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Sample records for uniquely determined canonical

  1. IMPROVED UNIQUENESS CONDITIONS FOR CANONICAL TENSOR DECOMPOSITIONS WITH LINEARLY DEPENDENT LOADINGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Alwin; Lam, Tam T. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derive improved uniqueness conditions for a constrained version of the canonical order-3 tensor decomposition, also known as Candecomp/Parafac (CP). CP decomposes a three-way array into a prespecified number of outer product arrays. The constraint is that some vectors forming the

  2. Parametric potential determination by the canonical function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannous, C.; Fakhreddine, K.; Langlois, J.

    1999-01-01

    The canonical function method (CFM) is a powerful means for solving the radial Schroedinger equation (RSE). The mathematical difficulty of the RSE lies in the fact it is a singular boundary value problem. The CFM turns it into a regular initial value problem and allows the full determination of the spectrum of the Schroedinger operator without calculating the eigenfunctions. Following the parametrisation suggested by Klapisch and Green-Sellin-Zachor we develop a CFM to optimise the potential parameters in order to reproduce the experimental quantum defect results for various Rydberg series of He, Ne and Ar as evaluated from Moore's data. (orig.)

  3. Canonical and Noncanonical Sites Determine NPT2A Binding Selectivity to NHERF1 PDZ1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Mamonova

    Full Text Available Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor-1 (NHERF1 is a scaffolding protein containing 2 PDZ domains that coordinates the assembly and trafficking of transmembrane receptors and ion channels. Most target proteins harboring a C-terminus recognition motif bind more-or-less equivalently to the either PDZ domain, which contain identical core-binding motifs. However some substrates such as the type II sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter (NPT2A, uniquely bind only one PDZ domain. We sought to define the structural determinants responsible for the specificity of interaction between NHERF1 PDZ domains and NPT2A. By performing all-atom/explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD simulations in combination with biological mutagenesis, fluorescent polarization (FP binding assays, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, we found that in addition to canonical interactions of residues at 0 and -2 positions, Arg at the -1 position of NPT2A plays a critical role in association with Glu43 and His27 of PDZ1 that are absent in PDZ2. Experimentally introduced mutation in PDZ1 (Glu43Asp and His27Asn decreased binding to NPT2A. Conversely, introduction of Asp183Glu and Asn167His mutations in PDZ2 promoted the formation of favorable interactions yielding micromolar KDs. The results describe novel determinants within both the PDZ domain and outside the canonical PDZ-recognition motif that are responsible for discrimination of NPT2A between two PDZ domains. The results challenge general paradigms for PDZ recognition and suggest new targets for drug development.

  4. On canonical cylinder sections for accurate determination of contact angle in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Zabihi, Farhad

    1992-01-01

    Large shifts of liquid arising from small changes in certain container shapes in zero gravity can be used as a basis for accurately determining contact angle. Canonical geometries for this purpose, recently developed mathematically, are investigated here computationally. It is found that the desired nearly-discontinuous behavior can be obtained and that the shifts of liquid have sufficient volume to be readily observed.

  5. Network 'small-world-ness': a quantitative method for determining canonical network equivalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Humphries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many technological, biological, social, and information networks fall into the broad class of 'small-world' networks: they have tightly interconnected clusters of nodes, and a shortest mean path length that is similar to a matched random graph (same number of nodes and edges. This semi-quantitative definition leads to a categorical distinction ('small/not-small' rather than a quantitative, continuous grading of networks, and can lead to uncertainty about a network's small-world status. Moreover, systems described by small-world networks are often studied using an equivalent canonical network model--the Watts-Strogatz (WS model. However, the process of establishing an equivalent WS model is imprecise and there is a pressing need to discover ways in which this equivalence may be quantified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined a precise measure of 'small-world-ness' S based on the trade off between high local clustering and short path length. A network is now deemed a 'small-world' if S>1--an assertion which may be tested statistically. We then examined the behavior of S on a large data-set of real-world systems. We found that all these systems were linked by a linear relationship between their S values and the network size n. Moreover, we show a method for assigning a unique Watts-Strogatz (WS model to any real-world network, and show analytically that the WS models associated with our sample of networks also show linearity between S and n. Linearity between S and n is not, however, inevitable, and neither is S maximal for an arbitrary network of given size. Linearity may, however, be explained by a common limiting growth process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown how the notion of a small-world network may be quantified. Several key properties of the metric are described and the use of WS canonical models is placed on a more secure footing.

  6. Oblique rotaton in canonical correlation analysis reformulated as maximizing the generalized coefficient of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Hironori; Adachi, Kohei

    2013-07-01

    To facilitate the interpretation of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) solutions, procedures have been proposed in which CCA solutions are orthogonally rotated to a simple structure. In this paper, we consider oblique rotation for CCA to provide solutions that are much easier to interpret, though only orthogonal rotation is allowed in the existing formulations of CCA. Our task is thus to reformulate CCA so that its solutions have the freedom of oblique rotation. Such a task can be achieved using Yanai's (Jpn. J. Behaviormetrics 1:46-54, 1974; J. Jpn. Stat. Soc. 11:43-53, 1981) generalized coefficient of determination for the objective function to be maximized in CCA. The resulting solutions are proved to include the existing orthogonal ones as special cases and to be rotated obliquely without affecting the objective function value, where ten Berge's (Psychometrika 48:519-523, 1983) theorems on suborthonormal matrices are used. A real data example demonstrates that the proposed oblique rotation can provide simple, easily interpreted CCA solutions.

  7. An efficient iterative grand canonical Monte Carlo algorithm to determine individual ionic chemical potentials in electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasics, Attila; Boda, Dezso

    2010-06-28

    Two iterative procedures have been proposed recently to calculate the chemical potentials corresponding to prescribed concentrations from grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. Both are based on repeated GCMC simulations with updated excess chemical potentials until the desired concentrations are established. In this paper, we propose combining our robust and fast converging iteration algorithm [Malasics, Gillespie, and Boda, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 124102 (2008)] with the suggestion of Lamperski [Mol. Simul. 33, 1193 (2007)] to average the chemical potentials in the iterations (instead of just using the chemical potentials obtained in the last iteration). We apply the unified method for various electrolyte solutions and show that our algorithm is more efficient if we use the averaging procedure. We discuss the convergence problems arising from violation of charge neutrality when inserting/deleting individual ions instead of neutral groups of ions (salts). We suggest a correction term to the iteration procedure that makes the algorithm efficient to determine the chemical potentials of individual ions too.

  8. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  9. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, ... a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data ..... Even though the aquifer shows characteristics of all major ...... Earth Sci.

  10. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although karst aquifers constitute some of the most important water resources worldwide, generally accepted methods for reliably characterising their hydraulic properties are still elusive. This paper aims at contributing to the discussion by a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data derived from ...

  11. Canonical Analysis Technique as an Approach to Determine Optimal Conditions for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teixeira Leite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The response surface methodology and canonical analysis were employed to find the most suitable conditions for Lactobacillus helveticus to produce lactic acid from cheese whey in batch fermentation. The analyzed variables were temperature, pH, and the concentrations of lactose and yeast extract. The experiments were carried out according to a central composite design with three center points. An empiric equation that correlated the concentration of lactic acid with the independent variables was proposed. The optimal conditions determined by the canonical analysis of the fitted model were 40°C, pH 6.8, 82 g/L of lactose, and 23.36 g/L of yeast extract. At this point, the lactic acid concentration reached 59.38 g/L. A subsequent fermentation, carried out under optimal conditions, confirmed the product concentration predicted by the adjusted model. This concentration of lactic acid is the highest ever reported for Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009 in batch process using cheese whey as substrate.

  12. Activation of non-canonical Wnt/JNK pathway by Wnt3a is associated with differentiation fate determination of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Chen, Li; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway can determine human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell (hMSC) differentiation fate into osteoblast or adipocyte lineages. However, its downstream targets in MSC are not well characterized. Thus, using DNA microarrays, we compared global gene expression...

  13. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  14. Structure determination of human Lck unique and SH3 domains by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willbold Dieter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein tyrosine kinases are involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, activation and transformation. Human lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck is a 56 kDa protein involved in T-cell- and IL2-receptor signaling. Three-dimensional structures are known for SH3, SH2 and kinase domains of Lck as well as for other tyrosine kinases. No structure is known for the unique domain of any Src-type tyrosine kinase. Results Lck(1–120 comprising unique and SH3 domains was structurally investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found the unique domain, in contrast to the SH3 part, to have basically no defined structural elements. The solution structure of the SH3 part could be determined with very high precision. It does not show significant differences to Lck SH3 in the absence of the unique domain. Minor differences were observed to the X-ray structure of Lck SH3. Conclusion The unique domain of Lck does not contain any defined structure elements in the absence of ligands and membranes. Presence of the unique domain is not relevant to the three-dimensional structure of the Lck SH3 domain.

  15. Conditional stability and uniqueness for determining two coefficients in a hyperbolic–parabolic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Jijun

    2011-01-01

    We study the inverse problem of determining two spatially varying coefficients in a thermoelastic model with the following observation data: displacement in a subdomain ω satisfying ∂ω superset of ∂Ω along a sufficiently large time interval, both displacement and temperature at a suitable time over the whole spatial domain. Based on a Carleman estimate on the hyperbolic–parabolic system, we prove the Lipschitz stability and the uniqueness for this inverse problem under some a priori information

  16. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  17. Exact criteria for uniqueness and multiplicity of an nth order chemical reaction via catastrophe theory approach. [Determines boundaries between unique and multiple steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H C; Calo, J M

    1979-01-01

    A simple, generalized technique for the exact determination of the boundaries between regions of unique and of multiple solutions to certain nonlinear equations was developed by applying catastrophe theory to the mapping of implicit and explicit functions. Its application to an nth order reaction in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) yields exact, explicit expressions for the boundaries between regions of single and multiple steady states, expressed in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient and activation energy. An exact implicit expression for the boundaries between regions of uniqueness and multiplicity was also derived for an nth order reaction in a catalyst particle with an intraparticle concentration gradient and uniform temperature and is fully demonstrated for the first-order reaction. In addition, explicit criteria were developed by assuming the limits on d ln g/d ln q, where g is the effectiveness factor and q the Thiele modulus, proposed by van den Bosch and Luss.

  18. Canonical forms for single-qutrit Clifford+T operators

    OpenAIRE

    Glaudell, Andrew N.; Ross, Neil J.; Taylor, Jacob M.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce canonical forms for single qutrit Clifford+T circuits and prove that every single-qutrit Clifford+T operator admits a unique such canonical form. We show that our canonical forms are T-optimal in the sense that among all the single-qutrit Clifford+T circuits implementing a given operator our canonical form uses the least number of T gates. Finally, we provide an algorithm which inputs the description of an operator (as a matrix or a circuit) and constructs the canonical form for ...

  19. Magnetic phase diagrams from non-collinear canonical band theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shallcross, Sam; Nordstrom, L.; Sharma, S.

    2007-01-01

    A canonical band theory of non-collinear magnetism is developed and applied to the close packed fcc and bcc crystal structures. This is a parameter-free theory where the crystal and magnetic symmetry and exchange splitting uniquely determine the electronic bands. In this way, we are able...... hybridization, and on this basis we are able to analyze the microscopic reasons behind the occurrence of non-collinear magnetism in the elemental itinerant magnets....... to construct phase diagrams of magnetic order for the fcc and bcc lattices. Several examples of non-collinear magnetism are seen to be canonical in origin, in particular, that of gamma-Fe. In this approach, the determination of magnetic stability results solely from changes in kinetic energy due to spin...

  20. Unique determination of the effective potential in terms of renormalization group functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishtie, F. A.; Hanif, T.; McKeon, D. G. C.; Steele, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    The perturbative effective potential V in the massless λφ 4 model with a global O(N) symmetry is uniquely determined to all orders by the renormalization group functions alone when the Coleman-Weinberg renormalization condition (d 4 V/dφ 4 )| φ=μ =λ is used, where μ represents the renormalization scale. Systematic methods are developed to express the n-loop effective potential in the Coleman-Weinberg scheme in terms of the known n-loop minimal-subtraction (MS) renormalization group functions. Moreover, it also proves possible to sum the leading- and subsequent-to-leading-logarithm contributions to V. An essential element of this analysis is a conversion of the renormalization group functions in the Coleman-Weinberg scheme to the renormalization group functions in the MS scheme. As an example, the explicit five-loop effective potential is obtained from the known five-loop MS renormalization group functions and we explicitly sum the leading-logarithm, next-to-leading-logarithm, and further subleading-logarithm contributions to V. Extensions of these results to massless scalar QED are also presented. Because massless scalar QED has two couplings, conversion of the renormalization group functions from the MS scheme to the Coleman-Weinberg scheme requires the use of multiscale renormalization group methods.

  1. Amphibian Declines Are Not Uniquely High amongst the Vertebrates: Trend Determination and the British Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Buckley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although amphibians have experienced major global declines and an increasing extinction rate, recent results indicate that they are not as uniquely disadvantaged as previously supposed. Acquisition of robust data is evidently crucial to the determination of both absolute and relative rates of biodiversity declines, and thus in prioritising conservation actions. In Britain there is arguably a longer history of recording, and attempting to conserve, a wide range of species groups than anywhere else in the world. This stems from the early activities of Victorian naturalists in the nineteenth century, the establishment of natural history societies and, since the mid-twentieth century, a range of national recording schemes and organisations actively involved in conservation. In this review we summarise comparative evidence for British amphibians and reptiles concerning historical abundance, population trends and their causes, and outline how they relate to the situation elsewhere in Europe (and possibly the World. We discuss possible reasons why the plight of ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles seems generally worse than that of endotherms (birds and mammals, as well as research priorities and factors likely to impact amphibians and reptile conservation in future.

  2. Tree-average distances on certain phylogenetic networks have their weights uniquely determined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetic network N has vertices corresponding to species and arcs corresponding to direct genetic inheritance from the species at the tail to the species at the head. Measurements of DNA are often made on species in the leaf set, and one seeks to infer properties of the network, possibly including the graph itself. In the case of phylogenetic trees, distances between extant species are frequently used to infer the phylogenetic trees by methods such as neighbor-joining. This paper proposes a tree-average distance for networks more general than trees. The notion requires a weight on each arc measuring the genetic change along the arc. For each displayed tree the distance between two leaves is the sum of the weights along the path joining them. At a hybrid vertex, each character is inherited from one of its parents. We will assume that for each hybrid there is a probability that the inheritance of a character is from a specified parent. Assume that the inheritance events at different hybrids are independent. Then for each displayed tree there will be a probability that the inheritance of a given character follows the tree; this probability may be interpreted as the probability of the tree. The tree-average distance between the leaves is defined to be the expected value of their distance in the displayed trees. For a class of rooted networks that includes rooted trees, it is shown that the weights and the probabilities at each hybrid vertex can be calculated given the network and the tree-average distances between the leaves. Hence these weights and probabilities are uniquely determined. The hypotheses on the networks include that hybrid vertices have indegree exactly 2 and that vertices that are not leaves have a tree-child.

  3. Dynamic karyotype evolution and unique sex determination systems in Leptidea wood white butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíchová, Jindra; Voleníková, Anna; Dincă, Vlad; Nguyen, Petr; Vila, Roger; Sahara, Ken; Marec, František

    2015-05-19

    Chromosomal rearrangements have the potential to limit the rate and pattern of gene flow within and between species and thus play a direct role in promoting and maintaining speciation. Wood white butterflies of the genus Leptidea are excellent models to study the role of chromosome rearrangements in speciation because they show karyotype variability not only among but also within species. In this work, we investigated genome architecture of three cryptic Leptidea species (L. juvernica, L. sinapis and L. reali) by standard and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reveal causes of the karyotype variability. Chromosome numbers ranged from 2n = 85 to 91 in L. juvernica and 2n = 69 to 73 in L. sinapis (both from Czech populations) to 2n = 51 to 55 in L. reali (Spanish population). We observed significant differences in chromosome numbers and localization of cytogenetic markers (rDNA and H3 histone genes) within the offspring of individual females. Using FISH with the (TTAGG) n telomeric probe we also documented the presence of multiple chromosome fusions and/or fissions and other complex rearrangements. Thus, the intraspecific karyotype variability is likely due to irregular chromosome segregation of multivalent meiotic configurations. The analysis of female meiotic chromosomes by GISH and CGH revealed multiple sex chromosomes: W1W2W3Z1Z2Z3Z4 in L. juvernica, W1W2W3Z1Z2Z3 in L. sinapis and W1W2W3W4Z1Z2Z3Z4 in L. reali. Our results suggest a dynamic karyotype evolution and point to the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the speciation of Leptidea butterflies. Moreover, our study revealed a curious sex determination system with 3-4 W and 3-4 Z chromosomes, which is unique in the Lepidoptera and which could also have played a role in the speciation process of the three Leptidea species.

  4. El canon literario peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Bedoya Maguiña

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canon es un concepto clave en la historia literaria. En el presente artículo,se revisa la evolución histórica del canon literario peruano. Es solo con la llamada República Aristocrática, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, que cabe hablar en el caso peruano de la formación de un auténtico canon nacional. El autor denomina a esta primera versión del canon literario peruano como canon oligárquico y destaca la importancia de la obra de Riva Agüero y de Ventura García Calderón en su configuración. Es solo más tarde, desde los años 20 y de modo definitivo desde los años 50, que puede hablarse de la emergencia de un nuevo canon literarioal que el autor propone determinar canon posoligárquico.

  5. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  6. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    is replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator......Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in optical...

  7. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  8. Relations between canonical and non-canonical inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Rhiannon [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Potsdam (Germany); Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2012-12-15

    We look for potential observational degeneracies between canonical and non-canonical models of inflation of a single field {phi}. Non-canonical inflationary models are characterized by higher than linear powers of the standard kinetic term X in the effective Lagrangian p(X,{phi}) and arise for instance in the context of the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action in string theory. An on-shell transformation is introduced that transforms non-canonical inflationary theories to theories with a canonical kinetic term. The 2-point function observables of the original non-canonical theory and its canonical transform are found to match in the case of DBI inflation.

  9. Need for Uniqueness Determines Reactions to Web-Based Personalized Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Kovacs, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    The presented empirical study among a sample of n = 256 participants addressed the relationship between consumers' need for uniqueness and their reactions to web-based personalized advertising. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, we argue that the consumers' need for uniqueness dimensions creative choice and similarity avoidance may relate to promotion and prevention regulatory orientations, respectively. Accordingly, we hypothesized that creative choice and similarity avoidance would differentially predict self-reported approach and avoidance behavior toward personalized advertising. These direct relationships were further expected to be mediated by subjective evaluations of personalized advertising (i.e., perceived value and irritation). In line with these hypotheses, we found that creative choice predicted approach behavior through increased web-based personalized advertising value, whereas similarity avoidance predicted avoidance behavior through increased irritation. Creative choice also predicted decreased irritation, which in turn was related to decreased approach behavior. In sum, the results suggest that the consumers' need for uniqueness dimensions should not be investigated as a composite, as they seem to reflect different regulatory orientations and are therefore likely to evoke different affective, cognitive, and behavioral responses.

  10. Unified correspondence and canonicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Correspondence theory originally arises as the study of the relation between modal formulas and first-order formulas interpreted over Kripke frames. We say that a modal formula and a first-order formula correspond to each other if they are valid on the same class of Kripke frames. Canonicity theory

  11. Canonical variate regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The canonical and grand canonical models for nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many observables seen in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions can be explained on the basis of statistical equilibrium. Calculations based on statistical equilibrium can be implemented in microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble or grand canonical ensemble. This paper deals with calculations with canonical ...

  13. Contextuality in canonical systems of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Cervantes, Víctor H.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2017-10-01

    Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  14. Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter

  15. Canonical transformations and generating functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, L.J.F.; Kobussen, J.A.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that canonical transformations for field variables in hamiltonian partial differential equations can be obtained from generating functionals in the same way as classical canonical transformations from generating functions. A simple proof of the relation between infinitesimal invariant

  16. Cells determine cell density using a small protein bound to a unique tissue-specific phospholipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Petzold

    2013-10-01

    bone cofactor was identified as a lipid containing a ceramide phosphate, a single chained glycerol lipid and a linker. Tendon uses a different cofactor made up of two fatty acid chains linked directly to the phosphate yielding a molecule about half the size. Moreover, adding the tendon factor/cofactor to osteosarcoma cells causes them to stop growing, which is opposite to its role with tendon cells. Thus, the cofactor is cell type specific both in composition and in the triggered response. Further support of its proposed role came from frozen sections from 5 week old mice where an antibody to the factor stained strongly at the growing ends of the tendon as predicted. In conclusion, the molecule needed for cell density signaling is a small protein bound to a unique, tissue-specific phospholipid yielding a membrane associated but diffusible molecule. Signal transduction is postulated to occur by an increased ordering of the plasma membrane as the concentration of this protein/lipid increases with cell density.

  17. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  18. Canonical transformations of Kepler trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these transformations change the eccentricity of the orbit. A method of obtaining elliptic trajectories from the circular ones with the help of canonical trajectories is discussed.

  19. Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepner, J.

    1990-12-01

    Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Are neoclassical canons valid for southern Chinese faces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas S N Jayaratne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proportions derived from neoclassical canons, initially described by Renaissance sculptors and painters, are still being employed as aesthetic guidelines during the clinical assessment of the facial morphology. OBJECTIVE: 1. to determine the applicability of neoclassical canons for Southern Chinese faces and 2. to explore gender differences in relation to the applicability of the neoclassical canons and their variants. METHODOLOGY: 3-D photographs acquired from 103 young adults (51 males and 52 females without facial dysmorphology were used to test applicability of four neoclassical canons. Standard anthropometric measurements that determine the facial canons were made on these 3-D images. The validity of the canons as well as their different variants were quantified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The neoclassical cannons seldom applied to these individuals, and facial three-section and orbital canons did not apply at all. The orbitonasal canon was most frequently applicable, with a frequency of 19%. Significant sexual dimorphism was found relative to the prevalence of the variants of facial three-section and orbitonasal canons. CONCLUSION: The neoclassical canons did not appear to apply to our sample when rigorous quantitative measurements were employed. Thus, they should not be used as esthetic goals for craniofacial surgical interventions.

  1. Whose Canon? Culturalization versus Democratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Bjurström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current accounts – and particularly the critique – of canon formation are primarily based on some form of identity politics. In the 20th century a representational model of social identities replaced cultivation as the primary means to democratize the canons of the fine arts. In a parallel development, the discourse on canons has shifted its focus from processes of inclusion to those of exclusion. This shift corresponds, on the one hand, to the construction of so-called alternative canons or counter-canons, and, on the other hand, to attempts to restore the authority of canons considered to be in a state of crisis or decaying. Regardless of the democratic stance of these efforts, the construction of alternatives or the reestablishment of decaying canons does not seem to achieve their aims, since they break with the explicit and implicit rules of canon formation. Politically motivated attempts to revise or restore a specific canon make the workings of canon formation too visible, transparent and calculated, thereby breaking the spell of its imaginary character. Retracing the history of the canonization of the fine arts reveals that it was originally tied to the disembedding of artists and artworks from social and worldly affairs, whereas debates about canons of the fine arts since the end of the 20th century are heavily dependent on their social, cultural and historical reembedding. The latter has the character of disenchantment, but has also fettered the canon debate in notions of “our” versus “their” culture. However, by emphasizing the dedifferentiation of contemporary processes of culturalization, the advancing canonization of popular culture seems to be able to break with identity politics that foster notions of “our” culture in the present thinking on canons, and push it in a more transgressive, syncretic or hybrid direction.

  2. O'nyong nyong virus molecular determinants of unique vector specificity reside in non-structural protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali D Saxton-Shaw

    Full Text Available O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are two closely related alphaviruses with very different infection patterns in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. ONNV is the only alphavirus transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, but specific molecular determinants of infection of this unique vector specificity remain unidentified. Fifteen distinct chimeric viruses were constructed to evaluate both structural and non-structural regions of the genome and infection patterns were determined through artificial infectious feeds in An. gambiae with each of these chimeras. Only one region, non-structural protein 3 (nsP3, was sufficient to up-regulate infection to rates similar to those seen with parental ONNV. When ONNV non-structural protein 3 (nsP3 replaced nsP3 from CHIKV virus in one of the chimeric viruses, infection rates in An. gambiae went from 0% to 63.5%. No other single gene or viral region addition was able to restore infection rates. Thus, we have shown that a non-structural genome element involved in viral replication is a major element involved in ONNV's unique vector specificity.

  3. Generalized Canonical Time Warping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Temporal alignment of human motion has been of recent interest due to its applications in animation, tele-rehabilitation and activity recognition. This paper presents generalized canonical time warping (GCTW), an extension of dynamic time warping (DTW) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for temporally aligning multi-modal sequences from multiple subjects performing similar activities. GCTW extends previous work on DTW and CCA in several ways: (1) it combines CCA with DTW to align multi-modal data (e.g., video and motion capture data); (2) it extends DTW by using a linear combination of monotonic functions to represent the warping path, providing a more flexible temporal warp. Unlike exact DTW, which has quadratic complexity, we propose a linear time algorithm to minimize GCTW. (3) GCTW allows simultaneous alignment of multiple sequences. Experimental results on aligning multi-modal data, facial expressions, motion capture data and video illustrate the benefits of GCTW. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/ctw.

  4. Denominator function for canonical SU(3) tensor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Lohe, M.A.; Louck, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The definition of a canonical unit SU(3) tensor operator is given in terms of its characteristic null space as determined by group-theoretic properties of the intertwining number. This definition is shown to imply the canonical splitting conditions used in earlier work for the explicit and unique (up to +- phases) construction of all SU(3) WCG coefficients (Wigner--Clebsch--Gordan). Using this construction, an explicit SU(3)-invariant denominator function characterizing completely the canonically defined WCG coefficients is obtained. It is shown that this denominator function (squared) is a product of linear factors which may be obtained explicitly from the characteristic null space times a ratio of polynomials. These polynomials, denoted G/sup t//sub q/, are defined over three (shift) parameters and three barycentric coordinates. The properties of these polynomials (hence, of the corresponding invariant denominator function) are developed in detail: These include a derivation of their degree, symmetries, and zeros. The symmetries are those induced on the shift parameters and barycentric coordinates by the transformations of a 3 x 3 array under row interchange, column interchange, and transposition (the group of 72 operations leaving a 3 x 3 determinant invariant). Remarkably, the zeros of the general G/sup t//sub q/ polynomial are in position and multiplicity exactly those of the SU(3) weight space associated with irreducible representation [q-1,t-1,0]. The results obtained are an essential step in the derivation of a fully explicit and comprehensible algebraic expression for all SU(3) WCG coefficients

  5. IUS CONNUBII: Canonical Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silma Mendes Berti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available anon Law, in regulating under Can.1058 the "ius connubii", lays down that: "All those who are not prohibited from doing so by law may contract matrimony." This disposition, although apparently simple, has a wide and deep range of implications, questionings and possibilities for investigation, especially as it involves an extremely delicate relationship. A perfect combination of law and sacrament, the "ius connubii", in its close relationship with the constitution of the family, which is the sanctuary of Love, is an important problem, which faces the legislator, both in the legislation of the State, specifically in Civil Law, and in that of the Church. As the general principle of the canonical matrimonial system, "ius connubii' is the source of interpretation of all rules concerning matrimony, especially when it comes to the distinction between sacramental reality and liturgical ceremony. This is the fact, which is the basis of our reflections.

  6. Uniqueness for inverse problems of determining orders of multi-term time-fractional derivatives of diffusion equation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhiyuan; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    This article proves the uniqueness for two kinds of inverse problems of identifying fractional orders in diffusion equations with multiple time-fractional derivatives by pointwise observation. By means of eigenfunction expansion and Laplace transform, we reduce the uniqueness for our inverse problems to the uniqueness of expansions of some special function and complete the proof.

  7. Determination of the vapor–liquid transition of square-well particles using a novel generalized-canonical-ensemble-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Tu Yu-Song; Xu Shun; Zhou Xin

    2017-01-01

    The square-well (SW) potential is one of the simplest pair potential models and its phase behavior has been clearly revealed, therefore it has become a benchmark for checking new theories or numerical methods. We introduce the generalized canonical ensemble (GCE) into the isobaric replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) algorithm to form a novel isobaric GCE-REMC method, and apply it to the study of vapor–liquid transition of SW particles. It is validated that this method can reproduce the vapor–liquid diagram of SW particles by comparing the estimated vapor–liquid binodals and the critical point with those from the literature. The notable advantage of this method is that the unstable vapor–liquid coexisting states, which cannot be detected using conventional sampling techniques, are accessed with a high sampling efficiency. Besides, the isobaric GCE-REMC method can visit all the possible states, including stable, metastable or unstable states during the phase transition over a wide pressure range, providing an effective pathway to understand complex phase transitions during the nucleation or crystallization process in physical or biological systems. (paper)

  8. Interrelations between different canonical descriptions of dissipative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, D; Guerrero, J; López-Ruiz, F F; Aldaya, V

    2015-01-01

    There are many approaches for the description of dissipative systems coupled to some kind of environment. This environment can be described in different ways; only effective models are being considered here. In the Bateman model, the environment is represented by one additional degree of freedom and the corresponding momentum. In two other canonical approaches, no environmental degree of freedom appears explicitly, but the canonical variables are connected with the physical ones via non-canonical transformations. The link between the Bateman approach and those without additional variables is achieved via comparison with a canonical approach using expanding coordinates, as, in this case, both Hamiltonians are constants of motion. This leads to constraints that allow for the elimination of the additional degree of freedom in the Bateman approach. These constraints are not unique. Several choices are studied explicitly, and the consequences for the physical interpretation of the additional variable in the Bateman model are discussed. (paper)

  9. Interrelations between different canonical descriptions of dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, D.; Guerrero, J.; López-Ruiz, F. F.; Aldaya, V.

