-two percent (n = 1074) of our sample completed the SF-12 by self-administered formats. We used mean difference tests among self-administered clergy surveys to compare the clergy SF-12 Physical Composite Scores to US-normed scores. Clergy reported significantly better physical health composite scores than their gender- and age-matched peers, despite above average disease burden in the same sample. Although health interventions tailored to clergy that address chronic disease are urgently needed, it may be difficult to elicit participation given pastors' optimistic view of their physical health functioning.

  1. Trends in No Leisure-Time Physical Activity--United States, 1988-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Latetia V.; Harris, Carmen D.; Carlson, Susan A.; Kruger, Judy; Fulton, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine trends in the prevalence of no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) from 1988 to 2010. Method: Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, 35 states and the District of Columbia reported information on no LTPA from 1988 to 1994; all states reported no LTPA from 1996 to 2010. Results: No…

  2. Dental Charting. Learning Activities, Unit Tests, Progress Chart, and Work Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Occupational Curriculum Development.

    These materials are part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. These student materials, designed to be used with the Dental Charting Student Manual, consist of learning activities, unit…

  3. Purposeful Movement: The Integration of Physical Activity into a Mathematics Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kailey; Dinkel, Danae; Schaffer, Connie; Hiveley, Seth; Colpitts, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Classroom physical activity (PA) has been linked to a multitude of health and academic benefits. However, due to barriers such as lack of time and resources many teachers are not implementing classroom PA to the degree they would like to. One innovative solution is to integrate classroom PA into academic concepts. Based on self-determination…

  4. Sports Management Faculty External Grant-Writing Activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVinney, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to fill a void in information, provide relevant, current data for faculty members related to external grant-writing activities related to the academic field of sport management and serve as a tool that may aid in the advancement of external grant-writing efforts within the field of sport management. All data is specific to…

  5. 12 CFR 347.105 - Permissible financial activities outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consulting services, provided that such services when rendered with respect to the domestic market must be... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.105 Permissible financial activities... and credit health insurance. (6) Performing services for other direct or indirect operations of...

  6. Assessment of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity among women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Carter, Jeanne; Lin, Li; Lindau, Stacy T; Jeffery, Diana D; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Schlosser, Bethanee J; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2017-04-01

    Multidimensional self-report measures of sexual function for women do not include the assessment of vulvar discomfort, limiting our understanding of its prevalence. In an effort to improve the measurement of patient-reported health, the National Institutes of Health funded the creation of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). This included the development of the PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure, and version 2.0 of the Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure included 2 scales to measure vulvar discomfort with sexual activity. The objectives of the study were to describe the development of 2 self-reported measures of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity, describe the relationships between these scales and scales for lubrication and vaginal discomfort, and report the prevalence of vulvar discomfort with sexual activity in a large, nationally representative sample of US women. We followed PROMIS measure development standards, including qualitative development work with patients and clinicians and psychometric evaluation of candidate items based on item response theory, in a probability sample of 1686 English-speaking US adult women. We tested 16 candidate items on vulvar discomfort. We present descriptive statistics for these items, correlation coefficients among the vulvar and vaginal scales, and mean PROMIS scores with 95% confidence intervals separately by menopausal status for the 1046 women who reported sexual activity in the past 30 days. Based on the psychometric evaluation of the candidate items, we created 2 separate 4 item scales, one to measure labial discomfort and pain and one to measure clitoral discomfort and pain. Additional items not included in the scales assess pain quality, numbness, and bleeding. The correlations between the lubrication, vaginal discomfort, and the 2 vulvar discomfort measures ranged from 0.46 to 0.77, suggesting that these measures represent related yet distinct concepts. In

  7. In vitro viability effects on apheresis and buffy-coat derived platelets administered through infusion pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandgren P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Per Sandgren,1,2 Veronica Berggren,3 Carl Westling,1,2 Viveka Stiller1 1Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 3Department of Neonatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Different infusion pump systems as well as gravity infusion have been widely used in neonatal transfusion. However, the limited number of published studies describing the use of infusion pumps on platelets illustrates the necessity for more robust data.Methods: To evaluate the potential in vitro effects on the cellular, metabolic, functional and phenotypic properties of platelets, we set up a four-arm paired study simultaneously comparing the use of different infusion pumps (Alaris® CC/GP with unexposed platelets. The platelet units (n=8 were either produced by the apheresis technique and suspended in 100% plasma or derived from buffy coats to yield platelet units stored in approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+. Fresh and 5-day old platelets were tested.Results: Regardless of the production system or storage time used, no significant differences were observed in glucose and lactate concentration, pH, adenosine triphosphate levels, response to extent of shape change, hypotonic shock response reactivity, and CD62P expression. Similarly, no differences were observed in expression of the conformational epitope on glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, determined using procaspase-activating compound 1, or in the expression of CD42b and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in a comparison between platelets administered through infusion pumps versus unexposed platelets.Conclusion: Using Alaris CC/GP infusion pumps had no influence on the cellular, functional, and phenotypic in vitro properties of platelets. This fact seems not to be affected by different production systems or storage time.Keywords: platelets, neonatal platelet transfusion

  8. Integrating psychological research on girls with feminist activism: a model for building a liberation psychology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S; Lyons, Aoife L

    2003-03-01

    A liberation psychology is needed to bridge the gap between psychology's focus on individual distress and broad social forces that foster such distress. We offer a model for bridging this gap by focusing on a specific area of psychology (psychological research on girls) and a specific social movement (feminist activism). Psychological research on girls and feminist activism share the common goal of improving the lives of girls and women. However, both have fallen short of this goal. This is due, in part, to the weaknesses associated with each endeavor and to the fact that the complementary strengths of each have remained isolated from the other. In this paper, we propose a common language and shared framework to integrate psychological research with feminist activism. First, we review the basic strengths and weaknesses associated with psychological research and feminist activism, with a particular focus on how they are distinct from one another. Second, we provide a taxonomic framework for integrating these two areas on the basis of the stress paradigm, with specific examples provided from our recent reviews of the literature and our own empirical work with adolescent girls. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future work needed to integrate psychological research on girls with feminist activism toward the goal of building a liberation psychology in the United States.

  9. Graphical processing unit implementation of an integrated shape-based active contour: Application to digital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahirzeeshan Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commodity graphics hardware has become a cost-effective parallel platform to solve many general computational problems. In medical imaging and more so in digital pathology, segmentation of multiple structures on high-resolution images, is often a complex and computationally expensive task. Shape-based level set segmentation has recently emerged as a natural solution to segmenting overlapping and occluded objects. However the flexibility of the level set method has traditionally resulted in long computation times and therefore might have limited clinical utility. The processing times even for moderately sized images could run into several hours of computation time. Hence there is a clear need to accelerate these segmentations schemes. In this paper, we present a parallel implementation of a computationally heavy segmentation scheme on a graphical processing unit (GPU. The segmentation scheme incorporates level sets with shape priors to segment multiple overlapping nuclei from very large digital pathology images. We report a speedup of 19× compared to multithreaded C and MATLAB-based implementations of the same scheme, albeit with slight reduction in accuracy. Our GPU-based segmentation scheme was rigorously and quantitatively evaluated for the problem of nuclei segmentation and overlap resolution on digitized histopathology images corresponding to breast and prostate biopsy tissue specimens.

  10. United States-Chile binational exchange for volcanic risk reduction, 2015—Activities and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Lara Pulgar, Luis E.; Ramos Amigo, Álvaro

    2017-07-25

    In 2015, representatives from the United States and Chile exchanged visits to discuss and share their expertise and experiences dealing with volcano hazards. Communities in both countries are at risk from various volcano hazards. Risks to lives and property posed by these hazards are a function not only of the type and size of future eruptions but also of distances from volcanoes, structural integrity of volcanic edifices, landscape changes imposed by recent past eruptions, exposure of people and resources to harm, and any mitigative measures taken (or not taken) to reduce risk. Thus, effective risk-reduction efforts require the knowledge and consideration of many factors, and firsthand experience with past volcano crises provides a tremendous advantage for this work. However, most scientists monitoring volcanoes and most officials delegated with the responsibility for emergency response and management in volcanic areas have little or no firsthand experience with eruptions or volcano hazards. The reality is that eruptions are infrequent in most regions, and individual volcanoes may have dormant periods lasting hundreds to thousands of years. Knowledge may be lacking about how to best plan for and manage future volcanic crises, and much can be learned from the sharing of insights and experiences among counterpart specialists who have had direct, recent, or different experiences in dealing with restless volcanoes and threatened populations. The sharing of information and best practices can help all volcano scientists and officials to better prepare for future eruptions or noneruptive volcano hazards, such as large volcanic mudflows (lahars), which could affect their communities.

  11. Immunotoxicity of dibromoacetic acid administered via drinking water to female B₆C₃F₁ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Germolec, Dori R; Luebke, Robert W; Sheth, Christopher M; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Guo, Tai L; White, Kimber L

    2010-01-01

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a disinfection by-product commonly found in drinking water as a result of chlorination/ ozonation processes. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that more than 200 million people consume disinfected water in the United States. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential immunotoxicological effects of DBA exposure when administered for 28 days via drinking water to B₆C₃F₁ mice, at concentrations of 125, 500, and 1000 mg/L. Multiple endpoints were evaluated to assess innate, humoral, and cell-mediated immune components, as well as host resistance. Standard toxicological parameters were unaffected, with the exception of a dose-responsive increase in liver weight and a decrease in thymus weight at the two highest exposure levels. Splenocyte differentials were affected, although the effects were not dose-responsive. Exposure to DBA did not significantly affect humoral immunity (immunoglobulin M [IgM] plaque assay and serum IgM anti-sheep erythrocyte titers) or cell-mediated immunity (mixed-leukocyte response). No effects were observed on innate immune function in either interferon-γ-induced in vitro macrophage cytotoxic activity or basal natural killer (NK)-cell activity. Augmented NK-cell activity (following exposure to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) was decreased at the low dose, however the effect was not dose-responsive. Finally, DBA exposure had no effect on resistance to infection with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Plasmodium yoelii, or challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. With the exception of changes in thymus weight, these results indicate that DBA exposure resulted in no immunotoxic effects at concentrations much larger than those considered acceptable in human drinking water.

  12. Moving the Barricades to Physical Activity: A Qualitative Analysis of Open Streets Initiatives Across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Hipp, J Aaron; Lokuta, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ciclovía, or Open Streets initiatives, are events where streets are opened for physical activity and closed to motorized traffic. Although the initiatives are gaining popularity in the United States, little is known about planning and implementing them. The goals of this paper are to explore the development and implementation of Open Streets initiatives and make recommendations for increasing the capacity of organizers to enhance initiative success. Phenomenology with qualitative analysis of structured interviews was used. Study setting was urban and suburban communities in the United States. Study participants were organizers of Open Streets initiatives in U.S. cities. Using a list of 47 events held in 2011, 27 lead organizers were interviewed by telephone about planning, implementation, and lessons learned. The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. A phenomenologic approach was used, an initial coding tool was developed after reviewing a sample of transcripts, and constant comparative coding methodology was applied. Themes and subthemes were generated from codes. The most common reasons for initiation were to highlight or improve health and transportation. Most initiatives aimed to reach the general population, but some targeted families, children, or specific neighborhoods. Getting people to understand the concept of Open Streets was an important challenge. Other challenges included lack of funding and personnel, and complex logistics. These initiatives democratize public space for citizens while promoting physical activity, social connectedness, and other broad agendas. There are opportunities for the research community to contribute to the expanse and sustainability of Open Streets, particularly in evaluation and dissemination.

  13. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  14. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1961 - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1961 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1961.

  15. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1962 - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1962 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1962.

  16. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1960 - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1960 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1960.

  17. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1959 - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1959 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1959.

  18. Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ducharme-Crevier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.

  19. Comparison of the Output in Weighted Work Units of Installation Dental Laboratories with that of Regional Dental Activities. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    78234 . 1 July f98O __ Final .ep.ar.JJ.- Approved for Public Release Distribution Limited Prepared for: >p- UNITED STATES ARMY HEALTH SERVICES COMMAND...personnel for the typing of the manuscript and preparation of tables and graphs. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page SUMMARY...Partial Veneer Crowns/ Onlays 30/Unit 13 Castings 10/Unit 14 Post and Core 25/Unit 15 Precision Connector, FPD 75/Unit 16 Andrews Bridge 150/Unit 17

  20. 脊髓神经元凋亡在鞘内注射血小板活化因子诱发大鼠痛敏中的作用%Effects of platelet-activating factor administered intrathecally on the expression of neuronal apoptosis in spi-nal cord of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨京利; 段宏伟; 马国平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of neuronal apoptosis in development of tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by platelet-activating factor administered intrathecally.Methods 60 Sprague-Dawley rats with intrathecal PE-10 catheters were randomly divided into two groups:control(artificial cerebral spinal fluid,10 μl)group,PAF (10 μg,dissolved in 10 μl ACSF)group.Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold and thermal latency were measured at-1 ,1 ,3,5,7 and 14 days after surgery .Changes of apoptosis of spinal neuron were observed by TUNEL.Results Intrathecally administered PAF induced development of tactile all-odynia and thermal hyperalgesia rapidly,The expression of spinal neuronal apoptotic index in control group were significantly lower than those in the PAF group(P <0.01).Conclusions Intrathecally administered PAF may induce development of tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats,and this process might be associ-ated with neuronal apoptosis in spinal cord.%目的:探讨脊髓神经元凋亡在鞘内注射血小板活化因子(PAF)诱发大鼠痛敏中的作用。方法鞘内置管成功的雄性 Sprague-Dawley 大鼠60只,随机分为2组:对照组,30只,鞘内注射人工脑脊液(arti-ficial cerebral spinal fluid,ACSF)10μl;PAF 组,30只,鞘内注射 PAF 10μg,溶解于10μl 人工脑脊液;分别于鞘内给药前1 d、给药后1、3、5、7、14 d 分别测定机械痛阈(PWMT)和热痛阈(PWTL)。取 L4-6脊髓,采用TUNEL 法观察脊髓神经元凋亡。结果鞘内注射血小板活化因子(PAF)可诱发出大鼠机械性触诱发痛和热痛觉过敏。PAF 组术后1 d 脊髓中开始有少量凋亡神经元出现,凋亡指数于术后3 d 开始迅速增加,术后5 d 达峰值,与对照组比较,有显著性差异(P <0.01)。结论鞘内注射 PAF 诱发大鼠触觉异常痛敏和热痛敏,脊髓神经元凋亡可能参与了鞘内注射 PAF 大鼠痛敏的形成。

  1. Scientific activity of the spanish liberal exiles in the United Kingdom, 1823-1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera Candel, Manuel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1823, after the squashing of Riego and the restoration of the absolutism of Fernando VII, most of the Spanish liberals went to England, where they carried out different scientific and technical activities. Among the émigrés there was reputed scientists, like Bauzá, Lagasca o Seoane, that in London were able to continue with their scientific activities. Other émigrés carried out an important activity of diffusion of scientific and technical advances through papers and notes that appeared in different magazines of general character published in the Spanish language; of special interest was El Museo Universal de Ciencias y Artes, directed and edited by J. J. Mora, and dedicated entirely to the scientific and technical divulgation. There was, likewise, another activity related to the scientific education, the «scientific catechisms», brief textbooks on mathematics, geography, chemistry, natural sciences, etc., directed towards elementary teaching and aimed to Latino American people, published by Ackermann. In the present work, we offer a comprehensive description of thes  activities.

    En 1823, tras el aplastamiento de Riego y la reinstauración del absolutismo fernandino, se produjo un exilio masivo de liberales hacia el Reino Unido, donde realizaron diversas actividades relacionadas con la ciencia y la técnica. Entre los liberales exiliados había reputados científicos, como Mariano Lagasca, Felipe Bauzá o Mateo Seoane, que en Londres pudieron proseguir con sus actividades científicas. Otros emigrados realizaron una importante labor de difusión de los adelantos científicos y técnicos a través de las diferentes revistas editadas en lengua española; entre ellas
    destacó El Museo Universal de Ciencias y Artes, dirigida y redactada por J. J. de Mora, dedicada íntegramente a la divulgación científico-técnica. Hubo, finalmente, otra actividad relacionada con la educación científica, la elaboración de los

  2. A Computer-Administered Examination in Professional Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Presents rationale and procedure for a computer-administered examination in professional ethics. Discusses advantages and implications of computer-administered testing in professional ethics, noting benefits for instructors and students of professional ethics in counseling and counseling psychology. (Author/NB)

  3. 40 CFR 147.1450 - State-administered program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Code , Underground Injection Control Regulations, Sections 1 through 96.1, Inclusive. July 22... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Nevada § 147.1450 State-administered program. The UIC program for all classes of underground injection wells in the State...

  4. Active learning units interrelated using TIC’s tools in architectural construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Martí Audí

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 141 779 USAL 6 1 919 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The presence of new technologies in the university world is a matter of fact. Nevertheless, it has not always blended correctly as in many cases TIC incorporation has not taken alumni opinion understood as final users. A correct implementation might evaluate some variables as satisfaction, need, interest and finally that versatility to adapt it to proficient professional training on a regular basis. This paper analyses a new approach to learning in the field of Architectural Construction based on a series of strategically designed and interactive units. The centre of these is the collaborative project; this is based on complex problem-solving situations akin to the professional world; where theory and practice are combined in a discovery-learning process. The tools of Information and Communication Technology are applied, simultaneously facilitating the student’s autonomy in acquiring skills and knowledge.

  5. An estimate of the cost of administering intravenous biological agents in Spanish day hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolla, Joan Miquel; Martín, Esperanza; Llamas, Pilar; Manero, Javier; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo; Fernández-Miera, Manuel Francisco; Rodríguez, Mercedes; López, José Manuel; Ivanova, Alexandra; Aragón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the unit costs of administering intravenous (IV) biological agents in day hospitals (DHs) in the Spanish National Health System. Patients and methods Data were obtained from 188 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, collected from nine DHs, receiving one of the following IV therapies: infliximab (n=48), rituximab (n=38), abatacept (n=41), or tocilizumab (n=61). The fieldwork was carried out between March 2013 and March 2014. The following three groups of costs were considered: 1) structural costs, 2) material costs, and 3) staff costs. Staff costs were considered a fixed cost and were estimated according to the DH theoretical level of activity, which includes, as well as personal care of each patient, the DH general activities (complete imputation method, CIM). In addition, an alternative calculation was performed, in which the staff costs were considered a variable cost imputed according to the time spent on direct care (partial imputation method, PIM). All costs were expressed in euros for the reference year 2014. Results The average total cost was €146.12 per infusion (standard deviation [SD] ±87.11; CIM) and €29.70 per infusion (SD ±11.42; PIM). The structure-related costs per infusion varied between €2.23 and €62.35 per patient and DH; the cost of consumables oscillated between €3.48 and €20.34 per patient and DH. In terms of the care process, the average difference between the shortest and the longest time taken by different hospitals to administer an IV biological therapy was 113 minutes. Conclusion The average total cost of infusion was less than that normally used in models of economic evaluation coming from secondary sources. This cost is even less when the staff costs are imputed according to the PIM. A high degree of variability was observed between different DHs in the cost of the consumables, in the structure-related costs, and in those of the care process. PMID:28356746

  6. Activity of MKT 077, a rhodacyanine dye, against human tumor colony-forming units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, T; Izbicka, E; Lawrence, R A; Nalin, C; Weitman, S D; Von Hoff, D D

    1999-03-01

    MKT 077 is related to rhodamine 123 dye and demonstrates preferential accumulation in the mitochondria of cancer cells compared to normal cells. This difference in retention between cancer and normal cells led to the finding that MKT 077 selectively inhibits the growth of cancer cells in vitro. To define the preclinical activity profile of MKT 077, the compound was tested in vivo against a large variety of human tumors utilizing the human tumor-cloning assay. MKT 077 was studied using a sequential 2 h exposure separated by 24 h (2-24-2 h) and a 24 h exposure at final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 10.0 and 20.0 microg/ml. MKT 077 was also studied using continuous exposure at final concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ml. A decrease in tumor colony formation was considered significant if survival of colonies treated with MKT 077 was 50% or less compared to untreated controls. A total of 149 specimens was treated with MKT 077 with 51, 58 and 34 evaluable specimens with the 2-24-2 h, the 24 h and the continuous exposure, respectively. The results of the present study suggest a positive relationship between concentration and response. No relationship between exposure schedule and activity was observed. Inhibitory effects were obtained against multiple tumor types. High cytotoxic activity was obtained against breast, ovary, endometrial, colon and non-small cell lung cancer with concentrations of 2 microg/ml or above. In conclusion, the broad spectrum of cytotoxicity of MKT 077 in the human tumor-cloning assay and the unique mechanism of action of MKT 077 encourage additional preclinical and clinical studies with this compound and other rhodacyanine dyes.