    2015-04-01

    There are many approaches for the description of dissipative systems coupled to some kind of environment. This environment can be described in different ways; only effective models are being considered here. In the Bateman model, the environment is represented by one additional degree of freedom and the corresponding momentum. In two other canonical approaches, no environmental degree of freedom appears explicitly, but the canonical variables are connected with the physical ones via non-canonical transformations. The link between the Bateman approach and those without additional variables is achieved via comparison with a canonical approach using expanding coordinates, as, in this case, both Hamiltonians are constants of motion. This leads to constraints that allow for the elimination of the additional degree of freedom in the Bateman approach. These constraints are not unique. Several choices are studied explicitly, and the consequences for the physical interpretation of the additional variable in the Bateman model are discussed.

  10. Grand Canonical Ensembles in General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, David; Yang, Wei-Shih

    2012-01-01

    We develop a formalism for general relativistic, grand canonical ensembles in space-times with timelike Killing fields. Using that, we derive ideal gas laws, and show how they depend on the geometry of the particular space-times. A systematic method for calculating Newtonian limits is given for a class of these space-times, which is illustrated for Kerr space-time. In addition, we prove uniqueness of the infinite volume Gibbs measure, and absence of phase transitions for a class of interaction potentials in anti-de Sitter space.

  11. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  12. Groups of automorphisms of the canonical commutation and anticommutation relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Pittner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Observables of supersymmetric quantum mechanics are coded by taking the antisymmetric tensor product with anticommuting parameters. Next we define superunitary transformations, which mix bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom, in order to construct automorphisms of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations. Conversely, every automorphism of the C(A)CR is implemented by an essentially unique superunitary transformation. 12 refs. (Author)

  13. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  14. Canonical quantum gravity and consistent discretizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper covers some developments in canonical quantum gravity that ... derstanding the real Ashtekar variables four dimensionally [4], or the recent work ... Traditionally, canonical formulations of general relativity considered as canonical variables the metric on a spatial slice qab and a canonically conjugate.

  15. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  16. Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory is the first work to compile the contributions of the greatest social thinkers in the global conversation about consumption and consumer culture. A prestigious reference work, it offers original chapters by the world's most prominent thought leaders and sur...

  17. Romanticism, Sexuality, and the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kathleen K.

    1990-01-01

    Traces the Romanticism in the work and persona of film director Jean-Luc Godard. Examines the contradictions posed by Godard's politics and representations of sexuality. Asserts, that by bringing an ironic distance to the works of such canonized directors, viewers can take pleasure in those works despite their contradictions. (MM)

  18. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  19. Realizations of the canonical representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Traditionally, the canonical representation is realized on the Hilbert space ... Fix a decomposition R2n = Rn × Rn ..... to an orthonormal basis {ψ1,ψ2,. ..... [7] Vemuri M K, A non-commutative Sobolev inequality and its application to spectral.

  20. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  1. Canonical formulation of IIB D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, K.

    1998-01-01

    We find Wess-Zumino actions for kappa invariant type IIB D-branes in explicit forms. A simple and compact expression is obtained by the use of spinor variables which are defined as power series of differential forms. Using the Wess-Zumino actions we develop the canonical formulation and find the complete set of the constraint equations for generic type IIB Dp-branes. The conserved global supersymmetry charges are determined and the algebra containing the central charges can be obtained explicitly. (orig.)

  2. Canonical transformations and hamiltonian path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of the Hamiltonian path integrals under canonical transformations produced by a generator, is investigated. An exact form is determined for the kernel of the unitary operator realizing the corresponding quantum transformation. Equivalence rules are found (the Hamiltonian formalism, one-dimensional case) enabling one to exclude non-standard terms from the action. It is shown that the Hamiltonian path integral changes its form under cononical transformations: in the transformed expression besides the classical Hamiltonian function there appear some non-classical terms

  3. Constructing canonical bases of quantized enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing the elements of a given weight of the canonical basis of a quantized enveloping algebra is described. Subsequently, a similar algorithm is presented for computing the canonical basis of a finite-dimensional module.

  4. Generalized canonical correlation analysis with missing values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Velden (Michel); Y. Takane

    2012-01-01

    textabstractGeneralized canonical correlation analysis is a versatile technique that allows the joint analysis of several sets of data matrices. The generalized canonical correlation analysis solution can be obtained through an eigenequation and distributional assumptions are not required. When

  5. Titchmarsh-Weyl theory for canonical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Raj Acharya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop Titchmarsh- Weyl theory of canonical systems. To this end, we first observe the fact that Schrodinger and Jacobi equations can be written into canonical systems. We then discuss the theory of Weyl m-function for canonical systems and establish the relation between the Weyl m-functions of Schrodinger equations and that of canonical systems which involve Schrodinger equations.

  6. Racism as a Unique Social Determinant of Mental Health: Development of a Didactic Curriculum for Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Morgan; Weissman, Anna; Wong, Shane Shucheng; Carlo, Andrew; Zeng, Mary; Borba, Christina; Curry, Michael; Shtasel, Derri

    2017-01-01

    Mental health disparities based on minority racial status are well characterized, including inequities in access, symptom severity, diagnosis, and treatment. For African Americans, racism may affect mental health through factors such as poverty and segregation, which have operated since slavery. While the need to address racism in medical training has been recognized, there are few examples of formal didactic curricula in the psychiatric literature. Antiracism didactics during psychiatry residency provide a unique opportunity to equip physicians to address bias and racism in mental health care. With advocacy by residents in the Massachusetts General Hospital/McLean Psychiatry residency program, the Division of Public and Community Psychiatry developed a curriculum addressing racial inequities in mental health, particularly those experienced by African Americans. Four 50-minute interactive didactic lectures were integrated into the required didactic curriculum (one lecture per postgraduate training class) during the 2015-2016 academic year. Of residents who attended lectures and provided anonymous feedback, 97% agreed that discussing racism in formal didactics was at least "somewhat" positive, and 92% agreed that it should "probably" or "definitely" remain in the curriculum. Qualitative feedback centered on a need for more time to discuss racism as well as a desire to learn more about minority mental health advocacy in general. Teaching about racism as part of required training conveys the explicit message that this is core curricular material and critical knowledge for all physicians. These lectures can serve as a springboard for dissemination and provide scaffolding for similar curriculum development in medical residency programs.

  7. Mapping of the Lassa virus LAMP1 binding site reveals unique determinants not shared by other old world arenaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadar Israeli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell entry of many enveloped viruses occurs by engagement with cellular receptors, followed by internalization into endocytic compartments and pH-induced membrane fusion. A previously unnoticed step of receptor switching was found to be critical during cell entry of two devastating human pathogens: Ebola and Lassa viruses. Our recent studies revealed the functional role of receptor switching to LAMP1 for triggering membrane fusion by Lassa virus and showed the involvement of conserved histidines in this switching, suggesting that other viruses from this family may also switch to LAMP1. However, when we investigated viruses that are genetically close to Lassa virus, we discovered that they cannot bind LAMP1. A crystal structure of the receptor-binding module from Morogoro virus revealed structural differences that allowed mapping of the LAMP1 binding site to a unique set of Lassa residues not shared by other viruses in its family, illustrating a key difference in the cell-entry mechanism of Lassa virus that may contribute to its pathogenicity.

  8. Modern canonical quantum general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This is an introduction to the by now fifteen years old research field of canonical quantum general relativity, sometimes called "loop quantum gravity". The term "modern" in the title refers to the fact that the quantum theory is based on formulating classical general relativity as a theory of connections rather than metrics as compared to in original version due to Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. Canonical quantum general relativity is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum. The approach is minimal in that one simply analyzes the logical consequences of combining the principles of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics. The requirement to preserve background independence has lead to new, fascinating mathematical structures which one does not see in perturbative approaches, e.g. a fundamental discreteness of spacetime seems to be a prediction of the theory provi...

  9. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  10. Fuzzy Analogues of Sets and Functions Can Be Uniquely Determined from the Corresponding Ordered Category: A Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Servin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern mathematics, many concepts and ideas are described in terms of category theory. From this viewpoint, it is desirable to analyze what can be determined if, instead of the basic category of sets, we consider a similar category of fuzzy sets. In this paper, we describe a natural fuzzy analog of the category of sets and functions, and we show that, in this category, fuzzy relations (a natural fuzzy analogue of functions can be determined in category terms—of course, modulo 1-1 mapping of the corresponding universe of discourse and 1-1 re-scaling of fuzzy degrees.

  11. Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.

  12. Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, L; Curilef, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implications of a recently obtained equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for the extension of the available Monte Carlo methods on the basis of the consideration of the Gibbs canonical ensemble to account for the existence of an anomalous regime with negative heat capacities C α with α≈0.2 for the particular case of the 2D ten-state Potts model

  13. Canonical formalism for relativistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penafiel-Nava, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of a canonical formalism appropriate for a dynamical theory of isolated relativistic multiparticle systems involving scalar interactions is studied. It is shown that a single time-parameter structure satisfying the requirements of Poincare invariance and simultaneity of the constituents (global tranversality) can not be derived from a homogeneous Lagrangian. The dynamics is deduced initially from a non-homogeneous but singular Lagrangian designed to accommodate the global tranversality constraints with the equaltime plane associated to the total momentum of the system. An equivalent standard Lagrangian is used to generalize the parametrization procedure which is referred to an arbitrary geodesic in Minkowski space. The equations of motion and the definition of center of momentum are invariant with respect to the choice of geodesic and the entire formalism becomes separable. In the original 8N-dimensional phase-space, the symmetries of the Lagrangian give rise to a canonical realization of a fifteen-generator Lie algebra which is projected in the 6N dimensional hypersurface of dynamical motions. The time-component of the total momentum is thus reduced to a neutral element and the canonical Hamiltonian survives as the only generator for time-translations so that the no-interaction theorem becomes inapplicable

  14. A unique approach to demonstrating that apical bud temperature specifically determines leaf initiation rate in the dicot Cucumis sativus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savvides, Andreas; Dieleman, Anja; Ieperen, van Wim; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: Leaf initiation rate is largely determined by the apical bud temperature even when apical bud temperature largely deviates from the temperature of other plant organs.We have long known that the rate of leaf initiation (LIR) is highly sensitive to temperature, but previous studies

  15. Deformations in closed string theory: canonical formulation and regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederwall, M.; Von Gussich, A.; Sundell, P.

    1996-01-01

    We study deformations of closed string theory by primary fields of conformal weight (1,1), using conformal techniques on the complex plane. A canonical surface integral formalism for computing commutators in a non-holomorphic theory is constructed, and explicit formulae for deformations of operators are given. We identify the unique regularization of the arising divergences that respects conformal invariance, and consider the corresponding parallel transport. The associated connection is metric compatible and carries no curvature. (orig.)

  16. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula. (paper)

  17. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  18. Unique Determinants of Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance among N3, N7, and N9 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Suk; Marathe, Bindumadhav M; Kumar, Gyanendra; Wong, Sook-San; Rubrum, Adam; Zanin, Mark; Choi, Young-Ki; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A; Webby, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Human infections with avian influenza viruses are a serious public health concern. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the frontline anti-influenza drugs and are the major option for treatment of newly emerging influenza. Therefore, it is essential to identify the molecular markers of NAI resistance among specific NA subtypes of avian influenza viruses to help guide clinical management. NAI-resistant substitutions in NA subtypes other than N1 and N2 have been poorly studied. Here, we identified NA amino acid substitutions associated with NAI resistance among influenza viruses of N3, N7, and N9 subtypes which have been associated with zoonotic transmission. We applied random mutagenesis and generated recombinant influenza viruses carrying single or double NA substitution(s) with seven internal genes from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. In a fluorescence-based NA inhibition assay, we identified three categories of NA substitutions associated with reduced inhibition by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir): (i) novel subtype-specific substitutions in or near the enzyme catalytic site (R152W, A246T, and D293N, N2 numbering), (ii) subtype-independent substitutions (E119G/V and/or D and R292K), and (iii) substitutions previously reported in other subtypes (Q136K, I222M, and E276D). Our data show that although some markers of resistance are present across NA subtypes, other subtype-specific markers can only be determined empirically. The number of humans infected with avian influenza viruses is increasing, raising concerns of the emergence of avian influenza viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs). Since most studies have focused on NAI-resistance in human influenza viruses, we investigated the molecular changes in NA that could confer NAI resistance in avian viruses grown in immortalized monolayer cells, especially those of the N3, N7, and N9 subtypes, which have caused human infections. We identified not only numerous NAI

  19. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTIC AND MOTORIC ABILITIES OF YOUNG JUDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Ibri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In sample from 80 young judo athletes aged from 16-17 year, was applied the system a total of 18 variables, of which 10 are morphologic characteristic and 8 motoric abilities variables, with a purpose to determinate mutual report between each other, while the information were analyzed by using canonical correlation analysis. With case of authentication statistically important relation was achieve one pair of canonical correlations statistically important. In morphologic variables field the canonical factor is interpreted in first canonical structure is the consists of variables: adipose tissue under skin of stomach (ATST, adipose tissue under skin of triceps (ATTR, adipose tissue under skin of biceps (ATBI, adipose tissue under skin of sub scapulars (ATSS, adipose tissue under skin of sub iliac a (ATSI and adipose tissue under skin of list (ATSL, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of adipose tissue: And second structure of canonical factors of anthropometric characteristics is the consists of variables: body length: body length (LEBO, length of the leg (LELE and length of the arm (LEAR, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of longitudinal dimensionality. The first structure of canonical factors in motoric variables is can not be interpreted because of low values of motor variables, while second structure of canonical factors of motoric abilities is the consists of variables: squeeze palm (SQPA, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of strong factor in palm. Based on structure analysis of matrix results of canonical factors results were shown that to young judo athletes of this age exist statistically valid correlations between canonical factor of anthropometric variables and canonical factor of variables to motoric abilities which is (Rc=77 that is statistically valid in level (P=00.

  20. The degeneracy problem in non-canonical inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, Damien A.; Powell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    While attempting to connect inflationary theories to observational physics, a potential difficulty is the degeneracy problem: a single set of observables maps to a range of different inflaton potentials. Two important classes of models affected by the degeneracy problem are canonical and non-canonical models, the latter marked by the presence of a non-standard kinetic term that generates observables beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales. The degeneracy problem is manifest when these distinguishing observables go undetected. We quantify the size of the resulting degeneracy in this case by studying the most well-motivated non-canonical theory having Dirac-Born-Infeld Lagrangian. Beyond the scalar and tensor two-point functions on CMB scales, we then consider the possible detection of equilateral non-Gaussianity at Planck-precision and a measurement of primordial gravitational waves from prospective space-based laser interferometers. The former detection breaks the degeneracy with canonical inflation but results in poor reconstruction prospects, while the latter measurement enables a determination of n T which, while not breaking the degeneracy, can be shown to greatly improve the non-canonical reconstruction

  1. Algorithmic transformation of multi-loop master integrals to a canonical basis with CANONICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The integration of differential equations of Feynman integrals can be greatly facilitated by using a canonical basis. This paper presents the Mathematica package CANONICA, which implements a recently developed algorithm to automatize the transformation to a canonical basis. This represents the first publicly available implementation suitable for differential equations depending on multiple scales. In addition to the presentation of the package, this paper extends the description of some aspects of the algorithm, including a proof of the uniqueness of canonical forms up to constant transformations.

  2. Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Max

    2017-01-01

    A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein–Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie–Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions. (paper)

  3. Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, Max

    2017-06-01

    A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein-Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie-Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions.

  4. Canonical realizations of B2 approximately C2 Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosifescu, M.; Scutaru, H.

    1982-12-01

    Canonical realizations associated to subrepresentations of ad x ad, for B 2 apppoximately C 2 semisimple Lie algebras, have been determined. An algebraic foundation has been obtained for the constraints satisfied by the dinamical variables of the classical limit of the generalized Helium problem. (authors)

  5. The Meridians of Reference of Indian Astronomical Canons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, R.

    The canons of Sanskrit astronomy depend on mean motions which are normally postulated to refer to the central meridian of Ujjain. The present work is a statistical analysis of these mean motions designed to discover the optimum position of the meridian, by comparison with modern mean motions. This follows earlier work done by Billard in determining the optimum year.

  6. Canonical wnt signaling regulates atrioventricular junction programming and electrophysiological properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillers, Benjamin S.; Chiplunkar, Aditi; Aly, Haytham; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Efimov, Igor R.; Boukens, Bastiaan J.; Rentschler, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Proper patterning of the atrioventricular canal (AVC) is essential for delay of electrical impulses between atria and ventricles, and defects in AVC maturation can result in congenital heart disease. To determine the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium during AVC development. We used a

  7. Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    1993-01-01

    The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.

  8. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent

  9. Canonical analysis of non-relativistic particle and superparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluson, Josef [Masaryk University, Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2018-02-15

    We perform canonical analysis of non-relativistic particle in Newton-Cartan Background. Then we extend this analysis to the case of non-relativistic superparticle in the same background. We determine constraints structure of this theory and find generator of κ-symmetry. (orig.)

  10. Canonical ensembles and nonzero density quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Toussaint, D.

    1992-01-01

    We study QCD with nonzero chemical potential on 4 4 lattices by averaging over the canonical partition functions, or sectors with fixed quark number. We derive a condensed matrix of size 2x3xL 3 whose eigenvalues can be used to find the canonical partition functions. We also experiment with a weight for configuration generation which respects the Z(3) symmetry which forces the canonical partition function to be zero for quark numbers that are not multiples of three. (orig.)

  11. Robust canonical correlations: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, JA; Croux, Christophe; Filzmoser, P; Oliveira, MR

    2005-01-01

    Several approaches for robust canonical correlation analysis will be presented and discussed. A first method is based on the definition of canonical correlation analysis as looking for linear combinations of two sets of variables having maximal (robust) correlation. A second method is based on alternating robust regressions. These methods axe discussed in detail and compared with the more traditional approach to robust canonical correlation via covariance matrix estimates. A simulation study ...

  12. Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.

  13. Quasiperiodic canonical-cell tiling with pseudo icosahedral symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Nobuhisa

    2017-10-01

    Icosahedral quasicrystals and their approximants are generally described as packing of icosahedral clusters. Experimental studies show that clusters in various approximants are orderly arranged, such that their centers are located at the nodes (or vertices) of a periodic tiling composed of four basic polyhedra called the canonical cells. This so called canonical-cell geometry is likely to serve as a common framework for modeling how clusters are arranged in approximants, while its applicability seems to extend naturally to icosahedral quasicrystals. To date, however, it has not been proved yet if the canonical cells can tile the space quasiperiodically, though we usually believe that clusters in icosahedral quasicrystals are arranged such that quasiperiodic long-range order as well as icosahedral point symmetry is maintained. In this paper, we report for the first time an iterative geometrical transformation of the canonical cells defining a so-called substitution rule, which we can use to generate a class of quasiperiodic canonical-cell tilings. Every single step of the transformation proceeds as follows: each cell is first enlarged by a magnification ratio of τ3 (τ = golden mean) and then subdivided into cells of the original size. Here, cells with an identical shape can be subdivided in several distinct manners depending on how their adjacent neighbors are arranged, and sixteen types of cells are identified in terms of unique subdivision. This class of quasiperiodic canonical-cell tilings presents the first realization of three-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings with fractal atomic surfaces. There are four distinct atomic surfaces associated with four sub-modules of the primitive icosahedral module, where a representative of the four submodules corresponds to the Σ = 4 coincidence site module of the icosahedral module. It follows that the present quasiperiodic tilings involve a kind of superlattice ordering that manifests itself in satellite peaks in the

  14. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  15. Moving Targets: Constructing Canons, 2013–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, BD

    2015-01-01

    This review essay considers early modern dramatic authorship and canons in the context of two recent publications: an anthology of plays -- William Shakespeare and Others: Collaborative Plays (2013), edited by Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen as a companion volume to the RSC Complete Works -- and a monograph study -- Jeremy Lopez's Constructing the Canon of Early Modern Drama (2014).

  16. Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity;

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2008-01-01

    The open problem of constructing a consistent and experimentally tested quantum theory of the gravitational field has its place at the heart of fundamental physics. The main approaches can be roughly divided into two classes: either one seeks a unified quantum framework of all interactions or one starts with a direct quantization of general relativity. In the first class, string theory (M-theory) is the only known example. In the second class, one can make an additional methodological distinction: while covariant approaches such as path-integral quantization use the four-dimensional metric as an essential ingredient of their formalism, canonical approaches start with a foliation of spacetime into spacelike hypersurfaces in order to arrive at a Hamiltonian formulation. The present book is devoted to one of the canonical approaches-loop quantum gravity. It is named modern canonical quantum general relativity by the author because it uses connections and holonomies as central variables, which are analogous to the variables used in Yang-Mills theories. In fact, the canonically conjugate variables are a holonomy of a connection and the flux of a non-Abelian electric field. This has to be contrasted with the older geometrodynamical approach in which the metric of three-dimensional space and the second fundamental form are the fundamental entities, an approach which is still actively being pursued. It is the author's ambition to present loop quantum gravity in a way in which every step is formulated in a mathematically rigorous form. The formal Leitmotiv of loop quantum gravity is background independence. Non-gravitational theories are usually quantized on a given non-dynamical background. In contrast, due to the geometrical nature of gravity, no such background exists in quantum gravity. Instead, the notion of a background is supposed to emerge a posteriori as an approximate notion from quantum states of geometry. As a consequence, the standard ultraviolet divergences of

  17. CGUG: in silico proteome and genome parsing tool for the determination of "core" and unique genes in the analysis of genomes up to ca. 1.9 Mb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan Padmanabhan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses and small-genome bacteria (~2 megabases and smaller comprise a considerable population in the biosphere and are of interest to many researchers. These genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and require complementary computational tools to analyze. "CoreGenesUniqueGenes" (CGUG is an in silico genome data mining tool that determines a "core" set of genes from two to five organisms with genomes in this size range. Core and unique genes may reflect similar niches and needs, and may be used in classifying organisms. Findings CGUG is available at http://binf.gmu.edu/geneorder.html as a web-based on-the-fly tool that performs iterative BLASTP analyses using a reference genome and up to four query genomes to provide a table of genes common to these genomes. The result is an in silico display of genomes and their proteomes, allowing for further analysis. CGUG can be used for "genome annotation by homology", as demonstrated with Chlamydophila and Francisella genomes. Conclusion CGUG is used to reanalyze the ICTV-based classifications of bacteriophages, to reconfirm long-standing relationships and to explore new classifications. These genomes have been problematic in the past, due largely to horizontal gene transfers. CGUG is validated as a tool for reannotating small genome bacteria using more up-to-date annotations by similarity or homology. These serve as an entry point for wet-bench experiments to confirm the functions of these "hypothetical" and "unknown" proteins.

  18. The canonical quantization of local scalar fields over quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1983-05-01

    Canonical quantization of a classical local field theory (CLFT) consisting of N real scalar fields is formulated in the Hilbert space over the sup(*)-algebra A of linear operators of L 2 (R 3 ). The canonical commutation relations (CCR) have an irreducible solution, unique up to A-unitary equivalence. The canonical equations as operator equations are equivalent to the classical (c) field equations. The interaction picture can be introduced in a well-defined manner. The main adventage of this treatment is that the corresponding S-matrix is free of divergences. The Feynman's graph technique is adaptable in a straightforward manner. This approach is a natural extension of the conventional canonical quantization method of quantum mechanics. (author)

  19. Canonical basis for type A4 (II) - Polynomial elements in one variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuwang; Ye Jiachen

    2003-12-01

    All the 62 monomial elements in the canonical basis B of the quantized enveloping algebra for type A 4 have been determined. According to Lusztig's idea, the elements in the canonical basis B consist of monomials and linear combinations of monomials (for convenience, we call them polynomials). In this note, we compute all the 144 polynomial elements in one variable in the canonical basis B of the quantized enveloping algebra for type A 4 based on our joint note. We conjecture that there are other polynomial elements in two or three variables in the canonical basis B, which include independent variables and dependent variables. Moreover, it is conjectured that there are no polynomial elements in the canonical basis B with four or more variables. (author)

  20. A canonical approach to forces in molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jay R. [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3368 (United States); Rivera-Rivera, Luis A., E-mail: rivera@chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3255 (United States); Lucchese, Robert R.; Bevan, John W. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3255 (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Highlights: • Derivation of canonical representation of molecular force. • Correlation of derivations with accurate results from Born–Oppenheimer potentials. • Extension of methodology to Mg{sub 2}, benzene dimer, and water dimer. - Abstract: In previous studies, we introduced a generalized formulation for canonical transformations and spectra to investigate the concept of canonical potentials strictly within the Born–Oppenheimer approximation. Data for the most accurate available ground electronic state pairwise intramolecular potentials in H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}, HeH{sup +}, and LiH were used to rigorously establish such conclusions. Now, a canonical transformation is derived for the molecular force, F(R), with H{sub 2}{sup +} as molecular reference. These transformations are demonstrated to be inherently canonical to high accuracy but distinctly different from those corresponding to the respective potentials of H{sub 2}, HeH{sup +}, and LiH. In this paper, we establish the canonical nature of the molecular force which is key to fundamental generalization of canonical approaches to molecular bonding. As further examples Mg{sub 2}, benzene dimer and to water dimer are also considered within the radial limit as applications of the current methodology.

  1. Canonical commutation relations - historical aspect and new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnatsakanova, M.N.; Vernov, Yu.S.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the historical aspects of the canonical commutation relations (CCR) and to analyse the new results. The CCR are the algebraic structure (Heisenberg algebra) on the basis of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The following results are discussed: the Weyl form of CCR, Von Neumann's uniqueness theorem, regularity conditions, CCR representation in standard and Weyl forms, CCR in an indefinite metric space, class of CCR regular representations and CCR in the case of infinite number of degrees of freedom [ru

  2. On the relationship between modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation and the canonical Hamiltonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parampreet; Soni, S K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of obtaining canonical Hamiltonian structures from the equations of motion, without any knowledge of the action, is studied in the context of the spatially flat Friedmann, ‘Robertson’, and Walker models. Modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation are implemented independently as quadratic and cubic terms of energy density without introducing additional degrees of freedom. Depending on their sign, modifications make gravity repulsive above a curvature scale for matter satisfying strong energy conditions, or more attractive than in the classical theory. The canonical structure of the modified theories is determined by demanding that the total Hamiltonian be a linear combination of gravity and matter Hamiltonians. In the quadratic repulsive case, the modified canonical phase space of gravity is a polymerized phase space with canonical momentum as inverse a trigonometric function of the Hubble rate; the canonical Hamiltonian can be identified with the effective Hamiltonian in loop quantum cosmology. The repulsive cubic modification results in a ‘generalized polymerized’ canonical phase space. Both the repulsive modifications are found to yield singularity avoidance. In contrast, the quadratic and cubic attractive modifications result in a canonical phase space in which canonical momentum is nontrigonometric and singularities persist. Our results hint at connections between the repulsive/attractive nature of modifications to gravity arising from the gravitational sector and polymerized/non polymerized gravitational phase space. (paper)

  3. Canonical pseudotensors, Sparling's form and Noether currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, L.B.

    1991-09-01

    The canonical energy - momentum and spin pseudotensors of the Einstein theory are studied in two ways. First they are studied in the framework of Lagrangian formalism. It is shown, that for first order Lagrangian and rigid basis description the canonical energy - momentum, the canonical spin, and the Noether current are tensorial quantities, and the canonial energy - momentum and spin tensors satisfy the tensorial Belinfante-Rosenfeld equations. Then the differential geometric unification and reformulation of the previous different pseudotensorial approaches is given. Finally, for any vector field on the spacetime an (m-1) form, called the Noether form is defined. (K.A.) 34 refs

  4. The linear canonical transformation : definition and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, Martin J.; Alieva, Tatiana; Healy, J.J.; Kutay, M.A.; Ozaktas, H.M.; Sheridan, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the class of linear canonical transformations, which includes as particular cases the Fourier transformation (and its generalization: the fractional Fourier transformation), the Fresnel transformation, and magnifier, rotation and shearing operations. The basic properties

  5. 37 CFR 10.21 - Canon 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.21 Canon 1. A practitioner should assist in maintaining the integrity and competence of the...

  6. Semiotic Analysis of Canon Camera Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    INDRAWATI, SUSAN

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Semiotic Analysis, Canon Camera, Advertisement. Advertisement is a medium to deliver message to people with the goal to influence the to use certain products. Semiotics is applied to develop a correlation within element used in an advertisement. In this study, the writer chose the Semiotic analysis of canon camera advertisement as the subject to be analyzed using semiotic study based on Peirce's theory. Semiotic approach is employed in interpreting the sign, symbol, icon, and index ...

  7. The canonical ensemble redefined - 1: Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, R.

    1984-12-01

    For studying the thermodynamic properties of systems we propose an ensemble that lies in between the familiar canonical and microcanonical ensembles. We point out the transition from the canonical to microcanonical ensemble and prove from a comparative study that all these ensembles do not yield the same results even in the thermodynamic limit. An investigation of the coupling between two or more systems with these ensembles suggests that the state of thermodynamical equilibrium is a special case of statistical equilibrium. (author)

  8. The dark sector from interacting canonical and non-canonical scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Rudinei C; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2010-01-01

    In this work general models with interactions between two canonical scalar fields and between one non-canonical (tachyon type) and one canonical scalar field are investigated. The potentials and couplings to the gravity are selected through the Noether symmetry approach. These general models are employed to describe interactions between dark energy and dark matter, with the fields being constrained by the astronomical data. The cosmological solutions of some cases are compared with the observed evolution of the late Universe.