  7. Environmental Policy Issues Affecting the United States Army in Its Overseas Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    regretting sauvage at du milieu naturel de I’Europe (Convention that this activity is restrained by the limited funds de Berne). et regrettant que cette...sauvage et du milieu naturel de l’Europe; ,c. follow up the Assembly’s longstanding request c. de donner suite A la demande ddjh ancienne de that the...minerals, such as mLu’ble. sand, gravel, shale, salt, phosphates and potash. (d, Etcaction -of coal and lignite by underground mining, (e) E r-ort o

  8. Muscle-tendon units localization and activation level analysis based on high-density surface EMG array and NMF algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Some skeletal muscles can be subdivided into smaller segments called muscle-tendon units (MTUs). The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to locate the active region of the corresponding MTUs within a single skeletal muscle and to analyze the activation level varieties of different MTUs during a dynamic motion task. Approach. Biceps brachii and gastrocnemius were selected as targeted muscles and three dynamic motion tasks were designed and studied. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the data collection experiments, and 128-channel surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected with a high-density sEMG electrode grid (a grid consists of 8 rows and 16 columns). Then the sEMG envelopes matrix was factorized into a matrix of weighting vectors and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. Main results. The experimental results demonstrated that the weightings vectors, which represent invariant pattern of muscle activity across all channels, could be used to estimate the location of MTUs and the time-varying coefficients could be used to depict the variation of MTUs activation level during dynamic motion task. Significance. The proposed method provides one way to analyze in-depth the functional state of MTUs during dynamic tasks and thus can be employed on multiple noteworthy sEMG-based applications such as muscle force estimation, muscle fatigue research and the control of myoelectric prostheses. This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 61431017 and 61271138.

  9. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA, using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  10. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  11. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  12. Vital Signs: Prevalence of Doctor-Diagnosed Arthritis and Arthritis-Attributable Activity Limitation - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Boring, Michael; Brady, Teresa J

    2017-03-10

    In the United States, doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common and disabling chronic condition. Arthritis can lead to severe joint pain and poor physical function, and it can negatively affect quality of life. CDC analyzed 2013-2015 data from the National Health Interview Survey, an annual, nationally representative, in-person interview survey of the health status and behaviors of the noninstitutionalized civilian U.S. adult population, to update previous prevalence estimates of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitations. On average, during 2013-2015, 54.4 million (22.7%) adults had doctor-diagnosed arthritis, and 23.7 million (43.5% of those with arthritis) had arthritis-attributable activity limitations (an age-adjusted increase of approximately 20% in the proportion of adults with arthritis reporting activity limitations since 2002 [p-trend arthritis were 49.3%, 47.1%, and 30.6%, respectively; the prevalences of arthritis-attributable activity limitations among adults with these conditions and arthritis were 54.5% (heart disease), 54.0% (diabetes), and 49.0% (obesity). The prevalence of arthritis is high, particularly among adults with comorbid conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Furthermore, the prevalence of arthritis-attributable activity limitations is high and increasing over time. Approximately half of adults with arthritis and heart disease, arthritis and diabetes, or arthritis and obesity are limited by their arthritis. Greater use of evidence-based physical activity and self-management education interventions can reduce pain and improve function and quality of life for adults with arthritis and also for adults with other chronic conditions who might be limited by their arthritis.

  13. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G`s Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC`s), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 & 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G`s disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred.

  14. Patterns of physical activity in free-living adults in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, M S; Acra, S; Majchrzak, K M; Sun, M; Chen, K Y

    2004-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the amount and patterns of physical activity (PA), body fatness, and age in a heterogeneous adult population in the free living. Cross-sectional study of the amount of PA over a 1-week period. The amount of body movements during PA (PA counts*10(3)) and time spent on various PA intensity categories were calculated from a triaxial accelerometer and compared with subject characteristics, including body fat from hydrodensitometry. Adult healthy men (n=48) and women (n=72) were recruited from the Nashville, Tennessee area and their PA was monitored in their free-living environment. The average weekday PA counts (176.5+/-60.3, P=0.002, r(2)=0.294), PA counts day-to-day variability (47.3+/-32.7, P=0.002, r(2)=0.286), daily maximum PA counts (241.9+/-89.2, P=0.001, r(2)=0.327), minute-to-minute variability on weekdays (0.281+/-0.091, P=0.001, r(2)=0.362), and the difference between maximum and minimum daily PA counts (130.6+/-78.3, P=0.008, r(2)=0.243) were significantly and negatively correlated with body fatness. During awake time, both men and women spent 10-12 h on low intensity (1.0-2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)) PA, approximately 1 h on moderate (3.0-5.9 MET), and less than 10 min on vigorous (>6.0 MET) PA each day. On weekends, men and women spent more time at rest (1 MET), less time on low-intensity PA, and men spent more time on moderate PA than on weekdays. In adults living in the Southern US the amount of free-living PA was negatively correlated with body fatness. Both men and women spent the majority of active time on low and moderate PA. PA patterns on weekends were different than on weekdays and were related to sex and age, but not to body fatness. National Institutes of Health, US.

  15. Estimating active transportation behaviors to support health impact assessment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J Mansfield

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be

  16. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  17. Deviant Citizenship: DREAMer Activism in the United States and Transnational Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Weber-Shirk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available My analysis places the assertions of political presence by non-citizen immigrant youth in the U.S. (often referred to as DREAMers within a rapidly globalizing world; this placement re-frames the DREAMers’ movement from a fight for U.S. citizenship to a broader critique of the limits and impossibility of liberal democratic citizenship, which claims to be all-inclusive. Increased transnational migration has brought into stark relief the inequality that current frameworks of nation-state citizenship, as a caste-system of rights, have codified. I am interested in the activism of immigrant youth as a place to explore where immigrants themselves are reasserting the right to politics. This reassertion privileges the social embeddedness of family ties and community above the notion of individual choice or individual rationality. In doing so, this articulation of politics is a critique of the liberal order by forcing the consideration of the contexts and structures that create migration, exploitation, and transnational communities of belonging.

  18. Oceanic Influences on Pacific Storm Track Activity and Southwest United States Precipitation from 1915-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, R.; Han, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) exert influence on the position and strength of storm tracks through ocean interactions with the atmosphere. This study utilizes a comprehensive set of satellite and in situ data from 1915-2011 to show how the IPO and AMO may have influenced and are related to historical December-January-February storm track activity (STA) and precipitation (snow) over the north Pacific and southwest US (SWUS). SWUS river basin water supply for people, agriculture and energy production throughout the year is predominantly dependent on snowpack depth and by changes in ocean conditions across multiple time scales. Positive STA and precipitation anomalies are strongly related to positive (warm) IPO phases across datasets and time periods while negative (cool) IPO phases are not as robustly linked to specific anomalous conditions. Additionally, we find some evidence for STA-precipitation relationships with time and region dependencies. While continued global change could cause a mean poleward shift in STA and precipitation patterns in the future, there is as yet little indication of such a shift in observational data. Moreover, the interannual to interdecadal variability discussed in this study will continue to be important to water resource managers throughout the region.

  19. Research, development, and commercialization activities on biomass energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Research and development activities in the US on the production of energy products and synthetic fuels from organic wastes and land- and water-based biomass are growing rapidly. Commercialization of the results of this effort is also progressing but at a lower rate. Commercial plants are currently operating to produce steam and electric power by combustion or co-combustion of municipal solid wastes, agricultural residues, and wood; methane from landfills and cattle manure; and fermentation alcohol for use in gasohol blends. Available fossil fuels are still sufficiently low in cost in the US to make the economics of producing substitute fuels from biomass borderline or unattractive. Large-scale integrated biomass energy systems are therefore not expected to be constructed and operated until the late 1980's and early 1990's. Nevertheless, about 2.1% of the US total energy supply is now derived from biomass; this corresponds to about 1.7 x 10/sup 15/ Btu.

  20. Survey on astrobiology research and teaching activities within the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Burchell, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    While astrobiology is apparently growing steadily around the world, in terms of the number of researchers drawn into this interdisciplinary area and teaching courses provided for new students, there have been very few studies conducted to chart this expansion quantitatively. To address this deficiency, the Astrobiology Society of Britain (ASB) conducted a questionnaire survey of universities and research institutions nationwide to ascertain the current extent of astrobiology research and teaching in the UK. The aim was to provide compiled statistics and an information resource for those who seek research groups or courses of study, and to facilitate new interdisciplinary collaborations. The report here summarizes details gathered on 33 UK research groups, which involved 286 researchers (from undergraduate project students to faculty members). The survey indicates that around 880 students are taking university-level courses, with significant elements of astrobiology included, every year in the UK. Data are also presented on the composition of astrobiology students by their original academic field, which show a significant dominance of physics and astronomy students. This survey represents the first published systematic national assessment of astrobiological academic activity and indicates that this emerging field has already achieved a strong degree of penetration into the UK academic community.

  1. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Moreno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG. Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  2. Toxicity and biodistribution of orally administered casein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Gloria; Irache, Juan Manuel; Peñuelas, Iván; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; López de Cerain, Adela

    2017-08-01

    In the last years, casein nanoparticles have been proposed as carriers for the oral delivery of biologically active compounds. However, till now, no information about their possible specific hazards in vivo was available. The aim of this work was to assess the safety of casein nanoparticles when administered orally to animals through a 90 days dose-repeated toxicity study (OECD guideline 408), that was performed in Wistar rats under GLP conditions. After 90 days, no evidences of significant alterations in animals treated daily with 50, 150 or 500 mg/kg bw of nanoparticles were found. This safety agrees well with the fact that nanoparticles were not absorbed and remained within the gut as observed by radiolabelling in the biodistribution study. After 28 days, there was a generalized hyperchloremia in males and females treated with the highest dose of 500 mg/kg bw, that was coupled with hypernatremia in the females. These effects were related to the presence of mannitol which was used as excipient in the formulation of casein nanoparticles. According to these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could be established in 150 mg/kg bw/day and the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) could be established in 500 mg/kg bw/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. In vitro activities of nontraditional antimicrobials against multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in an intensive care unit outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, M D; Belzberg, H; Citron, D M; Heseltine, P N; Yellin, A E; Murray, J; Berne, T V

    2000-04-01

    Fifteen multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from patients in intensive care units and 14 nonoutbreak strains were tested to determine in vitro activities of nontraditional antimicrobials, including cefepime, meropenem, netilmicin, azithromycin, doxycycline, rifampin, sulbactam, and trovafloxacin. The latter five drugs were further tested against four of the strains for bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity by performing kill-curve studies at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 times their MICs. In addition, novel combinations of drugs with sulbactam were examined for synergistic interactions by using a checkerboard configuration. MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited for antimicrobials showing activity against the multiresistant A. baumannii strains were as follows (in parentheses): doxycycline (1 microg/ml), azithromycin (4 microg/ml), netilmicin (1 microg/ml), rifampin (8 microg/ml), polymyxin (0.8 U/ml), meropenem (4 microg/ml), trovafloxacin (4 microg/ml), and sulbactam (8 microg/ml). In the kill-curve studies, azithromycin and rifampin were rapidly bactericidal while sulbactam was more slowly bactericidal. Trovafloxacin and doxycycline were bacteriostatic. None of the antimicrobials tested were bactericidal against all strains tested. The synergy studies demonstrated that the combinations of sulbactam with azithromycin, rifampin, doxycycline, or trovafloxacin were generally additive or indifferent.

  4. Dynamic changes in single unit activity and γ oscillations in a thalamocortical circuit during rapid instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiu; Fan, David; Lopez, Alberto; Yin, Henry H

    2012-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MD) together form a thalamocortical circuit that has been implicated in the learning and production of goal-directed actions. In this study we measured neural activity in both regions simultaneously, as rats learned to press a lever to earn food rewards. In both MD and mPFC, instrumental learning was accompanied by dramatic changes in the firing patterns of the neurons, in particular the rapid emergence of single-unit neural activity reflecting the completion of the action and reward delivery. In addition, we observed distinct patterns of changes in the oscillatory LFP response in MD and mPFC. With learning, there was a significant increase in theta band oscillations (6-10 Hz) in the MD, but not in the mPFC. By contrast, gamma band oscillations (40-55 Hz) increased in the mPFC, but not in the MD. Coherence between these two regions also changed with learning: gamma coherence in relation to reward delivery increased, whereas theta coherence did not. Together these results suggest that, as rats learned the instrumental contingency between action and outcome, the emergence of task related neural activity is accompanied by enhanced functional interaction between MD and mPFC in response to the reward feedback.

  5. 24 CFR 511.50 - State election to administer a rental rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rental rehabilitation program. 511.50 Section 511.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... GRANT PROGRAM State Program § 511.50 State election to administer a rental rehabilitation program. (a) State allocations may be used to carry out eligible rehabilitation activities in accordance with...

  6. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-04-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50-65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect of temperature (55-65 °C) and exposure to gas-liquid and liquid-heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction.

  7. Effects of the intra-arterial injection of bradykinin into the limbs, upon the activity of mesencephalic reticular units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, M C; Guilbaud, G; Besson, J M

    1975-02-01

    The changes in firing rate of mesencephalic reticular units after intra-arterial injection into the limbs of a potent nociceptive agent, bradykinin, were studied in cats (unanesthetized, immobilized with flaxedil and hyperventilated). 30 per cent of the d35 studied cells were affected, 56 per cent were excited, 23 per cent inhibited and 5 per cent had mixed effects. Among the 75 excited cells, the activation of 16 of them seemed to related to the arousa- processes (group A); for 56 cells the increase seemed dire-tly dependent on the nociceptive stimulation itself (group B). The changes of firing rate were repruducible; their latencies and durations were of the same order as the latencies and duration of the nociceptive reactions and painful sensation s, which have been obtained in animals and men after bradykinin injections. The modifications induced by bradykinin administration were suppressed by Ketamin and Thiopental.

  8. Park availability and physical activity, TV time, and overweight and obesity among women: Findings from Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Abbott, Gavin; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Besenyi, Gina M; Lamb, Karen E

    2016-03-01

    This study examined relationships between three measures of park availability and self-reported physical activity (PA), television viewing (TV) time, and overweight/obesity among women from Australia and the United States. Having more parks near home was the only measure of park availability associated with an outcome. Australian women (n=1848) with more parks near home had higher odds of meeting PA recommendations and lower odds of being overweight/obese. In the US sample (n=489), women with more parks near home had lower odds of watching >4h TV per day. A greater number of parks near home was associated with lower BMI among both Australian and US women. Evidence across diverse contexts provides support to improve park availability to promote PA and other health behaviors.

  9. Prevalence of Arthritis and Arthritis-Attributable Activity Limitation by Urban-Rural County Classification - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Michael A; Hootman, Jennifer M; Liu, Yong; Theis, Kristina A; Murphy, Louise B; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Brady, Terry J; Croft, Janet B

    2017-05-26

    Rural populations in the United States have well documented health disparities, including higher prevalences of chronic health conditions (1,2). Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is one of the most prevalent health conditions (22.7%) in the United States, affecting approximately 54.4 million adults (3). The impact of arthritis is considerable: an estimated 23.7 million adults have arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL). The age-standardized prevalence of AAAL increased nearly 20% from 2002 to 2015 (3). Arthritis prevalence varies widely by state (range = 19%-36%) and county (range = 16%-39%) (4). Despite what is known about arthritis prevalence at the national, state, and county levels and the substantial impact of arthritis, little is known about the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL across urban-rural areas overall and among selected subgroups. To estimate the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL by urban-rural categories CDC analyzed data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The unadjusted prevalence of arthritis in the most rural areas was 31.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 31.0%-32.5%) and in the most urban, was 20.5% (95% CI = 20.1%-21.0%). The unadjusted AAAL prevalence among adults with arthritis was 55.3% in the most rural areas and 49.7% in the most urban. Approximately 1 in 3 adults in the most rural areas have arthritis and over half of these adults have AAAL. Wider use of evidence-based interventions including physical activity and self-management education in rural areas might help reduce the impact of arthritis and AAAL.

  10. Agreement between a self-administered questionnaire on musculoskeletal disorders of the neck-shoulder region and a physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisson Chantal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In epidemiological studies on neck-shoulder disorders, physical examination by health professionals, although more expensive, is usually considered a better method of data collection than self-administered questionnaires on symptoms. However, little is known on the comparison of these two methods of data collection. The agreement between self-administered questionnaires and the physical examination on the presence of neck-shoulders disorders was assessed in the present study. Methods This study was conducted among clerical workers using video display units. Prevalent cases were workers for whom neck-shoulder symptoms were present for at least 3 days during the previous 7 days and for whom pain intensity was greater than 50 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. All 85 workers meeting this definition and a random sample of 102 workers who did not meet this definition were selected. Physical examination included measures of active range of motion and musculoskeletal strength. Cohen's kappa and global percent agreement were calculated to compare the two methods of data collection. The effect on the agreement of different question and physical examination definitions and the importance of the time interval elapsed between the administrations of the tests were also evaluated. Results Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.19 to 0.54 depending on the definitions used to ascertain disorders. The agreement was highest when the two instruments were administered 21 days apart or less (Kappa = 0.54, global agreement = 77%. It was not substantially improved by the addition of criteria related to functional limitations or when comparisons were made with alternative physical examination definitions. Pain intensity recorded during physical examination maneuvers was an important element of the agreement between questionnaire and physical examination findings. Conclusion These results suggest a fair to good agreement between the presence of

  11. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--development of a self-administered outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    There is broad consensus that good outcome measures are needed to distinguish interventions that are effective from those that are not. This task requires standardized, patient-centered measures that can be administered at a low cost. We developed a questionnaire to assess short- and long......-term patient-relevant outcomes following knee injury, based on the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, a literature review, an expert panel, and a pilot study. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self-administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport...

  12. Measured dose rate constant from oncology patients administered 18F for positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Brian; Holahan, Brian; Aime, Jean; Humm, John; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Patient exposure rate measurements verify published patient dose rate data and characterize dose rates near 2-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) patients. A specific dose rate constant based on patient exposure rate measurements is a convenient quantity that can be applied to the desired distance, injection activity, and time postinjection to obtain an accurate calculation of cumulative external radiation dose. This study reports exposure rates measured at various locations near positron emission tomography (PET) {sup 18}F-FDG patients prior to PET scanning. These measurements are normalized for the amount of administered activity, measurement distance, and time postinjection and are compared with other published data. Methods: Exposure rates were measured using a calibrated ionization chamber at various body locations from 152 adult oncology patients postvoid after a mean uptake time of 76 min following injection with a mean activity of 490 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. Data were obtained at nine measurement locations for each patient: three near the head, four near the chest, and two near the feet. Results: On contact with, 30 cm superior to and 30 cm lateral to the head, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.482 (0.511), 0.135 (0.155), and 0.193 (0.223) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. On contact with, 30 cm anterior to, 30 cm lateral to and 1 m anterior to the chest, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.623 (0.709), 0.254 (0.283), 0.190 (0.218), and 0.067 (0.081) {mu}Sv/MBq h respectively. 30 cm inferior and 30 cm lateral to the feet, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.024 (0.022) and 0.039 (0.044) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. Conclusions: The measurements for this study support the use of 0.092 {mu}Sv m{sup 2}/MBq h as a reasonable representation of the dose rate anterior from the chest of

  13. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  14. Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Methods of Administering Growth-Stage Deficit Irrigation on Yield and Soil Water ... study reveal that at vegetative growth stage of the maize crop, it is better to skip weekly irrigation (to ..... Treatment Class. ..... middle Egypt conditions.