  9. Both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling independently promote stem cell growth in mammospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Many

    Full Text Available The characterization of mammary stem cells, and signals that regulate their behavior, is of central importance in understanding developmental changes in the mammary gland and possibly for targeting stem-like cells in breast cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a signaling mechanism associated with maintenance of self-renewing stem cells in many tissues, including mammary epithelium, and can be oncogenic when deregulated. Wnt1 and Wnt3a are examples of ligands that activate the canonical pathway. Other Wnt ligands, such as Wnt5a, typically signal via non-canonical, β-catenin-independent, pathways that in some cases can antagonize canonical signaling. Since the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in stem cell regulation is not well characterized, we set out to investigate this using mammosphere formation assays that reflect and quantify stem cell properties. Ex vivo mammosphere cultures were established from both wild-type and Wnt1 transgenic mice and were analyzed in response to manipulation of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. An increased level of mammosphere formation was observed in cultures derived from MMTV-Wnt1 versus wild-type animals, and this was blocked by treatment with Dkk1, a selective inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with this, we found that a single dose of recombinant Wnt3a was sufficient to increase mammosphere formation in wild-type cultures. Surprisingly, we found that Wnt5a also increased mammosphere formation in these assays. We confirmed that this was not caused by an increase in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling but was instead mediated by non-canonical Wnt signals requiring the receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 and activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK. We conclude that both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals have positive effects promoting stem cell activity in mammosphere assays and that they do so via independent signaling mechanisms.

  10. Base pair probability estimates improve the prediction accuracy of RNA non-canonical base pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Sloma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of RNA tertiary structure from sequence is an important problem, but generating accurate structure models for even short sequences remains difficult. Predictions of RNA tertiary structure tend to be least accurate in loop regions, where non-canonical pairs are important for determining the details of structure. Non-canonical pairs can be predicted using a knowledge-based model of structure that scores nucleotide cyclic motifs, or NCMs. In this work, a partition function algorithm is introduced that allows the estimation of base pairing probabilities for both canonical and non-canonical interactions. Pairs that are predicted to be probable are more likely to be found in the true structure than pairs of lower probability. Pair probability estimates can be further improved by predicting the structure conserved across multiple homologous sequences using the TurboFold algorithm. These pairing probabilities, used in concert with prior knowledge of the canonical secondary structure, allow accurate inference of non-canonical pairs, an important step towards accurate prediction of the full tertiary structure. Software to predict non-canonical base pairs and pairing probabilities is now provided as part of the RNAstructure software package.

  11. Base pair probability estimates improve the prediction accuracy of RNA non-canonical base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Michael F; Mathews, David H

    2017-11-01

    Prediction of RNA tertiary structure from sequence is an important problem, but generating accurate structure models for even short sequences remains difficult. Predictions of RNA tertiary structure tend to be least accurate in loop regions, where non-canonical pairs are important for determining the details of structure. Non-canonical pairs can be predicted using a knowledge-based model of structure that scores nucleotide cyclic motifs, or NCMs. In this work, a partition function algorithm is introduced that allows the estimation of base pairing probabilities for both canonical and non-canonical interactions. Pairs that are predicted to be probable are more likely to be found in the true structure than pairs of lower probability. Pair probability estimates can be further improved by predicting the structure conserved across multiple homologous sequences using the TurboFold algorithm. These pairing probabilities, used in concert with prior knowledge of the canonical secondary structure, allow accurate inference of non-canonical pairs, an important step towards accurate prediction of the full tertiary structure. Software to predict non-canonical base pairs and pairing probabilities is now provided as part of the RNAstructure software package.

  12. On the coupling of statistic sum of canonical and large canonical ensemble of interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vall, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    Potentiality of refining the known result based on analytic properties of a great statistical sum, as a function of the absolute activity of the boundary integral contribution into statistical sum, is considered. A strict asymptotic ratio between statistical sums of canonical and large canonical ensemble of interacting particles was derived [ru

  13. Multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, B M; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Burin, C

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of multicollinearity under two methods of canonical correlation analysis (with and without elimination of variables) in maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Seventy-six maize genotypes were evaluated in three experiments, conducted in a randomized block design with three replications, during the 2009/2010 crop season. Eleven agronomic variables (number of days from sowing until female flowering, number of days from sowing until male flowering, plant height, ear insertion height, ear placement, number of plants, number of ears, ear index, ear weight, grain yield, and one thousand grain weight), 12 protein-nutritional variables (crude protein, lysine, methionine, cysteine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine, and arginine), and 6 energetic-nutritional variables (apparent metabolizable energy, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen, ether extract, crude fiber, starch, and amylose) were measured. A phenotypic correlation matrix was first generated among the 29 variables for each of the experiments. A multicollinearity diagnosis was later performed within each group of variables using methodologies such as variance inflation factor and condition number. Canonical correlation analysis was then performed, with and without the elimination of variables, among groups of agronomic and protein-nutritional, and agronomic and energetic-nutritional variables. The canonical correlation analysis in the presence of multicollinearity (without elimination of variables) overestimates the variability of canonical coefficients. The elimination of variables is an efficient method to circumvent multicollinearity in canonical correlation analysis.

  14. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  15. Canonical resolution of the multiplicity problem for U(3): an explicit and complete constructive solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Lohe, M.A.; Louck, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The multiplicity problem for tensor operators in U(3) has a unique (canonical) resolution which is utilized to effect the explicit construction of all U(3) Wigner and Racah coefficients. Methods are employed which elucidate the structure of the results; in particular, the significance of the denominator functions entering the structure of these coefficients, and the relation of these denominator functions to the null space of the canonical tensor operators. An interesting feature of the denominator functions is the appearance of new, group theoretical, polynomials exhibiting several remarkable and quite unexpected properties. (U.S.)

  16. A canonical form of the equation of motion of linear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Daniel T.; Salsa, Rubens Goncalves; Ma, Fai; Morzfeld, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    The equation of motion of a discrete linear system has the form of a second-order ordinary differential equation with three real and square coefficient matrices. It is shown that, for almost all linear systems, such an equation can always be converted by an invertible transformation into a canonical form specified by two diagonal coefficient matrices associated with the generalized acceleration and displacement. This canonical form of the equation of motion is unique up to an equivalence class for non-defective systems. As an important by-product, a damped linear system that possesses three symmetric and positive definite coefficients can always be recast as an undamped and decoupled system.

  17. Dictionary-Based Tensor Canonical Polyadic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Gillis, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    To ensure interpretability of extracted sources in tensor decomposition, we introduce in this paper a dictionary-based tensor canonical polyadic decomposition which enforces one factor to belong exactly to a known dictionary. A new formulation of sparse coding is proposed which enables high dimensional tensors dictionary-based canonical polyadic decomposition. The benefits of using a dictionary in tensor decomposition models are explored both in terms of parameter identifiability and estimation accuracy. Performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated on the decomposition of simulated data and the unmixing of hyperspectral images.

  18. On two mathematical problems of canonical quantization. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Problems of choice a representation of the canonical commutation relations (CCR) and determining of Hamiltonian are investigated. It is shown that the Hamiltonians studied by H. Araki are the Dirichlet operators. The almost inverse theorem is also proved. Dirichlet operators are completely determined by measures. The same measures specify also representations of CCR and ground states. A notion of generalized density of these measures is introduced. Calculation methods of the densities and its corresponding measures, i.e. in the end, of representations of CCR and Hamiltonians interrelated in the meaning of L.Van Hove, are suggested

  19. Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''

  20. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  1. Canonical sampling of a lattice gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that a sampling algorithm, recently proposed in conjunction with a lattice-gas model of nuclear fragmentation, samples the canonical ensemble only in an approximate fashion. A residual weight factor has to be taken into account to calculate correct thermodynamic averages. Then, however, the algorithm is numerically inefficient. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Conformal constraint in canonical quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hooft, G.

    2010-01-01

    Perturbative canonical quantum gravity is considered, when coupled to a renormalizable model for matter fields. It is proposed that the functional integral over the dilaton field should be disentangled from the other integrations over the metric fields. This should generate a conformally invariant

  3. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two ... Canonical correlation analysis is to find two sets of basis ..... Jing XY, Li S, Lan C, Zhang D, Yang JY and Liu Q 2011 Color ... Yu S, Yu K, Tresp V and Kriegel HP 2006 Multi-output regularized.

  4. Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Similar to this is the case of ref. [12] which also uses the saddle point approximation to express the microcanonical entropy in terms of the canonical entropy [12a]. Recalling that there is at least 'circumstantial' evidence that the microcanonical entropy has a 'universal' form [13–15], identical to that obtained in ref. [6] quoted.

  5. Canonical analysis based on mutual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2015-01-01

    combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...

  6. Generalized canonical correlation analysis with missing values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van de Velden (Michel); Y. Takane

    2009-01-01

    textabstractTwo new methods for dealing with missing values in generalized canonical correlation analysis are introduced. The first approach, which does not require iterations, is a generalization of the Test Equating method available for principal component analysis. In the second approach,

  7. On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a special Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge

  8. Kuidas Canon suureks kasvas / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Jaapani kaamerate ja büroomasinate tootja Canon Groupi arengust, tegevusest kolmes regioonis - USA-s, Euroopas ja Aasias ning ettevõtte pikaajalise edu põhjustest - ärifilosoofiast ning ajastatud tootearendusest. Vt. samas: Firma esialgne nimi oli Kwanon; Konkurendid koonduvad

  9. Probing the small distance structure of canonical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hooft, G.

    2010-01-01

    In canonical quantum gravity, the formal functional integral includes an integration over the local conformal factor, and we propose to perform the functional integral over this factor before doing any of the other functional integrals. By construction, the resulting effective theory would be

  10. On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a specific Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge

  11. The Literary Canon in the Age of New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    and mediality of the canon. In a development that has largely gone unnoticed outside German speaking countries, new approaches for discussing current and future processes of canonization have been developed in recent years. One pivotal element of this process has been a thorough re-evaluation new media......The article offers a comparative overview of the diverging courses of the canon debate in Anglophone and Germanophone contexts. While the Anglophone canon debate has focused on the politics of canon composition, the Germanophone canon debate has been more concerned with the malleability...

  12. Quantum canonical ensemble: A projection operator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Wim; Lemmens, Lucien; Brosens, Fons

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the exact number of particles N, and taking this knowledge into account, the quantum canonical ensemble imposes a constraint on the occupation number operators. The constraint particularly hampers the systematic calculation of the partition function and any relevant thermodynamic expectation value for arbitrary but fixed N. On the other hand, fixing only the average number of particles, one may remove the above constraint and simply factorize the traces in Fock space into traces over single-particle states. As is well known, that would be the strategy of the grand-canonical ensemble which, however, comes with an additional Lagrange multiplier to impose the average number of particles. The appearance of this multiplier can be avoided by invoking a projection operator that enables a constraint-free computation of the partition function and its derived quantities in the canonical ensemble, at the price of an angular or contour integration. Introduced in the recent past to handle various issues related to particle-number projected statistics, the projection operator approach proves beneficial to a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics for which the canonical ensemble offers a natural and appropriate environment. In this light, we present a systematic treatment of the canonical ensemble that embeds the projection operator into the formalism of second quantization while explicitly fixing N, the very number of particles rather than the average. Being applicable to both bosonic and fermionic systems in arbitrary dimensions, transparent integral representations are provided for the partition function ZN and the Helmholtz free energy FN as well as for two- and four-point correlation functions. The chemical potential is not a Lagrange multiplier regulating the average particle number but can be extracted from FN+1 -FN, as illustrated for a two-dimensional fermion gas.

  13. Canonical methods in classical and quantum gravity: An invitation to canonical LQG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan D.

    2018-04-01

    Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is a candidate quantum theory of gravity still under construction. LQG was originally conceived as a background independent canonical quantization of Einstein’s general relativity theory. This contribution provides some physical motivations and an overview of some mathematical tools employed in canonical Loop Quantum Gravity. First, Hamiltonian classical methods are reviewed from a geometric perspective. Canonical Dirac quantization of general gauge systems is sketched next. The Hamiltonian formultation of gravity in geometric ADM and connection-triad variables is then presented to finally lay down the canonical loop quantization program. The presentation is geared toward advanced undergradute or graduate students in physics and/or non-specialists curious about LQG.

  14. Deep sequencing of small RNAs identifies canonical and non-canonical miRNA and endogenous siRNAs in mammalian somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Leandro; Stebbing, Justin

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. They are characterized by specific maturation processes defined by canonical and non-canonical biogenic pathways. Analysis of ∼0.5 billion sequences from mouse data sets derived from different tissues, developmental stages and cell types, partly characterized by either ablation or mutation of the main proteins belonging to miRNA processor complexes, reveals 66 high-confidence new genomic loci coding for miRNAs that could be processed in a canonical or non-canonical manner. A proportion of the newly discovered miRNAs comprises mirtrons, for which we define a new sub-class. Notably, some of these newly discovered miRNAs are generated from untranslated and open reading frames of coding genes, and we experimentally validate these. We also show that many annotated miRNAs do not present miRNA-like features, as they are neither processed by known processing complexes nor loaded on AGO2; this indicates that the current miRNA miRBase database list should be refined and re-defined. Accordingly, a group of them map on ribosomal RNA molecules, whereas others cannot undergo genuine miRNA biogenesis. Notably, a group of annotated miRNAs are Dgcr8 independent and DICER dependent endogenous small interfering RNAs that derive from a unique hairpin formed from a short interspersed nuclear element.

  15. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  16. Fan fiction, early Greece, and the historicity of canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvia Kahane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The historicity of canon is considered with an emphasis on contemporary fan fiction and early Greek oral epic traditions. The essay explores the idea of canon by highlighting historical variance, exposing wider conceptual isomorphisms, and formulating a revised notion of canonicity. Based on an analysis of canon in early Greece, the discussion moves away from the idea of canon as a set of valued works and toward canon as a practice of containment in response to inherent states of surplus. This view of canon is applied to the practice of fan fiction, reestablishing the idea of canonicity in fluid production environments within a revised, historically specific understanding in early oral traditions on the one hand and in digital cultures and fan fiction on the other. Several examples of early epigraphic Greek texts embedded in oral environments are analyzed and assessed in terms of their implications for an understanding of fan fiction and its modern contexts.

  17. Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, an algorithm has been presented for computing sound channel parameters in the western and southern Bay of Bengal. The estimated canonical sound speed profile using these parameters has been compared with computed...

  18. ACTIVITY OF CANONICAL WNT SIGNAL SYSTEM IN HYALINE CARTILAGE ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES IN PROCESS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Molotkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Canonical and non-canonical Wnt systems are essential regulators of chondrogenesis and bone development. However, the roles of these systems in synovial joint development are not well studied. To determine if canonical Wnt system is active in developing articular chondrocytes we used immunohistochemistry for в-galactosidase and doublecortin (cell-type specific marker for articular chondrocytes to double label sections through joint regions of E14.5, E18.5, P10 and adult mice. Here the following results are presented. Canonical Wnt signal system does not work in developing articular chondrocytes at early embryonic stages (E14.5; it is active in the articular chondrocytes at late embryonic stages (E16.5-E18.5 and during postnatal development (P7-P10, but is turned off again in the adult articular chondrocytes. These results suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is being regulated during articular chondrocytes differentiation and joint formation.

  19. An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, H W

    2004-01-01

    Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.

  20. Minimal canonical comprehensive Gröbner systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manubens, Montserrat; Montes, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This is the continuation of Montes' paper "On the canonical discussion of polynomial systems with parameters''. In this paper, we define the Minimal Canonical Comprehensive Gröbner System of a parametric ideal and fix under which hypothesis it exists and is computable. An algorithm to obtain a canonical description of the segments of the Minimal Canonical CGS is given, thus completing the whole MCCGS algorithm (implemented in Maple and Singular). We show its high utility for applications, suc...

  1. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, B K; Chakraborty, Chiranjib

    2015-10-01

    We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.

  2. Normalization as a canonical neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carandini, Matteo; Heeger, David J.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the brain relies on a set of canonical neural computations, repeating them across brain regions and modalities to apply similar operations to different problems. A promising candidate for such a computation is normalization, in which the responses of neurons are divided by a common factor that typically includes the summed activity of a pool of neurons. Normalization was developed to explain responses in the primary visual cortex and is now thought to operate throughout the visual system, and in many other sensory modalities and brain regions. Normalization may underlie operations such as the representation of odours, the modulatory effects of visual attention, the encoding of value and the integration of multisensory information. Its presence in such a diversity of neural systems in multiple species, from invertebrates to mammals, suggests that it serves as a canonical neural computation. PMID:22108672

  3. Spanish Literature and Spectrality : Notes on a Haunted Canon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdivia, Pablo

    In Spanish Literature, Crisis and Spectrality: Notes on a Haunted Canon, Prof. Dr. Pablo Valdivia analyses the contradictions and complexities of the Spanish traditional canon from a transnational approach. Valdivia explores this particular canon as a 'haunted house' by focusing on the specific

  4. Canonical ward identities in generalized QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping

    1995-01-01

    The canonical Ward identities for a system with singular higher-order Lagrangian are derived and some application to the generalized QCD are given. The new relations of the Ward identities for gauge ghost field proper vertices are obtained which differ from the usual Ward-Takahashi identities arising from BRS invariance. The expressions for PCAC and generalized PCAC of AVV vertices are also obtained

  5. Canonizing certain Borel equivalences for Silver forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 13 (2012), s. 2973-2979 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * silver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002180#

  6. Are Young Children's Drawings Canonically Biased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine; Durand, Karine

    2005-01-01

    In a between-subjects design, 4-to 6-year-olds were asked to draw from three-dimensional (3D) models, two-and-a-half-dimensional (212D) models with or without depth cues, or two-dimensional (2D) models of a familiar object (a saucepan) in noncanonical orientations (handle at the back or at the front). Results showed that canonical errors were…

  7. Canonical Duality Theory for Topology Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, David Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a canonical duality approach for solving a general topology optimization problem of nonlinear elastic structures. By using finite element method, this most challenging problem can be formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP), i.e. for a given deformation, the first-level optimization is a typical linear constrained 0-1 programming problem, while for a given structure, the second-level optimization is a general nonlinear continuous minimization pro...

  8. Il canone linguistico boccacciano, non senza dissenso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Casini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Author of prose’s greatest masterpiece of medieval literature in the vernacular, Giovanni Boccaccio was crucial to defining the Italian language canon, especially since Pietro Bembo proposed its coding in the sixteenth century. Not without controversy, however, since shortly after the publication of Prose Della Volgar Language, Bembo presents the first contrasting theories that support the linguistic model presented by Machiavelli

  9. Generalized operator canonical formalism and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkina, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    A direct proof is given in the functional representation of the invariance of the S-matrix constructed in the framework of the generalized operator canonical formalism. We find the traditional functional expression for the S-matrix (without point-splitting in the time factor) in the generalized phase space, as well as in the ghost configuration space. An explicit expression is obtained for the effective unitarizing Hamiltonian for gauge theories with constraints of arbitrary rank

  10. Canonical transformation path to gauge theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmeier, J.; Muench, J.; Vasak, D.; Kirsch, J.; Hanauske, M.; Stoecker, H.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the generic part of the gauge theory of gravity is derived, based merely on the action principle and on the general principle of relativity. We apply the canonical transformation framework to formulate geometrodynamics as a gauge theory. The starting point of our paper is constituted by the general De Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian of a system of scalar and vector fields, which is supposed to be form-invariant under (global) Lorentz transformations. Following the reasoning of gauge theories, the corresponding locally form-invariant system is worked out by means of canonical transformations. The canonical transformation approach ensures by construction that the form of the action functional is maintained. We thus encounter amended Hamiltonian systems which are form-invariant under arbitrary spacetime transformations. This amended system complies with the general principle of relativity and describes both, the dynamics of the given physical system's fields and their coupling to those quantities which describe the dynamics of the spacetime geometry. In this way, it is unambiguously determined how spin-0 and spin-1 fields couple to the dynamics of spacetime. A term that describes the dynamics of the "free" gauge fields must finally be added to the amended Hamiltonian, as common to all gauge theories, to allow for a dynamic spacetime geometry. The choice of this "dynamics" Hamiltonian is outside of the scope of gauge theory as presented in this paper. It accounts for the remaining indefiniteness of any gauge theory of gravity and must be chosen "by hand" on the basis of physical reasoning. The final Hamiltonian of the gauge theory of gravity is shown to be at least quadratic in the conjugate momenta of the gauge fields—this is beyond the Einstein-Hilbert theory of general relativity.

  11. A model of individualized canonical microcircuits supporting cognitive operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kunze

    Full Text Available Major cognitive functions such as language, memory, and decision-making are thought to rely on distributed networks of a large number of basic elements, called canonical microcircuits. In this theoretical study we propose a novel canonical microcircuit model and find that it supports two basic computational operations: a gating mechanism and working memory. By means of bifurcation analysis we systematically investigate the dynamical behavior of the canonical microcircuit with respect to parameters that govern the local network balance, that is, the relationship between excitation and inhibition, and key intrinsic feedback architectures of canonical microcircuits. We relate the local behavior of the canonical microcircuit to cognitive processing and demonstrate how a network of interacting canonical microcircuits enables the establishment of spatiotemporal sequences in the context of syntax parsing during sentence comprehension. This study provides a framework for using individualized canonical microcircuits for the construction of biologically realistic networks supporting cognitive operations.

  12. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannie, M.D.; Paterson, P.Y.; Thomas, D.W.; Nairn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL

  13. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-01-01

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  14. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-07-16

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  15. Data analytics using canonical correlation analysis and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Yan; Rollett, Anthony D.; Harmer, Martin P.; Compson, Charles

    2017-07-01

    A canonical correlation analysis is a generic parametric model used in the statistical analysis of data involving interrelated or interdependent input and output variables. It is especially useful in data analytics as a dimensional reduction strategy that simplifies a complex, multidimensional parameter space by identifying a relatively few combinations of variables that are maximally correlated. One shortcoming of the canonical correlation analysis, however, is that it provides only a linear combination of variables that maximizes these correlations. With this in mind, we describe here a versatile, Monte-Carlo based methodology that is useful in identifying non-linear functions of the variables that lead to strong input/output correlations. We demonstrate that our approach leads to a substantial enhancement of correlations, as illustrated by two experimental applications of substantial interest to the materials science community, namely: (1) determining the interdependence of processing and microstructural variables associated with doped polycrystalline aluminas, and (2) relating microstructural decriptors to the electrical and optoelectronic properties of thin-film solar cells based on CuInSe2 absorbers. Finally, we describe how this approach facilitates experimental planning and process control.

  16. Canonical formalism for coupled beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, S.A.

    1989-09-01

    Beam optics of a lattice with an inter-plane coupling is treated using canonical Hamiltonian formalism. The method developed is equally applicable both to a circular (periodic) machine and to an open transport line. A solution of the equation of a particle motion (and correspondingly transfer matrix between two arbitrary points of the lattice) are described in terms of two amplitude functions (and their derivatives and corresponding phases of oscillations) and four coupling functions, defined by a solution of the system of the first-order nonlinear differential equations derived in the paper. Thus total number of independent parameters is equal to ten. 8 refs

  17. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, Andrey, E-mail: Andrey.Nikolaev@rdtex.ru [Institute of Computing for Physics and Technology, Protvino, Moscow Region, Russia and RDTeX LTD, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson’s ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  18. Canonically conjugate pairs and phase operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhammer, K.

    2002-01-01

    For quantum mechanics on a lattice the position ('particle number') operator and the quasimomentum ('phase') operator obey canonical commutation relations (CCRs) only on a dense set of the Hilbert space. We compare exact numerical results for a particle in a linear and a quadratic potential on the lattice with the expectations, when the CCRs are assumed to be strictly obeyed. Only for sufficiently smooth eigenfunctions does this lead to reasonable results. In the long time limit the use of the CCRs can lead to a qualitatively wrong dynamics even if the initial state is in the dense set

  19. Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.A.R. de.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  20. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson’s ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  1. Canonical particle tracking in undulator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestefeld, G.; Bahrdt, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new algebraic mapping routine for particle tracking across wiggler and undulator fields in presented. It is based on a power series expansion of the generating function to guarantee fully canonical transformations. This method is 10 to 100 times faster than integration routines, applied in tracking codes like BETA or RACETRACK. The tracking method presented is not restricted to wigglers and undulators, it can be applied to other magnetic fields as well such as fringing fields of quadrupoles or dipoles if the suggested expansion converges

  2. Convergence analysis of canonical genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, G

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the convergence properties of the canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with mutation, crossover and proportional reproduction applied to static optimization problems. It is proved by means of homogeneous finite Markov chain analysis that a CGA will never converge to the global optimum regardless of the initialization, crossover, operator and objective function. But variants of CGA's that always maintain the best solution in the population, either before or after selection, are shown to converge to the global optimum due to the irreducibility property of the underlying original nonconvergent CGA. These results are discussed with respect to the schema theorem.

  3. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  4. Canonical Wnt signaling induces a primitive endoderm metastable state in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Feodor D; Yin, Hang; Jones, Andrew; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway synergizes with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). However, in the absence of LIF, Wnt signaling is unable to maintain ESCs in the undifferentiated state. To investigate the role of canonical Wnt signaling in pluripotency and lineage specification, we expressed Wnt3a in mESCs and characterized them in growth and differentiation. We found that activated canonical Wnt signaling induced the formation of a reversible metastable primitive endoderm state in mESC. Upon subsequent differentiation, Wnt3a-stimulated mESCs gave rise to large quantities of visceral endoderm. Furthermore, we determined that the ability of canonical Wnt signaling to induce a metastable primitive endoderm state was mediated by Tbx3. Our data demonstrates a specific role for canonical Wnt signaling in promoting pluripotency while at the same time priming cells for subsequent differentiation into the primitive endoderm lineage. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Turbulent transport across invariant canonical flux surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, J.B.; Callen, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    Net transport due to a combination of Coulomb collisions and turbulence effects in a plasma is investigated using a fluid moment description that allows for kinetic and nonlinear effects via closure relations. The model considered allows for ''ideal'' turbulent fluctuations that distort but preserve the topology of species-dependent canonical flux surfaces ψ number-sign,s triple-bond ∫ dF · B number-sign,s triple-bond ∇ x [A + (m s /q s )u s ] in which u s is the flow velocity of the fluid species. Equations for the net transport relative to these surfaces due to ''nonideal'' dissipative processes are found for the total number of particles and total entropy enclosed by a moving canonical flux surface. The corresponding particle transport flux is calculated using a toroidal axisymmetry approximation of the ideal surfaces. The resulting Lagrangian transport flux includes classical, neoclassical-like, and anomalous contributions and shows for the first time how these various contributions should be summed to obtain the total particle transport flux

  6. Canonical quantization of the generalized axial gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, K.

    1990-01-01

    The incompatibility of the constraint A 3 =0 with canonical commutation rules is discussed. A canonical formulation is given of QED and QCD in the axial gauge with n 1 =n 2 =0, n 3 =α and n 0 =β, where α and β are arbitrary real numbers. A Hilbert space is established for the perturbative theory, and a propagator is derived by obtaining an expression for the interaction picture gauge fields, and evaluating the vacuum expectation value of its time-ordered products in the perturbative vacuum. The propagator is expressed in terms of the parameter γ=α/β and is shown to reproduce the light cone gauge propagator when γ=1, and the temporal gauge propagator when γ=0, accommodating various prescriptions for the spurious propagator pole, including the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt and principal value prescriptions. When γ→∞, the generalized axial gauge propagator leads to an expression for the propagator in the A 3 =0 gauge, though in that case the order in which the integration over k 0 is performed, and the limit γ→∞ is taken, affects the resulting expression. Another Hilbert space is established, in which the constraints that include all interactions are implemented in a time independent fashion. It is pointed out that this Hilbert space, and the Hilbert space of the perturbative theory are unitarily equivalent in QED, but that they cannot be unitarily equivalent in QCD. Implications of this fact for the nonperturbative states of QCD are discussed. (orig.)

  7. New constraints for canonical general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenberger, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, E a i , is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of E flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new 'causality condition' forbidding the birth of flux loops might justify the non-invariance of the theory).A fully 4-diffeo invariant canonical theory in Ashtekar's variables, derived from Plebanski's action, is found to have constraints that are stronger than Ashtekar's for rank E< 2. The corresponding Hamiltonian generates births and deaths of E flux loops.It is argued that this implies a finite amplitude for births and deaths of loops in the physical states of quantum GR in the loop representation, thus modifying this (partly defined) theory substantially.Some of the new constraints are second class, leading to difficulties in quantization in the connection representation. This problem might be overcome in a very nice way by transforming to the classical loop variables, or the 'Faraday line' variables of Newman and Rovelli, and then solving the offending constraints.Note that, though motivated by quantum considerations, the present paper is classical in substance. (orig.)

  8. Power, Gender, and Canon Formation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Steele

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available I propose to analyze Castellanos's trajectory from marginalized ethnographer and critic of "latino" society, to presidential insider and ambassador, and the first modern Mexican woman writer to be accepted into the literary canon. I will explore the intersection of politics, gender, and the (self- creation of a literary persona with regard to the following issues: 1 the tension between self-exposure and self-censorship in Castellanos's literary work; 2 Castellanos's intense and problematic relationship with her illegitimate, mestizo half-brother; 3 the coincidences and contradictions between Castellanos's journalistic account of her relationship with her servant Maria Escandon, and Maria's own oral history twenty years later; 4 the tension between depression and dependency, on the one hand, and self-assertiveness and audacity, on the other; 5 the relation between Castellanos's role as ambassador and the personal, apolitical, often frivolous character of her journalistic articles written in Israel; 6 the contradictory readings of Castellanos's death, and the respective implications for her place in the canon; and 7 the implications, for their reception, of the love letters published in Cartas a Ricardo 1994, as opposed to 1974.

  9. On the use and computation of the Jordan canonical form in system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1974-01-01

    This paper investigates various aspects of the application of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix in system theory and develops a computational approach to determining the Jordan form for a given matrix. Applications include pole placement, controllability and observability studies, serving as an intermediate step in yielding other canonical forms, and theorem proving. The computational method developed in this paper is both simple and efficient. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques. Examples are included for demonstration purposes.

  10. A general transformation to canonical form for potentials in pairwise interatomic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2015-06-14

    A generalized formulation of explicit force-based transformations is introduced to investigate the concept of a canonical potential in both fundamental chemical and intermolecular bonding. Different classes of representative ground electronic state pairwise interatomic interactions are referenced to a chosen canonical potential illustrating application of such transformations. Specifically, accurately determined potentials of the diatomic molecules H2, H2(+), HF, LiH, argon dimer, and one-dimensional dissociative coordinates in Ar-HBr, OC-HF, and OC-Cl2 are investigated throughout their bound potentials. Advantages of the current formulation for accurately evaluating equilibrium dissociation energies and a fundamentally different unified perspective on nature of intermolecular interactions will be emphasized. In particular, this canonical approach has significance to previous assertions that there is no very fundamental distinction between van der Waals bonding and covalent bonding or for that matter hydrogen and halogen bonds.

  11. Generation of triangulated random surfaces by the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.; Migdal, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A model of triangulated random surfaces which is the discrete analog of the Polyakov string is considered. An algorithm is proposed which enables one to study the model by the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble. Preliminary results on the determination of the critical index γ are presented

  12. Unique Helicase Determinants in the Essential Conjugative TraI Factor from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Plasmid pCU1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Krystle J.; Nash, Rebekah P.; Redinbo, Mathew R. (UNC)

    2014-06-16

    The widespread development of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a major health emergency. Conjugative DNA plasmids, which harbor a wide range of antibiotic resistance genes, also encode the protein factors necessary to orchestrate the propagation of plasmid DNA between bacterial cells through conjugative transfer. Successful conjugative DNA transfer depends on key catalytic components to nick one strand of the duplex DNA plasmid and separate the DNA strands while cell-to-cell transfer occurs. The TraI protein from the conjugative Salmonella plasmid pCU1 fulfills these key catalytic roles, as it contains both single-stranded DNA-nicking relaxase and ATP-dependent helicase domains within a single, 1,078-residue polypeptide. In this work, we unraveled the helicase determinants of Salmonella pCU1 TraI through DNA binding, ATPase, and DNA strand separation assays. TraI binds DNA substrates with high affinity in a manner influenced by nucleic acid length and the presence of a DNA hairpin structure adjacent to the nick site. TraI selectively hydrolyzes ATP, and mutations in conserved helicase motifs eliminate ATPase activity. Surprisingly, the absence of a relatively short (144-residue) domain at the extreme C terminus of the protein severely diminishes ATP-dependent strand separation. Collectively, these data define the helicase motifs of the conjugative factor TraI from Salmonella pCU1 and reveal a previously uncharacterized C-terminal functional domain that uncouples ATP hydrolysis from strand separation activity.

  13. Canonical transformations in problems of quantum statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankovich, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of general canonical transformations in quantum systems possessing a classical analog is considered. The main role plays the Weyl representation of dynamic variables of the quantum system considered. One managed to build a general diagram of canonical transformations in a quantum case and to develop a method for reducing one or another operator to the simplest canonical form. In this case the procedure, being analogous to the Poincare-Birkhof normalization based on the Lie series theory, occurs

  14. Application of a unique test design to determine the chronic toxicity of boron to the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus and fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott; Lockwood, Rick; Harrass, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    The chronic (21- and 28-day) toxicity of boron was determined for two freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates: the fatmucket mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea and the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. The rapid depletion of boric acid from spiked sediments in tests using flow-through overlying waters was addressed by constant addition of boric acid to overlying water at concentrations matching those of the targeted porewater exposures. This proved highly successful in maintaining constant whole-sediment and sediment porewater boron concentrations. Boron sublethal 25 % inhibition concentration values based on porewater concentrations were 25.9 mg B/L (L. variegatus) and 38.5 mg B/L (L. siliquoidea), indicating similar test organism sensitivity. Expressed as dry whole-sediment values, the respective L. variegatus and L. siliquoidea sublethal (growth) IC25 values for whole-sediment exposures were 235.5 mg B/kg sediment dry weight (dw) and 310.6 mg B/kg dw. The worm lethality-based end points indicated greater sensitivity than the sublethal end points, bringing into question the validity of a "lethality" end point for L. variegatus given its fragmentation mode of reproduction. For comparison, water-only mussel exposures were tested resulting in an IC25 value of 34.6 mg B/L, which was within 20 % of the porewater value. This suggests that the primary route of boron exposure was through the aqueous phase. The results of this study indicated that for test materials that are readily water soluble, standard sediment test designs may be unsuitable, but water-only exposures can provide toxicological data representative of sediment tests.

  15. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  16. Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking institutions: Prospects and possibilities for Islamic economic empowerment and Black Economic Empowerment in a Democratic South Africa.

  17. THE TOPOLOGY OF CANONICAL FLUX TUBES IN FLARED JET GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavine, Eric Sander; You, Setthivoine, E-mail: Slavine2@uw.edu, E-mail: syou@aa.washington.edu [University of Washington, 4000 15th Street, NE Aeronautics and Astronautics 211 Guggenheim Hall, Box 352400, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Magnetized plasma jets are generally modeled as magnetic flux tubes filled with flowing plasma governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We outline here a more fundamental approach based on flux tubes of canonical vorticity, where canonical vorticity is defined as the circulation of the species’ canonical momentum. This approach extends the concept of magnetic flux tube evolution to include the effects of finite particle momentum and enables visualization of the topology of plasma jets in regimes beyond MHD. A flared, current-carrying magnetic flux tube in an ion-electron plasma with finite ion momentum is thus equivalent to either a pair of electron and ion flow flux tubes, a pair of electron and ion canonical momentum flux tubes, or a pair of electron and ion canonical vorticity flux tubes. We examine the morphology of all these flux tubes for increasing electrical currents, different radial current profiles, different electron Mach numbers, and a fixed, flared, axisymmetric magnetic geometry. Calculations of gauge-invariant relative canonical helicities track the evolution of magnetic, cross, and kinetic helicities in the system, and show that ion flow fields can unwind to compensate for an increasing magnetic twist. The results demonstrate that including a species’ finite momentum can result in a very long collimated canonical vorticity flux tube even if the magnetic flux tube is flared. With finite momentum, particle density gradients must be normal to canonical vorticities, not to magnetic fields, so observations of collimated astrophysical jets could be images of canonical vorticity flux tubes instead of magnetic flux tubes.

  18. Determine the Role of Canonical Wnt Signaling in Ovarian Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Cancer Res, 2007. 13(14): p. 4042-5. 10. Mann, B., et al., Target genes of beta-catenin-T cell -factor/ lymphoid -enhancer- factor signaling in human...triggers innate immunity. Cell Host Microbe 12(4): 558–570. 34. Lundholm M, et al. (2014) Prostate tumor-derived exosomes down-regulate NKG2D... cell -extrinsic pathway through which natural killer cells eliminate cancer cells . Nat Cell Biol 15(7):818–828. 57. Ishii KJ, Akira S (2006) Innate

  19. Computation of the Short-Time Linear Canonical Transform with Dual Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-time linear canonical transform (STLCT, which maps the time domain signal into the joint time and frequency domain, has recently attracted some attention in the area of signal processing. However, its applications are still limited due to the fact that selection of coefficients of the short-time linear canonical series (STLCS is not unique, because time and frequency elementary functions (together known as basis function of STLCS do not constitute an orthogonal basis. To solve this problem, this paper investigates a dual window solution. First, the nonorthogonal problem that suffered from original window is fulfilled by orthogonal condition with dual window. Then based on the obtained condition, a dual window computation approach of the GT is extended to the STLCS. In addition, simulations verify the validity of the proposed condition and solutions. Furthermore, some possible applied directions are discussed.

  20. Non-Canonical Roles of Dengue Virus Non-Structural Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna D. Zeidler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Flaviviridae family comprises a number of human pathogens, which, although sharing structural and functional features, cause diseases with very different outcomes. This can be explained by the plurality of functions exerted by the few proteins coded by viral genomes, with some of these functions shared among members of a same family, but others being unique for each virus species. These non-canonical functions probably have evolved independently and may serve as the base to the development of specific therapies for each of those diseases. Here it is discussed what is currently known about the non-canonical roles of dengue virus (DENV non-structural proteins (NSPs, which may account for some of the effects specifically observed in DENV infection, but not in other members of the Flaviviridae family. This review explores how DENV NSPs contributes to the physiopathology of dengue, evasion from host immunity, metabolic changes, and redistribution of cellular components during infection.

  1. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Chopin

    2011-01-01

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  2. Canonical Wnt signaling in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ma, Jian-Xing

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common eye complication of diabetes, and the pathogenic mechanism of DR is still under investigation. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt signaling regulates expression of multiple genes that control retinal development and eye organogenesis, and dysregulated Wnt signaling plays pathophysiological roles in many ocular diseases, including DR. This review highlights recent progress in studies of Wnt signaling in DR. We discuss Wnt signaling regulation in the retina and dysregulation of Wnt signaling associated with ocular diseases with an emphasis on DR. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of modulating Wnt signaling in DR. Continued studies in this field will advance our current understanding on DR and contribute to the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-22

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  4. Improved effective potential by nonlinear canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritschel, U.

    1990-01-01

    We generalize the familiar gaussian-effective-potential formalism to a class of non-gaussian trial states. With the help of exact nonlinear canonical transformations, expectation values can be calculated analytically and in closed form. A detailed description of our method, particularly for quadratic and cubic transformations, and of the related renormalization procedure is given. Applications to φ 4 -models in various dimensionalities are treated. We find the expected critical behaviour in two space-time dimensions. In three and four dimensions we observe instabilities which go back the incompleteness of the gaussian-based renormalization. In the appendices it is shown that the quadratic transformation leads to a coherent state in a certain limiting case, and the generalization to systems at finite temperature is performed. (orig.)

  5. A simple algorithm for computing canonical forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H.; Hunt, L. R.; Renjeng, S.

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that all linear time-invariant controllable systems can be transformed to Brunovsky canonical form by a transformation consisting only of coordinate changes and linear feedback. However, the actual procedures for doing this have tended to be overly complex. The technique introduced here is envisioned as an on-line procedure and is inspired by George Meyer's tangent model for nonlinear systems. The process utilizes Meyer's block triangular form as an intermedicate step in going to Brunovsky form. The method also involves orthogonal matrices, thus eliminating the need for the computation of matrix inverses. In addition, the Kronecker indices can be computed as a by-product of this transformation so it is necessary to know them in advance.

  6. Linear canonical transforms theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kutay, M; Ozaktas, Haldun; Sheridan, John

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the essential mathematical foundations of linear canonical transforms from a signals and systems perspective. Substantial attention is devoted to how these transforms relate to optical systems and wave propagation. There is extensive coverage of sampling theory and fast algorithms for numerically approximating the family of transforms. Chapters on topics ranging from digital holography to speckle metrology provide a window on the wide range of applications. This volume will serve as a reference for researchers in the fields of image and signal processing, wave propagation, optical information processing and holography, optical system design and modeling, and quantum optics. It will be of use to graduate students in physics and engineering, as well as for scientists in other areas seeking to learn more about this important yet relatively unfamiliar class of integral transformations.

  7. Canonical formulation of general-relativistic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    With the birth of quantum field theory in the late twenties physicists decided that nature could not be half classical and half quantum, and that the gravitational field ought to be quanticized, just as the electromagnetic field had been. One could accept the group of differomorphisms as a fundamental characteristic of general relativity (and indeed of all general-relativistic theories), and proceed to construct a quantum field-theory that was adapted to that group. Quantization would be attempted by way of a Hamiltonian formulation of the (classical) theory, and quantum commutation relations be patterned after the Poisson brackets arising in that formulation. This program is usually called the canonical quantization program, whereas the weak-field approach is known as covariant quantization. The first steps, conceived entirely within the framework of the classical theory, turned out to be beset with technical and conceptual difficulties, which today are essentially resolved. In this paper the author traces out these initial steps

  8. Autonomy, Submission or Sound Hybridization? The Construction of the Aesthetic Canon of the Spanish Pop-Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER NOYA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an approach to the aesthetic canon of Spanish pop-rock, which is understood as being the musicians, bands and works which have had the most infl uence on this musical genre in Spain. Using Bourdieu?s sociology of art and its application to popular music studies, surveys have been analysed that were carried out by both Spanish music critics and musicians. The hypothesis posed is whether an autochthonous aesthetic canon exists, and whether this is determined by an Anglo- American influence. From lists or rankings published whether in books or in general or specialist magazines, these data were combined to obtain a meta-ranking, which was tested by using certain statistical tests. From this, some characteristics particular to the Spanish aesthetic canon have been obtained, as well as some which are shared with the Englishspeaking canon.

  9. Symmetric minimally entangled typical thermal states for canonical and grand-canonical ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Based on the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). When a system features symmetries, these can be utilized to substantially reduce MPS computation costs. It is conceptually straightforward to simulate canonical ensembles using symmetric METTS. In practice, it is important to alternate between different symmetric collapse bases to decrease autocorrelations in the Markov chain of METTS. To this purpose, we introduce symmetric Fourier and Haar-random block bases that are efficiently mixing. We also show how grand-canonical ensembles can be simulated efficiently with symmetric METTS. We demonstrate these approaches for spin-1 /2 X X Z chains and discuss how the choice of the collapse bases influences autocorrelations as well as the distribution of measurement values and, hence, convergence speeds.

  10. Canonical symmetry of a constrained Hamiltonian system and canonical Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zi-ping

    1995-01-01

    An algorithm for the construction of the generators of the gauge transformation of a constrained Hamiltonian system is given. The relationships among the coefficients connecting the first constraints in the generator are made clear. Starting from the phase space generating function of the Green function, the Ward identity in canonical formalism is deduced. We point out that the quantum equations of motion in canonical form for a system with singular Lagrangian differ from the classical ones whether Dirac's conjecture holds true or not. Applications of the present formulation to the Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories are given. The expressions for PCAC and generalized PCAC of the AVV vertex are derived exactly from another point of view. A new form of the Ward identity for gauge-ghost proper vertices is obtained which differs from the usual Ward-Takahashi identity arising from the BRS invariance

  11. Taylor-expansion Monte Carlo simulations of classical fluids in the canonical and grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the Taylor-expansion method is introduced by which Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in the canonical ensemble can be speeded up significantly, Substantial gains in computational speed of 20-40% over conventional implementations of the MC technique are obtained over a wide range of densities in homogeneous bulk phases. The basic philosophy behind the Taylor-expansion method is a division of the neighborhood of each atom (or molecule) into three different spatial zones. Interactions between atoms belonging to each zone are treated at different levels of computational sophistication. For example, only interactions between atoms belonging to the primary zone immediately surrounding an atom are treated explicitly before and after displacement. The change in the configurational energy contribution from secondary-zone interactions is obtained from the first-order term of a Taylor expansion of the configurational energy in terms of the displacement vector d. Interactions with atoms in the tertiary zone adjacent to the secondary zone are neglected throughout. The Taylor-expansion method is not restricted to the canonical ensemble but may be employed to enhance computational efficiency of MC simulations in other ensembles as well. This is demonstrated for grand canonical ensemble MC simulations of an inhomogeneous fluid which can be performed essentially on a modern personal computer

  12. CERN Photo Club (CPC) / Canon Contest - My View of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Steyaert, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club has organized in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016.

  13. LCPT: a program for finding linear canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Char, B.W.; McNamara, B.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes a MACSYMA program to compute symbolically a canonical linear transformation between coordinate systems. The difficulties in implementation of this canonical small physics problem are also discussed, along with the implications that may be drawn from such difficulties about widespread MACSYMA usage by the community of computational/theoretical physicists

  14. A canonical-literary reading of Lamentations 5 | Kang | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a canonical and literary reading of Lamentations 5 in the context of the book of Lamentations as a whole. Following the approach by Vanhoozer (1998, 2002) based on speech-act theory, the meaning of Scripture is sought at canonical level, supervening the basic literary level. In Lamentations, as ...

  15. Canonical quantum theory of gravitational field with higher derivatives, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Kimura, Tadahiko

    1983-01-01

    A formulation which is invariant under an additional BRS transformation with nilpotency of order two is presented for the canonical theory of the renormalizable quantum gravity with higher derivatives. The canonical quantization is carried out and various equal time (anti-) commutation relations are derived. The asymptotic fields are reanalyzed. The physical particle contents are just the same as those obtained in previous papers. (author)

  16. Canonical Quantum Teleportation of Two-Particle Arbitrary State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiang; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2005-01-01

    The canonical quantum teleportation of two-particle arbitrary state is realized by means of phase operator and number operator. The maximally entangled eigenstates between the difference of phase operators and the sum of number operators are considered as the quantum channels. In contrast to the standard quantum teleportation, the different unitary local operation of canonical teleportation can be simplified by a general expression.

  17. Variations in Canonical Star-Forming Laws at Low Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkiewicz, Jacqueline; Bowman, Judd D.; Scowen, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Empirically-determined star formation relations link observed galaxy luminosities to extrapolated star formation rates at almost every observable wavelength range. These laws are a cornerstone of extragalactic astronomy, and will be critically important for interpreting upcoming observations of early high-redshift protogalaxies with JWST and WFIRST. There are indications at a variety of wavelengths that these canonical relations may become unreliable at the lowest metallicities observed. This potentially complicates interpretation of the earliest protogalaxies, which are expected to be pristine and largely unenriched by stellar nucleosynthesis. Using a sample of 15 local dwarf galaxies with 12+[O/H] dwarf galaxies 1 Zw 18 and SBS 0335-052E suggest that the far-IR/radio relation probably deviates at low metallicities, but the low luminosity end of the relation is not well sampled. The upgraded Jansky Very Large Array has the sensitivity to fill in this gap. I have obtained 45 hours of L- and C-band continuum data of my dwarf galaxy sample. I present radio continuum imaging of an initial sub-sample of Local Group dwarfs, some of which have never before been detected in radio continuum. The H-alpha/UV relationship is likewise known to become unreliable for dwarf galaxies, though this has been attributed to dwarf galaxy "bursty-ness" rather than metallicity effects. I have conducted a parallel survey of emission line imaging to study the underlying astrophysics of the H-alpha/UV relation. Using Balmer decrement imaging, I map out the pixel-to-pixel dust distribution and geometry within the nearest galaxies in my sample. I compare this to GALEX UV imaging. I discuss implications for UV escape fraction, and present initial results of the canonical star-forming relations at low galaxy luminosity and metallicity. THIS IS A POSTER AND WILL BE LOCATED IN THE AAS BOOTH.

  18. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  19. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  20. The canon as text for a biblical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Loader

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of the canonical approach is questioned and its fascination at least partly traced to the Reformation, as well as to the post-Reformation’s need for a clear and authoritative canon to perform the function previously performed by the church. This does not minimise the elusiveness and deeply contradictory positions both within the canon and triggered by it. On the one hand, the canon itself is a centripetal phenomenon and does play an important role in exegesis and theology. Even so, on the other hand, it not only contains many difficulties, but also causes various additional problems of a formal as well as a theological nature. The question is mooted whether the canonical approach alleviates or aggravates the dilemma. Since this approach has become a major factor in Christian theology, aspects of the Christian canon are used to gauge whether “canon” is an appropriate category for eliminating difficulties that arise by virtue of its own existence. Problematic uses and appropriations of several Old Testament canons are advanced, as well as evidence in the New Testament of a consciousness that the “old” has been surpassed(“Überbietungsbewußtsein”. It is maintained that at least the Childs version of the canonical approach fails to smooth out these and similar difficulties. As a method it can cater for the New Testament’s (superior role as the hermeneutical standard for evaluating the Old, but flounders on its inability to create the theological unity it claims can solve religious problems exposed by Old Testament historical criticism. It is concluded that canon as a category cannot be dispensed with, but is useful for the opposite of the purpose to which it is conventionally put: far from bringing about theological “unity” or producing a standard for “correct” exegesis, it requires different readings of different canons.

  1. El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policarpo, Alcibiades

    This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz"…

  2. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capone F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic

  3. Emergent symmetries in the canonical tensor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obster, Dennis; Sasakura, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    The canonical tensor model (CTM) is a tensor model proposing a classically and quantum mechanically consistent description of gravity, formulated as a first-class constraint system with structural similarities to the ADM formalism of general relativity. The classical CTM produces a general relativistic system in a formal continuum limit, the emergence of which should be explained by the quantum CTM. In this paper we study the symmetry properties of a wave function that exactly solves the quantum constraints of the CTM. We have found that it has strong peaks at configurations invariant under some Lie groups, as predicted by a mechanism described in our previous paper. A surprising result is the preference for configurations invariant not only under Lie groups with positive definite signature, but also with Lorentzian signature. Such symmetries could characterize the global structures of spacetimes, and our results are encouraging towards showing spacetime emergence in the CTM. To verify the asymptotic convergence of the wave function we have also analyzed the asymptotic behavior, which for the most part seems to be well under control.

  4. Finite canonical measure for nonsingular cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2011-01-01

    The total canonical (Liouville-Henneaux-Gibbons-Hawking-Stewart) measure is finite for completely nonsingular Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker classical universes with a minimally coupled massive scalar field and a positive cosmological constant. For a cosmological constant very small in units of the square of the scalar field mass, most of the measure is for nearly de Sitter solutions with no inflation at a much more rapid rate. However, if one restricts to solutions in which the scalar field energy density is ever more than twice the equivalent energy density of the cosmological constant, then the number of e-folds of rapid inflation must be large, and the fraction of the measure is low in which the spatial curvature is comparable to the cosmological constant at the time when it is comparable to the energy density of the scalar field. The measure for such classical FLRWΛ-φ models with both a big bang and a big crunch is also finite. Only the solutions with a big bang that expand forever, or the time-reversed ones that contract from infinity to a big crunch, have infinite measure

  5. The Anonymous Jane Austen: Duelling Canons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Copeland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay initially addresses some theoretical concepts such as adaptation and appropriation. I intend to analyze how Jane Austen herself indulged in her own appropriations from the woman’s canon, in particular through a story entitled Guilt Pursued by Conscience, a tale she found in the “Lady’s Magazine” of 1802. I will show that this tale that claimed Austen’s particular attention was re-appropriated in Emma (although in the broadest sense of parody and, to a lesser extent, in Sense and Sensibility. The second part of the essay, instead, will move on to analyze how novelists of the generation that followed Austen felt free to import dialogue, characters, and plots from Austen’s works, showing no obligation to their source, just as she had done with the “Lady’s” tale. I will mention and comment on a series of novels, especially from the silver fork school, that draw from Austen’s plot, characters and happenings without acknowledging their legacy to their predecessor.

  6. The Schroedinger equation and canonical perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffi, S.; Paul, T.

    1987-01-01

    Let T 0 (ℎ,ω)+εV be the Schroedinger operator corresponding to the classical Hamiltonian H 0 (ω)+εV, where H 0 (ω) is the d-dimensional harmonic oscillator with non-resonant frequencies ω=(ω 1 ..., ω d ) and the potential V(q 1 , ..., q d ) is an entire function of order (d+l) -1 . We prove that the algorithm of classical, canonical perturbation theory can be applied to the Schroedinger equation in the Bargmann representation. As a consequence, each term of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger series near any eigenvalue of T 0 (ℎ,ω) admits a convergent expansion in powers of ℎ of initial point the corresponding term of the classical Birkhoff expansion. Moreover if V is an even polynomial, the above result and the KAM theorem show that all eigenvalues λ n (ℎ,ε) of T 0 +εV such that nℎ coincides with a KAM torus are given, up to order ε ∞ , by a quantization formula which reduces to the Bohr-Sommerfeld one up to first order terms in ℎ. (orig.)

  7. Some considerations about literary canon books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gregorio Posada Ramírez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente texto muestra que las obras clásicas de la literatura, también conocidas como libros del canon, amplían la vida interior de quienes los leen. La permanencia y expansión en tiempo y espacio que hace de un libro una obra clásica se irradia en el lector extendiendo su yo hacia vivencias que van más allá de sus confines biográficos, sociales y culturales. Tomando como ejemplo cuatro obras de la literatura: Edipo Rey de Sófocles, La muerte en Venecia de Thomas Mann, El laberinto de la soledad de Octavio Paz, y Altazor de Vicente Huidobro se expone una interpretación de la manera cómo las obras clásicas de la literatura tienen el poder de profundizar y enriquecer las experiencias corrientes de sus lectores, extendiendo los confines y posibilidades del pensamiento.

  8. Dissolution of Marriage According to Canon Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Sulejman Ahmedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Canon law, dissolution of marriage is not allowed since it was considered sacred and as such cannot break until the two spouses are alive, except only if one of the spouses passes away. But throughout history we find cases when allowed dissolution of the marriage and causes specific conditions set by the church. Thus, according to the Old Testament, if, a man married to a woman, didn’t like something about his wife, should write a request for divorce and allow her to leave his home. Meanwhile according to the New Testament records, divorce is prohibited. Although most Protestants continue to espouse the view that marriage was sacred and as such should not be divorced, from those who had supported the idea of granting the divorce. One of them was Luther, who in his remarks before his preachers said: "In my opinion, the issue of divorce belongs to the law, are not they to whom called for regulation of parental relationships, why not have they the authority to regulate the relations between spouses". Protestant churches allow the dissolution of marriage: a Because of adultery by the wife; allowed by Jesus, b Unjustified abandonment of the marital community; c If there were other reasons: if one spouse refuses to have sexual marriage, if the husband abuses his wife     repeatedly and without cause, severe illness of one spouse.

  9. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  10. Unitary evolution and uniqueness of the Fock quantization in flat cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marugán, G A Mena; Błas, D Martín-de; Gomar, L Castelló

    2013-01-01

    We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields with a time dependent mass in cosmological scenarios with flat compact spatial sections. This framework describes physically interesting situations like, e.g., cosmological perturbations in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes, generally including a suitable scaling of them by a background function. We prove that the requirements of vacuum invariance under the spatial isometries and of a unitary quantum dynamics select (a) a unique canonical pair of field variables among all those related by time dependent canonical transformations which scale the field configurations, and (b) a unique Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations of this pair of variables. The proof is generalizable to any compact spatial topology in three or less dimensions, though we focus on the case of the three-torus owing to the especially relevant implications.

  11. Canonical quantization of gravity and a problem of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Linearized theory of gravity is quantized both in a naive way and as a proper limit of the Dirac-Wheeler-De Witt approach to the quantization of the full theory. The equivalence between the two approaches is established. The problem of scattering in the canonically quantized theory of gravitation is investigated. The concept of the background metric naturally appears in the canonical formalism for this case. The equivalence between canonical and path-integral approaches is established for the problem of scattering. Some kinetical properties of functionals in Wheeler superspace are studied in an appendix. (author)

  12. Covariant canonical quantization of fields and Bohmian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, H.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a manifestly covariant canonical method of field quantization based on the classical De Donder-Weyl covariant canonical formulation of field theory. Owing to covariance, the space and time arguments of fields are treated on an equal footing. To achieve both covariance and consistency with standard non-covariant canonical quantization of fields in Minkowski spacetime, it is necessary to adopt a covariant Bohmian formulation of quantum field theory. A preferred foliation of spacetime emerges dynamically owing to a purely quantum effect. The application to a simple time-reparametrization invariant system and quantum gravity is discussed and compared with the conventional non-covariant Wheeler-DeWitt approach. (orig.)

  13. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  14. Canonical and non-canonical barriers facing antimiR cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christopher J; Saltzman, W Mark; Slack, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Once considered genetic "oddities", microRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as key epigenetic regulators of numerous biological processes, including some with a causal link to the pathogenesis, maintenance, and treatment of cancer. The crux of small RNA-based therapeutics lies in the antagonism of potent cellular targets; the main shortcoming of the field in general, lies in ineffective delivery. Inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs is a relatively nascent therapeutic concept, but as with predecessor RNA-based therapies, success hinges on delivery efficacy. This review will describes the canonical (e.g. pharmacokinetics and clearance, cellular uptake, endosome escape, etc.) and non-canonical (e.g. spatial localization and accessibility of miRNA, technical limitations of miRNA inhibition, off-target impacts, etc.) challenges to the delivery of antisense-based anti-miRNA therapeutics (i.e. antimiRs) for the treatment of cancer. Emphasis will be placed on how the current leading antimiR platforms-ranging from naked chemically modified oligonucleotides to nanoscale delivery vehicles-are affected by and overcome these barriers. The perplexity of antimiR delivery presents both engineering and biological hurdles that must be overcome in order to capitalize on the extensive pharmacological benefits of antagonizing tumor-associated miRNAs.

  15. Canonical and D-transformations in Theories with Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gitman, Dmitri M.

    1995-01-01

    A class class of transformations in a super phase space (we call them D-transformations) is described, which play in theories with second-class constraints the role of ordinary canonical transformations in theories without constraints.

  16. Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K.

    2017-07-01

    Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.

  17. On a canonical formulation of field theories with singular Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to introduce the Routh function formalism into the field theory: only ''nondegenerated'' field components are considered as canonical variables. Electrodynamics and general relativity are considered. The formalism appears to be quite simple and gauge-independent

  18. Uniqueness conditions for constrained three-way factor decompositions with linearly dependent loadings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Alwin; De Almeida, Andre L. F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we derive uniqueness conditions for a constrained version of the parallel factor (Parafac) decomposition, also known as canonical decomposition (Candecomp). Candecomp/Parafac (CP) decomposes a three-way array into a prespecified number of outer product arrays. The constraint is that

  19. An efficient algorithm for calculation of the Luenberger canonical form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, D.; Sridhar, B.

    1973-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented to obtain the Luenberger canonical form for multivariable systems. A distinct feature of the method is that the canonical form is obtained directly and, if necessary, the similarity transformation can be computed. There is a substantial reduction in the amount of computation compared to Luenberger's method. The reduced computations along with Gaussian techniques lend greater inherent accuracy and the ability to refine the solution with additional computations. An example is presented to illustrate the technique.

  20. Canonical transformations method in the potential scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Canonical formalism of the first order is used in the present paper to solve the problem of scattering and other problems of quantum mechanics. The theory of canonical transformations (CT) being the basis of hamiltonian approach permits to develop several methods of integration being beyond the scope of the standard theory of perturbations. In this case it is essential for numerical counting that the theory permits to obtain algorithm for plotting highest approximations

  1. Canonical algorithms for numerical integration of charged particle motion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, I. N.; Morozov, E. A.; Morozova, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    A technique for numerically integrating the equation of charged particle motion in a magnetic field is considered. It is based on the canonical transformations of the phase space in Hamiltonian mechanics. The canonical transformations make the integration process stable against counting error accumulation. The integration algorithms contain a minimum possible amount of arithmetics and can be used to design accelerators and devices of electron and ion optics.