  15. Comparison of quality of induction of anaesthesia between intramuscularly administered ketamine, intravenously administered ketamine and intravenously administered propofol in xylazine premedicated cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Dzikiti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of induction of general anesthesia produced by ketamine and propofol, 2 of the most commonly used anaesthetic agents in cats, was assessed. Eighteen cats admitted for elective procedures were randomly assigned to 3 groups and then premedicated with xylazine 0.75 mg/kg intramuscularly before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 15 mg/kg intramuscularly (KetIM group, ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously (KetIV group or propofol 4 mg/kg intravenously (PropIV group. Quality of induction of general anaesthesia was determined by scoring ease of intubation, degree of struggling, and vocalisation during the induction period. The quality of induction of anaesthesia of intramuscularly administered ketamine was inferior to that of intravenously administered ketamine, while intravenously administered propofol showed little difference in quality of induction from ketamine administered by both the intramuscular and intravenous routes. There were no significant differences between groups in the ease of intubation scores, while vocalisation and struggling were more common in cats that received ketamine intramuscularly than in those that received intravenously administered ketamine or propofol for induction of anaesthesia. Laryngospasms occurred in 2 cats that received propofol. The heart rates and respiratory rates decreased after xylazine premedication and either remained the same or decreased further after induction for all 3 groups, but remained within normal acceptable limits. This study indicates that the 3 regimens are associated with acceptable induction characteristics, but administration of ketamine intravenously is superior to its administration intramuscularly and laryngeal desensitisation is recommended to avoid laryngospasms.

  16. Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

    The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

  17. Dissociated multi-unit activity and local field potentials: a theory inspired analysis of a motor decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Maurizio; Ferraina, Stefano; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    Local field potentials (LFP) and multi-unit activity (MUA) recorded in vivo are known to convey different information about the underlying neural activity. Here we extend and support the idea that single-electrode LFP-MUA task-related modulations can shed light on the involved large-scale, multi-modular neural dynamics. We first illustrate a theoretical scheme and associated simulation evidence, proposing that in a multi-modular neural architecture local and distributed dynamic properties can be extracted from the local spiking activity of one pool of neurons in the network. From this new perspective, the spectral features of the field potentials reflect the time structure of the ongoing fluctuations of the probed local neuronal pool on a wide frequency range. We then report results obtained recording from the dorsal premotor (PMd) cortex of monkeys performing a countermanding task, in which a reaching movement is performed, unless a visual stop signal is presented. We find that the LFP and MUA spectral components on a wide frequency band (3-2000 Hz) are very differently modulated in time for successful reaching, successful and wrong stop trials, suggesting an interplay of local and distributed components of the underlying neural activity in different periods of the trials and for different behavioural outcomes. Besides, the MUA spectral power is shown to possess a time-dependent structure, which we suggest could help in understanding the successive involvement of different local neuronal populations. Finally, we compare signals recorded from PMd and dorso-lateral prefrontal (PFCd) cortex in the same experiment, and speculate that the comparative time-dependent spectral analysis of LFP and MUA can help reveal patterns of functional connectivity in the brain.

  18. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Mingyi Wu; Li Xu; Longyan Zhao; Chuang Xiao; Na Gao; Lan Luo; Lian Yang; Zi Li; Lingyun Chen; Jinhua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from...

  19. 'Patient participation' in everyday activities in special care units for persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Ann Karin; Larsson, Maria; Athlin, Elsy

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore 'patient participation' in everyday activities for persons with dementia living in special care units in nursing homes. Studies about how 'patient participation' appears in the context of special care units for persons with dementia are lacking. The study has an explorative design. Grounded theory was chosen. Data collection was carried out by means of open observations and additional conversations with residents and personnel. Simultaneously, data analysis was performed with open, axial and selective coding. The findings showed that 'patient participation' concerned 'A matter of presence' as the core category. The other categories described as 'presence of personnel' and 'presence of residents', were strongly connected to the core category as well as to each other. Presence of personnel comprised three levels; being there in body, which required physical presence; being there in mind, which required presence with all senses based on knowledge and competence; and being there in morality which was understood as being fully present, as it was based on humanistic values and included the two other levels. Presence of residents comprised 'ability and wish' and 'adaptation'. The presence of the personnel had a huge impact on the ability and will to participate of the residents. Organizational conditions concerning leadership, amount of personnel and routines as well as housing conditions concerning architecture and shared accommodation, could stimulate or hinder 'patient participation'. The study highlighted the great impact of the personnel's presence in body, mind and morality on the participation capacity of the residents. The great importance of the nurse leaders was stressed, as they were responsible for organizational issues and served as role models. Group supervision of the personnel and their leaders would be an implication to propose, as these kinds of reflection groups offer opportunities to reflect on values, actions and

  20. Latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician rift-related magmatic activity in the Kouřim Unit, Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Machek, Matej; Sláma, Jiří; Janoušek, Vojtěch

    2017-04-01

    Pre-collisional history of high-grade Variscan complexes is mostly difficult to reveal, due to intense reworking during the development of the orogenic belt. An ancient magmatism could provide a unique possibility to study it. The Kouřim Unit represents an extensive pre-Variscan plutonic body involved into the tectonic collage of the Kutná Hora Crystalline Complex, at the northern margin of the Moldanubian Domain in the Bohemian Massif. The LA-ICP-MS zircon ages and geochemical characteristics of (meta-)igneous rocks from the Kouřim Unit allow us to determine the timing and nature of magmatic activity within this part of the Bohemian Massif and thus to decipher its pre-Variscan evolution. The Kouřim Unit is composed of strongly metamorphosed and deformed sequence of magmatic rocks, dominated mainly by various types of migmatites, coarse-grained orthogneisses and minor metadiorites. The newly obtained LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages of four orthogneisses ranging between 486 ± 2 Ma and 484 ± 2 Ma are interpreted as timing the magma crystallization. The single metadiorite gave concordia age of 337 ± 2 Ma interpreted as the age of migmatitization. Few discordant older ages from metadiorite are considered as older xenocrysts more or less reset during the Variscan metamorphism. The orthogneisses are acid (SiO2 = 68.6-76.4 wt. %), exclusively subaluminous and seem to form a single calc-alkaline trend, whereas the metadiorite is intermediate (SiO2 = 54.3 wt. %; mg# = 61), distinctly metaluminous and displays tholeiitic character. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the orthogneisses show LREE enrichment (LaN/YbN = 1.5-8.9) and deep negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.42-0.32); the NMORB-normalized spiderplots feature LILE/HFSE enrichment with deep negative Nb- Ta-Ti anomalies. In contrast, both patterns of metadiorite resemble those of NMORB (LaN/YbN = 0.5, Eu/Eu* = 0.96). The apparent magmatic arc-like geochemical signature of the orthogneisses is interpreted as

  1. [Endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit: dependence of respiration of secretory cells on activity of ryanodine- and IP3 - sensitive Ca(2+)-channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velykopols'ka, O Iu; Man'ko, B O; Man'ko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Using Clark oxygen electrode, dependence of mitochondrial functions on Ca(2+)-release channels activity of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae salivary glands suspension was investigated. Cells were ATP-permeabilized in order to enable penetration of exogenous oxidative substrates. Activation of plasmalemmal P2X-receptors (as well as P2Y-receptors) per se does not modify the endogenous respiration of salivary gland suspension. That is, Ca(2+)-influx from extracellular medium does not influence functional activity of mitochondria, although they are located along the basal part of the plasma membrane. Activation of RyRs intensifies endogenous respiration and pyruvate-malate-stimulated respiration, but not succinate-stimulated respiration. Neither activation of IP3Rs (via P2Y-receptors activation), nor their inhibition alters endogenous respiration. Nevertheless, IP3Rs inhibition by 2-APB intensifies succinate-stimulated respiration. All abovementioned facts testify that Ca2+, released from stores via channels, alters functional activity of mitochondria, and undoubtedly confirm the existence of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit in Ch. plumosus larvae salivary glands secretory cells. In steady state of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit the spontaneous activity of IP3Rs is observed; released through IP3Rs, Ca2+ is accumulated in mitochondria via uniporter and modulates oxidative processes. Activation of RyRs induces the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to the active state, which is required to intensify cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. As expected, the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to inactivated state (i. e. inhibition of Ca(2+)-release channels at excessive [Ca2+]i) limits the duration of signal transduction, has protective nature and prevents apoptosis.

  2. Thiodisaccharides with galactofuranose or arabinofuranose as terminal units: synthesis and inhibitory activity of an exo beta-D-galactofuranosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Evangelina; Marino, Carla; Uhrig, M Laura; Varela, Oscar

    2009-04-01

    Thiodisaccharides having beta-D-Galf or alpha-L-Araf units as non-reducing end have been synthesized by the SnCl(4)- or MoO(2)Cl(2)-promoted thioglycosylation of per-O-benzoyl-D-galactofuranose (1), its 1-O-acetyl analogue 4, or per-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranose (16) with 6-thioglucose or 6-thiogalactose derivatives. After convenient removal of the protecting groups, the free thiodisaccharides having the basic structure beta-D-Galf(1-->6)-6-thio-alpha-D-Glcp-OMe (5) or beta-D-Galf(1-->6)-6-thio-alpha-D-Galp-OMe (15) were obtained. The respective alpha-L-Araf analogues 18 and 20 were prepared similarly from 16. Alternatively, beta-D-Galf(1-->4)-4-thio-3-deoxy-alpha-L-Xylp-OiPr was synthesized by Michael addition to a sugar enone of 1-thio-beta-d-Galf derivative, generated in situ from the glycosyl isothiourea derivative of 1. The free S-linked disaccharides were evaluated as inhibitors of the beta-galactofuranosidase from Penicillium fellutanum, being 15 and 20 the more active inhibitors against this enzyme.

  3. CORPORATE E-MAIL SERVICE GOOGLE APPS AS AN INSTRUMENT OF ACTIVITY OF ORGANIZATIONAL-EDUCATIONAL UNITS OF THE HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кarpenko А.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of usage of cloud technologies, particularly, of Gmail service Google Apps in work of organizational-educational units of higher educational institutions are analyzed in this work. The main accents are put concerning usage of corporate e-mail Gmail service Google Apps, with the help of which informational-analytical support of activity of organizational-educational units of the University is provided. The author of the publication underlines key advantages of Gmail and analyses its opportunities. Main characteristics of corporate e-mail Gmail service Google Apps are described. It is identified that implementation of corporate e-mail Gmail service Google Apps is a part of creation of certain information system, that will ensure united information space of a modern higher educational institution. Effective organization of educational process, that was used by methodist of organizational-educational units (Scientific-methodological centre of research, scientific projects and programs of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University in the work of corporate mail Gmail service Google Aps is analyzed and presented. It is identified, that creation and improvement of mechanisms of building corporate content with the help of Gmail service Google Apps will allow the collaborators of organizational-educational units of the higher educational institution to plan and organize educational process. Such organization of educational process optimizes the activity of organizational-educational units of higher educational institutions.

  4. Comparing portable computers with bedside computers when administering medications using bedside medication verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Beymer, Patti; Williams, Phillip; Stimac, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This research examined bedside medication verification administration in 2 adult critical care units, using portable computers and permanent bedside computers. There were no differences in the number of near-miss errors, the time to administer the medications, or nurse perception of ease of medication administration, care of patients, or reliability of technology. The percentage of medications scanned was significantly higher with the use of permanent bedside computers, and nurses using permanent bedside computers were more likely to agree that the computer was always available.

  5. A Review of "Challenging Situations When Administering Palliative 
Chemotherapy--A Nursing Perspective".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Nancy G

    2015-05-01

    The December 2014 issue of the European Journal of Oncology Nursing published an article by Näppä, Rasmussen, Axelsson, and Lindqvist that reported on a qualitative study of the challenges experienced by Swedish nurses when administering palliative cancer treatment at the end of life. The study identified the various clinical scenarios that create dilemmas among nurses. The authors described why chemotherapy at the end of life has become so prevalent and offered strategies to minimize or prevent the moral distress that can occur. Research from the United States identified similar trends in end-of-life treatment and supportive recommendations for multidisciplinary palliative care team collaboration as a solution.

  6. North American networking activities on non-wood forest products by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Vantomme

    2001-01-01

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, is the largest autonomous agency within the United Nations system dealing with agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and related disciplines. FAO provides a neutral forum for policy dialogue, a source of information and knowledge, technical assistance, and advice to 180 member countries. Technical...

  7. Nutrition Education in the Context of the United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition Activities and Publications, 1985-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesveen, Kaia; Shrimpton, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) is a forum where United Nations (UN) agencies, bilateral partners, and nongovernmental agencies meet to harmonize and coordinate nutrition policy and programs. This report reviews the positions taken regarding nutrition education throughout SCN publications, annual sessions, and…

  8. A Mobile Platform for Administering Questionnaires and Synchronizing Their Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginardi, Maria Germana; Lanzola, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a platform for administering questionnaires on smart-phones and tablets. The project arises from the need of acquiring data for monitoring the outcomes of different homecare interventions. First a model has been defined for representing questionnaires, able to support adaptivity in the dialog with the user and enforce some…

  9. 40 CFR 282.68 - Louisiana State-Administered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Louisiana State-Administered Program. 282.68 Section 282.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.68...

  10. Teaching Auction Strategy Using Experiments Administered Via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, John; Grosskopf, Brit; McKinney, C. Nicholas; Niederle, Muriel; Roth, Alvin E.; Weizsacker, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an experimental design used to teach concepts in the economics of auctions and implications for e-Business procurement. The experiment is easily administered and can be adapted to many different treatments. The chief innovation is that it does not require the use of a lab or class time. Instead, the design can be implemented on…

  11. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDIES ON VAGINALLY ADMINISTERED LEVONORGESTREL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEChang-Hai; XUJian-Qiu; ZHUYue-Hua; SHIYong-En

    1989-01-01

    Comparative studies on pharmacokinetics of vaginally and orally administered levonorgestrel (LNG) tablet (Postinor) in one single dose containing 0,75mg LNG were performed. The pharmacokinetics of LNG and its effects on ovarian functions werealso studied after repeated vaginal administration.

  12. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, Pcyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 30 CFR 250.201 - What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit? 250.201 Section 250.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information General Information § 250.201 What plans and information must I...

  14. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of the novel sulfated fucan possessing a regular well-defined repeating unit from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-04-13

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants.

  15. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyi Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2 and (1→3-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants.

  16. Justification for parameters of a dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit in studying of active rotational working tools of tiller machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Kupryashkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with design options and technological modes of the dynamic stabilizer of the experimental stand mobile unit for studying tillage machine active rotating work tools. Based on theoretical and experimental studies, the possibility the movable module instability was discovered. This negatively affects on implementing the experiment program trough the especific method. The need in engineering solutions for the defect correction is shown. In addition, the authors consider the structural features and characteristics of the used devices for providing the stabilization of the movable module in the study of active rotating work tools of tillage machines. An electromagnetic brake dynamic stabilizer in the structure of the existing rolling module was proposed as an engineering device. Materials and Methods: A theoretical study of rolling module stability, based on synthesis of basic regulations and laws of mechanics related to active rotating work tools was conducted. As a result of the theoretical research, a design scheme of movable module loading was created. This scheme includes the design features and structural power factors. Results: A database representing the settings of power specification in the motion stability determining the mobile unit was created. Further use of the database values allow supporting the most optimal location of the electromagnetic brake with its design options. Discussion and Conclusions: The research of the electromagnetic brake in a mobile unit promoted stabilizing the unit movement, increased the frequency of its use and provided data that are more precise during experiments.

  17. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered...... by ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival...... patients (1.3%) and hypotension observed in 71 patients (3.0%). CONCLUSION: Intravenous fentanyl caused clinically meaningful pain reduction in most patients and was safe in the hands of ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses...

  18. Hemodynamic effects of calcium gluconate administered to conscious horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, T L; Foreman, J H; Benson, G J; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Constable, P D; Olson, W O; Davis, L E

    1996-01-01

    Calcium gluconate was administered to conscious horses at 3 different rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes each). Serum calcium concentrations and parameters of cardiovascular function were evaluated. All 3 calcium administration rates caused marked increases in both ionized and total calcium concentrations, cardiac index, stroke index, and cardiac contractility (dP/dtmax). Mean arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were unchanged; heart rate decreased markedly during calcium administration. Ionized calcium concentration remained between 54% and 57% of total calcium concentration throughout the study. We conclude that calcium gluconate can safely be administered to conscious horses at 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg/min and that administration will result in improved cardiac function.

  19. Intravenously administered nanoparticles increase survival following blast trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret M; Shoffstall, Erin; Atkins, Kristyn T; Keane, Nickolas; Bir, Cynthia; VandeVord, Pamela; Lavik, Erin B

    2014-07-15

    Explosions account for 79% of combat-related injuries, leading to multiorgan hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of death in battlefield traumas as well as in civilian life. We need to stop the bleeding quickly to save lives, but, shockingly, there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding. A therapy that halts bleeding in a site-specific manner and is safe, stable at room temperature, and easily administered is critical for the advancement of trauma care. To address this need, we have developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are administered intravenously. When tested in a model of blast trauma with multiorgan hemorrhaging, i.v. administration of the hemostatic nanoparticles led to a significant improvement in survival over the short term (1 h postblast). No complications from this treatment were apparent out to 3 wk. This work demonstrates that these particles have the potential to save lives and fundamentally change trauma care.

  20. The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

  1. Fetal Tachycardia Treated Successfully with Maternally Administered Propylthiouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara V. Parilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fetal tachycardia may result from the transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in a patient with hypothyroidism secondary to ablation of Graves’ disease. Case. A 32-year-old woman, gravida 4, para 2, and abortus 1, with hypothyroidism and a history of Graves’ disease, presented at 23 6/7 weeks of gestation with a persistent fetal tachycardia. The treatment of the fetal tachycardia with maternally administered digoxin and Sotalol was unsuccessful. Maternal thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were elevated, and treatment with maternally administered propylthiouracil (PTU resulted in a normal sinus rhythm for the remainder of the pregnancy. An induction of labor was performed at 37 weeks. Four to five days after delivery, the neonate exhibited clinical signs of hyperthyroidism necessitating treatment. Conclusion. Fetal tachycardia resulting from the transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins can be successfully treated with maternally administered PTU. The neonate needs to be followed up closely as clinical signs of hyperthyroidism may occur as thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins continue to circulate in the neonate, while the serum levels of PTU decline.

  2. Repetitive immunization enhances the susceptibility of mice to peripherally administered prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bremer

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of humans and animals to prion infections is determined by the virulence of the infectious agent, by genetic modifiers, and by hitherto unknown host and environmental risk factors. While little is known about the latter two, the activation state of the immune system was surmised to influence prion susceptibility. Here we administered prions to mice that were repeatedly immunized by two initial injections of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides followed by repeated injections of bovine serum albumin/alum. Immunization greatly reduced the required dosage of peripherally administered prion inoculum necessary to induce scrapie in 50% of mice. No difference in susceptibility was observed following intracerebral prion challenge. Due to its profound impact onto scrapie susceptibility, the host immune status may determine disease penetrance after low-dose prion exposure, including those that may give rise to iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  3. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  4. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  5. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq....... 50) of 133 mmol kg-1 lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg-1 lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture...

  6. Activated-sludge nitrification in the presence of linear and branched-chain alkyl benzene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillod, C R; Boyle, W C

    1968-01-01

    The effects of biodegradable linear alkyl benzene sulfonate and branched-chain alkyl benzene sulfonate detergents on activated-sludge nitrification were investigated by administering a synthetic waste containing up to 23 mg of each detergent per liter to eight bench-scale, batch, activated-sludge units. It was found that both detergents tended to promote complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, whereas control units produced approximately equal amounts of nitrite and nitrate. Various hypotheses are offered to explain the phenomenon.