  2. Canonical forms of tensor representations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for constructing canonical forms for any tensor representation of the classical compact Lie groups is given. This method is used to find a complete list of the symmetry breaking patterns produced by Higgs fields in the third-rank antisymmetric representations of U(n), SU(n) and SO(n) for n<=7. A simple canonical form is also given for kth-rank symmetric tensor representations. (author)

  3. Relationship between organisational commitment and burnout syndrome: a canonical correlation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginyurt, Ozgur; Cankaya, Soner; Aksay, Kadir; Tunc, Taner; Koc, Bozkurt; Bas, Orhan; Ozer, Erdal

    2016-04-01

    Objective Burnout syndrome can significantly reduce the performance of health workers. Although many factors have been identified as antecedents of burnout, few studies have investigated the role of organisational commitment in its development. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between subdimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment) and subdimensions of organisational commitment (affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment). Methods The present study was a cross-sectional survey of physicians and other healthcare employees working in the Ministry of Health Ordu University Education and Research Hospital. The sample consisted of 486 healthcare workers. Data were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Organisation Commitment Scale, and were analysed using the canonical correlation approach. Results The first of three canonical correlation coefficients between pairs of canonical variables (Ui , burnout syndrome and Vi, organisational commitment) was found to be statistically significant. Emotional exhaustion was found to contribute most towards the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from the subdimensions of burnout syndrome, whereas affective commitment provided the largest contribution towards the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from the subdimensions of organisational commitment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that affective commitment is the primary determinant of burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals. What is known about the topic? Organisational commitment and burnout syndrome are the most important criteria in predicting health workforce performance. An increasing number of studies in recent years have clearly indicated the field's continued relevance and importance. Conversely, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a technique for describing the relationship

  4. Restoring canonical partition functions from imaginary chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornyakov, V. G.; Boyda, D.; Goy, V.; Molochkov, A.; Nakamura, A.; Nikolaev, A.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Using GPGPU techniques and multi-precision calculation we developed the code to study QCD phase transition line in the canonical approach. The canonical approach is a powerful tool to investigate sign problem in Lattice QCD. The central part of the canonical approach is the fugacity expansion of the grand canonical partition functions. Canonical partition functions Zn(T) are coefficients of this expansion. Using various methods we study properties of Zn(T). At the last step we perform cubic spline for temperature dependence of Zn(T) at fixed n and compute baryon number susceptibility χB/T2 as function of temperature. After that we compute numerically ∂χ/∂T and restore crossover line in QCD phase diagram. We use improved Wilson fermions and Iwasaki gauge action on the 163 × 4 lattice with mπ/mρ = 0.8 as a sandbox to check the canonical approach. In this framework we obtain coefficient in parametrization of crossover line Tc(µ2B) = Tc(C-ĸµ2B/T2c) with ĸ = -0.0453 ± 0.0099.

  5. Process modelling on a canonical basis[Process modelling; Canonical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepmann, Volker

    2006-12-20

    Based on an equation oriented solving strategy, this thesis investigates a new approach to process modelling. Homogeneous thermodynamic state functions represent consistent mathematical models of thermodynamic properties. Such state functions of solely extensive canonical state variables are the basis of this work, as they are natural objective functions in optimisation nodes to calculate thermodynamic equilibrium regarding phase-interaction and chemical reactions. Analytical state function derivatives are utilised within the solution process as well as interpreted as physical properties. By this approach, only a limited range of imaginable process constraints are considered, namely linear balance equations of state variables. A second-order update of source contributions to these balance equations is obtained by an additional constitutive equation system. These equations are general dependent on state variables and first-order sensitivities, and cover therefore practically all potential process constraints. Symbolic computation technology efficiently provides sparsity and derivative information of active equations to avoid performance problems regarding robustness and computational effort. A benefit of detaching the constitutive equation system is that the structure of the main equation system remains unaffected by these constraints, and a priori information allows to implement an efficient solving strategy and a concise error diagnosis. A tailor-made linear algebra library handles the sparse recursive block structures efficiently. The optimisation principle for single modules of thermodynamic equilibrium is extended to host entire process models. State variables of different modules interact through balance equations, representing material flows from one module to the other. To account for reusability and encapsulation of process module details, modular process modelling is supported by a recursive module structure. The second-order solving algorithm makes it

  6. Far-red fluorescent probes for canonical and non-canonical nucleic acid structures: current progress and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, Y V; Narayanaswamy, Nagarjun; Pratihar, Sumon; Govindaraju, Thimmaiah

    2018-02-05

    The structural diversity and functional relevance of nucleic acids (NAs), mainly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are indispensable for almost all living organisms, with minute aberrations in their structure and function becoming causative factors in numerous human diseases. The standard structures of NAs, termed canonical structures, are supported by Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding. Under special physiological conditions, NAs adopt distinct spatial organisations, giving rise to non-canonical conformations supported by hydrogen bonding other than the Watson-Crick type; such non-canonical structures have a definite function in controlling gene expression and are considered as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Development of molecular probes for these canonical and non-canonical DNA/RNA structures has been an active field of research. Among the numerous probes studied, probes with turn-on fluorescence in the far-red (600-750 nm) region are highly sought-after due to minimal autofluorescence and cellular damage. Far-red fluorescent probes are vital for real-time imaging of NAs in live cells as they provide good resolution and minimal perturbation of the cell under investigation. In this review, we present recent advances in the area of far-red fluorescent probes of DNA/RNA and non-canonical G-quadruplex structures. For the sake of continuity and completeness, we provide a brief overview of visible fluorescent probes. Utmost importance is given to design criteria, characteristic properties and biological applications, including in cellulo imaging, apart from critical discussion on limitations of the far-red fluorescent probes. Finally, we offer current and future prospects in targeting canonical and non-canonical NAs specific to cellular organelles, through sequence- and conformation-specific far-red fluorescent probes. We also cover their implications in chemical and molecular biology, with particular focus on decoding various disease

  7. Canonical structure and extra mode of generalized unimodular gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, Rodrigo; Oksanen, Markku

    2018-02-01

    We consider a recently proposed generalization of unimodular gravity, where the lapse function is constrained to be equal to a function of the determinant of the spatial metric f (h ), as a potential origin of a dark fluid with a generally h -dependent equation of state parameter. We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for the theory. All the special cases that do not match unimodular gravity involve the violation of general covariance, and consequently the physical content of the theory is changed significantly. Particularly, the case of a constant function f is shown to contain an extra physical degree of freedom in each point of space. Physical consequences of the extra degree of freedom are studied in a linearized theory, where the extra mode is carried by the trace of the metric perturbation. The trace mode does not propagate as a wave, since it satisfies an elliptic partial differential equation in spacetime. Consequently, the trace perturbation is shown to grow exponentially with time, which implies instability. The case of a general f (h ) involves additional second-class constraints, which implies the presence of an extra global degree of freedom that depends only on time (instead of the extra local degree of freedom in the case of a constant f ).

  8. Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrafarin, M.

    1992-09-01

    A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs

  9. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 2. Clinical application of a unique densitometry CT technique for determination of fat tissue areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Fumie

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal CT scanning was performed to establish normal spectra of abdominal tissue areas on 291 subjects. Using the data file of measurements of abdominal fat tissue areas of 133 normal subjects, means and their standard deviations (S.D.) were calculated for each fat tissue area at the four levels for each gender. On 158 persons with abnormal body mass index (BMI) values, S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area from the mean of the control in each age group of each gender was compared with each other. Ratios of visceral fat tissue area to subcutaneous fat tissue area (V/S ratio) were also calculated. The visceral fat tissue area of normal male subjects was significantly larger at all the four levels than those of female ones, while the subcutaneous fat tissue area were smaller at all levels. Although the area of entire and subcutaneous fat tissues of female subjects showed a peak at the age of 50 years old, those in male subjects did not show any peak at any age group. Although there was a statistically significant correlation between values of BMI and S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area at each level, the coefficient between BMI and S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area was very low at the level of 60 mm in female. Seven of 74 female subjects with abnormal BMI had more than 10 S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area at all levels and 8 of them had more S.D.-distance than of all fat tissue area at any level. The V/S ratio of the male subjects was significantly larger than that in female. Besides, there was no correlation between V/S ratio and S.D.-distance of visceral fat tissue area in both male and female subjects. These findings indicate that the V/S ratio does not reflect the size of fat tissue area. The determination of fat tissue areas by the abdominal CT at several levels is quite a useful way for accurate evaluation of obesity. (S.Y.)

  10. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 2. Clinical application of a unique densitometry CT technique for determination of fat tissue areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Abdominal CT scanning was performed to establish normal spectra of abdominal tissue areas on 291 subjects. Using the data file of measurements of abdominal fat tissue areas of 133 normal subjects, means and their standard deviations (S.D.) were calculated for each fat tissue area at the four levels for each gender. On 158 persons with abnormal body mass index (BMI) values, S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area from the mean of the control in each age group of each gender was compared with each other. Ratios of visceral fat tissue area to subcutaneous fat tissue area (V/S ratio) were also calculated. The visceral fat tissue area of normal male subjects was significantly larger at all the four levels than those of female ones, while the subcutaneous fat tissue area were smaller at all levels. Although the area of entire and subcutaneous fat tissues of female subjects showed a peak at the age of 50 years old, those in male subjects did not show any peak at any age group. Although there was a statistically significant correlation between values of BMI and S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area at each level, the coefficient between BMI and S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area was very low at the level of 60 mm in female. Seven of 74 female subjects with abnormal BMI had more than 10 S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area at all levels and 8 of them had more S.D.-distance than of all fat tissue area at any level. The V/S ratio of the male subjects was significantly larger than that in female. Besides, there was no correlation between V/S ratio and S.D.-distance of visceral fat tissue area in both male and female subjects. These findings indicate that the V/S ratio does not reflect the size of fat tissue area. The determination of fat tissue areas by the abdominal CT at several levels is quite a useful way for accurate evaluation of obesity. (S.Y.).

  11. The Canonical E2Fs Are Required for Germline Development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of cell fate determinations, including cell division, cell differentiation, and programmed cell death, intensely occur during plant germline development. How these cell fate determinations are regulated remains largely unclear. The transcription factor E2F is a core cell cycle regulator. Here we show that the Arabidopsis canonical E2Fs, including E2Fa, E2Fb, and E2Fc, play a redundant role in plant germline development. The e2fa e2fb e2fc (e2fabc triple mutant is sterile, although its vegetative development appears normal. On the one hand, the e2fabc microspores undergo cell death during pollen mitosis. Microspores start to die at the bicellular stage. By the tricellular stage, the majority of the e2fabc microspores are degenerated. On the other hand, a wild type ovule often has one megaspore mother cell (MMC, whereas the majority of e2fabc ovules have two to three MMCs. The subsequent female gametogenesis of e2fabc mutant is aborted and the vacuole is severely impaired in the embryo sac. Analysis of transmission efficiency showed that the canonical E2Fs from both male and female gametophyte are essential for plant gametogenesis. Our study reveals that the canonical E2Fs are required for plant germline development, especially the pollen mitosis and the archesporial cell (AC-MMC transition.

  12. Extension of Kirkwood-Buff theory to the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David M.

    2018-02-01

    Kirkwood-Buff (KB) integrals are notoriously difficult to converge from a canonical simulation because they require estimating the grand-canonical radial distribution. The same essential difficulty is encountered when attempting to estimate the direct correlation function of Ornstein-Zernike theory by inverting the pair correlation functions. We present a new theory that applies to the entire, finite, simulation volume, so that no cutoff issues arise at all. The theory gives the direct correlation function for closed systems, while smoothness of the direct correlation function in reciprocal space allows calculating canonical KB integrals via a well-posed extrapolation to the origin. The present analysis method represents an improvement over previous work because it makes use of the entire simulation volume and its convergence can be accelerated using known properties of the direct correlation function. Using known interaction energy functions can make this extrapolation near perfect accuracy in the low-density case. Because finite size effects are stronger in the canonical than in the grand-canonical ensemble, we state ensemble correction formulas for the chemical potential and the KB coefficients. The new theory is illustrated with both analytical and simulation results on the 1D Ising model and a supercritical Lennard-Jones fluid. For the latter, the finite-size corrections are shown to be small.

  13. Innovation and Selection: Symphony Orchestras and the Construction of the Musical Canon in the United States (1879-1959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremp, Pierre-Antoine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the determinants of innovation and success of innovation in the field of U.S. symphony orchestras from 1879 through 1959: why did major orchestras (N = 27) innovate by introducing works of new composers to the repertoire instead of sticking to canonical pieces? Can organizational processes account for the selection and the…

  14. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  15. A canonical-literary reading of Lamentations 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinman Kang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a canonical and literary reading of Lamentations 5 in the context of the book of Lamentations as a whole. Following the approach by Vanhoozer (1998, 2002 based on speech-act theory, the meaning of Scripture is sought at canonical level, supervening the basic literary level. In Lamentations, as polyphonic poetic text, the speaking voices form a very important key for the interpretation of the text. In the polyphonic text of Lamentations, the shifting of the speaking voices occurs between Lamentations 1 and 4. Lamentations 5 is monologic. The theories of Bakhtin (1984 are also used to understand the book of Lamentations. In this book, chapter 5 forms the climax where Jerusalem cries to God. We cannot, however, find God’s answer to this call in Lamentations; we can find it only within the broader text of the Christian canon.

  16. Canonical sectors of five-dimensional Chern-Simons theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Troncoso, Ricardo; Zanelli, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of five-dimensional Chern-Simons theories is analyzed. These theories are characterized by intricate self couplings which give rise to dynamical features not present in standard theories. As a consequence, Dirac's canonical formalism cannot be directly applied due to the presence of degeneracies of the symplectic form and irregularities of the constraints on some surfaces of phase space, obscuring the dynamical content of these theories. Here we identify conditions that define sectors where the canonical formalism can be applied for a class of non-Abelian Chern-Simons theories, including supergravity. A family of solutions satisfying the canonical requirements is explicitly found. The splitting between first and second class constraints is performed around these backgrounds, allowing the construction of the charge algebra, including its central extension

  17. Escort entropies and divergences and related canonical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercher, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss two families of two-parameter entropies and divergences, derived from the standard Renyi and Tsallis entropies and divergences. These divergences and entropies are found as divergences or entropies of escort distributions. Exploiting the nonnegativity of the divergences, we derive the expression of the canonical distribution associated to the new entropies and a observable given as an escort-mean value. We show that this canonical distribution extends, and smoothly connects, the results obtained in nonextensive thermodynamics for the standard and generalized mean value constraints. -- Highlights: → Two-parameter entropies are derived from q-entropies and escort distributions. → The related canonical distribution is derived. → This connects and extends known results in nonextensive statistics.

  18. Canonical duality theory unified methodology for multidisciplinary study

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Vittorio; Ruan, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This book on canonical duality theory provides a comprehensive review of its philosophical origin, physics foundation, and mathematical statements in both finite- and infinite-dimensional spaces. A ground-breaking methodological theory, canonical duality theory can be used for modeling complex systems within a unified framework and for solving a large class of challenging problems in multidisciplinary fields in engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. This volume places a particular emphasis on canonical duality theory’s role in bridging the gap between non-convex analysis/mechanics and global optimization.  With 18 total chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume provides a nonconventional theory for unified understanding of the fundamental difficulties in large deformation mechanics, bifurcation/chaos in nonlinear science, and the NP-hard problems in global optimization. Additionally, readers will find a unified methodology and powerful algorithms for solving challenging problems in comp...

  19. Canonical Entropy and Phase Transition of Rotating Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhao; Yue-Qin, Wu; Li-Chun, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the Hawking radiation of a black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. The radiation spectrum of a black hole is derived. By discussing the correction to spectrum of the rotating black hole, we obtain the canonical entropy. The derived canonical entropy is equal to the sum of Bekenstein–Hawking entropy and correction term. The correction term near the critical point is different from the one near others. This difference plays an important role in studying the phase transition of the black hole. The black hole thermal capacity diverges at the critical point. However, the canonical entropy is not a complex number at this point. Thus we think that the phase transition created by this critical point is the second order phase transition. The discussed black hole is a five-dimensional Kerr-AdS black hole. We provide a basis for discussing thermodynamic properties of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole. (general)

  20. QCD phase transition at real chemical potential with canonical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Atsushi [RCNP, Osaka University,Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN,Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Oka, Shotaro [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yusuke [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba,Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2016-02-08

    We study the finite density phase transition in the lattice QCD at real chemical potential. We adopt a canonical approach and the canonical partition function is constructed for N{sub f}=2 QCD. After derivation of the canonical partition function we calculate observables like the pressure, the quark number density, its second cumulant and the chiral condensate as a function of the real chemical potential. We covered a wide range of temperature region starting from the confining low to the deconfining high temperature; 0.65T{sub c}≤T≤3.62T{sub c}. We observe a possible signal of the deconfinement and the chiral restoration phase transition at real chemical potential below T{sub c} starting from the confining phase. We give also the convergence range of the fugacity expansion.

  1. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Canonical representations of the Lie superalgebra osp(1,4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.; Havlicek, M.; Lassner, W.; Bednar, M.

    1981-06-01

    The method for constructing infinite dimensional representations of Lie superalgebras proposed by the authors recently is applied to the superalgebra osp(1,4). Explicit formulae for its generators in terms of two or three pairs of operators fulfilling the canonical commutation relations, at most one pair of operators fulfilling the canonical anticommutation relations and at most one real parameter are obtained. The generators of the Lie subalgebra sp(4,IR) contains osp(1,4) are represented skew-symmetrically and both Casimir operators are equal to multiples of the unity operator. (author)

  3. Towards a conceptual history of canonization in totalitarian societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postoutenko, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    a reference to his slogans and speeches. The article compares such a canonization in Soviet Union with parallel processes in Nazi Germany (where Adolf Hitler and his texts are revered to a much lesser degree) and United States of America (where this development is missing altogether despite Franklin D....... Roosevelt unprecedented media exposure). It turns out that Stalin’s discursive canonization has multiple reasons including his reliance on rigid radial networks of power and communication (as opposed to rotation of political and social roles in democracies), his interactional detachment from listeners and...

  4. Canonical correlation analysis of course and teacher evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2010-01-01

    At the Technical University of Denmark course evaluations are performed by the students on a questionnaire. On one form the students are asked specific questions regarding the course. On a second form they are asked specific questions about the teacher. This study investigates the extent to which...... information obtained from the course evaluation form overlaps with information obtained from the teacher evaluation form. Employing canonical correlation analysis it was found that course and teacher evaluations are correlated. However, the structure of the canonical correlation is subject to change...

  5. Canonical extensions of the Johnson homomorphisms to the Torelli groupoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bene, Alex; Kawazumi, Nariya; Penner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We prove that every trivalent marked bordered fatgraph comes equipped with a canonical generalized Magnus expansion in the sense of Kawazumi. This Magnus expansion is used to give canonical extensions of the higher Johnson homomorphisms τm , for m 1 , to the Torelli groupoid, and we provide...... a recursive combinatorial formula for tensor representatives of these extensions. In particular, we give an explicit 1-cocycle in the dual fatgraph complex which extends τ2 and thus answer affirmatively a question of Morita and Penner. To illustrate our techniques for calculating higher Johnson homomorphisms...

  6. A Nonlinear GMRES Optimization Algorithm for Canonical Tensor Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    De Sterck, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for computing a canonical rank-R tensor approximation that has minimal distance to a given tensor in the Frobenius norm, where the canonical rank-R tensor consists of the sum of R rank-one components. Each iteration of the method consists of three steps. In the first step, a tentative new iterate is generated by a stand-alone one-step process, for which we use alternating least squares (ALS). In the second step, an accelerated iterate is generated by a nonlinear g...

  7. Structural Basis for the Canonical and Non-canonical PAM Recognition by CRISPR-Cpf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Takashi; Zetsche, Bernd; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu

    2017-08-17

    The RNA-guided Cpf1 (also known as Cas12a) nuclease associates with a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and cleaves the double-stranded DNA target complementary to the crRNA guide. The two Cpf1 orthologs from Acidaminococcus sp. (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium (LbCpf1) have been harnessed for eukaryotic genome editing. Cpf1 requires a specific nucleotide sequence, called a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), for target recognition. Besides the canonical TTTV PAM, Cpf1 recognizes suboptimal C-containing PAMs. Here, we report four crystal structures of LbCpf1 in complex with the crRNA and its target DNA containing either TTTA, TCTA, TCCA, or CCCA as the PAM. These structures revealed that, depending on the PAM sequences, LbCpf1 undergoes conformational changes to form altered interactions with the PAM-containing DNA duplexes, thereby achieving the relaxed PAM recognition. Collectively, the present structures advance our mechanistic understanding of the PAM-dependent, crRNA-guided DNA cleavage by the Cpf1 family nucleases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A canonical perturbation method for computing the guiding-center motion in magnetized axisymmetric plasma columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratreau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The motion of charged particles in a magnetized plasma column, such as that of a magnetic mirror trap or a tokamak, is determined in the framework of the canonical perturbation theory through a method of variation of constants which preserves the energy conservation and the symmetry invariance. The choice of a frame of coordinates close to that of the magnetic coordinates allows a relatively precise determination of the guiding-center motion with a low-ordered approximation in the adiabatic parameter. A Hamiltonian formulation of the motion equations is obtained

  9. Canonical phase diagrams of the 1D Falicov-Kimball model at T = O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Jȩdrzejewski, J.; Lemański, R.

    1996-02-01

    The Falicov-Kimball model of spinless quantum electrons hopping on a 1-dimensional lattice and of immobile classical ions occupying some lattice sites, with only intrasite coupling between those particles, have been studied at zero temperature by means of well-controlled numerical procedures. For selected values of the unique coupling parameter U the restricted phase diagrams (based on all the periodic configurations of localized particles (ions) with period not greater than 16 lattice constants, typically) have been constructed in the grand-canonical ensemble. Then these diagrams have been translated into the canonical ensemble. Compared to the diagrams obtained in other studies our ones contain more details, in particular they give better insight into the way the mixtures of periodic phases are formed. Our study has revealed several families of new characteristic phases like the generalized most homogeneous and the generalized crenel phases, a first example of a structural phase transition and a tendency to build up an additional symmetry - the hole-particle symmetry with respect to the ions (electrons) only, as U decreases.

  10. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  11. Intermediate inflation from a non-canonical scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezazadeh, K.; Karami, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, P., E-mail: rezazadeh86@gmail.com, E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: parvin.karimi67@yahoo.com [Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics (CEAA-RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    We study the intermediate inflation in a non-canonical scalar field framework with a power-like Lagrangian. We show that in contrast with the standard canonical intermediate inflation, our non-canonical model is compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015. Also, we estimate the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter which is in well agreement with the prediction of Planck 2015. Then, we obtain an approximation for the energy scale at the initial time of inflation and show that it can be of order of the Planck energy scale, i.e. M{sub P} ∼ 10{sup 18}GeV. We will see that after a short period of time, inflation enters in the slow-roll regime that its energy scale is of order M{sub P}/100 ∼ 10{sup 16}GeV and the horizon exit takes place in this energy scale. We also examine an idea in our non-canonical model to overcome the central drawback of intermediate inflation which is the fact that inflation never ends. We solve this problem without disturbing significantly the nature of the intermediate inflation until the time of horizon exit.

  12. Comments on the charge-monopole canonical formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comay, C.

    1988-01-01

    A recently published canonical formalism of a charge-monopole system written by means of Clifford algebras is discussed. It is shown that the introduction of the Lorentz force must be accompanied by the removal of the pseudo-scalar terms from the lagrangian. Several conclusions follow. (orig.)

  13. The roles of theory in canonical action research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, R.M.; Martinsons, M.G.; Ou, C.X.J.

    2012-01-01

    Canonical action research (CAR) aims to address real-world problems and improve organizational performance by combining scholarly observations with practical interventions. However, efforts to conduct CAR have revealed challenges that reflect a significant research–practice gap. We examine these

  14. Canonical understanding of the sacrifice of Isaac: The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-08

    Jul 8, 2016 ... Martyrdom has granted benefits to the people of ... Testament, as the authoritative text and understands the text primarily in the canonical context ... This is more significant in terms of ..... This image of the Father-Son relation recurs in the NT, ..... this passage is Abraham's obedience, not Isaac's self-sacrifice.

  15. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Silas Boye; Magidson, Tali; Gross, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    canonized as fact. Data-dredging, p-hacking, and similar behaviors exacerbate the problem. Should negative results become easier to publish as a claim approaches acceptance as a fact, however, true and false claims would be more readily distinguished. To the degree that the model reflects the real world...

  16. Canonical transformations and exact invariants for dissipative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple treatment to the problem of finding exact invariants and related auxiliary equations for time-dependent oscillators with friction is presented. The treatment is based on the use of a time-dependent canonical transformation and an auxiliary transformation. (Author) [pt

  17. The Canon, the Web, and the Long Tail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that releasing images of artworks into the public domain creates a new possibility for the public to challenge the canon or create their own, based on access to previously inaccessible images. Through the dissemination of openly licensed artworks across the Internet, museums c...

  18. Correspondence and canonicity in non-classical logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sourabh, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study correspondence and canonicity for non-classical logic using algebraic and order-topological methods. Correspondence theory is aimed at answering the question of how precisely modal, first-order, second-order languages interact and overlap in their shared semantic environment.

  19. A QQ→QQ planar double box in canonical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Bianchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a planar double box with four massive external momenta and two massive internal propagators. We derive the system of differential equations for the relevant master integrals, cast it in canonical form, write it as a dlog form and solve it in terms of iterated integrals up to depth four.

  20. A Problem-Centered Approach to Canonical Matrix Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a problem-centered approach to the topic of canonical matrix forms in a second linear algebra course. In this approach, abstract theory, including such topics as eigenvalues, generalized eigenspaces, invariant subspaces, independent subspaces, nilpotency, and cyclic spaces, is developed in response to the patterns discovered…

  1. Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis with k sets of variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Eeke; de Leeuw, Jan

    1987-01-01

    The multivariate technique OVERALS is introduced as a non-linear generalization of canonical correlation analysis (CCA). First, two sets CCA is introduced. Two sets CCA is a technique that computes linear combinations of sets of variables that correlate in an optimal way. Two sets CCA is then

  2. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Horizon of Schwarzschild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we use the canonical ensemble model to discuss the radiation of a Schwarzschild–de Sitter black hole on the black hole horizon. Using this model, we calculate the probability distribution from function of the emission shell. And the statistical meaning which compare with the distribution function is ...

  3. Non‐Canonical Replication Initiation: You’re Fired!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazilė Ravoitytė

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The division of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells produces two cells that inherit a perfect copy of the genetic material originally derived from the mother cell. The initiation of canonical DNA replication must be coordinated to the cell cycle to ensure the accuracy of genome duplication. Controlled replication initiation depends on a complex interplay of cis‐acting DNA sequences, the so‐called origins of replication (ori, with trans‐acting factors involved in the onset of DNA synthesis. The interplay of cis‐acting elements and trans‐acting factors ensures that cells initiate replication at sequence‐specific sites only once, and in a timely order, to avoid chromosomal endoreplication. However, chromosome breakage and excessive RNA:DNA hybrid formation can cause breakinduced (BIR or transcription‐initiated replication (TIR, respectively. These non‐canonical replication events are expected to affect eukaryotic genome function and maintenance, and could be important for genome evolution and disease development. In this review, we describe the difference between canonical and non‐canonical DNA replication, and focus on mechanistic differences and common features between BIR and TIR. Finally, we discuss open issues on the factors and molecular mechanisms involved in TIR.

  4. AFP Algorithm and a Canonical Normal Form for Horn Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Majdoddin, Ruhollah

    2014-01-01

    AFP Algorithm is a learning algorithm for Horn formulas. We show that it does not improve the complexity of AFP Algorithm, if after each negative counterexample more that just one refinements are performed. Moreover, a canonical normal form for Horn formulas is presented, and it is proved that the output formula of AFP Algorithm is in this normal form.

  5. Universal critical wrapping probabilities in the canonical ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Universal dimensionless quantities, such as Binder ratios and wrapping probabilities, play an important role in the study of critical phenomena. We study the finite-size scaling behavior of the wrapping probability for the Potts model in the random-cluster representation, under the constraint that the total number of occupied bonds is fixed, so that the canonical ensemble applies. We derive that, in the limit L→∞, the critical values of the wrapping probability are different from those of the unconstrained model, i.e. the model in the grand-canonical ensemble, but still universal, for systems with 2yt−d>0 where yt=1/ν is the thermal renormalization exponent and d is the spatial dimension. Similar modifications apply to other dimensionless quantities, such as Binder ratios. For systems with 2yt−d≤0, these quantities share same critical universal values in the two ensembles. It is also derived that new finite-size corrections are induced. These findings apply more generally to systems in the canonical ensemble, e.g. the dilute Potts model with a fixed total number of vacancies. Finally, we formulate an efficient cluster-type algorithm for the canonical ensemble, and confirm these predictions by extensive simulations.

  6. Statistical hadronization and hadronic micro-canonical ensemble II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becattini, F.; Ferroni, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo calculation of the micro-canonical ensemble of the ideal hadron-resonance gas including all known states up to a mass of about 1.8 GeV and full quantum statistics. The micro-canonical average multiplicities of the various hadron species are found to converge to the canonical ones for moderately low values of the total energy, around 8 GeV, thus bearing out previous analyses of hadronic multiplicities in the canonical ensemble. The main numerical computing method is an importance sampling Monte Carlo algorithm using the product of Poisson distributions to generate multi-hadronic channels. It is shown that the use of this multi-Poisson distribution allows for an efficient and fast computation of averages, which can be further improved in the limit of very large clusters. We have also studied the fitness of a previously proposed computing method, based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm, for event generation in the statistical hadronization model. We find that the use of the multi-Poisson distribution as proposal matrix dramatically improves the computation performance. However, due to the correlation of subsequent samples, this method proves to be generally less robust and effective than the importance sampling method. (orig.)

  7. A grand-canonical ensemble of randomly triangulated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, J.; Krzywicki, A.; Petersson, B.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm is presented generating the grand-canonical ensemble of discrete, randomly triangulated Polyakov surfaces. The algorithm is used to calculate the susceptibility exponent, which controls the existence of the continuum limit of the considered model, for the dimensionality of the embedding space ranging from 0 to 20. (orig.)

  8. Canonical quantization of the Bateman-Morse-Feshbach damped oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideau, G.; Anderson, R.L.; Hebda, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Bateman-Morse-Feshbach classical formulation of the damped oscillator is canonically quantized. The spectrum of the Hamiltonian is given. It is shown that the wavefunctions behave asymptotically as a superposition of damped oscillators when their initial values belong to an appropriately-selected dense subset of the Hilbert space. (orig.)

  9. Catechistic Teaching, National Canons, and the Regimentation of Students' Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Sjaak

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on key incident analysis of classroom transcripts from Bashkortostan, France, North Korea, and Suriname, this article discusses the relationship between an increasingly canonical content of education and the discursive organization of teaching processes at the expense of both teachers' and students' voice. It argues that canonical…

  10. A geometric form of the canonical commutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guz, W.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of a geometric approach to quantum theory, in which the quantum-mechanical position and momentum operators are represented by covariant derivatives, are here developed. Here, the previously estabilished formalism of Caianiello and his co-workers is extended to the case of an integrable almost complex Hermitian manifold. The general theory is then applied to the two-dimensional case, where the structure of the 'quantum geometry' induced in the manifold by the quantum-mechanical CCR can be explicitly determined

  11. Canonical differential geometry of string backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    String backgrounds and D-branes do not possess the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, but that of manifolds with area metric. Area metric geometry is a true generalization of metric geometry, which in particular may accommodate a B-field. While an area metric does not determine a connection, we identify the appropriate differential geometric structure which is of relevance for the minimal surface equation in such a generalized geometry. In particular the notion of a derivative action of areas on areas emerges naturally. Area metric geometry provides new tools in differential geometry, which promise to play a role in the description of gravitational dynamics on D-branes

  12. 5'-Terminal AUGs in Escherichia coli mRNAs with Shine-Dalgarno Sequences: Identification and Analysis of Their Roles in Non-Canonical Translation Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather J Beck

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Escherichia coli transcriptome identified a unique subset of messenger RNAs (mRNAs that contain a conventional untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence upstream of the gene's start codon while also containing an AUG triplet at the mRNA's 5'- terminus (5'-uAUG. Fusion of the coding sequence specified by the 5'-terminal putative AUG start codon to a lacZ reporter gene, as well as primer extension inhibition assays, reveal that the majority of the 5'-terminal upstream open reading frames (5'-uORFs tested support some level of lacZ translation, indicating that these mRNAs can function both as leaderless and canonical SD-leadered mRNAs. Although some of the uORFs were expressed at low levels, others were expressed at levels close to that of the respective downstream genes and as high as the naturally leaderless cI mRNA of bacteriophage λ. These 5'-terminal uORFs potentially encode peptides of varying lengths, but their functions, if any, are unknown. In an effort to determine whether expression from the 5'-terminal uORFs impact expression of the immediately downstream cistron, we examined expression from the downstream coding sequence after mutations were introduced that inhibit efficient 5'-uORF translation. These mutations were found to affect expression from the downstream cistrons to varying degrees, suggesting that some 5'-uORFs may play roles in downstream regulation. Since the 5'-uAUGs found on these conventionally leadered mRNAs can function to bind ribosomes and initiate translation, this indicates that canonical mRNAs containing 5'-uAUGs should be examined for their potential to function also as leaderless mRNAs.

  13. Canonical simulations with worldlines: An exploratory study in ϕ24 lattice field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasch, Oliver; Gattringer, Christof

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the perspectives for canonical simulations in the worldline formulation of a lattice field theory. Using the charged ϕ4 field in two dimensions as an example, we present the details of the canonical formulation based on worldlines and outline the algorithmic strategies for canonical worldline simulations. We discuss the steps for converting the data from the canonical approach to the grand canonical picture which we use for cross-checking our results. The canonical approach presented here can easily be generalized to other lattice field theories with a worldline representation.

  14. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Canon digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arreola, M.; Rill, L.

    2004-01-01

    A Canon CXDI-11 digital radiography (DR) system has been in use at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida for the past 2 1/2 years. A first clinical implementation phase was utilized to develop imaging protocols for adult patients, with a second phase incorporating pediatric chest and abdominal studies a few months later. This paper describes some of the steps taken during the modality implementation stages, as well as the methodologies and procedures utilized to monitor compliance by the technologists. The Canon DR system provides the technologist with an indication of the radiation exposure received by the detector (and thus of the patient dose) by means of an indirect exposure level number called the reached exposure (REX) value. The REX value is calculated by the system based on the default grayscale curve preselected for a given anatomical view and used by the system to optimize the appearance of the image. The brightness and contrast of the image can be modified by the user at the QC/control screen for the purpose of improving the appearance of the image. Such changes modify the actual grayscale curve (position and slope, respectively) and thus the calculated REX value. Thus, undisciplined use of the brightness and contrast functions by the technologist can render the REX value meaningless as an exposure indicator. The paper also shows how it is possible to calibrate AEC (phototimer) systems for use with the Canon DR system, and utilize the REX value as a valuable dose indicator through proper training of technologists and strict, disciplined QC of studies. A team consisting of the site's medical physicist, radiologists, and technologists, as well as Canon engineers, can work together in properly calibrating and setting up the system for the purposes of monitoring patient doses (especially pediatric) in DR studies performed in a Canon DR system. (orig.)

  15. Using k-Mix-Neighborhood Subdigraphs to Compute Canonical Labelings of Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Hao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel theory and method to calculate the canonical labelings of digraphs whose definition is entirely different from the traditional definition of Nauty. It indicates the mutual relationships that exist between the canonical labeling of a digraph and the canonical labeling of its complement graph. It systematically examines the link between computing the canonical labeling of a digraph and the k-neighborhood and k-mix-neighborhood subdigraphs. To facilitate the presentation, it introduces several concepts including mix diffusion outdegree sequence and entire mix diffusion outdegree sequences. For each node in a digraph G, it assigns an attribute m_NearestNode to enhance the accuracy of calculating canonical labeling. The four theorems proved here demonstrate how to determine the first nodes added into M a x Q ( G . Further, the other two theorems stated below deal with identifying the second nodes added into M a x Q ( G . When computing C m a x ( G , if M a x Q ( G already contains the first i vertices u 1 , u 2 , ⋯ , u i , Diffusion Theorem provides a guideline on how to choose the subsequent node of M a x Q ( G . Besides, the Mix Diffusion Theorem shows that the selection of the ( i + 1 th vertex of M a x Q ( G for computing C m a x ( G is from the open mix-neighborhood subdigraph N + + ( Q of the nodes set Q = { u 1 , u 2 , ⋯ , u i } . It also offers two theorems to calculate the C m a x ( G of the disconnected digraphs. The four algorithms implemented in it illustrate how to calculate M a x Q ( G of a digraph. Through software testing, the correctness of our algorithms is preliminarily verified. Our method can be utilized to mine the frequent subdigraph. We also guess that if there exists a vertex v ∈ S + ( G satisfying conditions C m a x ( G − v ⩽ C m a x ( G − w for each w ∈ S + ( G ∧ w ≠ v , then u 1 = v for M a x Q ( G .

  16. A unique distortion in K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}: X-ray diffraction determination and electronic band structure analysis of its incommensurately modulated structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdon, O; Hanko, J; Boucher, F; Petricek, V; Whangbo, M H; Kanatzidis, M G; Evain, M

    2000-04-03

    The incommensurately modulated structure of a square Te-net, namely that of K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}, is determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data within a (3+1)D higher dimension formalism. The phase is shown to crystallize in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}({alpha}0{gamma}) superspace group with the following lattice parameters: a = 4.6441(10) {angstrom}, b = 4.6292(12) {angstrom}, c = 23.765(9) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 101.28(2){degree} with q = 0.3248(6)a* {minus}0.07(8)c*, that is, in a symmetry different from that reported for the average structure (tetragonal) or that assumed from electron diffraction measurements (orthorhombic). After the introduction of a crenel function for the Te displacive description, the refinement converged to a residual factor R = 0.033 for 2583 observed reflections and 115 parameters (R = 0.024 and 0.101 for 1925 main reflections and 658 first-order satellites, respectively). The [Ag{sub 2}-Te{sub 2}] and the Ba/K layers are found to be only weakly modulated. The modulation of the square Te-net is, however, both substantial and unique. Namely, it results in two different units: a V-shaped Te{sub 3} trimer and a W-shaped Te{sub 5} pentamer. To examine both unit types, which are segregated in domains that aperiodically alternate within the Te layers, first principles electronic band structure calculations were carried out for three model commensurate structures using the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbital method (LMTO). The calculations show that the distorted structures of V-pattern (model 2) and W-pattern (model 3) are more stable than the average structure (model 1) and that the V-pattern distortion provides a slightly larger stabilization than does the W-pattern distortion. The Fermi surface calculated for the average structure shows nesting vectors that are consistent with the occurrence of the V- and W-pattern distortions in the Te layers. However, these vectors do not predict the observed modulation

  17. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  18. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-01-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  19. Canonical and Non-Canonical NF-κB Signaling Promotes Breast Cancer Tumor-Initiating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendellen, Megan F.; Bradford, Jennifer W.; Lawrence, Cortney L.; Clark, Kelly S.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a sub-population of cells that exhibit a robust ability to self-renew and contribute to the formation of primary tumors, the relapse of previously treated tumors, and the development of metastases. TICs have been identified in various tumors, including those of the breast, and are particularly enriched in the basal-like and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer. The signaling pathways that contribute to the function and maintenance of TICs are under intense study. We explored the potential involvement of the NF-κB family of transcription factors in TICs in cell lines that are representative of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancer. NF-κB was found to be activated in breast cancer cells that form tumorspheres efficiently. Moreover, both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is required for these cells to self-renew in vitro and to form xenograft tumors efficiently in vivo using limiting dilutions of cells. Consistent with this, canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is activated in TICs isolated from breast cancer cell lines. Experimental results indicate that NF-κB promotes the function of TICs by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and by upregulating the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. The results suggest the use of NF-κB inhibitors for clinical therapy of certain breast cancers. PMID:23474754

  20. Canonical field quantization in an external time-dependent gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yn, S.B.; Tagirov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Green functions of the quantum scalar fiels interacting with gravitation of the homogeneous isotropic closed Universe are studied. They have been determined as an expectation value of the time-ordered product of two field operators in the cyclic states of various, in general, unitary-nonequivalent representations of canonical commutation relations. The reqularity properties of these functions are shown to be the same as of the Feynman propagator obtained for arbitrary Riemannian space-time only in the representations that from a class unitary equivalence

  1. Canonical generators of the cohomology of moduli of parabolic bundles on curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, I.; Raghavendra, N.

    1994-11-01

    We determine generators of the rational cohomology algebras of moduli spaces of parabolic vector bundles on a curve, under some 'primality' conditions on the parabolic datum. These generators are canonical in a precise sense. Our results are new even for usual vector bundles (i.e., vector bundles without parabolic structure) whose rank is greater than 2 and is coprime to the degree; in this case, they are generalizations of a theorem of Newstead on the moduli of vector bundles of rank 2 and odd degree. (author). 11 refs

  2. Novel criteria of uniqueness for signal reconstruction from phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach for ascertaining whether a signal is uniquely determined by its Fourier transform phase is proposed. It is shown that uniqueness corresponds to the nonsingularity of a matrix which can be formed from the finite-length real sequence. The criterion of uniqueness for reconstructing a

  3. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  4. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  5. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis Forecast of Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) temperature forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface temperature anomalies. The ECCA uses Canonical...

  6. Canonical sound speed profile and related ray acoustic parameters in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, B.P.; SuryaPrakash, S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, canonical parameters (i.e., B the stratification scale and epsilon the perturbation coefficient) in adiabatic ocean are obtained using SOFAR channel parameters (i.e., C sound velocity at the channel axis, Z sub(1...

  7. Probing the canonicity of the Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Franz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells. Using somatic genetics, we demonstrate that both Arm and Pan are absolutely required for mediating activation and repression of target genes. Furthermore, by means of STARR-sequencing we identified Wnt/Wg-responsive enhancer elements and found that all responsive enhancers depend on Pan. Together, our results confirm the dogma of canonical Wnt/Wg signaling and argue against the existence of distal pathway branches in this system.

  8. A canonical correlation neural network for multicollinearity and functional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Zhenkun; Fyfe, Colin

    2004-03-01

    We review a recent neural implementation of Canonical Correlation Analysis and show, using ideas suggested by Ridge Regression, how to make the algorithm robust. The network is shown to operate on data sets which exhibit multicollinearity. We develop a second model which not only performs as well on multicollinear data but also on general data sets. This model allows us to vary a single parameter so that the network is capable of performing Partial Least Squares regression (at one extreme) to Canonical Correlation Analysis (at the other)and every intermediate operation between the two. On multicollinear data, the parameter setting is shown to be important but on more general data no particular parameter setting is required. Finally, we develop a second penalty term which acts on such data as a smoother in that the resulting weight vectors are much smoother and more interpretable than the weights without the robustification term. We illustrate our algorithms on both artificial and real data.

  9. Canonical form of Euler-Lagrange equations and gauge symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyer, B [Naturwissenschaftlich-Theoretisches Zentrum und Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Gitman, D M [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tyutin, I V [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-06-13

    The structure of the Euler-Lagrange equations for a general Lagrangian theory (e.g. singular, with higher derivatives) is studied. For these equations we present a reduction procedure to the so-called canonical form. In the canonical form the equations are solved with respect to highest-order derivatives of nongauge coordinates, whereas gauge coordinates and their derivatives enter the right-hand sides of the equations as arbitrary functions of time. The reduction procedure reveals constraints in the Lagrangian formulation of singular systems and, in that respect, is similar to the Dirac procedure in the Hamiltonian formulation. Moreover, the reduction procedure allows one to reveal the gauge identities between the Euler-Lagrange equations. Thus, a constructive way of finding all the gauge generators within the Lagrangian formulation is presented. At the same time, it is proved that for local theories all the gauge generators are local in time operators.

  10. Application of Canonical Effective Methods to Background-Independent Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukcam, Umut

    Effective formalisms play an important role in analyzing phenomena above some given length scale when complete theories are not accessible. In diverse exotic but physically important cases, the usual path-integral techniques used in a standard Quantum Field Theory approach seldom serve as adequate tools. This thesis exposes a new effective method for quantum systems, called the Canonical Effective Method, which owns particularly wide applicability in backgroundindependent theories as in the case of gravitational phenomena. The central purpose of this work is to employ these techniques to obtain semi-classical dynamics from canonical quantum gravity theories. Application to non-associative quantum mechanics is developed and testable results are obtained. Types of non-associative algebras relevant for magnetic-monopole systems are discussed. Possible modifications of hypersurface deformation algebra and the emergence of effective space-times are presented. iii.

  11. Geometry of real and complex canonical transformations in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, A.

    1977-08-01

    Quantum mechanics of finitely many particles involves the group of linear (and affine) canonical transformations. A well-defined ray representation of this group acts in the space of states of any quantum-mechanical system with finitely many degrees of freedom and plays a central role in many different contexts. This representation appears quite naturally in quantum mechanics over phase space (Weyl-Wigner correspondence), that it becomes, when suitably written, just a matter of looking at one object from different symplectic reference frames. This is particularly interesting for complex canonical transformations which are represented by unbounded operators. The list of references gives an idea of the variety of motivations and points of view in the subject

  12. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Damiano [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain ''componential'' map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory. (orig.)

  13. Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the Lorentz covariance of algorithms is introduced. Under Lorentz transformation, both the form and performance of a Lorentz covariant algorithm are invariant. To acquire the advantages of symplectic algorithms and Lorentz covariance, a general procedure for constructing Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms (LCCSAs) is provided, based on which an explicit LCCSA for dynamics of relativistic charged particles is built. LCCSA possesses Lorentz invariance as well as long-term numerical accuracy and stability, due to the preservation of a discrete symplectic structure and the Lorentz symmetry of the system. For situations with time-dependent electromagnetic fields, which are difficult to handle in traditional construction procedures of symplectic algorithms, LCCSA provides a perfect explicit canonical symplectic solution by implementing the discretization in 4-spacetime. We also show that LCCSA has built-in energy-based adaptive time steps, which can optimize the computation performance when the Lorentz factor varies.

  14. A Top-Down Account of Linear Canonical Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Bernardo Wolf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We contend that what are called Linear Canonical Transforms (LCTs should be seen as a part of the theory of unitary irreducible representations of the '2+1' Lorentz group. The integral kernel representation found by Collins, Moshinsky and Quesne, and the radial and hyperbolic LCTs introduced thereafter, belong to the discrete and continuous representation series of the Lorentz group in its parabolic subgroup reduction. The reduction by the elliptic and hyperbolic subgroups can also be considered to yield LCTs that act on functions, discrete or continuous in other Hilbert spaces. We gather the summation and integration kernels reported by Basu and Wolf when studiying all discrete, continuous, and mixed representations of the linear group of 2×2 real matrices. We add some comments on why all should be considered canonical.

  15. Common activation of canonical Wnt signaling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pasca di Magliano

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is an extremely aggressive malignancy, which carries a dismal prognosis. Activating mutations of the Kras gene are common to the vast majority of human PDA. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic signaling pathway such as Hedgehog and Notch are inappropriately upregulated in this disease. The role of another embryonic signaling pathway, namely the canonical Wnt cascade, is still controversial. Here, we use gene array analysis as a platform to demonstrate general activation of the canonical arm of the Wnt pathway in human PDA. Furthermore, we provide evidence for Wnt activation in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Our results also indicate that Wnt signaling might be activated downstream of Hedgehog signaling, which is an early event in PDA evolution. Wnt inhibition blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis of cultured adenocarcinoma cells, thereby providing evidence to support the development of novel therapeutical strategies for Wnt inhibition in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  16. Canonical Drude Weight for Non-integrable Quantum Spin Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, Vieri; Porta, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    The Drude weight is a central quantity for the transport properties of quantum spin chains. The canonical definition of Drude weight is directly related to Kubo formula of conductivity. However, the difficulty in the evaluation of such expression has led to several alternative formulations, accessible to different methods. In particular, the Euclidean, or imaginary-time, Drude weight can be studied via rigorous renormalization group. As a result, in the past years several universality results have been proven for such quantity at zero temperature; remarkably, the proofs work for both integrable and non-integrable quantum spin chains. Here we establish the equivalence of Euclidean and canonical Drude weights at zero temperature. Our proof is based on rigorous renormalization group methods, Ward identities, and complex analytic ideas.

  17. Baryon number violation and novel canonical anti-commutation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca

    2018-02-01

    The possible neutron-antineutron oscillation is described by an effective quadratic Lagrangian analogous to the BCS theory. It is shown that the conventional equal-time anti-commutation relations of the neutron variable n (t , x →) are modified by the baryon number violating terms. This is established by the Bjorken-Johnson-Low prescription and also by the canonical quantization combined with equations of motion. This novel canonical behavior can give rise to an important physical effect, which is illustrated by analyzing the Lagrangian that violates the baryon number but gives rise to the degenerate effective Majorana fermions and thus no neutron-antineutron oscillation. Technically, this model is neatly treated using a relativistic analogue of the Bogoliubov transformation.

  18. Partitioned Alternating Least Squares Technique for Canonical Polyadic Tensor Decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Phan, A. H.; Cichocki, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 7 (2016), s. 993-997 ISSN 1070-9908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-13713S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : canonical polyadic decomposition * PARAFAC * tensor decomposition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.528, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/SI/tichavsky-0460710.pdf

  19. Null canonical formalism 1, Maxwell field. [Poisson brackets, boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodkiewicz, K [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to formulate the canonical formalism on null hypersurfaces for the Maxwell electrodynamics. The set of the Poisson brackets relations for null variables of the Maxwell field is obtained. The asymptotic properties of the theory are investigated. The Poisson bracket relations for the news-functions of the Maxwell field are computed. The Hamiltonian form of the asymptotic Maxwell equations in terms of these news-functions is obtained.

  20. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation Jingyi Zhang

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation. 575. For entropy, there is no corresponding thermodynamical quantity, without loss of generalization. Let us define an entropy operator. ˆS = −KB ln ˆρ. (11). Then, the mean value of entropy is. S ≡〈ˆS〉 = tr( ˆρ ˆS) = −KBtr( ˆρ ln ˆρ). (12). For ideal gases, let y = V , then the ...

  1. Completion is an Instance of Abstract Canonical System Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Burel , Guillaume; Kirchner , Claude

    2006-01-01

    http://www.springerlink.com/content/u222753gl333221p/; Abstract canonical systems and inference (ACSI) were introduced to formalize the intuitive notions of good proof and good inference appearing typically in first-order logic or in Knuth-Bendix like completion procedures. Since this abstract framework is intended to be generic, it is of fundamental interest to show its adequacy to represent the main systems of interest. This has been done for ground completion (where all equational axioms a...

  2. Canonical action-angle formalism for quantized nonlinear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbaczewki, P.

    1987-01-01

    The canonical quantizations of field and action-angle coordinates which (locally) parameterize the phase manifold for the same nonlinear field theory model (e.g. sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrodinger with the attractive coupling) are reconciled on the common for both cases state space. The classical-quantum relationship is maintained in the mean: coherent state expectation values of operators give rise to classical objects

  3. Canonical quantum theory of gravitational field with higher derivatives, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Kimura, Tadahiko

    1982-01-01

    The asymptotic fields in a canonically quantized graviational field with higher derivatives are analyzed. A possible mechanism of the recovery of the physical S-matrix unitarity is discussed. The constraint nabla sub(μ)(B sup(μν) + (Beta /α)g sup(μν)B) = 0 due to the Bianchi identity on R sub(μν) is treated by Dirac's method. (author)

  4. Canonical quantum theory of gravitational field with higher derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Kimura, Tadahiko; Kitago, Koichi.

    1981-01-01

    A renormalizable gravitational theory with higher derivatives is canonically quantized in the Landau gauge. Field equations and various equal-time commutation relations are explicitly given. The main results obtained in this work are 1) the equal-time commutation relations involving b sub(μ) exhibit the tensor-like behaviour and 2) the theory has the 16-dimensional Poincare-like superalgebra. These results are just the same as those discovered by Nakanishi in the Einstein case. (author)

  5. Bitcoin Market Volatility Analysis Using Grand Canonical Minority Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ortisi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to use the Grand Canonical Minority Game (GCMG, a highly simplified financial market model as a model of bitcoin market to show how the lack of an income for “miners”, similar to yield earned by bond holders, could be a structural reason for high volatility of bitcoin price in a reference currency. Coherently with present analysis, the introduction of future contracts on bitcoin would have the effect of reducing the overall market volatility.

  6. Canons, competencies and critique: delivering an undergraduate entrepreneurial marketing module

    OpenAIRE

    Ardley, Barry; Hardwick, Jialin

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the debate about the status of marketing degrees, graduate knowledge and competencies, this paper reflects on a set of pedagogic issues associated with the delivery of a final level entrepreneurial marketing module. Drawing on key literature, the module takes a set of entrepreneurial marketing canons as the basis of learning. Primary research was conducted into student perceptions of the module based on an interpretative methodology, using an open ended questionnaire. Studen...

  7. Optimization via separated representations and the canonical tensor decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Doostan, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    We introduce a new, quadratically convergent algorithm for finding maximum absolute value entries of tensors represented in the canonical format. The computational complexity of the algorithm is linear in the dimension of the tensor. We show how to use this algorithm to find global maxima of non-convex multivariate functions in separated form. We demonstrate the performance of the new algorithms on several examples.

  8. Lattice QCD at finite density via a new canonical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horvath, Ivan; Liu, K.-F.; Faber, Manfried

    2005-01-01

    We carry out a finite density calculation based on a canonical approach which is designed to address the overlap problem. Two degenerate flavor simulations are performed using Wilson gauge action and Wilson fermions on 4 4 lattices, at temperatures close to the critical temperature T c ≅170 MeV and large densities (5 to 20 times nuclear matter density). In this region, we find that the algorithm works well. We compare our results with those from other approaches

  9. Optimization via Separated Representations and the Canonical Tensor Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Matthew J; Beylkin, Gregory; Doostan, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new, quadratically convergent algorithm for finding maximum absolute value entries of tensors represented in the canonical format. The computational complexity of the algorithm is linear in the dimension of the tensor. We show how to use this algorithm to find global maxima of non-convex multivariate functions in separated form. We demonstrate the performance of the new algorithms on several examples.

  10. Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, R.; Pavlenko, Yu.G.

    1986-01-01

    Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory is developed. It is shown that the evolution of arbitrary dynamic value, conditioned by the interaction of particles, gravitation and electromagnetic fields, can be presented in the form of a series, each member of it corresponding to the contribution of certain spontaneous or induced process. The main concepts of the approach are presented in the approximation of a weak gravitational field

  11. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  12. Canonical quantization of so-called non-Lagrangian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Kupriyanov, V.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    We present an approach to the canonical quantization of systems with equations of motion that are historically called non-Lagrangian equations. Our viewpoint of this problem is the following: despite the fact that a set of differential equations cannot be directly identified with a set of Euler-Lagrange equations, one can reformulate such a set in an equivalent first-order form that can always be treated as the Euler-Lagrange equations of a certain action. We construct such an action explicitly. It turns out that in the general case the hamiltonization and canonical quantization of such an action are non-trivial problems, since the theory involves time-dependent constraints. We adopt the general approach of hamiltonization and canonical quantization for such theories as described in D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints (Springer, Berlin, 1990). to the case under consideration. There exists an ambiguity (that cannot be reduced to the addition of a total time derivative) in associating a Lagrange function with a given set of equations. We present a complete description of this ambiguity. The proposed scheme is applied to the quantization of a general quadratic theory. In addition, we consider the quantization of a damped oscillator and of a radiating point-like charge. (orig.)

  13. Canonical quantization of so-called non-Lagrangian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Kupriyanov, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach to the canonical quantization of systems with equations of motion that are historically called non-Lagrangian equations. Our viewpoint of this problem is the following: despite the fact that a set of differential equations cannot be directly identified with a set of Euler-Lagrange equations, one can reformulate such a set in an equivalent first-order form that can always be treated as the Euler-Lagrange equations of a certain action. We construct such an action explicitly. It turns out that in the general case the hamiltonization and canonical quantization of such an action are non-trivial problems, since the theory involves time-dependent constraints. We adopt the general approach of hamiltonization and canonical quantization for such theories as described in D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints (Springer, Berlin, 1990). to the case under consideration. There exists an ambiguity (that cannot be reduced to the addition of a total time derivative) in associating a Lagrange function with a given set of equations. We present a complete description of this ambiguity. The proposed scheme is applied to the quantization of a general quadratic theory. In addition, we consider the quantization of a damped oscillator and of a radiating point-like charge. (orig.)

  14. A Canonical Theory of Dynamic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, John; Cooper, Richard P.; Glasspool, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI, and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualization of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is articulated as a set of canonical functions that are sufficiently general to accommodate diverse viewpoints, yet sufficiently precise that they can be instantiated in different ways for specific theoretical or practical purposes. The canons cover the whole decision cycle, from the framing of a decision based on the goals, beliefs, and background knowledge of the decision-maker to the formulation of decision options, establishing preferences over them, and making commitments. Commitments can lead to the initiation of new decisions and any step in the cycle can incorporate reasoning about previous decisions and the rationales for them, and lead to revising or abandoning existing commitments. The theory situates decision-making with respect to other high-level cognitive capabilities like problem solving, planning, and collaborative decision-making. The canonical approach is assessed in three domains: cognitive and neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, and decision engineering. PMID:23565100

  15. Non-Canonical Cell Death Induced by p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Ranjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death is a vital biological process for multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis, which is regulated in a complex manner. Over the past several years, apart from apoptosis, which is the principal mechanism of caspase-dependent cell death, research on non-apoptotic forms of programmed cell death has gained momentum. p53 is a well characterized tumor suppressor that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis and has also been linked to non-apoptotic, non-canonical cell death mechanisms. p53 impacts these non-canonical forms of cell death through transcriptional regulation of its downstream targets, as well as direct interactions with key players involved in these mechanisms, in a cell type- or tissue context-dependent manner. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the involvement of p53 in several non-canonical modes of cell death, including caspase-independent apoptosis (CIA, ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, and pyroptosis, as well as its role in efferocytosis which is the process of clearing dead or dying cells.

  16. A canonical theory of dynamic decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eFox

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making behaviour is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualisation of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is articulated as a set of canonical functions that are sufficiently general to accommodate diverse viewpoints, yet sufficiently precise that they can be instantiated in different ways for specific theoretical or practical purposes. The canons cover the whole decision cycle, from the framing of a decision based on the goals, beliefs, and background knowledge of the decision maker to the formulation of decision options, establishing preferences over them, and making commitments. Commitments can lead to the initiation of new decisions and any step in the cycle can incorporate reasoning about previous decisions and the rationales for them, and lead to revising or abandoning existing commitments. The theory situates decision making with respect to other high-level cognitive capabilities like problem-solving, planning and collaborative decision-making. The canonical approach is assessed in three domains: cognitive and neuro-psychology, artificial intelligence, and decision engineering.

  17. Fast numerical algorithm for the linear canonical transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, Bryan M; Sheridan, John T

    2005-05-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) describes the effect of any quadratic phase system (QPS) on an input optical wave field. Special cases of the LCT include the fractional Fourier transform (FRT), the Fourier transform (FT), and the Fresnel transform (FST) describing free-space propagation. Currently there are numerous efficient algorithms used (for purposes of numerical simulation in the area of optical signal processing) to calculate the discrete FT, FRT, and FST. All of these algorithms are based on the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). In this paper we develop theory for the discrete linear canonical transform (DLCT), which is to the LCT what the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is to the FT. We then derive the fast linear canonical transform (FLCT), an N log N algorithm for its numerical implementation by an approach similar to that used in deriving the FFT from the DFT. Our algorithm is significantly different from the FFT, is based purely on the properties of the LCT, and can be used for FFT, FRT, and FST calculations and, in the most general case, for the rapid calculation of the effect of any QPS.