  7. Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. O.; Collins, E. D.; King, L. J.; Knauer, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

  8. The Zero Suicide Program (ZSP) as a Strategy for Reduction and Prevention of Suicides Among Active Duty United States Air Force Members: A Program and Evaluation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    3. DATES COVERED (From – To) December 2013 – April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Zero Suicide Program (ZSP) as a Strategy for Reduction and...Prevention of Suicides Among Active Duty United States Air Force Members: A Program and Evaluation Plan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The problem of suicide among our military members is one of growing concern for military commanders and political leaders alike

  9. A self administered reliable questionnaire to assess lower bowel symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelaris Peter H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bowel symptoms are considered indicators of the presence of colorectal cancer and other bowel diseases. Self administered questionnaires that elicit information about lower bowel symptoms have not been assessed for reliability, although this has been done for upper bowel symptoms. Our aim was to develop a self administered questionnaire for eliciting the presence, nature and severity of lower bowel symptoms potentially related to colorectal cancer, and assess its reliability. Methods Immediately before consulting a gastroenterologist or colorectal surgeon, 263 patients likely to have a colonoscopy completed the questionnaire. Reliability was assessed in two ways: by assessing agreement between patient responses and (a responses given by the doctor at the consultation; and (b responses given by patients two weeks later. Results There was more than 75% agreement for 78% of the questions for the patient-doctor comparison and for 92% of the questions for the patient-patient comparison. Agreement for the length of time a symptom was present, its severity, duration, frequency of occurrence and whether or not medical consultation had been sought, all had agreement of greater than 70%. Over all questions, the chance corrected agreement for the patient-doctor comparison had a median kappa of 65% (which represents substantial agreement, interquartile range 57–72%. The patient-patient comparison also showed substantial agreement with a median kappa of 75%, interquartile range 68–81%. Conclusion This self administered questionnaire about lower bowel symptoms is a useful way of eliciting details of bowel symptoms. It is a reliable instrument that is acceptable to patients and easily completed. Its use could guide the clinical consultation, allowing a more efficient, comprehensive and useful interaction, ensuring that all symptoms are assessed. It will also be a useful tool in research studies on bowel symptoms and their predictive

  10. Organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions across the United States: development and testing of a novel survey instrument for assessing coalition functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Blair, Steven N

    2015-06-01

    Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. The study was carried out in three phases: (a) developing a draft survey, (b) assessing the content validity of the draft survey, and (c) assessing the underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity of the survey. A cross-sectional design was employed. In Phase 1, a team of experts in survey development produced a draft survey. In Phase 2, the content validity of the draft survey was evaluated by a panel of individuals with expertise in physical activity coalitions. In Phase 3, the survey was administered to 120 individuals on local-, state-, and national-level physical activity coalitions. Responses were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the survey's underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity. Phases 1 and 2yielded a survey instrument with demonstrated content validity. Phase 3 yielded a three-factor model with three subscales: Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input. Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument developed here demonstrated sound psychometric properties and provides new insight into organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This instrument may be an important tool in developing a more complete picture of coalition functioning in physical activity coalitions specifically and health-based coalitions overall. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  12. The Masticatory Contractile Load Induced Expression and Activation of Akt1/PKBα in Muscle Fibers at the Myotendinous Junction within Muscle-Tendon-Bone Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Yüksel; Klinz, Franz J.; Moghbeli, Mehrnoush; Addicks, Klaus; Raab, Wolfgang H. -M.; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The cell specific detection of enzyme activation in response to the physiological contractile load within muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for understanding of the mechanical forces transmission from muscle cells via tendon to the bone. The hypothesis that the physiological mechanical loading regulates activation of Akt1/PKBα at Thr308 and at Ser473 in muscle fibers within muscle-tendon-bone unit was tested using quantitative immunohistochemistry, confocal double fluorescence analysis, and immunoblot analysis. In comparison to the staining intensities in peripheral regions of the muscle fibers, Akt1/PKBα was detected with a higher staining intensity in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) areas. In muscle fibers at the MTJ areas, Akt1/PKBα is dually phosphorylated at Thr308 and Ser473. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that contractile load generated by masticatory muscles induces local domain-dependent expression of Akt1/PKBα as well as activation by dually phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 in muscle fibers at the MTJ areas within muscle-tendon-bone unit. PMID:20454577

  13. The masticatory contractile load induced expression and activation of Akt1/PKBalpha in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction within muscle-tendon-bone unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Yüksel; Klinz, Franz J; Moghbeli, Mehrnoush; Addicks, Klaus; Raab, Wolfgang H-M; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The cell specific detection of enzyme activation in response to the physiological contractile load within muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for understanding of the mechanical forces transmission from muscle cells via tendon to the bone. The hypothesis that the physiological mechanical loading regulates activation of Akt1/PKBalpha at Thr308 and at Ser473 in muscle fibers within muscle-tendon-bone unit was tested using quantitative immunohistochemistry, confocal double fluorescence analysis, and immunoblot analysis. In comparison to the staining intensities in peripheral regions of the muscle fibers, Akt1/PKBalpha was detected with a higher staining intensity in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) areas. In muscle fibers at the MTJ areas, Akt1/PKBalpha is dually phosphorylated at Thr308 and Ser473. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that contractile load generated by masticatory muscles induces local domain-dependent expression of Akt1/PKBalpha as well as activation by dually phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 in muscle fibers at the MTJ areas within muscle-tendon-bone unit.

  14. The Masticatory Contractile Load Induced Expression and Activation of Akt1/PKBα in Muscle Fibers at the Myotendinous Junction within Muscle-Tendon-Bone Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Korkmaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell specific detection of enzyme activation in response to the physiological contractile load within muscle-tendon-bone unit is essential for understanding of the mechanical forces transmission from muscle cells via tendon to the bone. The hypothesis that the physiological mechanical loading regulates activation of Akt1/PKBα at Thr308 and at Ser473 in muscle fibers within muscle-tendon-bone unit was tested using quantitative immunohistochemistry, confocal double fluorescence analysis, and immunoblot analysis. In comparison to the staining intensities in peripheral regions of the muscle fibers, Akt1/PKBα was detected with a higher staining intensity in muscle fibers at the myotendinous junction (MTJ areas. In muscle fibers at the MTJ areas, Akt1/PKBα is dually phosphorylated at Thr308 and Ser473. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. We conclude that contractile load generated by masticatory muscles induces local domain-dependent expression of Akt1/PKBα as well as activation by dually phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 in muscle fibers at the MTJ areas within muscle-tendon-bone unit.

  15. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  16. Urinary metabolites of daidzin orally administered in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T; Ohsawa, K

    1998-09-01

    In a study on the metabolism of flavonoids, the isoflavone glycoside daidzin was orally administered to rats. Urine samples were collected and treated with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase. Aglycone daidzein (M3) and other three metabolites, 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone (M1), 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavanone (M2) and 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavan (M4) were isolated from the urine following treatment with enzymes. The structures of M1, M2 and M4 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

  17. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Miller, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  18. Self-administered treatments for depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, Nancy L; Floyd, Mark; Scogin, Forrest R

    2003-03-01

    Although there are numerous self-help books for depression, relatively few have been empirically tested. However, those that have been used in clinical trials have fared well, with an average effect size roughly equivalent to the average effect size obtained in psychotherapy studies. Computer-based treatments are being developed and appear promising as an alternative to bibliotherapy for those interested in self-administered treatments. This article provides a summary of the depression bibliotherapy literature and discusses several remaining questions such as effectiveness versus efficacy, practice applications, ethics, and future research. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 59: 275-288, 2003.

  19. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

  20. Accelerometer Measured Level of Physical Activity Indoors and Outdoors During Preschool Time in Sweden and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raustorp, A.; Pagels, P.; Boldemann, C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity in order to influence policy and create environments that promote physical activity among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' physical activity in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences...

  1. Lysostaphin: immunogenicity of locally administered recombinant protein used in mastitis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M J; Oldham, E R

    1992-03-01

    A recombinant bactericidal protein, recombinant lysostaphin (r-lysostaphin), that may be useful as an intramammary therapeutic for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle, was evaluated for immunogenicity to various hosts. Although immunogenicity could be demonstrated in a variety of other species when administered parenterally, oral administration failed to elicit a significant immunological response. Similarly, intramammary infusion of r-lysostaphin failed to elicit significant serum titers in the bovine until 18-21 infusions were administered (total administered dose of 2-3 g of protein). Antibody titers from dairy cattle which did develop an immune response were predominantly of the IgG1 subclass. Dairy cattle with significant anti-lysostaphin titers showed no deleterious symptoms (anaphylaxis, etc.) upon subsequent infusion, and these titers did not effect the in vitro bacteriostatic activity of r-lysostaphin. Intramammary infusion of r-lysostaphin does not elicit any observable effects on the host animal or on the potential efficacy of the recombinant molecule. Intramammary recombinant proteins may be suitable effective and safe infusion products that provide an alternative to classical antibiotic therapy.

  2. Pilot study of a self-administered stress management and exercise intervention during chemotherapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick W; Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2006-09-01

    This pilot project explored the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of a self-administered exercise and stress management intervention for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Thirty-nine of 56 eligible patients (acceptance =69%) with a variety of solid tumors volunteered for the study. Participants were advised to exercise 20-40 min at 50-75% estimated heart rate reserve 3-5 times per week. In addition, patients were provided with instruction and written materials regarding stress management techniques. Follow-up data were collected during regularly scheduled outpatient visits at the start of the second, third, and fourth chemotherapy cycles using diary entries and the same questionnaires previously administered at baseline. Twenty-four of 39 patients (62%) completed all study requirements. These participants completed 438 of the 678 exercise sessions assigned (adherence =62%). Of the stress management techniques, positive thinking most practiced most frequently (48%), followed by deep breathing (38%) and active relaxation (37%). Paired t tests, comparing baseline values with final recorded values, indicated a significant improvement over time in bodily pain (p<0.03) and mental health (p<0.04) subscale scores. Participants' evaluations of the combined intervention were favorable: 90% felt it was helpful to them and 100% would recommend it to another patient. A self-administered intervention combining aerobic exercise and stress management was acceptable and safe for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Preliminary data demonstrating intervention efficacy should be confirmed in subsequent randomized clinical trials.

  3. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.

    1982-09-01

    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  4. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesgaard, K D; Nikolajsen, L; Giebner, M; Rasmussen, C-H; Riddervold, I S; Kirkegaard, H; Christensen, E F

    2016-04-01

    Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel. Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival. Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with reduction in pain intensity during transport (NRS ≥ 2), the number of patients with NRS > 3 at hospital arrival, and potential fentanyl-related side effects. Fentanyl reduced pain from before treatment (8, IQR 7-9) to hospital arrival (4, IQR 3-6) (NRS reduction: 3, IQR 2-5; P = 0.001), 79.3% of all patients had a reduction in > 2 on the NRS during transport, and 58.4% of patients experienced pain at hospital arrival (NRS > 3). Twenty-one patients (0.9%) had oxygen saturation ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses of fentanyl, feedback on effect and safety should be part of continuous education of ambulance personnel. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of factors important in modeling plasma concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride administered in water in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Surgeon-administered conscious sedation and local anesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, Miss; Hourigan, Jon S; Moore, Richard A; Stanley, J Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal procedures are often performed in an outpatient setting using a variety of anesthetic techniques. One technique that has not been well studied is surgeon-administered conscious sedation along with local anesthetic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of this technique with emphasis on safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction. Chart review was performed on 133 consecutive patients who had anorectal procedures at an outpatient surgery center. Additionally, 65 patients were enrolled prospectively and completed a satisfaction survey. Inclusively, charts of 198 patients who underwent outpatient anorectal surgery under conscious sedation and local anesthesia under the direction of a colorectal surgeon from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed. Parameters related to patient and procedural characteristics, safety, efficacy, and satisfaction were evaluated. Surgeon-administered sedation consisted of combined fentanyl and midazolam in 90 per cent. Eighty per cent of procedures were performed in the prone position and 23 per cent were in combination with an endoscopic procedure. Eighty-two per cent were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 1 or 2. Transient mild hypoxemia or hypotension occurred in 4 and 3 per cent of the patients, respectively. Mean operative time was 29 minutes with a mean stay in the postanesthesia care unit of 37 minutes. There were no early major cardiac or respiratory complications. Ninety-seven per cent of the patients surveyed reported a high degree of satisfaction. Surgeon-administered conscious sedation with local anesthesia was well tolerated for outpatient anorectal surgeries. Additional studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this technique.

  7. Motor unit activity in biceps brachii of left-handed humans during sustained contractions with two load types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey R; Cleland, Brice T; Mani, Diba; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Enoka, Roger M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of single motor units during sustained isometric contractions that required either force or position control in left-handed individuals. The target force for the two sustained contractions (24.9 ± 10.5% maximal force) was identical for each biceps brachii motor unit (n = 32) and set at 4.7 ± 2.0% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force above its recruitment threshold (range: 0.5-41.2% MVC force). The contractions were not sustained to task failure, but the duration (range: 60-330 s) was identical for each motor unit and the decline in MVC force immediately after the sustained contractions was similar for the two tasks (force: 11.1% ± 13.7%; position: 11.6% ± 9.9%). Despite a greater increase in the rating of perceived exertion during the position task (task × time interaction, P contractions requiring either force or position control.

  8. A Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy of Totally Self-Administered Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Highly anxious self-referred snake phobics received either (a) therapist-administered desensitization, (b) self-administered desensitization with weekly therapist phone calls, (c) totally self-administered desensitization, (d) self-administered double-blind placebo control, or (e) no treatment. Pretreatment to posttreatment measures revealed…

  9. 45 CFR 400.66 - Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program. 400.66 Section 400.66 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...-administered RCA program. (a) In administering a publicly-administered refugee cash assistance program,...

  10. Protein kinase A induces recruitment of active Na+,K+-ATPase units to the plasma membrane of rat proximal convoluted tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Maria Luisa; Rousselot, Martine; Chibalin, Alexander V; Bertorello, Alejandro M; Favre, Hervé; Féraille, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of control of Na+,K+-ATPase activity by the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in rat proximal convoluted tubules. For this purpose, we studied the in vitro action of exogenous cAMP (10−3 M dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) or 8-bromo-cAMP) and endogenous cAMP (direct activation of adenylyl cyclases by 10−5 M forskolin) on Na+,K+-ATPase activity and membrane trafficking.PKA activation stimulated both the cation transport and hydrolytic activity of Na+,K+-ATPase by about 40 %. Transport activity stimulation was specific to the PKA signalling pathway since (1) db-cAMP stimulated the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake in a time- and dose-dependent fashion; (2) this effect was abolished by addition of H-89 or Rp-cAMPS, two structurally different PKA inhibitors; and (3) this stimulation was not affected by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF109203X. The stimulatory effect of db-cAMP on the hydrolytic activity of Na+,K+-ATPase was accounted for by an increased maximal ATPase rate (Vmax) without alteration of the efficiency of the pump, suggesting that cAMP-PKA pathway was implicated in membrane redistribution control.To test this hypothesis, we used two different approaches: (1) cell surface protein biotinylation and (2) subcellular fractionation. Both approaches confirmed that the cAMP-PKA pathway was implicated in membrane trafficking regulation. The stimulation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity by db-cAMP was associated with an increase (+40 %) in Na+,K+-ATPase units expressed at the cell surface which was assessed by Western blotting after streptavidin precipitation of biotinylated cell surface proteins. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the increased expression in pump units at the cell surface which was accompanied by a decrease (-30 %) in pump units located in the subcellular fraction corresponding to early endosomes.In conclusion, PKA stimulates Na+,K+-ATPase activity, at least in part, by increasing the number of

  11. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States.

  12. Making Meaning of Everyday Practices: Parents' Attitudes toward Children's Extracurricular Activities in the United States and in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…

  13. 50 Hz-Sinusoidal magnetic field induced effects on the bioelectric activity of single unit neurone cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, María. J.; Calvo, Ana C.; del Moral, A.

    2001-05-01

    Neurones recruiting and synchronized bioelectric activity recorded from Helix aspersa brain ganglia, under exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields of 1-15 mT intensity, is reported. We show recruiting responses from single neurones and the synchronization of pairs of neurones activity. Experimental evidence and model theoretical explanation for the spreading of synchronization are presented.

  14. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... as patients developing an adverse event (oxygen saturation 30% or a drop in systolic blood pressure of > 50 mmHg). The remaining patients served as controls. RESULTS: A total of 6,840 consecutive patients undergoing 7,364 procedures were included. The mean propofol...... dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate of hypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p propofol dose (p = 0.001) were associated...

  15. Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-12-09

    Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.

  16. Techniques to administer oral, inhalational, and IV sedation in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Krystyna Harbuz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that light sedation on low-risk American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA groups, that is ASA I, and possibly II, is the safest method for sedation in a dental outpatient setting. Conclusion Formal training is essential to achieve the safe practice of sedation in dentistry or medicine. The appropriate setting for sedation should be determined as there is an increased risk outside the hospital setting. Patients should be adequately assessed and medication titrated appropriately, based on individual requirements.

  17. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate of hypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p ... with a higher rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Safety during intermittent deep sedation with NAPS was good. Age, ASA class 3 and total propofol dose were correlated with a higher rate of adverse events. Patients aged 60 years or more needed more handling during adverse events. FUNDING: Arvid Nilsson...

  18. Registered nurse-administered sedation for gastrointestinalendoscopic procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The rising use of nonanesthesiologist-administeredsedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has clinicalsignificances. Most endoscopic patients require someforms of sedation and/or anesthesia. The goals ofthis sedation are to guard the patient's safety, minimizephysical discomfort, to control behavior and todiminish psychological responses. Generally, moderatesedation for these procedures has been offered by thenon-anesthesiologist by using benzodiazepines and/oropioids. Anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologistpersonnel will need to work together for these challengesand for safety of the patients. The sedationtraining courses including clinical skills and knowledgeare necessary for the registered nurses to facilitate thepatient safety and the successful procedure. However,appropriate patient selection and preparation, adequatemonitoring and regular training will ensure that the useof nurse-administered sedation is a feasible and safetechnique for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

  19. Participating in politics resembles physical activity: general action patterns in international archives, United States archives, and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M; Albarracín, Dolores

    2011-02-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity.

  20. Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repici, Alessandro; Pagano, Nico; Hassan, Cesare; Carlino, Alessandra; Rando, Giacomo; Strangio, Giuseppe; Romeo, Fabio; Zullo, Angelo; Ferrara, Elisa; Vitetta, Eva; Ferreira, Daniel de Paula Pessoa; Danese, Silvio; Arosio, Massimo; Malesci, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected. RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively. CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation. PMID:21987624

  1. Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Repici; Eva Vitetta; Daniel de Paula Pessoa Ferreira; Silvio Danese; Massimo Arosio; Alberto Malesci; Nico Pagano; Cesare Hassan; Alessandra Carlino; Giacomo Rando; Giuseppe Strangio; Fabio Romeo; Angelo Zullo; Elisa Ferrara

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies.METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected.RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively.CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation.

  2. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  3. Safety of florfenicol administered in feed to tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Schleis, Susan M.; Tuomari, Darrell; Endris, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The safety of Aquaflor® (50% w/w florfenicol [FFC]) incorporated in feed then administered to tilapia for 20 days (2x the recommended duration) at 0, 15, 45, or 75 mg/kg body weight/day (0, 1, 3, or 5x the recommended dose of 15 mg FFC/kg BW/d) was investigated. Mortality, behavioral change, feed consumption, body size, and gross and microscopic lesions were determined. Estimated delivered doses were >96.9% of target. Three unscheduled mortalities occurred but were considered incidental since FFC-related findings were not identified. Feed consumption was only affected during the last 10 dosing days when the 45 and 75 mg/kg groups consumed only 62.5% and 55.3% of the feed offered, respectively. There were significant, dose-dependent reductions in body size in the FFC-dose groups relative to the controls. Treatment-related histopathological findings included increased severity of lamellar epithelial hyperplasia, increased incidence of lamellar adhesions, decreased incidence of lamellar telangiectasis in the gills, increased glycogen-type and lipid-type hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver, decreased lymphocytes, increased blast cells, and increased individual cell necrosis in the anterior kidney, and tubular epithelial degeneration and mineralization in the posterior kidney. These changes are likely to be of minimal clinical relevance, given the lack of mortality or morbidity observed. This study has shown that FFC, when administered in feed to tilapia at the recommended dose (15 mg FFC/kg BW/day) for 10 days would be well tolerated.

  4. Validity and reliability of nutrition screening administered by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Ang, Emily; Foo, Yet Li; Ng, Lian Ye; Tong, Chung Yan; Ferguson, Maree; Daniels, Lynne

    2013-12-01

    Nutrition screening is usually administered by nurses. However, most studies on nutrition screening tools have not used nurses to validate the tools. The 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) assesses weight loss, dietary intake, and muscle wastage, with the composite score of each used to determine risk of malnutrition. The aim of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of 3-MinNS administered by nurses, who are the intended assessors. In this cross-sectional study, 3 ward-based nurses screened 121 patients aged 21 years and over using 3-MinNS in 3 wards within 24 hours of admission. A dietitian then assessed patients' nutrition status using Subjective Global Assessment within 48 hours of admission, while blinded to the results of the screening. To assess the reliability of 3-MinNS, 37 patients screened by the first nurse were rescreened by a second nurse within 24 hours, who was blinded to the results of the first nurse. The sensitivity, specificity, and best cutoff score for 3-MinNS were determined using the receiver operator characteristics curve. The best cutoff score to identify all patients at risk of malnutrition using 3-MinNS was 3, with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 88%. This cutoff point also identified all (100%) severely malnourished patients. There was strong correlation between 3-MinNS and SGA (r = .78, P nurses conducting the 3-MinNS tool was 78.3%. The 3-MinNS is a valid and reliable tool for nurses to identify patients at risk of malnutrition.

  5. Establishing the soundness of administrative spatial units for operationalising the active living potential of residential environments: an exemplar for designing optimal zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Mylène

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health and place research, definitions of areas, area characteristics, and health outcomes should ideally be coherent with one another. Yet current approaches for delimiting areas mostly rely on spatial units "of convenience" such as census tracts. These areas may be homogeneous along socioeconomic conditions but heterogeneous along other environmental characteristics. This heterogeneity can lead to biased measurement of environment characteristics and misestimation of area effects on health. The objective of this study was to assess the soundness of census tracts as units of analysis for measuring the active living potential of environments, hypothesised to be associated with walking. Results Starting with data at the smallest census area level available, zones homogeneous along three indicators of active living potential, i.e. population density, land use mix, and accessibility to services were designed. Delimitation of zones ensued from statistical clustering of the smallest areas into seven clusters or "types of environment". Mapping of clusters into a GIS led to the delineation of 898 zones characterised by one of seven types of environment, corresponding to different levels of active living potential. Homogeneity of census tracts along indicators of active living potential varied. A greater proportion (83% of variation in accessibility to services was attributable to differences between census tracts suggesting within-tract homogeneity along this variable. However, census tracts were heterogeneous with respect to population density and land use mix where a greater proportion of the variation was attributable to within-tract differences. About 55% of tracts were characterised by a combination of three or more "types of environment" suggesting substantial within-tract heterogeneity in the active living potential of environments. Conclusion Soundness of census tracts for measuring active living potential may be limited

  6. The importance of culturally meaningful activity for health benefits among older Korean immigrant living in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyoung Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that participation in culturally meaningful activity is beneficial for immigrants’ health and well-being, yet older Korean immigrants struggle with accepting new cultural perspectives, which can negatively affect their health and well-being. Using in-depth interviews, this study was designed to capture the value of culturally meaningful activities for health among older Korean immigrants. Three themes were identified: (a improved psychological well-being, (b enhanced positive emotions and feelings, and (c social connections developed with others. The findings suggest that by engaging in various culturally meaningful activities, older Korean immigrants gain a sense of social, cultural, and psychological significance in life. This study also provided evidence that older Korean immigrants maintain and develop their cultural identity through culturally meaningful activities.

  7. Pedestrian-oriented zoning is associated with reduced income and poverty disparities in adult active travel to work, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Leider, Julien; Thrun, Emily; Nicholson, Lisa M; Slater, Sandy J

    2017-02-01

    Active travel to work can provide additional minutes of daily physical activity. While the literature points to the relationship between zoning, equity and socioeconomic status, and physical activity, no study has quantitatively explored these connections. This study examined whether zoning may help to moderate any income and poverty inequities in active travel and taking public transit to work. Research was conducted between May 2012 and June 2015. Zoning data were compiled for 3914 jurisdictions covering 45.45% of the U.S. population located in 471 of the most populous U.S. counties and 2 consolidated cities located in 48 states and the District of Columbia. (Sensitivity analyses also captured unincorporated areas which, with the municipalities, collectively covered ~72% of the U.S.

  8. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  9. The surface mechanomyogram as a tool to describe the influence of fatigue on biceps brachii motor unit activation strategy. Historical basis and novel evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Claudio; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Diemont, Bertrand; Esposito, Fabio; Veicsteinas, Arsenio

    2003-10-01

    The surface mechanomyogram (MMG) (detectable at the muscle surface as MMG by accelerometers, piezoelectric contact sensors or other transducers) is the summation of the activity of single motor units (MUs). Each MU contribution is related to the pressure waves generated by the active muscle fibres. The first part of this article will review briefly the results obtained by our group studying the possible role of motor unit recruitment and firing rate in determining the characteristics of the MMG during stimulated and voluntary contractions. The second part of this article will study the MMG and EMG during a short isometric force ramp from 0 to 90% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in fresh and fatigued biceps brachii. The aim is to verify whether changes in motor unit activation strategy in voluntarily fatigued muscle could be specifically reflected in the time and frequency domain parameters of the MMG. MMG-RMS vs. %MVC: at fatigue the MMG-RMS did not present the well known increment, when effort level increases, followed by a clear decrement at near-maximal contraction levels. MMG-MF vs. %MVC: compared to fresh muscle the fatigued biceps brachii showed an MF trend significantly shifted towards lower values and the steeper MF increment, from 65 to 85% MVC, was not present. The alteration in the MMG and EMG parameters vs. %MVC relationships at fatigue seems to be related to the impossibility of recruiting fast, but more fatigable MUs, and to the lowering of the global MUs firing during the short isometric force ramp investigated.

  10. Important Developments in STEM Education in the United States: Next Generation Science Standards and Classroom Representations of Localized Scientific Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Campbell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines important recent developments in STEM education, especially related to science education in the United States (U.S.. This examination begins with an abbreviated introduction of the newest science standards documents in the U.S., with a specific focus on the structure and main priorities of these documents. This is followed by an explanation of why priority in the standards is given to teachers engaging students in science and engineering practices to use disciplinary scientific ideas in explaining phenomena and solving problems. Finally, attention is briefly given to how these standards documents hold promise for acting as leverage points within the complex U.S. educational system for positively influencing the disconcerting issues consistently reported in national studies of U.S. classrooms.

  11. Patient dosimetry activities in the United States: the nationwide evaluation of X-ray trends (NEXT) and tissue dose handbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, O H; Stern, S H; Spelic, D C

    1999-01-01

    In the United States the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in collaboration with the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) and state and local government agencies surveys clinical facilities about X-ray system air kerma and ancillary data related to patient dosimetry for a variety of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The survey program is known as the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT). The survey utilizes reference patient-equivalent phantoms in the collection of comprehensive technical information. With knowledge of the skin-entrance air kerma, specific tissue doses can be calculated. An overview of NEXT and previously published FDA tissue dose handbooks for diagnostic X-ray examinations is presented.

  12. From Single Motor Unit Activity to Multiple Grip Forces: Mini‐review of Multi‐digit Grasping1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Sara A.; Santello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This paper is a mini review of kinetic and kinematic evidence on the control of the hand with emphasis on grasping. It is not meant to be an exhaustive review, rather it summarizes current research examining the mechanisms through which specific patterns of coordination are elicited and observed during reach to grasp movements and static grasping. These coordination patterns include the spatial and temporal covariation of the rotation at multiple joints during reach to grasp movements. A basic coordination between grip forces produced by multiple digits also occurs during whole hand grasping such that normal forces tend to be produced in a synchronous fashion across pairs of digits. Finally, we address current research that suggests that motor unit synchrony across hand muscles and muscle compartments might be one of the neural mechanisms underlying the control of grasping. PMID:18414593

  13. [Initiation to military medical corps activity modalities: a teaching unit providing a new approach to recruiting reserve pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrude, P

    2004-07-01

    During the last ten Years, major reforms have been implemented in the French armies due to discontinuation of mandatory enlistment. For the medical corps, recruitment and training for reservists has ceased since the national school for reserve officers in Libourne was closed. During this same time, the number of foreign engagements of the French armies has revealed the need for available young reserve officers in the medical corps. Reserve training of students in medicine, pharmacy, odontology, or nursing has been considered and different possibilities considered. One option is to develop a teaching unit during the third Year of the curriculum allowing volunteer students to become junior officers. For pharmacy students, specific training on drug supply, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and terrorism as well as clinical chemistry, toxicology, and hygiene are also organized.

  14. A Case Study of the Librarian-Initiated Publications Discovery Activities in State Level Digital Depositories in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shiou Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the novel phenomenon of librarian-initiated publications discovery (LIPD in state-level digital depositories in the United States. LIPD is a series of actions taken by digital depository librarians to discover and inspect government Web sites and select Web content qualifying as government publications for inclusion in the state depositories. In a current popular model in which states employ OCLC Digital Archive™ for the depositories, the power of content selection has shifted from government agencies (content producers to digital depositories. This study systematically documented and compared the LIPD actions in four case states and developed a LIPD process model for descriptive and analytic purposes. It also discusses the impacts and challenges facing the changing practices in preserving government information as historical record. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environment health science. Awareness of the potential effects of low-level chemical exposures is rising. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in which samples were collected from 38 streams in 25 States to provide an overview of contaminants found in stream water across the Nation. Additionally, biological screening assays were used to help determine any potential ecological and human-health effects of these chemical mixtures and to prioritize target chemicals for future toxicological studies. This report describes the site locations and the sampling and analytical methods and quality-assurance procedures used in the study.

  16. FACILITIES PLANNING WORKSHOP FOR BLASTING SUPPORT THE ACTIVITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND REPAIR SHIP IN PT. JASA MARINA INDAH UNIT II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Samuel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting in the process of planning the workshop production of new building and ship repair to play a role in providing blasting and paint on the block that will be of erection. As a result of blasting workshop facilities that do not have resulted in low production capacity that can be achieved by this workshop, namely three block ships per month. Capacity blasting and paint shop in this low resulted in low productivity process stage (stage the previous workshops which of course result in a decrease in vessel productivity in general.                 In penelitiaan aims to plan for blasting and paint shop facility which has been adjusted to the planned production capacity of PT. JASA MARINA INDAH II units.                 In this study it - thing to note is to understand the data - the data field for research conducted in terms of both technical and economic terms, with the blasting and paint shop facilities on the construction or repair of ships that have been planned, then the effectiveness of the work and production flow at. Jasa Marina Indah II units can be known.                 Based on the analysis and calculation of both technical and economical it can be identified by the workshop on the process of blasting Blasting efficiency is obtained for 2.55 hours, at 10.16 hours during the painting process, while economical in terms of labor costs can be reduced blasting cost is Rp.930000    for          paint       and         Rp.1.23million

  17. Frequent physical activity may not reduce vascular disease risk as much as moderate activity: large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Miranda E G; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie; Cairns, Benjamin J

    2015-02-24

    Although physical activity has generally been associated with reduced risk of vascular disease, there is limited evidence about the effects of the frequency and duration of various activities on the incidence of particular types of vascular disease. In 1998, on average, 1.1 million women without prior vascular disease reported their frequency of physical activity and many other personal characteristics. Three years later, they were asked about hours spent walking, cycling, gardening, and housework each week. Women were followed by record linkage to National Health Service cause-specific hospital admissions and death records. Cox regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks for first vascular events in relation to physical activity. During an average of 9 years follow-up, 49,113 women had a first coronary heart disease event, 17,822 had a first cerebrovascular event, and 14,550 had a first venous thromboembolic event. In comparison with inactive women, those reporting moderate activity had significantly lower risks of all 3 conditions (Pheart disease (P=0.002), cerebrovascular disease (Pheart disease, venous thromboembolic event, and cerebrovascular disease than inactivity. However, among active women, there is little to suggest progressive reductions in risk of vascular diseases with increasing frequency of activity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Dominic P; Pratt, Brenda E; Chittenden, Sarah J; Murray, Iain S; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J; Gear, Jonathan I; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D

    2017-03-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of the Antiviral Lectin Griffithsin Administered by Different Routes Indicates Multiple Potential Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Griffithsin (GRFT is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome–Coronavirus (SARS-CoV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2. However, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. Here, Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of GRFT at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, and serum GRFT levels were measured at select time points. In addition, the potential for systemic accumulation after oral dosing was assessed in rats after 10 daily treatments with GRFT (20 or 40 mg/kg. We found that parenterally-administered GRFT in rats displayed a complex elimination profile, which varied according to administration routes. However, GRFT was not orally bioavailable, even after chronic treatment. Nonetheless, active GRFT capable of neutralizing HIV-Env pseudoviruses was detected in rat fecal extracts after chronic oral dosing. These findings support further evaluation of GRFT for pre-exposure prophylaxis against emerging epidemics for which specific therapeutics are not available, including systemic and enteric infections caused by susceptible enveloped viruses. In addition, GRFT should be considered for antiviral therapy and the prevention of rectal transmission of HIV-1 and other susceptible viruses.

  20. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  1. Parent-child leisure activities and cultural capital in the United Kingdom: The gendered effects of education and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life.

  2. TALENs 新型模块组装法及活性鉴定方法%A Novel Method of Unit Assembly and Activity Assay for Transcription Activator-like Effector Nucleases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高敬; 魏迪; 池振奋; 张癸荣; 张万明; 聂凌云

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of unit assembly(UA)and activity assay based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases(TALENs) are described. An online tool TALE-NT 2.0 was used to design recognition and splice sites on mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)of TALENs. By means of pEGFP-N1 plasmid, the segments of target sequence were randomly integrated in the nuclear genome of HEK293F. The constructed cell line HEK293F-T1 was for activity assay of TALENs. Based on transcription activator-like effector(TALE)natural repeats, a new type of artificial TALEs single-unit repeats were designed. According to the recognition sites of TALENs, appropriate single-unit repeats were selected and assembled by UA. TALEs series unit sequence containing the corresponding double enzyme cutting sites and TALENs vector sequence were designed, which was directionally ligated and transiently transfected into HEK293F-T1 cell line. The results showed that the TALES units were directionally assembled by new method, and it had a high cloning efficiency ;moreover, the nested peaks clearly appeared after transient transfection. In conclusion, the novel method of unit assembly improves cloning efficiency of constructing TALLENs, even is not limited by repeat-variable residue(RVD)in the last 0.5 unit, and increases the flexibility of designing the target sequences.%旨在提供一种新型的转录激活样效应子核酸酶(Transcription activator-like effector nucleases,TALENs)模块组装法(Unit assembly,UA)及活性鉴定方法。利用 TALE-NT 2.0在线工具在线粒体 DNA(Mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)设计 TALENs 识别位点和剪切位点,借助 pEGFP-N1质粒将该段靶序列随机整合于 HEK293F 核基因组中,构建 HEK293F-T1细胞系,用于 TALENs 活性鉴定。依据转录激活样效应子(Transcription activator-like effectors,TALEs)自然单元模块序列,设计出一种新型的人工 TALEs 偏单元;根据 TALENs 识别位点,选取

  3. Cardioprotective effect of Volvariella volvacea in streptozotocin administered rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosaimanickam Carmel Punitha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the cardioprotective role of methanol extract of the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea against oxidative stress in hyperglycemic rats. Rats divided into 6 groups were administered with nicotinamide and streptozotocin intraperitoneally, except Group I (control. Group II served as diabetic control. Group III was given glibenclamide. Two groups (IV and V of rats received (200 and 400 mg/kg mushroom extracts orally for 30 days and Group VI received vitamin E (40 mg/kg. After the treatment period, lipid peroxides, carbonyl end products, advanced glycation end products, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants (vitamin C and E were assessed in the heart tissues of experimental animals. Glycosylated hemoglobin was estimated in blood. Electrocardiography recordings of the treated groups were also done. The results showed that mushroom extract treatment reduced the lipid peroxides, advanced glycation end products and protein carbonyls significantly and reversed the altered anti-oxidant enzymes, and the vitamins.

  4. Inducing and administering Tregs to treat human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Perdigoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells control unwanted immune responses including those that mediate tolerance to self as well as to foreign antigens. Their mechanisms of action include direct and indirect effects on effector T cells and important functions in tissue repair and homeostasis. Regulatory T cells express a number of cell surface markers and transcriptional factors that have been instrumental in defining their origins and potentially their function. A number of immune therapies such as rapamycin, IL-2, as well as anti-T cell antibodies are able to induce regulatory T cells and are being tested for their efficacy in diverse clinical settings with exciting preliminary results. However, a balance exists with the use of some, such as IL-2 that may have effects on unwanted populations as well as promoting expansion and survival of regulatory T cells requiring careful selection of dose for clinical use. The use of cell surface markers has enabled investigators to isolate and expand ex vivo regulatory T cells more than 500-fold routinely. Clinical trials have begun, administering these expanded regulatory T cells to patients as a means of suppressing autoimmune and alloimmune response and potentially inducing immune tolerance. Studies in the future are likely to build on these initial technical achievements and use combinations of agents to improve the survival and functional capacity of regulatory T cells.

  5. Accelerometer measured level of physical activity indoors and outdoors during preschool time in Sweden and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raustorp, Anders; Pagels, Peter; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys' and girls' indoor and outdoor PA regar...

  6. Design Guidelines concerning the Destabilizing High-frequency Mode of an Integral Force Feedback-based Active Damping Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, Bayan; Vries, de Theo J.A.; Amerongen, van Job

    2012-01-01

    Adding active damping in a collocated fashion to a badly damped mechanical plant guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system. However, collocation is lost beyond a certain frequency due to restrictions imposed by practical implementation. In this paper, the effect of the first noncollocated m

  7. Recent Temporal Trends in Parent-Reported Physical Activity in Children in the United States, 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Davis, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide recent temporal trends in parent-reported physical activity in children (6-11 years) between 2009 and 2014. Data from the 2009 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The analytic sample included 3946 children. Parent proxy of child physical activity at each of the 3 2-year cycles was assessed. For the entire sample, there was a quadratic trend, with the number of days children engaged in at least 60 min/d of physical activity increasing in the period 2011 to 2012 (6.12 days) when compared with the period 2009 to 2010 (5.96 days) and then decreasing in the period 2013 to 2014 (5.83 days). A similar quadratic trend was evident for boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites (particularly boys), and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age percentile based on sex. A negative linear trend was observed for those above the poverty level and non-Hispanic whites (particularly girls). In conclusion, these findings provide suggestive evidence that over the past 6 years (1999-2014), parents report that children's physical activity has slightly decreased in the latest years, with this observation being most pronounced in boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites, and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age and sex percentile. Encouragingly, however, across all evaluated subpopulations, most children (55%-82%), as determined by their parents, engaged in 60 min/d of physical activity (consistent with government recommendations).

  8. Comparison of Muscle Activities Using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit during Abdominal Muscle Training Performed by Normal Adults in the Standing and Supine Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da-Eun; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Su-Kyoung

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of draw-in exercise on abdominal muscle activity in the standing and supine positions. [Methods] Twenty healthy women participated in this study. The subjects were required to complete two draw-in exercises (standing and supine positions) using a biofeedback pressure unit. The root mean square (RMS) values of the EMG data were expressed as a percentage of the resting contraction. The data were analyzed using the independent t-test. [Results] According to the changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles, the draw-in exercise in the standing position produced the most significant increase in the activities of the rectus abdominis, the transverse abdominis, the internal oblique, and the external oblique muscles. [Conclusion] The activities of the trunk stability muscles (rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique) increased more in the standing than in the supine position, enabling the subjects to overcome gravity. Therefore, to strengthen the activation of the abdominal muscles, a standing position seems to be more effective than a supine position for draw-in exercises.