  18. On the Theotokia in the Canon for St. Wenceslas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Springfield Tomelleri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the first results from the investigation of the Church Slavonic canon composed for the Czech saint Wenceslas (Václav, Viacheslav and preserved in East Slavic manuscripts from the end of the 11th century. Particular attention has been given to the analysis of the Marian hymns (theotokia, whose Greek originals could be detected in all cases but one (the first ode. The Slavonic translation has been thoroughly compared with its Greek original and with other versions taken from different canons. Following the critical edition of each single Slavonic text, a synoptic interlinear version is provided, which allows the immediate identification of common readings, errors, and omissions. The theotokia contained in the canon for Wenceslas show interesting similarities with the textual tradition documented in the Oktoechos and the Common of Saints, the latter being usually associated with Clement of Ohrid; a possible explanation of this fact could be that these texts were not newly translated from Greek, but taken from already existing hymnographic sources. Undoubtedly, much deeper analysis is required in order to disentangle the textual history of these texts; the collected material aims to provide a good starting point for further investigations.

  19. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  20. Transforming Growth Factor β Activation Primes Canonical Wnt Signaling Through Down-Regulation of Axin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Justin; Ross, Rebecca L; Corinaldesi, Clarissa; Esteves, Filomena; Derrett-Smith, Emma; McDermott, Michael F; Doody, Gina M; Denton, Christopher P; Emery, Paul; Del Galdo, Francesco

    2018-02-06

    Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling has been observed in tissues from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study aimed to determine the role of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) in driving the increased Wnt signaling, through modulation of axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin-2), a critical regulator of the Wnt canonical pathway. Canonical Wnt signaling activation was analyzed by TOPflash T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor promoter assays. Axin-2 was evaluated in vitro by analysis of Axin-2 primary/mature transcript expression and decay, TGFβ receptor type I (TGFβRI) blockade, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of tristetraprolin 1, and XAV-939-mediated Axin-2 stabilization. In vivo, Axin-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was determined in skin and lung biopsy samples from mice that express a kinase-deficient TGFβRII specifically on fibroblasts (TβRIIΔk-fib-transgenic mice) and from littermate controls. SSc fibroblasts displayed an increased response to canonical Wnt ligands despite basal levels of Wnt signaling that were comparable to those in healthy control fibroblasts in vitro. Notably, we showed that SSc fibroblasts had reduced basal expression of Axin-2, which was caused by an endogenous TGFβ-dependent increase in Axin-2 mRNA decay. Accordingly, we observed that TGFβ decreased Axin-2 expression both in vitro in healthy control fibroblasts and in vivo in TβRIIΔk-fib-transgenic mice. Additionally, using Axin-2 gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrated that the TGFβ-induced increased response to Wnt activation characteristic of SSc fibroblasts depended on reduced bioavailability of Axin-2. This study highlights the importance of reduced bioavailability of Axin-2 in mediating the increased canonical Wnt response observed in SSc fibroblasts. This novel mechanism extends our understanding of the processes involved in Wnt/β-catenin-driven pathology and supports the rationale for targeting the TGFβ pathway

  1. Alteration of canonical and non-canonical WNT-signaling by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Timothy N.; Dentener, Mieke A.; Stassen, Frank R.; Rohde, Gernot G.; Mossman, Brooke T.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Reynaert, Niki L.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Pathway analysis reveals silica-induced WNT-signaling in lung epithelial cells. • Silica-induced canonical WNT-signaling is mediated by autocrine/paracrine signals. • Crystalline silica decreases non-canonical WNT

  2. Alteration of canonical and non-canonical WNT-signaling by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Timothy N.; Dentener, Mieke A. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, Maastricht University Maastricht (Netherlands); Stassen, Frank R. [Department of Medical Microbiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, Maastricht University Maastricht (Netherlands); Rohde, Gernot G. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, Maastricht University Maastricht (Netherlands); Mossman, Brooke T. [Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Wouters, Emiel F.M. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, Maastricht University Maastricht (Netherlands); Reynaert, Niki L., E-mail: n.reynaert@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre +, Maastricht University Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Pathway analysis reveals silica-induced WNT-signaling in lung epithelial cells. • Silica-induced canonical WNT-signaling is mediated by autocrine/paracrine signals. • Crystalline silica decreases non-canonical WNT

  3. The Proteoglycan Syndecan 4 Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 6 Channels via RhoA/ROCK Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Echtermeyer, Frank; Thilo, Florian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Syndecan 4 (Sdc4) modulates signal transduction and regulates activity of protein channels. Sdc4 is essential for the regulation of cellular permeability. We hypothesized that Sdc4 may regulate transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels, a determinant of glomerular perme...... permeability, in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sdc4 knockout (Sdc4(-/-)) mice showed increased glomerular filtration rate and ameliorated albuminuria under baseline conditions and after bovine serum albumin overload (each P...

  4. The Influence of Product Quality and Consumer Perception to Purchase Decision on Canon Dslr Camera in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Gunadi, Nikita Prisilia

    2015-01-01

    Marketing is very important to the success of the company, marketing is used by employers as a tool to influence consumers, especially in making a purchase of a product. Consumer purchasing decision is a very important activity for the company, as one goal obtaining profits to the company. This study aimed to determine the influence of product quality, and consumer perception to purchase decision on canon DSLR camera in Manado. Quality has a direct impact on the performance products and servi...

  5. The Resurrection of Jesus: do extra-canonical sources change the landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F P Viljoen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The resurrection of Jesus is assumed by the New Testament to be a historical event. Some scholars argue, however, that there was no empty tomb, but that the New Testament accounts are midrashic or mythological stories about Jesus.� In this article extra-canonical writings are investigated to find out what light it may throw on intra-canonical tradition. Many extra-canonical texts seemingly have no knowledge of the passion and resurrection, and such traditions may be earlier than the intra-canonical traditions. Was the resurrection a later invention?� Are intra-canonical texts developments of extra-canonical tradition, or vice versa?� This article demonstrates that extra-canonical texts do not materially alter the landscape of enquiry.

  6. Canonical partition functions: ideal quantum gases, interacting classical gases, and interacting quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In statistical mechanics, for a system with a fixed number of particles, e.g. a finite-size system, strictly speaking, the thermodynamic quantity needs to be calculated in the canonical ensemble. Nevertheless, the calculation of the canonical partition function is difficult. In this paper, based on the mathematical theory of the symmetric function, we suggest a method for the calculation of the canonical partition function of ideal quantum gases, including ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases. Moreover, we express the canonical partition functions of interacting classical and quantum gases given by the classical and quantum cluster expansion methods in terms of the Bell polynomial in mathematics. The virial coefficients of ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases are calculated from the exact canonical partition function. The virial coefficients of interacting classical and quantum gases are calculated from the canonical partition function by using the expansion of the Bell polynomial, rather than calculated from the grand canonical potential.

  7. The issue of gauge choice in the Landau problem and the physics of canonical and mechanical orbital angular momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Kitadono, Y.; Zhang, P.-M.

    2018-05-01

    One intriguing issue in the nucleon spin decomposition problem is the existence of two types of decompositions, which are representably characterized by two different orbital angular momenta (OAMs) of quarks. The one is the mechanical OAM, while the other is the so-called gauge-invariant canonical (g.i.c.) OAM, the concept of which was introduced by Chen et al. An especially delicate quantity is the g.i.c. OAM, which must be distinguished from the ordinary (gauge-variant) canonical OAM. We find that, owing to its analytically solvable nature, the famous Landau problem offers an ideal tool to understand the difference and the physical meaning of the above three OAMs, i.e. the standard canonical OAM, g.i.c. OAM, and the mechanical OAM. We analyze these three OAMs in two different formulations of the Landau problem, first in the standard (gauge-fixed) formulation and second in the gauge-invariant (but path-dependent) formulation of DeWitt. Especially interesting is the latter formalism. It is shown that the choice of path has an intimate connection with the choice of gauge, but they are not necessarily equivalent. Then, we answer the question about what is the consequence of a particular choice of path in DeWitt's formalism. This analysis also clarifies the implication of the gauge symmetry hidden in the concept of g.i.c. OAM. Finally, we show that the finding above offers a clear understanding about the uniqueness or non-uniqueness problem of the nucleon spin decomposition, which arises from the arbitrariness in the definition of the so-called physical component of the gauge field.

  8. Identification of canonical neural events during continuous gameplay of an 8-bit style video game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Castellanos, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive neuroscience suffers from a unique and pervasive problem of generalizability. Since neural findings are often interpreted in the context of a specific manipulation during a carefully controlled task, it is hard to transfer knowledge from one task to another. In this report we address problems of generalizability with two methodological advancements. First, we aimed to transcend status quo experimental procedures with a continuous, engaging task environment. To this end, we created a novel 8-bit style continuous space shooter video game that elicits a multitude of goal-oriented events, such as crashing into a wall or blowing up an enemy with a missile. Second, we aimed to objectively define the psychological significance of these events. To achieve this aim, we used pattern classification of EEG data to derive predictive weights from carefully controlled pre-game exemplar events (oddball target detection and gambling wins and losses) and transferred those weights to EEG activities during video game events. All major goal-oriented events (crashes into the wall, crashes into an enemy, missile hit on an enemy) had a significant between-task transfer bias towards oddball target weights in the time range of the canonical P3, indicating the presence of similar salience detection processes. Missile hits on an enemy were specifically identified as gambling wins, confirming the hypothesis that this goal-oriented event was appetitive. These findings suggest that it is possible to identify the contribution of canonical neural activities during otherwise ambiguous and uncontrolled task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  10. The roles of the RIIβ linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain in determining the unique structures of the type IIβ protein kinase A: a small angle x-ray and neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Donald K; Copps, Jeffrey; Smith-Nguyen, Eric V; Zhang, Ping; Heller, William T; Taylor, Susan S

    2014-10-10

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is ubiquitously expressed and is responsible for regulating many important cellular functions in response to changes in intracellular cAMP concentrations. The PKA holoenzyme is a tetramer (R2:C2), with a regulatory subunit homodimer (R2) that binds and inhibits two catalytic (C) subunits; binding of cAMP to the regulatory subunit homodimer causes activation of the catalytic subunits. Four different R subunit isoforms exist in mammalian cells, and these confer different structural features, subcellular localization, and biochemical properties upon the PKA holoenzymes they form. The holoenzyme containing RIIβ is structurally unique in that the type IIβ holoenzyme is much more compact than the free RIIβ homodimer. We have used small angle x-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering to study the solution structure and subunit organization of a holoenzyme containing an RIIβ C-terminal deletion mutant (RIIβ(1-280)), which is missing the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain to better understand the structural organization of the type IIβ holoenzyme and the RIIβ domains that contribute to stabilizing the holoenzyme conformation. Our results demonstrate that compaction of the type IIβ holoenzyme does not require the C-terminal cAMP-binding domain but rather involves large structural rearrangements within the linker and N-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of the RIIβ homodimer. The structural rearrangements are significantly greater than seen previously with RIIα and are likely to be important in mediating short range and long range interdomain and intersubunit interactions that uniquely regulate the activity of the type IIβ isoform of PKA. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The canon of pure reason: Kant on the non-dependent establishment of the practical use and the unity of reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p137This paper systematically discusses Kant´s argumentation in the Canon of the Critique of pure reason on the matter of the establishment of the practical use and its outcomes for the problem of the unity of reason. Bearing in mind that there is much disagreement in the literature, not only as to the specificity and function of the chapter of the Canon wi thin the various moments of Kant´s philosophy, but also as to its critical importance, the approach centers essentially on Kant´s own argumentation. The aim of this paper is to show that the Canon anticipates an important thesis of the Critique of Practical Reason, i.e., the self-sufficient legitimation of the practical use of reason in relation to its theoretical use, Moreover, is demonstrated that there are important systenatic differences between Kant´s argumentation in the Canon and in the second Critique, which lead to the uniqueness of the treatment of the problem of the unity of reason in the former text. The first part of the paper briefly presents Kant´s position in the pre-critical period on the legitimation of the practical use of reason. Thereafter, it is sustained that Kant´s search in the Canon for a "source of positive cognition" is particularly connected with his critical thesis of a self-sufficient establishment in the Canon. It is argued that, notwithstanding the anticipation of the refered critical thesis, the establishment of the practical use of reason in the Canon requires a theological consideration of morality. The third part of the paper deals with the problem of the unity of theorical and practical uses of reason in position on the establishment of the practical use reason. I come to the conclusion that the Canon guaranteed by means of a transition from the practical to the theoretical use of reason.

  12. Towards Precision Engineering of Canonical Polyketide Synthase Domains: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Bayly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Modular polyketide synthases (mPKSs build functionalized polymeric chains, some of which have become blockbuster therapeutics. Organized into repeating clusters (modules of independently-folding domains, these assembly-line-like megasynthases can be engineered by introducing non-native components. However, poor introduction points and incompatible domain combinations can cause both unintended products and dramatically reduced activity. This limits the engineering and combinatorial potential of mPKSs, precluding access to further potential therapeutics. Different regions on a given mPKS domain determine how it interacts both with its substrate and with other domains. Within the assembly line, these interactions are crucial to the proper ordering of reactions and efficient polyketide construction. Achieving control over these domain functions, through precision engineering at key regions, would greatly expand our catalogue of accessible polyketide products. Canonical mPKS domains, given that they are among the most well-characterized, are excellent candidates for such fine-tuning. The current minireview summarizes recent advances in the mechanistic understanding and subsequent precision engineering of canonical mPKS domains, focusing largely on developments in the past year.

  13. Canonical quantization of spinning relativistic particle in external backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2000-07-01

    Full text follows: We revise the problem of the quantization of spinning relativistic particle pseudoclassical model, using a modified consistent canonical scheme. It allows one not only to include arbitrary electromagnetic and gravitational backgrounds in the consideration but to get in course of the quantization a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics, which reproduces literally the behavior of the one-particle sector of quantized spinor field. In particular, in a physical sector of the Hilbert space a complete positive spectrum of energies of relativistic particles and antiparticles is reproduced. Requirement to maintain all classical symmetries under the coordinate transformations and under U(1) transformations allows one to realize operator algebra without any ambiguities. (author)

  14. El canon literario mexicano en Los detectives salvajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se examina el canon personal de Bolaño en Los detectives salvajes acerca de la literatura mexicana, a partir de la intertextualidad entendida como un rasgo característico de la narrativa postmoderna del autor. Para ello se han tenido en cuenta tanto las citas explícitas que aparecen en la novela como algunas citas implícitas fundamentales. A través del análisis de las mismas se pretende demostrar que para entender el alcance de esta obra es preciso enfrentarse a su escritura en palimpsesto.

  15. El canon literario mexicano en "Los detectives salvajes"

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Valcárcel, Carmen de

    2015-01-01

    En el presente artículo se examina el canon personal de Bolaño en Los detectives salvajes acerca de la literatura mexicana, a partir de la intertextualidad entendida como un rasgo característico de la narrativa postmoderna del autor. Para ello se han tenido en cuenta tanto las citas explícitas que aparecen en la novela como algunas citas implícitas fundamentales. A través del análisis de las mismas se pretende demostrar que para entender el alcance de esta obra es preciso enfrentarse a su esc...

  16. Discrete linear canonical transforms based on dilated Hermite functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Lai, Yun-Chiu

    2011-08-01

    Linear canonical transform (LCT) is very useful and powerful in signal processing and optics. In this paper, discrete LCT (DLCT) is proposed to approximate LCT by utilizing the discrete dilated Hermite functions. The Wigner distribution function is also used to investigate DLCT performances in the time-frequency domain. Compared with the existing digital computation of LCT, our proposed DLCT possess additivity and reversibility properties with no oversampling involved. In addition, the length of input/output signals will not be changed before and after the DLCT transformations, which is consistent with the time-frequency area-preserving nature of LCT; meanwhile, the proposed DLCT has very good approximation of continuous LCT.

  17. Distribution for fermionic discrete lattice gas within the canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, R.; Barszczak, T.

    1991-01-01

    The distinct deviations from the Fermi-Dirac statistics ascertained recently at low temperatures for a one-dimensional, spinless fermionic discrete lattice gas with conserved number of noninteracting particles hopping on the nondegenerated, well-separated single-particle energy levels are studied in numerical and theoretical terms. The generalized distribution is derived in the form n(h) = {Y h exp[(var-epsilon h -μ)β]+1} -1 valid even in the thermodynamic limit, when the discreteness of the energy levels is kept. This distribution demonstrates good agreement with the data obtained numerically both by the canonical partition-function technique and by Monte Carlo simulation

  18. Canonical quantization of general relativity in discrete space-times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2003-01-17

    It has long been recognized that lattice gauge theory formulations, when applied to general relativity, conflict with the invariance of the theory under diffeomorphisms. We analyze discrete lattice general relativity and develop a canonical formalism that allows one to treat constrained theories in Lorentzian signature space-times. The presence of the lattice introduces a "dynamical gauge" fixing that makes the quantization of the theories conceptually clear, albeit computationally involved. The problem of a consistent algebra of constraints is automatically solved in our approach. The approach works successfully in other field theories as well, including topological theories. A simple cosmological application exhibits quantum elimination of the singularity at the big bang.

  19. A multimodal stress monitoring system with canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsoo Ha; Changhyeon Kim; Yongsu Lee; Hyunki Kim; Taehwan Roh; Hoi-Jun Yoo

    2015-08-01

    The multimodal stress monitoring headband is proposed for mobile stress management system. It is composed of headband and earplugs. Electroencephalography (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG) and heart-rate variability (HRV) can be achieved simultaneously in the proposed system for user status estimation. With canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and temporal-kernel CCA (tkCCA) algorithm, those different signals can be combined for maximum correlation. Thanks to the proposed combination algorithm, the accuracy of the proposed system increased up to 19 percentage points than unimodal monitoring system in n-back task.

  20. Discrete linear canonical transform computation by adaptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

    2013-07-29

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) describes the effect of quadratic phase systems on a wavefield and generalizes many optical transforms. In this paper, the computation method for the discrete LCT using the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is presented. The computation approaches of the block-based discrete LCT and the stream-based discrete LCT using the LMS algorithm are derived, and the implementation structures of these approaches by the adaptive filter system are considered. The proposed computation approaches have the inherent parallel structures which make them suitable for efficient VLSI implementations, and are robust to the propagation of possible errors in the computation process.

  1. Canonical harmonic tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvardakov, V.; Levichev, E.

    2006-01-01

    Harmonic tracking is a method used to study non-linear particle dynamics in a circular accelerator. The tracking algorithm is based on numerical solution of the Hamilton equations of motion. An essential feature of the method is the approximation of Hamiltonian perturbation terms by a finite number of azimuthal harmonics, which provides an effective tool for optimization of non-linear particle motion. The equations of motion are solved canonically, with the first-order prediction made using the explicit Lie transformation. The major features of harmonic tracking are presented and examples of its application are discussed

  2. Canonical harmonic tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvardakov, V.; Levichev, E.

    2006-03-01

    Harmonic tracking is a method used to study non-linear particle dynamics in a circular accelerator. The tracking algorithm is based on numerical solution of the Hamilton equations of motion. An essential feature of the method is the approximation of Hamiltonian perturbation terms by a finite number of azimuthal harmonics, which provides an effective tool for optimization of non-linear particle motion. The equations of motion are solved canonically, with the first-order prediction made using the explicit Lie transformation. The major features of harmonic tracking are presented and examples of its application are discussed.

  3. Optimization algorithm based on densification and dynamic canonical descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousson, K.; Correia, S. D.

    2006-07-01

    Stochastic methods have gained some popularity in global optimization in that most of them do not assume the cost functions to be differentiable. They have capabilities to avoid being trapped by local optima, and may converge even faster than gradient-based optimization methods on some problems. The present paper proposes an optimization method, which reduces the search space by means of densification curves, coupled with the dynamic canonical descent algorithm. The performances of the new method are shown on several known problems classically used for testing optimization algorithms, and proved to outperform competitive algorithms such as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms.

  4. Currents, charges, and canonical structure of pseudodual chiral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the pseudodual chiral model to illustrate a class of two-dimensional theories which have an infinite number of conservation laws but allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations. We describe the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the usual chiral model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model, and we discuss the complete local current algebra for the pseudodual theory. We also exhibit the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual, further distinguishing the pseudodual theory

  5. Canonical Transform Method for Treating Strongly Anisotropy Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, J. F.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    An infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of magnetism in magnets with strong single-ion anisotropy is given. This approach is based on a canonical transformation of the system into one with a diagonal crystal field, an effective two-ion anisotropy, and reduced ground-state corrections....... A matrix-element matching procedure is used to obtain an explicit expression for the spin-wave energy to second order. The consequences of this theory are illustrated by an application to a simple example with planar anisotropy and an external magnetic field. A detailed comparison between the results...

  6. Origins and canons: medicine and the history of sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Fran

    2010-01-01

    Differing accounts are conventionally given of the origins of medical sociology and its parent discipline sociology. These distinct "histories" are justified on the basis that the sociological founders were uninterested in medicine, mortality and disease. This article challenges these "constructions" of the past, proposing the theorization of health not as a "late development of sociology" but an integral part of its formation. Drawing on a selection of key sociological texts, it is argued that evidence of the founders' sustained interest in the infirmities of the individual, of mortality, and in medicine, have been expunged from the historical record through processes of "canonization" and "medicalization."

  7. Critical point of Nf=3 QCD from lattice simulations in the canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Anyi; Alexandru, Andrei; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2011-01-01

    A canonical ensemble algorithm is employed to study the phase diagram of N f =3 QCD using lattice simulations. We lock in the desired quark number sector using an exact Fourier transform of the fermion determinant. We scan the phase space below T c and look for an S-shape structure in the chemical potential, which signals the coexistence phase of a first order phase transition in finite volume. Applying Maxwell construction, we determine the boundaries of the coexistence phase at three temperatures and extrapolate them to locate the critical point. Using an improved gauge action and improved Wilson fermions on lattices with a spatial extent of 1.8 fm and quark masses close to that of the strange, we find the critical point at T E =0.925(5)T c and baryon chemical potential μ B E =2.60(8)T c .

  8. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such

  9. Geometric integrator for simulations in the canonical ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510 (Mexico); Sanders, David P., E-mail: dpsanders@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510 (Mexico); Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-08-28

    We introduce a geometric integrator for molecular dynamics simulations of physical systems in the canonical ensemble that preserves the invariant distribution in equations arising from the density dynamics algorithm, with any possible type of thermostat. Our integrator thus constitutes a unified framework that allows the study and comparison of different thermostats and of their influence on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium (thermo-)dynamic properties of a system. To show the validity and the generality of the integrator, we implement it with a second-order, time-reversible method and apply it to the simulation of a Lennard-Jones system with three different thermostats, obtaining good conservation of the geometrical properties and recovering the expected thermodynamic results. Moreover, to show the advantage of our geometric integrator over a non-geometric one, we compare the results with those obtained by using the non-geometric Gear integrator, which is frequently used to perform simulations in the canonical ensemble. The non-geometric integrator induces a drift in the invariant quantity, while our integrator has no such drift, thus ensuring that the system is effectively sampling the correct ensemble.

  10. Lie algebras under constraints and nonbijective canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Winternitz, P.

    1987-10-01

    The concept of a Lie algebra under constraints is developed in connection with the theory of nonbijective canonical transformations. A finite dimensional vector space M, carrying a faithful linear representation of a Lie algebra L, is mapped into a lower dimensional space antiM in such a maner that a subalgebra L 0 of L is mapped into D(L 0 ) = 0. The Lie algebra L under the constraint D(L 0 ) = 0 is the largest subalgebra L 1 of L that can be represented faithfully on antiM. If L 0 is semi-simple, then L 1 is shown to be the centraliser cent L L 0 . If L is semi-simple and L 0 is an one-dimensional diagonal subalgebra of a Cartan subalgebra of L, then L 1 is shown to be the factor algebra cent L L 0 /L 0 . The latter two results are applied to nonbijective canonical transformations generalizing the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation

  11. Geometric integrator for simulations in the canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapias, Diego; Sanders, David P.; Bravetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a geometric integrator for molecular dynamics simulations of physical systems in the canonical ensemble that preserves the invariant distribution in equations arising from the density dynamics algorithm, with any possible type of thermostat. Our integrator thus constitutes a unified framework that allows the study and comparison of different thermostats and of their influence on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium (thermo-)dynamic properties of a system. To show the validity and the generality of the integrator, we implement it with a second-order, time-reversible method and apply it to the simulation of a Lennard-Jones system with three different thermostats, obtaining good conservation of the geometrical properties and recovering the expected thermodynamic results. Moreover, to show the advantage of our geometric integrator over a non-geometric one, we compare the results with those obtained by using the non-geometric Gear integrator, which is frequently used to perform simulations in the canonical ensemble. The non-geometric integrator induces a drift in the invariant quantity, while our integrator has no such drift, thus ensuring that the system is effectively sampling the correct ensemble.

  12. Nonbijective canonical transformations and applications to some dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negadi, T.

    1988-01-01

    A first part is devoted to a presentation of a simplified formalism concerning non-bijective canonical transformations and to an interpretation of some of them in the framework on the theory of Lie algebras. In particular, the well-known Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformations are generalized to the non-compact case and to the dimensions 2, 4 and 8. The differential and geometrical properties of the so-called Hurwitz transformations as well as their interpretation in terms of Lie algebras under constraints are given. A second part is concerned with the application of certain non-bijective canonical transformations (and in particular the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation) to some dynamical systems of interest in theoretical and in chemical physics. The applications concern especially hydrogenoid systems, free or embedded in static and uniform electromagnetic fields, and systems presenting a line of singularity (as the Hartmann system, the Aharonov-Bohm system, and the dyonium system). The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation allows to convert the Schroedinger equations for the later systems into Schroedinger equations for oscillators (harmonic, anharmonic, non-harmonic) in 2 or 4 dimensions [fr

  13. Multivariable extrapolation of grand canonical free energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A.; Errington, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2017-12-01

    We derive an approach for extrapolating the free energy landscape of multicomponent systems in the grand canonical ensemble, obtained from flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations, from one set of temperature and chemical potentials to another. This is accomplished by expanding the landscape in a Taylor series at each value of the order parameter which defines its macrostate phase space. The coefficients in each Taylor polynomial are known exactly from fluctuation formulas, which may be computed by measuring the appropriate moments of extensive variables that fluctuate in this ensemble. Here we derive the expressions necessary to define these coefficients up to arbitrary order. In principle, this enables a single flat-histogram simulation to provide complete thermodynamic information over a broad range of temperatures and chemical potentials. Using this, we also show how to combine a small number of simulations, each performed at different conditions, in a thermodynamically consistent fashion to accurately compute properties at arbitrary temperatures and chemical potentials. This method may significantly increase the computational efficiency of biased grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, especially for multicomponent mixtures. Although approximate, this approach is amenable to high-throughput and data-intensive investigations where it is preferable to have a large quantity of reasonably accurate simulation data, rather than a smaller amount with a higher accuracy.

  14. The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictacted in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMDs and GPDs). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive three similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum.

  15. The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorce, C.

    2016-01-01

    The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictated in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMD and GPD). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive 3 similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum. (author)

  16. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. A Synthetic Alternative to Canonical One-Carbon Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzon, Madeleine; Perret, Alain; Loreau, Olivier; Delmas, Valérie; Perchat, Nadia; Weissenbach, Jean; Taran, Frédéric; Marlière, Philippe

    2017-08-18

    One-carbon metabolism is an ubiquitous metabolic pathway that encompasses the reactions transferring formyl-, hydroxymethyl- and methyl-groups bound to tetrahydrofolate for the synthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate, methionine and dehydropantoate, the precursor of coenzyme A. An alternative cyclic pathway was designed that substitutes 4-hydroxy-2-oxobutanoic acid (HOB), a compound absent from known metabolism, for the amino acids serine and glycine as one-carbon donors. It involves two novel reactions, the transamination of l-homoserine and the transfer of a one-carbon unit from HOB to tetrahydrofolate releasing pyruvate as coproduct. Since canonical reactions regenerate l-homoserine from pyruvate by carboxylation and subsequent reduction, every one-carbon moiety made available for anabolic reactions originates from CO 2 . The HOB-dependent pathway was established in an Escherichia coli auxotroph selected for prototrophy using long-term cultivation protocols. Genetic, metabolic and biochemical evidence support the emergence of a functional HOB-dependent one-carbon pathway achieved with the recruitment of the two enzymes l-homoserine transaminase and HOB-hydroxymethyltransferase and of HOB as an essential metabolic intermediate. Escherichia coli biochemical reprogramming was achieved by minimally altering canonical metabolism and leveraging on natural selection mechanisms, thereby launching the resulting strain on an evolutionary trajectory diverging from all known extant species.

  18. Unique variability of tocopherol composition in various seed oils recovered from by-products of apple industry: rapid and simple determination of all four homologues (α, β, γ and δ) by RP-HPLC/FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł

    2015-04-01

    The tocochromanol profile was studied in seed oils recovered from by-products of fruit industry, five dessert and seven crab apple varieties grown in Eastern Europe (Latvia). The seed oils obtained from dessert apples were characterized by higher contents of tocopherols (191.05-379.08 mg/100g oil) when compared to seed oils recovered from crab apples (130.55-202.54 mg/100g oil). The predominant homologues of tocopherol in all the studied samples were α and β over γ and δ. However, seed oils recovered from the apple cultivars 'Antej' and 'Beforest' had a unique profile of four tocopherol homologues (α:β:γ:δ) 91.41:80.55:72.46:79.03 and 114.55:112.84:78.69:73.00 mg/100g oil, respectively. A single dilution of seed oils in 2-propanol facilitated the direct use samples in the DPPH assay as well as injection into the RP-HPLC system containing a PFP (pentafluorophenyl) column, which resulted in a rapid separation of all four tocopherol homologues with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  20. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  1. Existence, uniqueness and cohomology of the classical BRST charge with ghosts of ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, J.; Stasheff, J.