  9. Assay Methods and Unit Definitions of Xylanase Activity%木聚糖酶酶活性测定方法及酶活性单位定义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丹; 郭丽琼; 赵力超; 林俊芳

    2009-01-01

    The definition and determination of xylanase activity was unified in this article. Through summarizing and comparing the present knowledge on different procedure for the determination of xylanase activity,one unit of xylanase activity was defined as the quantity of enzyme required to liberate 1 (xmol of reducing sugar ( as xylose) per minute at the measure conditions . This DNS method of expressing xylanase activity is scientifically sound and we suggest that this method be utilized as the universal and standard method of determining xylanase activity.%为统一木聚糖酶酶活性的单位定义及测定方法进行了实验.通过对现有酶活性的单位定义及测定方法的比较分析,得出木聚糖酶的酶活性单位定义为:在特定条件下,每分钟水解木聚糖形成1μmol木糖(还原糖)所需酶量为1个酶活力单位(U),并且采用还原糖法中的DNS法作为测定木聚糖酶酶活性的方法,该法具有合理性和科学性,建议以此作为木聚糖酶酶活性测定及酶活性单位定义的统一方法.

  10. Active surveillance of visual impairment due to adverse drug reactions: findings from a national study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Phillippa M; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-02-01

    As visual impairment (VI) due to adverse drug reactions (ADR) is rare in adults and children, there is an incomplete evidence base to inform guidance for screening and for counseling patients on the potential risks of medications. We report on suspected drugs and the eye conditions found in a national study of incidence of diagnosis of visual impairment due to suspected ADR. Case ascertainment was via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU), between March 2010 and February 2012, with follow-up after 6 months. any child or adult with bilateral or unilateral visual impairment due to a suspected ADR, using distance acuity worse than Snellen 6/18 (logMAR 0.48) in the better eye (bilateral) or affected eye (unilateral). Anonymized patient information on potential cases was provided by managing ophthalmologists, comprising visual status before and after suspected ADR, ophthalmic condition attributable to the ADR, preexisting eye disease and prescribed medications at the time of the ADR. Permanency and causality of the visual impairment were confirmed by the managing clinician, after 6 months, using the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Committee criteria. Over 2 years, 36 eligible cases were reported of whom 23 had permanent VI. While most cases were due to drugs known to have adverse side-effects, some were unanticipated sporadic cases. Visual impairment due to ADRs is rare. However, with for example, increasing polypharmacy in the elderly, monitoring of ocular ADRs, although challenging, is necessary.

  11. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  12. Integral field unit spectroscopy of 10 early type galactic nuclei: I - Principal component analysis Tomography and nuclear activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, T V; Menezes, R B

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies show emission lines that can be characterized as LINERs. To what extent this emission is related to AGNs or to stellar processes is still an open question. In this paper, we analysed a sample of such galaxies to study the central region in terms of nuclear and circumnuclear emission lines, as well as the stellar component properties. For this reason, we selected 10 massive ($\\sigma$ > 200 km/s) nearby (d < 31 Mpc) galaxies and observed them with the IFU/GMOS (integral field unit/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph) spectrograph on the Gemini South Telescope. The data were analysed with principal component analysis (PCA) Tomography to assess the main properties of the objects. Two spectral regions were analysed: a yellow region (5100-5800 A), adequate to show the properties of the stellar component, and a red region (6250-6800 A), adequate to analyse the gaseous component. We found that all objects previously known to present emission lines have a central AGN-type emitting source. They al...

  13. Nosocomial infection characteristics in a burn intensive care unit: analysis of an eleven-year active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncül, Oral; Öksüz, Sinan; Acar, Ali; Ülkür, Ersin; Turhan, Vedat; Uygur, Fatih; Ulçay, Asım; Erdem, Hakan; Özyurt, Mustafa; Görenek, Levent

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe nosocomial infection (NI) rates, risk factors, etiologic agents, antibiotic susceptibility, invasive device utilization and invasive device associated infection rates in a burn intensive care unit (ICU) in Turkey. Prospective surveillance of nosocomial infections was performed according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria between 2001 and 2012. The data was analyzed retrospectively. During the study period 658 burn patients were admitted to our burn ICU. 469 cases acquired 602 NI for an overall NI rate of 23.1 per 1000 patient days. 109 of all the cases (16.5%) died. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (241), Acinetobacter baumannii (186) and Staphylococcus aureus (69) were the most common identified bacteria in 547 strains. Total burn surface area, full thickness burn, older age, presence of inhalation injury were determined to be the significant risk factors for acquisition of NI. Determining the NI profile at a certain burn ICU can lead the medical staff apply the appropriate treatment regimen and limit the drug resistance. Eleven years surveillance report presented here provides a recent data about the risk factors of NI in a Turkish burn ICU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. A combined long-term recording system for single-unit activity and neurotransmitter efflux of a brain slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y. H.; Young, M. S.

    1998-04-01

    A combined long-term measurement and recording system for neurotransmission research of brain slices is presented in this study. This system, based on the IBM PC or compatible computer, is capable of simultaneously measuring and recording both single-unit neural electropotential signals and the electrochemical signals of neurotransmitter efflux from the same neuron in a brain slice for long periods of time (time limited largely by hard disk capacity, 100 h or more not being unreasonable with contemporary hardware) using a single carbon microelectrode for both measurements. The combined long-term recording system uses a simple switching circuit to switch periodically the single microelectrode between two data acquisition subsystems, one for electrochemical data and one for electrophysiological data. The simple switching circuit separates the electrophysiological signals and electrochemical signals, overcoming the traditional interference problem caused by the two different measuring techniques. Software designed for the proposed system allows easy reconstruction of the full time course of the compressed measured data and easy, simultaneous display of both types of signals on the same time scale. On-line and recorded displays are available. Test results of a practical implementation of the proposed system verify that the combined long-term recording system meets actual requirements for electrophysiological and neurochemical research.

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance activity in the United Kingdom: a survey on behalf of the british society of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargie Henry J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The indications, complexity and capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR have rapidly expanded. Whether actual service provision and training have developed in parallel is unknown. Methods We undertook a systematic telephone and postal survey of all public hospitals on behalf of the British Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to identify all CMR providers within the United Kingdom. Results Of the 60 CMR centres identified, 88% responded to a detailed questionnaire. Services are led by cardiologists and radiologists in equal proportion, though the majority of current trainees are cardiologists. The mean number of CMR scans performed annually per centre increased by 44% over two years. This trend was consistent across centres of different scanning volumes. The commonest indication for CMR was assessment of heart failure and cardiomyopathy (39%, followed by coronary artery disease and congenital heart disease. There was striking geographical variation in CMR availability, numbers of scans performed, and distribution of trainees. Centres without on site scanning capability refer very few patients for CMR. Just over half of centres had a formal training programme, and few performed regular audit. Conclusion The number of CMR scans performed in the UK has increased dramatically in just two years. Trainees are mainly located in large volume centres and enrolled in cardiology as opposed to radiology training programmes.

  16. More Active Living-oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity-United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Nicholson, Lisa M; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA.

  17. Removal of Cu(II) ions by biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) prior to biological treatment in an activated sludge unit: a statistical design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoglu, M Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Biological treatment of synthetic wastewater containing Cu(II) ions was realized in an activated sludge unit with pre-adsorption of Cu(II) onto powdered waste sludge (PWS). Box-Behnken experimental design method was used to investigate Cu(II), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and toxicity removal performance of the activated sludge unit under different operating conditions. The independent variables were the solids retention time (SRT, 5-30 d), hydraulic residence time (HRT, 5-25 h), feed Cu(II) concentration (0-50 mg L(-1)) and PWS loading rate (0-4 g h(-1)) while percent Cu(II), COD, toxicity (TOX) removals and the sludge volume index (SVI) were the objective functions. The data were correlated with a quadratic response function (R2=0.99). Cu(II), COD and toxicity removals increased with increasing PWS loading rate and SRT while decreasing with the increasing feed Cu(II) concentration and HRT. Optimum conditions resulting in maximum Cu(II), COD, toxicity removals and SVI values were found to be SRT of 30 d, HRT 15 h, PWS loading rate 3 g h(-1) and feed Cu(II) concentration of less than 30 mg L(-1).

  18. A United Image Force for Deformable Models and Direct Transforming Geometric Active Contorus to Snakes by Level Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The image force in active contours plays a key role for shape recovery in medical image analysis. The image force constructed from the heat diffusion model can not indicate segment the image accurately through it exhibits a uniform distribution of force field around the object. The features of the image force based on electrostatic field model are opposite. Firstly, this study introduces a fusion scheme of these two image forces, which capable of extracting the object boundary with high precision and fast speed. Till now, there is no satisfied analysis of the relationship between Snakes and Geometric Active Contour. The second contribution of this study indicates that the GAC model can be deduced directly from Snakes models. It proves that the each term in GAC and Snakes is correspondent and has the same function. These two models are only expressed using different mathematics.

  19. A monomer is the minimum functional unit required for channel and ATPase activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeesingh, M; Li, C; Kogan, I; Wang, Y; Huan, L J; Bear, C E

    2001-09-04

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) normally functions as a phosphorylation-regulated chloride channel on the apical surface of epithelial cells, and lack of this function is the primary cause for the fatal disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Previous studies showed that purified, reconstituted CFTR can function as a chloride channel and, further, that its intrinsic ATPase activity is required to regulate opening and closing of the channel gate. However, these previous studies did not identify the quaternary structure required to mediate conduction and catalysis. Our present studies show that CFTR molecules may self-associate in CHO and Sf9 membranes, as complexes close to the predicted size of CFTR dimers can be captured by chemical cross-linking reagents and detected using nondissociative PAGE. However, CFTR function does not require a multimeric complex for function as we determined that purified, reconstituted CFTR monomers are sufficient to mediate regulated chloride conduction and ATPase activity.

  20. Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in the renewable energy industry in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    For the past few decades, the renewable energy industry has grown and expanded its influence and competitiveness in global markets. This thesis analysis whether certain factors related to the energy industry are conducive to mergers and acquisitions. Using regression analysis, it concludes that solar industry growth, power industry growth, and crude oil prices have no impact on M&A activity on the given timeframe.

  1. Unit with Fluidized Bed for Gas-Vapor Activation of Different Carbonaceous Materials for Various Purposes: Design, Computation, Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene

    2017-02-01

    We propose the technology of obtaining the promising material with wide specter of application-activated nanostructured carbon. In terms of technical indicators, it will stand next to the materials produced by complex regulations with the use of costly chemical operations. It can be used for the following needs: as a sorbent for hemosorption and enterosorption, for creation of the newest source of electric current (lithium and zinc air batteries, supercapacitors), and for processes of short-cycle adsorption gas separation.

  2. A wedge-based approach to estimating health co-benefits of climate change mitigation activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbus, John M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chari, Ramya [Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ebi, Kristie L. [ClimAdapt, Inc., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    While it has been recognized that actions reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can have significant positive and negative impacts on human health through reductions in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, these impacts are rarely taken into account when analyzing specific policies. This study presents a new framework for estimating the change in health outcomes resulting from implementation of specific carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction activities, allowing comparison of different sectors and options for climate mitigation activities. Our estimates suggest that in the year 2020, the reductions in adverse health outcomes from lessened exposure to PM2.5 would yield economic benefits in the range of $6 to $14 billion (in 2008 USD), depending on the specific activity. This equates to between $40 and $93 per metric ton of CO2 in health benefits. Specific climate interventions will vary in the health co-benefits they provide as well as in potential harms that may result from their implementation. Rigorous assessment of these health impacts is essential for guiding policy decisions as efforts to reduce GHG emissions increase in scope and intensity.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray. A study in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, P.D.; Jonker, D.M.; Hoeven, R.T. van der; Vermeij, T.A.; Edelbroek, P.M.; Brekelmans, G.J.; Haan, G.J. de

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray, compared with intravenous midazolam, in healthy adult subjects. METHODS: Subjects were administered single doses of 5 mg midazolam intranasally and intravenously in a cr

  4. Bioequivalence in dogs of a meloxicam formulation administered as a transmucosal oral mist with an orally administered pioneer suspension product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Cheng, Z; Keefe, T J; Weich, E; Bryd, J; Cedergren, R; Cozzi, E

    2013-02-01

    A mucosal mist formulation of meloxicam, administered as a spray into the mouth (test article), was compared for bioequivalence to a pioneer meloxicam suspension for oral administration (reference article). Pharmacokinetic profiles and average bioequivalence were investigated in 20 dogs. The study design comprised a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment cross-over design, with maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under plasma concentration-time curve to last sampling time (AUC(last)) used as pivotal bioequivalence variables. Bioequivalence of the products was confirmed, based on relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations (and 90% confidence intervals within the range 0.80-1.25) for C(max) of 101.9 (97.99-106.0) and for AUC(last) of 97.24 (94.44-100.1). The initial absorption of meloxicam was more rapid for the test article, despite virtually identical C(max) values for the two products. Mean elimination half-lives were 29.6 h (test article) and 30.0 h (reference article). The meloxicam plasma concentration-time profiles were considered in relation to published data on the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 isoenzymes by meloxicam.

  5. United States Adolescents' Television, Computer, Videogame, Smartphone, and Tablet Use: Associations with Sugary Drinks, Sleep, Physical Activity, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    To quantify the relationships between youth use of television (TV) and other screen devices, including smartphones and tablets, and obesity risk factors. TV and other screen device use, including smartphones, tablets, computers, and/or videogames, was self-reported by a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 24 800 US high school students (2013-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys). Students also reported on health behaviors including sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, physical activity, sleep, and weight and height. Sex-stratified logistic regression models, adjusting for the sampling design, estimated associations between TV and other screen device use and SSB intake, physical activity, sleep, and obesity. Approximately 20% of participants used other screen devices for ≥5 hours daily. Watching TV ≥5 hours daily was associated with daily SSB consumption (aOR = 2.72, 95% CI: 2.23, 3.32) and obesity (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.27). Using other screen devices ≥5 hours daily was associated with daily SSB consumption (aOR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.32), inadequate physical activity (aOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.25), and inadequate sleep (aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.08). Using smartphones, tablets, computers, and videogames is associated with several obesity risk factors. Although further study is needed, families should be encouraged to limit both TV viewing and newer screen devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 45 CFR 400.65 - Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.65 Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA program. Sections 400.65 through 400.69 apply to publicly-administered RCA programs. If a State chooses to operate...

  7. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  8. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS) techniques--exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping--to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and "other" age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  9. Surveillance of tedizolid activity and resistance: In vitro susceptibility of Gram-positive pathogens collected over 5 years from the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaci, Mekki; Sahm, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    In vitro activity of tedizolid and comparators against 11,231 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States (84 centers) and Europe (115 centers) were summarized as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance program between 2009 and 2013. Susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria. Tedizolid inhibited 99.7% of all isolates at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L; activity was similar regardless of methicillin or vancomycin resistance phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, respectively. Tedizolid MIC >1 mg/L was reported for 3 S. aureus, 4 coagulase-negative staphylococci, and 2 enterococcal isolates; all streptococci were inhibited at MIC ≤0.5 mg/L. Tedizolid was ≥4-fold more potent than linezolid against all groups, including resistant phenotypes. Tedizolid had potent/stable activity against a large, contemporary collection of Gram-positive clinical isolates, with low rates of resistance.

  10. Fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine disrupt estrogen synthesis in a co-culture model of the feto-placental unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon Thibeault, Andrée-Anne; Laurent, Laetitia; Vo Duy, Sung; Sauvé, Sébastien; Caron, Patrick; Guillemette, Chantal; Sanderson, J Thomas; Vaillancourt, Cathy

    2017-02-15

    The effects of fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, and its active metabolite norfluoxetine were studied on placental aromatase (CYP19) and feto-placental steroidogenesis. Fluoxetine did not alter estrogen secretion in co-culture of fetal-like adrenocortical (H295R) and trophoblast-like (BeWo) cells used as a model of the feto-placental unit, although it induced CYP19 activity, apparently mediated by the serotonin (5-HT)2A receptor/PKC signaling pathway. Norfluoxetine decreased estrogen secretion in the feto-placental co-culture and competitively inhibited catalytic CYP19 activity in BeWo cells. Decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity in the co-culture was comparable to 17β-estradiol treatment of BeWo cells. This work shows that the complex interaction of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine with placental estrogen production, involves 5-HT-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Considering the crucial role of estrogens during pregnancy, our results raise concern about the impact of SSRI treatment on placental function and fetal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  12. Effect of Orally Administered Glutathione-Montmorillonite Hybrid Systems on Tissue Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Baek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ubiquitous tripeptide, glutathione (GSH, is assigned a role in detoxification, activation of immune system, intermediary metabolism, transport, and protection of cells against free radicals or reactive oxygen species. However, instability of orally administered GSH in gastrointestinal (GI tract leads to low absorption and low bioavailability in tissues. In this study, we attempted to synthesize GSH-montmorillonite (MMT hybrid systems by intercalating GSH into the interlayers of a cationic clay delivery carrier, MMT, to improve GSH bioavailability at the systemic level. Polymer coating of the hybrid with polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA was further performed to obtain better stability. Synthetic condition of both GSH-MMT and AEA-GSH-MMT hybrids was optimized, and then GSH-delivery efficiency was evaluated in various organs after oral administration in normal as well as GSH-deficient mice. The present GSH-MMT hybrids remarkably enhanced GSH concentration in the plasma, heart, kidney, and liver, especially when AEA-GSH-MMT hybrid was administered under GSH-deficient condition. Moreover, both hybrids did not induce acute oral toxicity up to 2000 mg/kg, suggesting their great potential for pharmaceutical application.

  13. Tolerability assessment of a lectin fraction from Tepary bean seeds (Phaseolus acutifolius orally administered to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferriz-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that a lectin rich fraction (TBLF extracted from Tepary bean seeds differentially inhibits cancer cells proliferation in vitro. Before testing the in vivo anticancer effect, the acute and subchronic toxicological assays in rats were conducted, where an oral dose of 50 mg/body weight kg was determined as the NOAEL. This study evaluated the resistance to digestion and complete blood count (CBC after 24 h of the orally administered 50 mg/kg TBLF. The digestion resistance test showed lectins activity retention after 72 h and the CBC study showed a high level of eosinophils, suggesting an allergic-like response. Tolerability was assayed after 6 weeks of treatment by dosing with an intragastric cannula every third day per week. It was observed a transient reduction in food intake and body weight in the first weeks, resulting in body weight gain reduction of 10% respect to the control group at the end of the study. Additionally, organs weight, histopathological analysis and blood markers for nutritional status and for liver, pancreas and renal function were not affected. Our results suggest that 50 mg/kg TBLF administered by oral route, exhibit no toxicity in rats and it was well tolerated. Further studies will focus on long-term studies.

  14. Hourly photosynthetically active radiation estimation in Midwestern United States from artificial neural networks and conventional regressions models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolei; Guo, Xulin

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between hourly photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the global solar radiation (R s ) was analyzed from data gathered over 3 years at Bondville, IL, and Sioux Falls, SD, Midwestern USA. These data were used to determine temporal variability of the PAR fraction and its dependence on different sky conditions, which were defined by the clearness index. Meanwhile, models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) were established for predicting hourly PAR. The performance of the proposed models was compared with four existing conventional regression models in terms of the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), the coefficient of determination (r (2)), the mean percentage error (MPE), and the relative standard error (RSE). From the overall analysis, it shows that the ANN model can predict PAR accurately, especially for overcast sky and clear sky conditions. Meanwhile, the parameters related to water vapor do not improve the prediction result significantly.

  15. Unit with Fluidized Bed for Gas-Vapor Activation of Different Carbonaceous Materials for Various Purposes: Design, Computation, Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strativnov, Eugene

    2017-12-01

    We propose the technology of obtaining the promising material with wide specter of application-activated nanostructured carbon. In terms of technical indicators, it will stand next to the materials produced by complex regulations with the use of costly chemical operations. It can be used for the following needs: as a sorbent for hemosorption and enterosorption, for creation of the newest source of electric current (lithium and zinc air batteries, supercapacitors), and for processes of short-cycle adsorption gas separation.In this study, the author gives recommendations concerning the design of the apparatus with fluidized bed and examples of calculation of specific devices. The whole given information can be used as guidelines for the design of energy effective aggregates. Calculation and design of the reactor were carried out using modern software complexes (ANSYS and SolidWorks).

  16. Hourly photosynthetically active radiation estimation in Midwestern United States from artificial neural networks and conventional regressions models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolei; Guo, Xulin

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between hourly photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the global solar radiation ( R s ) was analyzed from data gathered over 3 years at Bondville, IL, and Sioux Falls, SD, Midwestern USA. These data were used to determine temporal variability of the PAR fraction and its dependence on different sky conditions, which were defined by the clearness index. Meanwhile, models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) were established for predicting hourly PAR. The performance of the proposed models was compared with four existing conventional regression models in terms of the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), the coefficient of determination ( r 2), the mean percentage error (MPE), and the relative standard error (RSE). From the overall analysis, it shows that the ANN model can predict PAR accurately, especially for overcast sky and clear sky conditions. Meanwhile, the parameters related to water vapor do not improve the prediction result significantly.

  17. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa S. Gibson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK. Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ, a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD, in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006 and BMI centiles (p = 0.002 than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001. Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15. Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005, who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01. In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  18. Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Philippa S; Lang, Sarah; Gilbert, Marianne; Kamat, Deepa; Bansal, Sanjay; Ford-Adams, Martha E; Desai, Ashish P; Dhawan, Anil; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Moore, J Bernadette; Hart, Kathryn H

    2015-11-26

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management.

  19. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  20. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  1. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. METHODS: We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. RESULTS: LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  2. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements contained in subpart HHH of this part. The program for all injection activity except that on Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  3. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  4. Clinical effectiveness of a staff training intervention in mental health inpatient rehabilitation units designed to increase patients' engagement in activities (the Rehabilitation Effectiveness for Activities for Life [REAL] study): single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; Marston, Louise; Green, Nicholas; Harrison, Isobel; Lean, Melanie; Cook, Sarah; Mundy, Tim; Craig, Thomas; Holloway, Frank; Leavey, Gerard; Koeser, Leonardo; McCrone, Paul; Arbuthnott, Maurice; Omar, Rumana Z; King, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental health inpatient rehabilitation services focus on people with complex psychosis who have, for example, treatment-refractory symptoms, cognitive impairment, and severe negative symptoms, which impair functioning and require lengthy admission. Engagement in activities could lead to improvement in negative symptoms and function, but few trials have been done. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a staff training intervention to increase patients' engagement in activities. We did a single-blind, two-arm, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 40 mental health inpatient rehabilitation units across England. Units were randomly allocated to either a manual-based staff training programme delivered by a small intervention team (intervention group, n=20) or standard care (control group, n=20). The primary outcome was patients' engagement in activities 12 months after randomisation, measured with the time use diary. With this measure, both the degree of engagement in an activity and its complexity are recorded four times a day for a week, rated on a scale of 0-4 for every period (maximum score of 112). Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Random-effects models were used to compare outcomes between study groups. Cost-effectiveness was assessed by combining service costs with the primary outcome. This study is registered with Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN25898179). Patients' engagement in activities did not differ between study groups (coefficient 1·44, 95% CI -1·35 to 4·24). An extra £101 was needed to achieve a 1% increase in patients' engagement in activities with the study intervention. Our training intervention did not increase patients' engagement in activities after 12 months of follow-up. This failure could be attributable to inadequate implementation of the intervention, a high turnover of patients in the intervention units, competing priorities on staff time, high levels of patients' morbidity, and ceiling effects because of the high quality of

  5. Indian Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. Only areas of 640 acres or more are included. Federally-administered lands within a reservation are included...

  6. Therapeutic effect of orally administered microencapsulated oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Guajardo, Gonzalo; Langer, Robert S; Anderson, Daniel G

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other Western countries. Oral delivery of therapeutics remains the most patient accepted form of medication. The development of an oral delivery formulation for local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the gastrointestinal tract can potentially alleviate the adverse side effects including systemic cytotoxicity, as well as focus therapy to the lesions. Here we develop an oral formulation of the chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin was encapsulated in pH sensitive, mucoadhesive chitosan-coated alginate microspheres. The microparticles were formulated to release the chemotherapeutics after passing through the acidic gastric environment thus targeting the intestinal tract. In vivo, these particles substantially reduced the tumor burden in an orthotopic mouse model of colorectal cancer, and reduced mortality.

  7. The association between nurse-administered midazolam following cardiac surgery and incident delirium: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Priscilla G; Ratner, Pamela A; Galdas, Paul M; Jillings, Carol; Manning, Deborah; Fernandes, Connie; Gallaher, Jaime

    2012-09-01

    Post-operative delirium after cardiac surgery is an adverse event that affects patients' recovery and complicates the delivery of nursing care. Numerous risk factors for delirium are uncontrollable; however, nurses' pro re nata drug administration of sedatives may be a controllable risk factor. This study examined the relationship between nurses' pro re nata administration of midazolam hydrochloride to cardiac surgery patients and the development of post-operative delirium. Observational study. Cardiac surgery intensive care and nursing units of a tertiary care center in Vancouver, Canada. 122 male and female patients requiring non-emergent surgery for coronary artery disease or valvular heart disease who did not have pre-existing cognitive impairment, severe hearing or visual impairment, substance misuse, alcohol intake exceeding 7 drinks per week, or renal impairment requiring hemodialysis. Patients were assessed for delirium, on three occasions, with the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) during the first 72 h after surgery and through reviews of physicians' notes. Risk factor and midazolam dosage data were collected from medical records. 77.9% of the patients in this sample received midazolam hydrochloride post-operatively. The prevalence of delirium ranged from 37.7% to 44.3%. Almost all of the dosages of midazolam (85-87%) were given before the first indication of delirium; that is, most of the patients had received their entire dosage before the first signs of delirium were detected. Bivariate analysis with logistic regression models revealed that for every additional milligram of midazolam administered, the patients were 7-8% more likely to develop delirium. Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the magnitude of the association between midazolam dosage and delirium was not confounded by established risk factors including age and peripheral vascular disease. Nurses play an important role in the prediction

  8. Oceanic Influences on North Pacific Storm Track Activity and Southwest United States Precipitation and Streamflow from 1915-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) exert influence over the position and strength of storm tracks through ocean interactions with the atmosphere. This study utilizes a comprehensive set of satellite and in situ data from 1915-2011 to show how the IPO and AMO may have influenced and are related to historical cool season storm track activity (STA) over the north Pacific and southwest US (SWUS) precipitation and streamflow. SWUS river basin water supply for people, agriculture and energy production throughout the year is predominantly dependent on snowpack depth and by changes in ocean conditions across multiple time scales. Positive STA, precipitation, and streamflow anomalies are most strongly related to positive (warm) IPO phases across datasets and time periods while negative (cool) IPO phases are more robustly linked to negative precipitation anomalies, especially during the mid-20th century. Sub-basin precipitation is differentially dependent on STA over specific north Pacific regions. Additionally, results show evidence for a small eastward shift in north Pacific STA and a lack in mean poleward movement in historical data. Moreover, the interannual to interdecadal variability discussed in this study will continue to be important to water resource managers throughout the region, regardless of future changes to the mean regional state of the climate.

  9. Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

  10. Effect of light-curing units and activation mode on polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Pereira, José Carlos; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composites polymerized with a LED and a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light sources. The LED was used in a conventional mode (CM) and the QTH was used in both conventional and pulse-delay modes (PD). The composite resins used were Z100, A110, SureFil and Bisfil 2B (chemical-cured). Composite deformation upon polymerization was measured by the strain gauge method. The shrinkage stress was measured by photoelastic analysis. The polymerization shrinkage data were analyzed statistically using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p contraction and the stress values when compared to CM. LED generated the same stress as QTH in conventional mode. Regardless of the activation mode, SureFil produced lower contraction and stress values than the other light-cured resins. Conversely, Z100 and A110 produced the greatest contraction and stress values. As expected, the chemically cured resin generated lower shrinkage and stress than the light-cured resins. In conclusion, The PD mode effectively decreased contraction stress for Z100 and A110. Development of stress in light-cured resins depended on the shrinkage value.

  11. Antioxidants Activity and Color Evaluation of Date Fruit of Selected Cultivars Commercially Available in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Mohammed Al-Jasass

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L. are nutrient-rich fruit consumed throughout the world, either directly or in several food products. Six commercially available date cultivars in the US were analyzed for total phenolics, antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays, and instrumental color. Total phenolics content varied from 33 to 125 mg GAE/100 g dry weight, with the highest in Barni (Saudi Arabia. Antioxidant values as determined by the ABTS in Deglet Nour (Algeria, Deglet Nour (California, Deglet Noor (Tunisia, Shahia (Tunisia, Barni (Saudi Arabia, and Khudri (Saudi Arabia were 1300, 1047, 796, 452, 776, and 341 μmol TE/g dry weight, respectively. Antioxidative properties as measure by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC varied from 3.27 to 3.54, 3.29 to 5.22, and 189 to 243 μmol TE/g dry basis, respectively. Fruit and pulp color of Deglet Nour (Algeria was lighter whereas pulp of Barni (Saudi Arabia was the darkest. Antioxidant values varied with different techniques used and also followed a different pattern than that of phenolics content.

  12. Diet and Physical Activity in Rural vs Urban Children and Adolescents in the United States: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey Arneson; Meendering, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Current research suggests that the prevalence of obesity is higher among rural youth than urban youth. Due to the health implications that are associated with child and adolescent obesity, it is critical to understand systematic differences in diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors that may be contributing to this disparity in weight. However, varying definitions of rural and inconsistencies in study tools and methodologies may limit the generalizability of findings from research in this area. The objective of this narrative review was to synthesize and critically evaluate existing literature comparing diet and PA behaviors between rural and urban children and adolescents, providing recommendations for future research. Only five studies were found that reported on measures of diet in rural vs urban youth, whereas 16 were found that reported on measures of PA. Dietary assessment tools were generally standard and acceptable; however, differences existed in how dietary outcomes were defined. Few studies used assessment tools that objectively measured PA, and definitions for meeting PA recommendations varied among studies. Very few studies defined rural using the same criteria. Future research on the rural youth obesity disparity should focus on including a high-quality assessment of both diet and PA (as opposed to one or the other) and on using an appropriate and consistent definition of rural.

  13. Numerical simulation on the adaptation of forms in trabecular bone to mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit activation threshold at menopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Gong; Yubo Fan; Ming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit (BMU) activation threshold on the form of trabecular bone during menopause. A bone adaptation model with mechanical-biological factors at BMU level was integrated with finite element analysis to simulate the changes of trabecular bone structure during menopause. Mechanical disuse and changes in the BMU activation threshold were applied to the model for the period from 4 years before to 4 years after menopause.The changes in bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and fractal dimension of the trabecular structures were used to quantify the changes of trabecular bone in three different cases associated with mechanical disuse and BMU activation threshold. It was found that the changes in the simulated bone volume fraction were highly correlated and consistent with clinical data, and that the trabecular thickness reduced signi-ficantly during menopause and was highly linearly correlated with the bone volume fraction, and that the change trend of fractal dimension of the simulated trabecular structure was in correspondence with clinical observations. The numerical simulation in this paper may help to better understand the relationship between the bone morphology and the mecha- nical, as well as biological environment; and can provide a quantitative computational model and methodology for the numerical simulation of the bone structural morphological changes caused by the mechanical environment, and/or the biological environment.

  14. Numerical simulation on the adaptation of forms in trabecular bone to mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit activation threshold at menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, He; Fan, Yubo; Zhang, Ming

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit (BMU) activation threshold on the form of trabecular bone during menopause. A bone adaptation model with mechanical- biological factors at BMU level was integrated with finite element analysis to simulate the changes of trabecular bone structure during menopause. Mechanical disuse and changes in the BMU activation threshold were applied to the model for the period from 4 years before to 4 years after menopause. The changes in bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and fractal dimension of the trabecular structures were used to quantify the changes of trabecular bone in three different cases associated with mechanical disuse and BMU activation threshold. It was found that the changes in the simulated bone volume fraction were highly correlated and consistent with clinical data, and that the trabecular thickness reduced significantly during menopause and was highly linearly correlated with the bone volume fraction, and that the change trend of fractal dimension of the simulated trabecular structure was in correspondence with clinical observations. The numerical simulation in this paper may help to better understand the relationship between the bone morphology and the mechanical, as well as biological environment; and can provide a quantitative computational model and methodology for the numerical simulation of the bone structural morphological changes caused by the mechanical environment, and/or the biological environment.

  15. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  16. Effect of light-curing units and activation mode on polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Gonzaga Lopes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composites polymerized with a LED and a quartz tungsten halogen (QTH light sources. The LED was used in a conventional mode (CM and the QTH was used in both conventional and pulse-delay modes (PD. The composite resins used were Z100, A110, SureFil and Bisfil 2B (chemical-cured. Composite deformation upon polymerization was measured by the strain gauge method. The shrinkage stress was measured by photoelastic analysis. The polymerization shrinkage data were analyzed statistically using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05, and the stress data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05. Shrinkage and stress means of Bisfil 2B were statistically significant lower than those of Z100, A110 and SureFil. In general, the PD mode reduced the contraction and the stress values when compared to CM. LED generated the same stress as QTH in conventional mode. Regardless of the activation mode, SureFil produced lower contraction and stress values than the other light-cured resins. Conversely, Z100 and A110 produced the greatest contraction and stress values. As expected, the chemically cured resin generated lower shrinkage and stress than the light-cured resins. In conclusion, The PD mode effectively decreased contraction stress for Z100 and A110. Development of stress in light-cured resins depended on the shrinkage value.

  17. Cytomegalovirus-associated esophageal ulcer in an immunocompetent infant: When should ganciclovir be administered?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jeong Jang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV-associated esophageal ulcer is rare in immunocompetent infants. The presence of inclusion bodies and immunohistochemical staining for CMV in biopsy specimens obtained during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD indicate that such ulcers occur because of CMV infection. A 7-week-old female infant who experienced frequent vomiting and feeding intolerance was diagnosed with a massive CMV-associated ulcer in the distal esophagus. The ulcer improved after conservative treatment using proton-pump inhibitors; however, ganciclovir was not administered. In a follow-up EGD biopsy specimen, no CMV inclusion bodies were present, and immunohistochemical staining results for this virus were negative. The presence of CMV inclusion bodies indicates active viral replication. If persistent inclusion bodies or positive immunohistochemical staining for CMV is observed in follow-up biopsy specimens, ganciclovir may be used to treat CMV-associated esophageal ulcers.

  18. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  19. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D

    2012-03-01

    The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6 mg/kg and 3.25 mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14 mg/kg and 3.54 mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Identification and quantification of metabolites of orally administered naringenin chalcone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mineka; Sano, Atsushi; Kamei, Jun-Ichi; Obata, Akio

    2009-07-22

    Naringenin chalcone is the main active component of tomato skin extract, which has an antiallergic activity. In this study, naringenin chalcone was orally administered to rats, and the chemical structures and levels of the major metabolites in the plasma and urine of rats were determined. HPLC analysis indicated the presence of three major metabolites in the urine. LC-MS and NMR analyses tentatively identified these as naringenin chalcone-2'-O-beta-D-glucuronide, naringenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide, and naringenin-4'-O-beta-D-glucuronide. Naringenin chalcone-2'-O-beta-D-glucuronide was the only metabolite detected in the plasma, and its peak plasma level was observed 1 h after naringenin chalcone administration. Naringenin chalcone-2'-O-beta-D-glucuronide also inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80. This activity might contribute to the antiallergic activity of naringenin chalcone in vivo. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report determination of naringenin chalcone metabolites in rat plasma and urine.

  1. A Novel Application of RFID in Hospitals for Involuntary Administering to Incorporate Authentication and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mohamed Syed Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today many hospitals use RFID system to monitor the health records for patient to update the patient information to doctors and patients relatives. In this system Customers can view and update their personal medical information via the web site, which seamlessly sync with one another. RFID is a total system, as opposed to a single product. It provides electronic identity to any object. Electronic information about the object is stored in RFID chip embedded of attached to the object. With an RFID reader the electronic identity can be read wirelessly. We have analyzed completely about the various applications of the RFID and we have come to a conclusion that the RFID can be effectively implemented in the hospitals to manage and monitor various systems of the hospitals automatically. This project is too costly to be implemented now, but the rates of the RFID accessories are expected to come down in the near future. For this automated administering the project needs a Central Monitoring Unit which we have decided to be controlled by software made in a high level language (C. For the reference of the reader we have attached the implementation files with this paper. This paper explains the basics of RFID, its working and our contribution towards RFID.

  2. Vaccinations administered during off-clinic hours at a national community pharmacy: implications for increasing patient access and convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Jeffery A; Taitel, Michael S; Fensterheim, Leonard E; Cannon, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am-6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience.

  3. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy A. van Galen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03–1.71. Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00–2.13. We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only.

  4. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Katy A; Nellen, Jeannine F; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03-1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00-2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only.

  5. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  6. Humulus lupus Beta-acids Administered Through Water Reduce Clostridium perfringens Challenge Strains in the Chicken Intestinal Tract Midgut and Ceca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity activity of extracts of the hop plant Humulus lupus was studied in chickens fed diets without antibiotic growth promotants. Beta-acid resins of the hop plant were administered by water to 13 day old chickens subsequently challenged per so with necrotic enteritis-associate...

  7. Standardization process for pipeline right-of-way activities: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipeline and Terminals Business Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra de Morais M.; Goncalves, Bruno Martins [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. concerning the standardization process for its pipeline right-of-way (ROW) activities. This standardization initiative has been carried out within the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT), focusing on planning, standardization and implementation of all norms and corporate procedures referring to TRANSPETRO's right-of-way activities. The process promoted the integration of isolated regional initiatives, a sense of unity and the creation of a learning network consisting of 60 employees. This paper presents the last phase's results concerning implementation of corporate standards, based upon achievements of previous phases. It covers the following topics: a general view of the whole process by way of introduction; the potential of integration of recent standardization results with TRANSPETRO's corporate management tools and information systems; definition of four performance indicators and their metrics related to pipeline right-of-way management, as well as a corporate standard for the requirements for contracting services related to rights-of-way inspection, maintenance and communication; challenges, barriers and benefits perceived by the team responsible for formulating and implementing standards and procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. (author)

  8. EURISOL-DS multi-MW target unit: Neutronics performance and shielding assessment, dose rate and material activation calculations for the MAFF configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanets, Y; Kadi, Y; Luis, R; Goncalves, I F; Tecchio, L; Kharoua, C; Vaz, P; Ene, D; David, J C; Rocca, R; Negoita, F

    2010-01-01

    One of the objectives of the EURISOL (EURopean Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam) Design Study consisted of providing a safe and reliable facility layout and design for the following operational parameters and characteristics: (a) a 4 MW proton beam of 1 GeV energy impinging on a mercury target (the converter); (b) high neutron fluxes (similar to 3 x 10(16) neutrons/s) generated by spallation reactions of the protons impinging in the converter and (c) fission rate on fissile U-235 targets in excess of 10(15) fissions/s. In this work, the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo codes MCNPX (Pelowitz, 2005) and FLUKA (Vlachoudis, 2009; Ferrari et al., 2008) were used to characterize the neutronics performance and to perform the shielding assessment (Herrera-Martinez and Kadi, 2006; Cornell, 2003) of the EURISOLTarget Unit and to provide estimations of dose rate and activation of different components, in view of the radiation safety assessment of the facility. Dosimetry and activation calculations were perfor...

  9. Communities on the move: Pedestrian-oriented zoning as a facilitator of adult active travel to work in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Friedman Chriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communities across the United States have been reforming their zoning codes to create pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods with increased street connectivity, mixed-use and higher density, open space, transportation infrastructure, and a traditional neighborhood structure. Zoning code reforms include new urbanist zoning such as the SmartCode, form-based codes, transects, transportation and pedestrian-oriented developments, and traditional neighborhood developments.Purpose: To examine the relationship of zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning provisions with adult active travel to work via walking, biking, or by using public transit.Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for 3,914 municipal-level jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities in 48 states and the District of Columbia, and that collectively covered 72.9% of the U.S. population. Zoning codes were evaluated for the presence of code reform zoning and nine pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions (1=yes: sidewalks, crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, bike lanes, bike parking, bike-pedestrian trails/paths, mixed use development, and other walkability/pedestrian-orientation. A zoning scale reflected the number of provisions addressed (out of 10. Five continuous outcome measures were constructed using 2010-2014 American Community Survey municipal-level 5-year estimates to assess the percentage of workers: walking, biking, walking or biking, or taking public transit to work OR engaged in any active travel to work. Regression models controlled for municipal-level socioeconomic characteristics and a GIS-constructed walkability scale and were clustered on county with robust standard errors. Results: Adjusted models indicated that several pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions were statistically associated (p<.05 or lower with increased rates of walking, biking, or engaging in any active travel (walking

  10. 博来霉素致肺纤维化大鼠不同时间点吸人STAT1反义寡核苷酸的疗效比较%Therapeutic effects of aerosolized signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 antisense oligonucleotide administered at different time points on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis: experiment with rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 曾鸣; 朱晨; 王文军; 湛晓勤; 范贤明

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨雾化吸入信号转导和转录活化因子1(STAT1)反义寡核苷酸(ASON)干预肺纤维化的最佳给药时机.方法 Wistar雌性大鼠25只随机均分为博来霉素(BLM)组、ASON 0 d组、ASON 7 d组、ASON 14 d组和生理盐水(NS)组,前4组气管内灌注BLM建立肺纤维化模型,NS组气管内灌注NS.ASON 0、7、14 d组分别于气管内灌注BLM后立即、第7和14天开始雾化吸入STATI ASON;NS组和BLM组雾化吸入NS.气管内灌注BLM后第28天处死各组大鼠,取肺组织分别行HE和Masson染色,观察肺泡炎和纤维化情况并评分;酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)测定支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中转化生长因子β(TGF-β)和肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)浓度.结果 肺组织病理学观察显示ASON 0 d组大鼠肺泡炎和肺纤维化程度明显轻于BLM组和ASON 14 d组,肺泡炎评分(1.80±0.84)和肺纤维化评分(2.60±0.55)均明显低于BLM组(2.40±0.55、4.40±0.55)、ASON 7 d组(2.20±0.45、3.00 ±0.71)和ASON 14 d组(2.20±0.84、4.00±1.00)(均P<0.05);ASON 7 d组肺纤维化评分也明显低于BLM组和ASON 14 d组(均P<0.05).ASON 0 d组BALF中TGF-β与TNF-α浓度[(48.11±3.46)pg/ml、(1.93±0.14)ng/ml]均明显低于BLM组[(57.67±2.46)pg/ml、(2.45±0.25)ng/ml,均P<0.05],TGF-β浓度明显低于ASON 7 d组[(51.42±3.57)pg/ml]和ASON 14 d组[(55.83±1.79)pg/ml](均P<0.05);ASON 7 d组BALF中TGF-β浓度也明显低于BLM组和ASON 14d组(均P<0.05).结论 早期雾化吸入STAT1 ASON对BLM致肺纤维化大鼠的肺纤维化形成有明显阻抑作用,用药越早效果越好,提示雾化吸入STAT1 ASON有可能成为肺纤维化的早期干预手段.%Objective To investigate the curative effects of inhaling signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) on alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis and the best administration time. Methods Twenty-five adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups: BLM group, undergoing intra

  11. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-06-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens.

  12. Measurement Units. Intercultural Educational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2009-01-01

    Today's society is characterized by a plurality of cultures in such a way that a person will often interact and interrelate with new cultures. The situation becomes even more complicated when one has to adapt to a new culture for a short period of time (travel or study visit) or a long period of time (new work place, emigration etc.). Any…

  13. Adherence to safe handling guidelines by health care workers who administer antineoplastic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of antineoplastic drugs is well documented. Many are known or suspected human carcinogens where no safe exposure level exists. Authoritative guidelines developed by professional practice organizations and federal agencies for the safe handling of these hazardous drugs have been available for nearly three decades. As a means of evaluating the extent of use of primary prevention practices such as engineering, administrative and work practice controls, personal protective equipment (PPE), and barriers to using PPE, the National Institute for Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a web survey of health care workers in 2011. The study population primarily included members of professional practice organizations representing health care occupations which routinely use or come in contact with selected chemical agents. All respondents who indicated that they administered antineoplastic drugs in the past week were eligible to complete a hazard module addressing self-reported health and safety practices on this topic. Most (98%) of the 2069 respondents of this module were nurses. Working primarily in hospitals, outpatient care centers, and physician offices, respondents reported that they had collectively administered over 90 specific antineoplastic drugs in the past week, with carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel the most common. Examples of activities which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: failure to wear nonabsorbent gown with closed front and tight cuffs (42%); intravenous (I.V.) tubing primed with antineoplastic drug by respondent (6%) or by pharmacy (12%); potentially contaminated clothing taken home (12%); spill or leak of antineoplastic drug during administration (12%); failure to wear chemotherapy gloves (12%); and lack of hazard awareness training (4%). The most common reason for not wearing gloves or gowns was "skin exposure was minimal"; 4% of respondents, however, reported skin contact during handling and

  14. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  15. Muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats: effects of continuous and intermittent swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carla

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous swimming training on muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats. Methods Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous trained alloxan (CA, intermittent trained alloxan (IA, continuous trained control (CC and intermittent trained control (IC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg body weight was injected into newborn rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 5% of body weight; uninterrupted swimming for 1 h/day, five days a week. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 15% of body weight; 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest for a total of 20 min/day, five days a week. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals displayed higher glycemia after glucose overload than the control animals. No differences in insulinemia among the groups were detected. At 120 days, no differences in serum albumin and total protein among the groups were observed. Compared to the other groups, DNA concentrations were higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to continuous training, whereas the DNA/protein ratio was higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to intermittent training. Conclusion It was concluded that continuous and intermittent training sessions were effective in altering muscle growth by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, respectively, in alloxan-administered animals.

  16. Negative outcomes: what is the evidence on self-administered treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, F; Floyd, M; Jamison, C; Ackerson, J; Landreville, P; Bissonnette, L

    1996-10-01

    D.C. Mohr (1995) suggested that high deterioration rates may occur in self-directed treatments. The investigators examined data from 5 studies of self-administered treatment for depression and found in contrast much lower rates (9% vs. 19%) than those cited in Mohr's review. The negative response rates for the self-administered treatments compared favorably with the negative response rates in the therapist-administered treatments provided in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. The findings indicate that it may be the manner in which participants are prepared for self-administered treatment that is critical.

  17. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I

    1996-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test-retest re......A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test......, sexual function and social activities. Test-retest showed a repeat frequency of 50.0%-91.0% for symptoms and 44.6%-82.1% for trouble. A highly significant positive correlation was found between symptoms and trouble, which was most pronounced for questions concerning pain and incontinence...

  18. Penetration of orally administered prulifloxacin into human prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, Claudio; Gallo, Fabrizio; Rosignoli, Maria T; Ruggieri, Alessandro; Barattè, Simona; Picollo, Rossella; Dionisio, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Prulifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, may be a useful addition to the antimicrobial armamentarium against prostatitis once the ability of its active metabolite, ulifloxacin, to penetrate prostatic tissue has been determined. This study set out to evaluate ulifloxacin penetration into the prostate following administration of the oral fluoroquinolone prodrug prulifloxacin in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). This was a phase I, randomized, open-label, single-centre study involving 20 male Caucasian patients (mean age 63.1 years) requiring TURP for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Sixteen patients were randomized to receive prulifloxacin; the other four patients were not treated (controls) in order to validate the bioanalytical method. Patients in the active treatment groups were randomized to receive one or three once-daily doses of prulifloxacin 600 mg, with the last administration 3 hours prior to surgery. Central/transitional and peripheral zone prostatic tissue samples were obtained from the 6 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions in the prostate, and blood samples were collected concurrently. Ulifloxacin concentrations were determined in the tissue samples and plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Safety was also assessed. Prostatic tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin always exceeded those in plasma. Mean ulifloxacin concentrations measured in samples collected from the 6 o'clock central/transitional zone of the prostate were higher in patients who received prulifloxacin for 3 days than in those who received a single dose. Mean prostatic tissue/plasma ulifloxacin concentration ratios after single and repeated prulifloxacin administration ranged from 3.8 to 7.1 and from 3.9 to 9.5, respectively. The highest mean ratio was found in the 6 o'clock central/transitional zone after repeated dosing. Prostatic levels of ulifloxacin were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations for the most

  19. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  20. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  1. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  2. Pharmacology of ayahuasca administered in two repeated doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Grasa, Eva; Valle, Marta; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Bouso, José Carlos; Nomdedéu, Josep F; Homs, Rosa; Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi

    2012-02-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian tea containing the natural psychedelic 5-HT(2A/2C/1A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). It is used in ceremonial contexts for its visionary properties. The human pharmacology of ayahuasca has been well characterized following its administration in single doses. To evaluate the human pharmacology of ayahuasca in repeated doses and assess the potential occurrence of acute tolerance or sensitization. In a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial, nine experienced psychedelic drug users received PO the two following treatment combinations at least 1 week apart: (a) a lactose placebo and then, 4 h later, an ayahuasca dose; and (b) two ayahuasca doses 4 h apart. All ayahuasca doses were freeze-dried Amazonian-sourced tea encapsulated to a standardized 0.75 mg DMT/kg bodyweight. Subjective, neurophysiological, cardiovascular, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and cell immunity measures were obtained before and at regular time intervals until 12 h after first dose administration. DMT plasma concentrations, scores in subjective and neurophysiological variables, and serum prolactin and cortisol were significantly higher after two consecutive doses. When effects were standardized by plasma DMT concentrations, no differences were observed for subjective, neurophysiological, autonomic, or immunological effects. However, we observed a trend to reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and a significant decrease for growth hormone (GH) after the second ayahuasca dose. Whereas there was no clear-cut tolerance or sensitization in the psychological sphere or most physiological variables, a trend to lower cardiovascular activation was observed, together with significant tolerance to GH secretion.

  3. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  4. Activity dynamics of lysosomal enzymes and proteoglycan-like compounds in patients with primary deforming osteoarthrosis under the effect of radon baths having radon concentrations of 100 (36. 4 nanocuries/1) and 300 (102. 2 nanocuries/1) mach units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryppaeva, T.T.

    1974-01-01

    Determination of the activity of acid phosphatase and of the acid proteinases in the blood serum is an additional criterion of the course of a pathological process during primary deforming osteoarthrosis. Radon baths with a radon concentration of 100 Mach units cause a decided lowering in the activity of acid hydrolases and proteoglycan-like compounds in the blood serum. Radon baths with a radon concentration of 100 (36.4 nanocuries/liter) Mach units promote a favorable decrease in the destructive effects on the epiphyseal cartilage, and an increase in the nonspecific resistance of the organism. 6 references. (SJR)

  5. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  6. Individually administered or co-prescribed thiopurines and mesalamines for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Giovanni-C; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Rizzetto, Mario; Ayoubi, Muhammad; Leone, Nicola; Tappero, Gianfranco; Pazienza, Paola; Rosina, Floriano

    2009-03-28

    Data from both basic research and clinical experience continue to suggest that mesalamines and thiopurines are effective and efficient for the maintenance of remission of inflammatory bowel diseases. Several decades following the formalization of their indications, attention on these two drugs has been fostered by recent achievements. Demonstration of the ability of mesalamine to activate a colonocyte differentiation factor has shed light on its chemopreventive effects on colorectal cancer; in addition to their anti-proliferative efficacy, thiopurines have been shown to be specific regulators of apoptosis. The two drugs are often co-administered in clinical practice. Recent advancements have shown that mesalamines exert a positive synergism in this context, insofar as they can inhibit side-methylation of thiopurines and hasten the function of the main immunosuppressive pathways. Considering that up to 40% of patients cannot tolerate thiopurines, such renovated targets have stimulated efforts to improve compliance by research on the toxicity mechanisms. The definition of genetic polymorphisms in the enzymes of thiopurine metabolism, and the uncovering of synergistic drug interactions, such as that with allopurinol, are just two of the results of such efforts. Interaction between basic research and clinical practice has continued to inform indications and refine the prescriptions of mesalamines and thiopurines; these have not been restrained (they have been implemented in some cases) by the advent of the novel biological molecules with anti-cytokine activity.

  7. Assessment of the effects of orally administered ferrous sulfate on Oncopeltus fasciatus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Amparo; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, María Dolores

    2017-03-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient needed for multiple biological processes, but it is also an effective pro-oxidant in its reduced form. Environmental sources of iron toxic species include reduced soils from rice plantations, polluted natural areas from metal industry waste, or iron oxides used in soil bioremediation. Few studies have been conducted to assess the toxicity of iron species in insects. The present work aims to assess the oxidative stress effects of ferrous sulfate administered in drinking water after acute exposure (96 h) to adults of the insect model Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Mortality was higher in exposed groups and significantly associated with iron treatment (OR [95% CI]; 11.8 [6.1-22.7]). Higher levels of body iron content were found in insects exposed to ferrous sulfate, with an increase of 5-6 times with respect to controls. Catalase activity and lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), but not glutathione S-transferase activity, were significantly higher in exposed insects and significantly correlated with body iron content (Pearson coefficient of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively) and between them (0.78). The present work demonstrates that, despite the disruption in water and food intake caused by iron administration, this metal is accumulated by insect causing lipid peroxidation and eliciting an antioxidant response mediated by catalase.

  8. Effects of the position of galactose units to Zn(II) phthalocyanine on the uptake and photodynamic activity towards breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, V.; Kril, A.; Angelov, I.; Dimitrov, R.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2012-06-01

    Zn(II)-phthalocyanines with tetra-substitution of D-galactose group on non-peripheral (nGalPc) and peripheral (pGalPc) positions have been studied as photodynamic sensitizers. The both complexes are water-soluble and highly aggregated in water and cell culture medium. The non-peripheral galactose units attached to the phthalocyanine macrocycle (nGalPc) lead to far red shift of absorbance maximum at 703 nm as compared to peripherally substituted pGalPc with maximum at 683 nm. The fluorescence maxima of the studied GalPcs were red shifted (8-14 nm) depending on the used solvent as compared to the absorption maxima. The relatively low fluorescence quantum yields in dimethylsulfoxide (0.06 for nGalPc and 0.21 for pGalPc) were determined. The singlet oxygen generation was determined with lower quantum yield for pGalPc (0.21) as compared to nGalPc (0.38). The lack of dark toxicity towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) in wide concentration range (0.125 - 10 μM) was observed. The uptake into the tumor cells and the subcellular localization in MCF-7 cells were determined with higher accumulation for pGalPc, compared to nGalPc. The in vitro photodynamic activity of GalPcs towards breast cancer cells was investigated for different dye concentrations and soft light parameters of 635 nm irradiation. The antitumor activity of nGalPc was superior to the pGalPc-induced cytotoxicity, due to higher generation of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species.

  9. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: The power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K; Riffel, Rogemar A

    2016-01-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high luminosity AGN with outflow speeds related to the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This relation suggests a threshold luminosity of 10^(43-45) erg/s above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph Integral Field Unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the center with four times better spatial resolution. In the lower-L_bol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA ...

  10. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  11. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator, as...

  12. Alliance in Two Telephone-Administered Treatments: Relationship with Depression and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Victoria; Vella, Lea; Howard, Isa; Mohr, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between therapeutic alliance and both depression and health outcomes in a randomized clinical trial of 2 telephone-administered treatments with 97 clients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The 16-week, manualized treatments compared were telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) and…

  13. 47 CFR 64.1110 - State notification of election to administer FCC rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State notification of election to administer FCC rules. 64.1110 Section 64.1110 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Telecommunications Service Providers § 64.1110 State notification of election to administer FCC rules. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 447.520 - FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. 447.520 Section 447.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... § 447.520 FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. (a) No FFP is available...

  15. 40 CFR 147.250 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State of California, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the California... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.250 Section 147.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  16. 20 CFR 664.610 - How is the summer employment opportunities element administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... element administered? 664.610 Section 664.610 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Opportunities § 664.610 How is the summer employment opportunities element administered? Chief elected officials... recipient or fiscal agent under WIA section 117(d)(3)(B). If, in the administration of the summer...

  17. Proinflammatory effects of exogenously administered IL-10 in experimental autoimmune orchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Tetsushi; Itoh, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yoichi;

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effects of exogenously administered recombinant murine interleukin (IL)-10 on the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in C3H/He mice. IL-10 significantly augments histological signs of EAO when administered for 6 consecutive days from days 15 to 20 after primary...

  18. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  19. Dopamine decreases NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Michal; deBacker, Julian; Mason, Xenos; Jones, Andrea A; Dumont, Eric C

    2014-06-03

    Dopamine (DA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) contribute in the neural processes underlying drug-driven behaviors. DA is a potent modulator of NMDAR, but few studies have investigated the functional interaction between DA and NMDAR in the context of substance abuse. We combined the rat model of cocaine self-administration with brain slice electrophysiology to study DA modulation of NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST), a dense DA terminal field involved in maintenance of cocaine self-administration amongst other drug related behaviors. Long-Evans rats self-administered intravenous cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/injection) on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement for 15 days and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done on the 16th day. DA reduced NMDA currents in brain-slices from cocaine self-administering rats, but not in those of drug-naïve and sucrose self-administering, or when cocaine exposure was passive (yoked), revealing a mechanism unique to voluntary cocaine intake. DA reduced NMDA currents by activating G-protein-coupled D1- and D2-like receptors that converged on phospholipase C and protein phosphatases. Accordingly, our study reveals a mechanism that may contribute to dysfunctional synaptic plasticity associated with drug-driven behaviors during acute withdrawal.

  20. Bringing state-of-the-art diagnostics to vulnerable populations: The use of a mobile screening unit in active case finding for tuberculosis in Palawan, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Fukushi; Garfin, Anna Marie Celina Gonzales; Lew, Woojin; Oh, Kyung Hyun; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Reston, Janeth Cuencaho; Infante, Lenie Lucio; Acala, Maria Rebethia Crueldad; Palanca, Dean Lim; Kim, Hee Jin; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, case detection of tuberculosis (TB) has stabilized in recent years. Active case finding (ACF) has regained an increased attention as a complementary strategy to fill the case detection gap. In the Philippines, the DetecTB project implemented an innovative ACF strategy that offered a one-stop diagnostic service with a mobile unit equipped with enhanced diagnostic tools including chest X-ray (CXR) and Xpert®MTB/RIF (Xpert). The project targeted the rural poor, the urban poor, prison inmates, indigenous population and high school students. Methods This is a retrospective review of TB screening data from 25,103 individuals. A descriptive analysis was carried out to compare screening and treatment outcomes across target populations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of TB for each population. The composition of bacteriologically-confirmed cases by smear and symptom status was further investigated. Results The highest yield with lowest number needed to screen (NNS) was found in prison (6.2%, NNS: 16), followed by indigenous population (2.9%, NNS: 34), the rural poor (2.2%, NNS: 45), the urban poor (2.1%, NNS: 48), and high school (0.2%, NNS: 495). The treatment success rate for all populations was high with 89.5% in rifampicin-susceptible patients and 83.3% in rifampicin-resistant patients. A relatively higher loss to follow-up rate was observed in indigenous population (7.5%) and the rural poor (6.4%). Only cough more than two weeks showed a significant association with TB diagnosis in all target populations (Adjusted Odds Ratio ranging from 1.71 to 6.73) while other symptoms and demographic factors varied in their strength of association. The urban poor had the highest proportion of smear-positive patients with cough more than two weeks (72.0%). The proportion of smear-negative (Xpert-positive) patients without cough more than two weeks was the highest in indigenous population (39.3%), followed by prison