    1989-01-01

    A complete canonical formulation of the BRST theory of systems with redundant gauge symmetries is presented. These systems include p-form gauge fields, the superparticle, and the superstring. We first define the Koszul-Tate differential and explicitly show how the introduction of the momenta conjugate to the ghosts of ghosts makes it acyclic. The global existence of the BRST generator is then demonstrated, and the BRST charge is proved to be unique up to canonical transformations in the extended phase space, which includes the ghosts. Finally, the BRST cohomology in classical mechanics is investigated and shown to be equal to the cohomology of the exterior derivative along the gauge orbits, as in the irreducible case. This is done by re-expressing the exterior algebra along the gauge orbits as a free differential algebra containing generators of higher degree, which are identified with the ghosts of ghosts. The quantum cohomology is not dealt with. (orig.)

  2. Study on linear canonical transformation in a framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R.; Rakotoson, H.; Solofoarisina, W.C.

    2015-04-01

    We present a study on linear canonical transformation in the framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced in our previous work. We begin with a brief recall about the so called phase space representation. We give the definition of linear canonical transformation with the transformation law of coordinate and momentum operators. We establish successively the transformation laws of mean values, dispersions, basis state and wave functions.Then we introduce the concept of isodispersion linear canonical transformation.

  3. Canonical and Non-Canonical Aspects of JAK-STAT Signaling: Lessons from Interferons for Cytokine Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoros, Andrea; Platanitis, Ekaterini; Kernbauer-Hölzl, Elisabeth; Rosebrock, Felix; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signal transduction mediates cytokine responses. Canonical signaling is based on STAT tyrosine phosphorylation by activated JAKs. Downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors, activated JAKs cause the formation of the transcription factors IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), a heterotrimer of STAT1, STAT2 and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits, and gamma interferon-activated factor (GAF), a STAT1 homodimer. In recent years, several deviations from this paradigm were reported. These include kinase-independent JAK functions as well as extra- and intranuclear activities of U-STATs without phosphotyrosines. Additionally, transcriptional control by STAT complexes resembling neither GAF nor ISGF3 contributes to transcriptome changes in IFN-treated cells. Our review summarizes the contribution of non-canonical JAK-STAT signaling to the innate antimicrobial immunity imparted by IFN. Moreover, we touch upon functions of IFN pathway proteins beyond the IFN response. These include metabolic functions of IRF9 as well as the regulation of natural killer cell activity by kinase-dead TYK2 and different phosphorylation isoforms of STAT1.

  4. Canonical and Non-Canonical Aspects of JAK–STAT Signaling: Lessons from Interferons for Cytokine Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoros, Andrea; Platanitis, Ekaterini; Kernbauer-Hölzl, Elisabeth; Rosebrock, Felix; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signal transduction mediates cytokine responses. Canonical signaling is based on STAT tyrosine phosphorylation by activated JAKs. Downstream of interferon (IFN) receptors, activated JAKs cause the formation of the transcription factors IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), a heterotrimer of STAT1, STAT2 and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits, and gamma interferon-activated factor (GAF), a STAT1 homodimer. In recent years, several deviations from this paradigm were reported. These include kinase-independent JAK functions as well as extra- and intranuclear activities of U-STATs without phosphotyrosines. Additionally, transcriptional control by STAT complexes resembling neither GAF nor ISGF3 contributes to transcriptome changes in IFN-treated cells. Our review summarizes the contribution of non-canonical JAK–STAT signaling to the innate antimicrobial immunity imparted by IFN. Moreover, we touch upon functions of IFN pathway proteins beyond the IFN response. These include metabolic functions of IRF9 as well as the regulation of natural killer cell activity by kinase-dead TYK2 and different phosphorylation isoforms of STAT1. PMID:28184222

  5. Wnt3a regulates proliferation and migration of HUVEC via canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarzija, Ivana; Sini, Patrizia; Schlange, Thomas; MacDonald, Gwen; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    Untangling the signaling pathways involved in endothelial cell biology is of central interest for the development of antiangiogenesis based therapies. Here we report that Wnt3a induces the proliferation and migration of HUVECs, but does not affect their survival. Wnt3a-induced proliferation was VEGFR signaling independent, but reduced upon CamKII inhibition. In a search for the downstream mediators of Wnt3a's effects on HUVEC biology, we found that Wnt3a treatment leads to phosphorylation of DVL3 and stabilization of β-catenin. Moreover, under the same conditions we observed an upregulation in c-MYC, TIE-2 and GJA1 mRNA transcripts. Although treatment of HUVECs with Wnt5a induced DVL3 phosphorylation, we did not observe any of the other effects seen upon Wnt3a stimulation. Taken together, our data indicate that Wnt3a induces canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in HUVECs, and stimulates their proliferation and migration.

  6. Canonic FFT flow graphs for real-valued even/odd symmetric inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yingjie; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2017-12-01

    Canonic real-valued fast Fourier transform (RFFT) has been proposed to reduce the arithmetic complexity by eliminating redundancies. In a canonic N-point RFFT, the number of signal values at each stage is canonic with respect to the number of signal values, i.e., N. The major advantage of the canonic RFFTs is that these require the least number of butterfly operations and only real datapaths when mapped to architectures. In this paper, we consider the FFT computation whose inputs are not only real but also even/odd symmetric, which indeed lead to the well-known discrete cosine and sine transforms (DCTs and DSTs). Novel algorithms for generating the flow graphs of canonic RFFTs with even/odd symmetric inputs are proposed. It is shown that the proposed algorithms lead to canonic structures with N/2 +1 signal values at each stage for an N-point real even symmetric FFT (REFFT) or N/2 -1 signal values at each stage for an N-point RFFT real odd symmetric FFT (ROFFT). In order to remove butterfly operations, several twiddle factor transformations are proposed in this paper. We also discuss the design of canonic REFFT for any composite length. Performances of the canonic REFFT/ROFFT are also discussed. It is shown that the flow graph of canonic REFFT/ROFFT has less number of interconnections, less butterfly operations, and less twiddle factor operations, compared to prior works.

  7. RNAHelix: computational modeling of nucleic acid structures with Watson-Crick and non-canonical base pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Halder, Sukanya; Basu, Sankar; Mukherjee, Debasish; Kumar, Prasun; Bansal, Manju

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive analyses of structural features of non-canonical base pairs within a nucleic acid double helix are limited by the availability of a small number of three dimensional structures. Therefore, a procedure for model building of double helices containing any given nucleotide sequence and base pairing information, either canonical or non-canonical, is seriously needed. Here we describe a program RNAHelix, which is an updated version of our widely used software, NUCGEN. The program can regenerate duplexes using the dinucleotide step and base pair orientation parameters for a given double helical DNA or RNA sequence with defined Watson-Crick or non-Watson-Crick base pairs. The original structure and the corresponding regenerated structure of double helices were found to be very close, as indicated by the small RMSD values between positions of the corresponding atoms. Structures of several usual and unusual double helices have been regenerated and compared with their original structures in terms of base pair RMSD, torsion angles and electrostatic potentials and very high agreements have been noted. RNAHelix can also be used to generate a structure with a sequence completely different from an experimentally determined one or to introduce single to multiple mutation, but with the same set of parameters and hence can also be an important tool in homology modeling and study of mutation induced structural changes.

  8. Energy spectrum of the nucleus 73Ta181 by a canonical transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, D.; Bueyuekkilic, F.

    1990-01-01

    The quasi-particle creation and annihilation operators introduced in the BCS formalism for the sake of convenience in the calculations, are taken as a function of a parameter (σ). This parameter is also a function of an arbitrary parameter in terms of the probability of the states being occupied or unoccupied. The canonical transformation of the general Hamiltonian of the nucleus has been performed in terms of this new parameter. Using the Hamiltonian obtained, the matrix elements of the odd-mass nucleus are calculated and the energy spectra are determined. The single-particle energies are calculated by diagonalization of the Lamm Hamiltonian with the asymptotic base wave function. It is observed that the energy values can be found in a rational manner by a suitable choice of all the parameters. (author) 10 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. Automated invariant alignment to improve canonical variates in image fusion of satellite and weather radar data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) maximizes correlation between two sets of multivariate data. We applied CCA to multivariate satellite data and univariate radar data in order to produce a subspace descriptive of heavily precipitating clouds. A misalignment, inherent to the nature of the two...... data sets, was observed, corrupting the subspace. A method for aligning the two data sets is proposed, in order to overcome this issue and render a useful subspace projection. The observed corruption of the subspace gives rise to the hypothesis that the optimal correspondence, between a heavily...... precipitating cloud in the radar data and the associated cloud top registered in the satellite data, is found by a scale, rotation and translation invariant transformation together with a temporal displacement. The method starts by determining a conformal transformation of the radar data at the time of maximum...

  10. Simulating prescribed particle densities in the grand canonical ensemble using iterative algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasics, Attila; Gillespie, Dirk; Boda, Dezso

    2008-03-28

    We present two efficient iterative Monte Carlo algorithms in the grand canonical ensemble with which the chemical potentials corresponding to prescribed (targeted) partial densities can be determined. The first algorithm works by always using the targeted densities in the kT log(rho(i)) (ideal gas) terms and updating the excess chemical potentials from the previous iteration. The second algorithm extrapolates the chemical potentials in the next iteration from the results of the previous iteration using a first order series expansion of the densities. The coefficients of the series, the derivatives of the densities with respect to the chemical potentials, are obtained from the simulations by fluctuation formulas. The convergence of this procedure is shown for the examples of a homogeneous Lennard-Jones mixture and a NaCl-CaCl(2) electrolyte mixture in the primitive model. The methods are quite robust under the conditions investigated. The first algorithm is less sensitive to initial conditions.

  11. Study of Stability of Rotational Motion of Spacecraft with Canonical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Reis Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the stability of the rotational motion of artificial satellites in circular orbit with the influence of gravity gradient torque, using the Andoyer variables. The used method in this paper to analyze stability is the Kovalev-Savchenko theorem. This method requires the reduction of the Hamiltonian in its normal form up to fourth order by means of canonical transformations around equilibrium points. The coefficients of the normal Hamiltonian are indispensable in the study of nonlinear stability of its equilibrium points according to the three established conditions in the theorem. Some physical and orbital data of real satellites were used in the numerical simulations. In comparison with previous work, the results show a greater number of equilibrium points and an optimization in the algorithm to determine the normal form and stability analysis. The results of this paper can directly contribute in maintaining the attitude of artificial satellites.

  12. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Hammond

    2013-01-01

    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  13. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  14. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  15. The number of zero solutions for complex canonical differential equation of second order with constant coefficients in the first quadrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of complex differential equations in recent years has opened up some of questions concerning the determination of the frequency of zero solutions, the distribution of zero, oscillation of the solution, asymptotic behavior, rank growth and so on. Besides, this is solved by only some classes of differential equations. In this paper, our aim was to determine the number of zeros and their arrangement in the first quadrant, for the complex canonical differential equation of the second order. The accuracy of our results, we illustrate with two examples.

  16. Canonical formulations of full nonlinear topologically massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.; Xiang, X.

    1991-01-01

    First-order forms of the complete nonlinear Einstein plus Chern-Simons third-derivative-order action are exhibited in both metric and dreibein forms. The 'hamiltonians' are combinations of diffeomorphism and tangent space rotation generators as expected of generally covariant systems; the pure Chern-Simons hamiltonian has an additional, conformal transformation, term. These constraints reduce the apparent number of degrees of freedom to 1 and 0 respectively. The constraint algebras close, as required by this counting, without second-class constraints. The nature of the noninvariant terms in the Chern-Simons lagrangian density is discussed. For comparison, the linearized limit and the corresponding nonabelian vector action's canonical form are also given. (orig.)

  17. Optimization on scoliosis examination on Canons DR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle

    2007-01-01

    recordings of scoliosis today are carried out on CR systems even though most radiological departments have DR systems available. Theoretically speaking the two modalities are similar regarding dose and image quality. In this project consequently, the focus will be to obtain images of equal dose and quality...... at a DR system when using different receptors during the exam. This is a completely new opportunity, as it has earlier been difficult to compare distinct scintilators connected to the receptors due to unlike processing of the image. Given that Canon have released a receptor with CsI scintilator we...... in which theory is used as a background for the test setup and later audit appraisal. Two tests are carried out on two different hospitals with each their receptor, and afterwards the results are compared. To guarantee comparable tests the results are verified through status checks and statistical t...

  18. Garcilaso y Cervantes en la perspectiva del canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gálvez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo examina de modo sucinto la relación entre la obra de Miguel de Cervantes, en especial el Quijote, y la poesía de Garcilaso de la Vega en el horizonte de los valores consagrados en el canon literario de los Siglos de Oro. Para ello, primeramente se ofrece una breve semblanza biográfica e intelectual que busca establecer similitudes entre ambos autores; en segundo lugar, el texto registra diversas apariciones o “señales” garcilasianas en las páginas de la novela en sus dos partes (1605 y 1615 y las comenta con una visión al mismo tiempo crítica e histórica. El trabajo procura hacer una contribución sobre modos nuevos de analizar la tradición literaria y presta la mayor atención a las ideas cervantinas sobre la poesía.

  19. New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guanlei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle plays an important role in mathematics, physics, signal processing, and so on. Firstly, based on definition of the linear canonical transform (LCT and the traditional Pitt's inequality, one novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains is obtained, which is connected with the LCT parameters a and b. Then one novel logarithmic uncertainty principle is derived from this novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains, which is associated with parameters of the two LCTs. Secondly, from the relation between the original function and LCT, one entropic uncertainty principle and one Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the LCT domains are derived, which are associated with the LCT parameters a and b. The reason why the three lower bounds are only associated with LCT parameters a and b and independent of c and d is presented. The results show it is possible that the bounds tend to zeros.

  20. Canonical momenta and numerical instabilities in particle codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    A set of warm plasma dispersion relations appropriate to a large class of electromagnetic plasma simulation codes is derived. The numerical Cherenkov instability is shown by analytic and numerical analysis of these dispersion relations to be the most significant nonphysical effect involving transverse electromagnetic waves. The instability arises due to a spurious phase shift between resonant particles and light waves, caused by a basic incompatibility between the Lagrangian treatment of particle positions and the Eulerian treatment of particle velocities characteristic of most PIC--CIC algorithms. It is demonstrated that, through the use of canonical momentum, this mismatch is alleviated sufficiently to completely eliminate the Cherenkov instability. Collateral effects on simulation accuracy and on other numerical instabilities appear to be minor

  1. Sparse canonical correlation analysis: new formulation and algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Delin; Liao, Li-Zhi; Ng, Michael K; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which is a powerful tool in multivariate data analysis for finding the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables. The main contributions of the paper are: 1) to reveal the equivalent relationship between a recursive formula and a trace formula for the multiple CCA problem, 2) to obtain the explicit characterization for all solutions of the multiple CCA problem even when the corresponding covariance matrices are singular, 3) to develop a new sparse CCA algorithm, and 4) to establish the equivalent relationship between the uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis and the CCA problem. We test several simulated and real-world datasets in gene classification and cross-language document retrieval to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is competitive with the state-of-the-art sparse CCA algorithms.

  2. The canonical Lagrangian approach to three-space general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vasudev; Venkatesh, Madhavan

    2013-07-01

    We study the action for the three-space formalism of general relativity, better known as the Barbour-Foster-Ó Murchadha action, which is a square-root Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler action. In particular, we explore the (pre)symplectic structure by pulling it back via a Legendre map to the tangent bundle of the configuration space of this action. With it we attain the canonical Lagrangian vector field which generates the gauge transformations (3-diffeomorphisms) and the true physical evolution of the system. This vector field encapsulates all the dynamics of the system. We also discuss briefly the observables and perennials for this theory. We then present a symplectic reduction of the constrained phase space.

  3. Canonical statistics of trapped ideal and interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Hongwei; Liu Shujuan; Huang Guoxiang; Xu Zaixin

    2002-01-01

    The mean ground-state occupation number and condensate fluctuations of interacting and noninteracting Bose gases confined in a harmonic trap are considered by using a canonical ensemble approach. To obtain the mean ground-state occupation number and the condensate fluctuations, an analytical description for the probability distribution function of the condensate is provided directly starting from the analysis of the partition function of the system. For the ideal Bose gas, the probability distribution function is found to be a Gaussian one for the case of the harmonic trap. For the interacting Bose gas, using a unified approach the condensate fluctuations are calculated based on the lowest-order perturbation method and on Bogoliubov theory. It is found that the condensate fluctuations based on the lowest-order perturbation theory follow the law 2 N 0 >∼N, while the fluctuations based on Bogoliubov theory behave as N 4/3

  4. Canonical quantization of a relativistic particle with curvature and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    A generalization of the relativistic particle action is considered. It contain, in addition to the length of the world trajectory, the integrals along the world curve of its curvature and torsion. The generalized Hamiltonian formalism for this model in the D-dimensional space-time is constructed. A complete set of the constraints in the phase space is obtained and their division into the first-class and the second-class constraints is accomplished. On this basis the canonical quantization of the model is fulfilled. For D=3 the mass spectrum is obtained in the sector without tachyonic states, the mass of the state being dependent on its spin. It is shown that in the framework of this model when D=3 the possibility to describe the states with integral, half-odd-integral and continuous spins is derived. Interaction with an external Abelian gauge field introduced in the geometrical way. 21 refs

  5. Successive canonical transformation in model two-body electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, S.

    1978-10-01

    The possibility is investigated of bypassing the no interaction theorum of Currie, Jordan and Sudarshan for direct action Lagrangians. Starting with the field theoretic description of a two-body electrodynamic problem, the field variable is solved for in terms of the particle variables, which paves the way to write an action-at-a-distance Hamiltonian for the problem. A suitable transformation is found which uncouples the field and the particle variables in the interaction up to order e 2 . It is shown that this transformation leaves the statement of Newton's 2nd law unchanged which also agrees with the standard results of electrodynamics. This allows for the identification of canonical variables for the proper action-at-a-distance problem. 19 references

  6. Multi-dimensional virtual system introduced to enhance canonical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Junichi; Kasahara, Kota; Nakamura, Haruki

    2017-10-01

    When an important process of a molecular system occurs via a combination of two or more rare events, which occur almost independently to one another, computational sampling for the important process is difficult. Here, to sample such a process effectively, we developed a new method, named the "multi-dimensional Virtual-system coupled Monte Carlo (multi-dimensional-VcMC)" method, where the system interacts with a virtual system expressed by two or more virtual coordinates. Each virtual coordinate controls sampling along a reaction coordinate. By setting multiple reaction coordinates to be related to the corresponding rare events, sampling of the important process can be enhanced. An advantage of multi-dimensional-VcMC is its simplicity: Namely, the conformation moves widely in the multi-dimensional reaction coordinate space without knowledge of canonical distribution functions of the system. To examine the effectiveness of the algorithm, we introduced a toy model where two molecules (receptor and its ligand) bind and unbind to each other. The receptor has a deep binding pocket, to which the ligand enters for binding. Furthermore, a gate is set at the entrance of the pocket, and the gate is usually closed. Thus, the molecular binding takes place via the two events: ligand approach to the pocket and gate opening. In two-dimensional (2D)-VcMC, the two molecules exhibited repeated binding and unbinding, and an equilibrated distribution was obtained as expected. A conventional canonical simulation, which was 200 times longer than 2D-VcMC, failed in sampling the binding/unbinding effectively. The current method is applicable to various biological systems.

  7. The canonical status of Constantinople and its interpretation in Byzantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kuzenkov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author subjects to thorough consideration the gradual change in the status of the Patriarch of Constantinople from the bishop of a minor town to the Ecumenical Patriarch possessing a certain set of administrative privileges. After giving a definition of the status of a bishop and ecclesiastical provinces in the ancient Church, the author, basing his conclusions upon canonical sources and their expositions in the Early Byzantine period, proceeds to develop the idea that the change in the bishop’s status went through several successive stages and that each new stage had its own causes, not the least important of which were of political nature. After both Rome and Constantinople, as political centers of the Roman Empire, received in the 4th century certain «privileges of honor» peculiar to capital cities, these privileges were consecutively modified into mandate of power. This process took several centuries to reach completion and was connected with the activities of the Emperors Zeno I and Justinian the Great (5th–6th centuries who legally secured the new status of the bishop of the capital city and granted him the title of Ecumenical Patriarch. After the patriarchate of Photius and the confl ict with the bishops of Rome the Patriarch of Constantinople receives the right to intrude — in certain cases — into the canonical jurisdiction of other Churches, which becomes the key change in understanding the nature of supremacy. In later times this tendency was enhanced and reached its climax in the 20th century when the Ecumenical Patriarchate began testing the ground to expand its authority to the whole of the Orthodox world, with the further perspective of turning into a kind of «Orthodox Rome».

  8. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  9. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 1. A unique application of a densitometric technique of computed tomography for CT values of fat tissue area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning images were taken from 26 normal subjects, 23 obesity patients and 11 with leanness to determine fat tissue values. Setting three regions of interest (ROIs) for fat tissues identified by a double-window display, a total of 52 images were employed. Histograms were constructed for each of the 3 ROIs, and the maximum, mean and minimum values were computed for each fat tissues. Areas of entire fat tissues were computed on each image with the above-cited CT software for thyroidal iodine contents by setting ROIs along the outline of body, the abdominal wall and the wall of colon, respectively. Areas of subcutaneous fat tissues were calculated by simply subtracting the values of visceral fat tissues from those of entire fat tissues. Means of maximum and minimum CT values of visceral fat tissues on 52 images were -34.7 HU and -162.1 HU, respectively. The double-window display indicated that the spectrum of CT values of fat tissue included not only visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues but fecal materials with air bubbles in the colon. Areas of fecal materials with the same CT values as that of the fat tissues occupied 2.5{+-}3.0% of that of the visceral fat tissue. The areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were largest at the levels of -20 to 0 mm and 60 to 100 mm, respectively, on all images. At the level of 0 mm, the areas of visceral fat tissue did not show any differences among normal subjects, obesity patients and patients with leanness. It was concluded that the CT software is applicable to obtain satisfactory values for areas of visceral fat tissue, and that CT images at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 100 mm are necessary to accurately determine areas of visceral fat tissues. (S.Y.).

  10. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 1. A unique application of a densitometric technique of computed tomography for CT values of fat tissue area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Fumie

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning images were taken from 26 normal subjects, 23 obesity patients and 11 with leanness to determine fat tissue values. Setting three regions of interest (ROIs) for fat tissues identified by a double-window display, a total of 52 images were employed. Histograms were constructed for each of the 3 ROIs, and the maximum, mean and minimum values were computed for each fat tissues. Areas of entire fat tissues were computed on each image with the above-cited CT software for thyroidal iodine contents by setting ROIs along the outline of body, the abdominal wall and the wall of colon, respectively. Areas of subcutaneous fat tissues were calculated by simply subtracting the values of visceral fat tissues from those of entire fat tissues. Means of maximum and minimum CT values of visceral fat tissues on 52 images were -34.7 HU and -162.1 HU, respectively. The double-window display indicated that the spectrum of CT values of fat tissue included not only visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues but fecal materials with air bubbles in the colon. Areas of fecal materials with the same CT values as that of the fat tissues occupied 2.5±3.0% of that of the visceral fat tissue. The areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were largest at the levels of -20 to 0 mm and 60 to 100 mm, respectively, on all images. At the level of 0 mm, the areas of visceral fat tissue did not show any differences among normal subjects, obesity patients and patients with leanness. It was concluded that the CT software is applicable to obtain satisfactory values for areas of visceral fat tissue, and that CT images at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 100 mm are necessary to accurately determine areas of visceral fat tissues. (S.Y.)

  11. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  12. Towards a canonical Fermi mass matrix for a pure generation structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Wali, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Vertical constraints on the horizontal generation structure are discussed. The minimal electro/nuclear scheme for which the generation structure must be pure is identified to be the partially unified Pati-Salam SU(4)sub(C)xSU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R). SO(10) type unification furthermore requires the horizontal group factor to be axial. This in turn crucially affects the Yukawa couplings in such a way that a minimal Higgs system with oply two conventional scalars is capable of uniquely giving rise to the 'canonical' Fritzsch-type mass matrix, for any arbitrary number of fermionic families. The anomaly free equations then provide the desired one-to-one correspondence between the mass matrices in the two charged quark sectors. The derived horizontal quantum numbers suggest that the maximal horizontal group factor be SU(2), with the generations furnishing two neighbor j and j + 1/2 representations. Finally a careful phase analysis shows that the tree-level soft and superweak CP-violation solely reflects the non-Abelian character of the horizontal group, representing an induced internal rotation which is triggered by the phase elimination performed in the vertical sector. (author)

  13. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  14. Influence and canonical supremacy: an analysis of how George Herbert Mead demoted Charles Horton Cooley in the sociological canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    This analysis assesses the factors underlying Charles Horton Cooley's place in the sociological canon as they relate to George Herbert Mead's puzzling diatribe-echoed in secondary accounts-against Cooley's social psychology and view of the self published scarcely a year after his death. The illocutionary act of publishing his critique stands as an effort to project the image of Mead's intellectual self and enhance his standing among sociologists within and outside the orbit of the University of Chicago. It expressed Mead's ambivalence toward his precursor Cooley, whose influence he never fully acknowledged. In addition, it typifies the contending fractal distinctions of the scientifically discursive versus literary styles of Mead and Cooley, who both founded the interpretive sociological tradition. The contrasting styles and attitudes toward writing of the two figures are discussed, and their implications for the problems of scale that have stymied the symbolic interactionist tradition are explored.

  15. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  16. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  17. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  18. Credible Set Estimation, Analysis, and Applications in Synthetic Aperture Radar Canonical Feature Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    83 5.1 Marginal PMFs for the cylinder scene at coarse zoom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5.2 SAR image of a Nissan Sentra with canonical...of a Nissan Sentra with canonical features extracted by the SPLIT algorithm. 5.2.4 Experiment Summary. A notional algorithm is presented in Figure 5.3

  19. Quantum correction and ordering parameter for systems connected by a general point canonical transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyu Hwang; Hong, Suc Kyoung; Um, Chung In; George, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    With quantum operators corresponding to functions of the canonical variables, Schroedinger equations are constructed for systems corresponding to classical systems connected by a general point canonical transformation. Using the operator connecting quantum states between systems before and after the transformation, the quantum correction term and ordering parameter are obtained

  20. Non-canonical autophagy: an exception or an underestimated form of autophagy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, Francesca; Maffei, Roberta; Beau, Isabelle; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Codogno, Patrice

    2008-11-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter called autophagy) is a dynamic and evolutionarily conserved process used to sequester and degrade cytoplasm and entire organelles in a sequestering vesicle with a double membrane, known as the autophagosome, which ultimately fuses with a lysosome to degrade its autophagic cargo. Recently, we have unraveled two distinct forms of autophagy in cancer cells, which we term canonical and non-canonical autophagy. In contrast to classical or canonical autophagy, non-canonical autophagy is a process that does not require the entire set of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins in particular Beclin 1, to form the autophagosome. Non-canonical autophagy is therefore not blocked by the knockdown of Beclin 1 or of its binding partner hVps34. Moreover overexpression of Bcl-2, which is known to block canonical starvation-induced autophagy by binding to Beclin 1, is unable to reverse the non-canonical autophagy triggered by the polyphenol resveratrol in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. In MCF-7 cells, at least, non-canonical autophagy is involved in the caspase-independent cell death induced by resveratrol.

  1. Formulation of nonlinear chromaticity in circular accelerators by canonical perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    The formulation of nonlinear chromaticity in circular accelerators based on the canonical perturbation method is presented. Since the canonical perturbation method directly relates the tune shift to the perturbation Hamiltonian, it greatly simplifies the calculation of the nonlinear chromaticity. The obtained integral representation for nonlinear chromaticity can be systematically extended to higher orders

  2. Bach, Beethoven, Bourdieu: "Cultural Capital" and the Scholastic Canon in England's A-Level Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article applies Bourdieu's notion of "cultural capital" to historical, documentary research which investigates the construction of a scholastic canon within England's A-level music examinations. A digest of the ways in which this canon evolved between 1951 and 1986 is presented in support of the idea that examiners' responses to…

  3. Hamiltonian formalism, quantization and S matrix for supergravity. [S matrix, canonical constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, E S; Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1977-12-05

    The canonical formalism for supergravity is constructed. The algebra of canonical constraints is found. The correct expression for the S matrix is obtained. Usual 'covariant methods' lead to an incorrect S matrix in supergravity since a new four-particle interaction of ghostfields survives in the Lagrangian expression of the S matrix.

  4. Generalized canonical analysis based on optimizing matrix correlations and a relation with IDIOSCAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.; Cléroux, R.; Ten Berge, Jos M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Carroll's method for generalized canonical analysis of two or more sets of variables is shown to optimize the sum of squared inner-product matrix correlations between a consensus matrix and matrices with canonical variates for each set of variables. In addition, the method that analogously optimizes

  5. An algorithm to compute the canonical basis of an irreducible Uq(g)-module

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, W. A.

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is described to compute the canonical basis of an irreducible module over a quantized enveloping algebra of a finite-dimensional semisimple Lie algebra. The algorithm works for modules that are constructed as a submodule of a tensor product of modules with known canonical bases.

  6. Using Canonical Forms for Isomorphism Reduction in Graph-based Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs

    Graph isomorphism checking can be used in graph-based model checking to achieve symmetry reduction. Instead of one-to-one comparing the graph representations of states, canonical forms of state graphs can be computed. These canonical forms can be used to store and compare states. However, computing

  7. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…

  8. Canonical and non-canonical WNT signaling in cancer stem cells and their niches: Cellular heterogeneity, omics reprogramming, targeted therapy and tumor plasticity (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the potential for self-renewal, differentiation and de-differentiation, undergo epigenetic, epithelial-mesenchymal, immunological and metabolic reprogramming to adapt to the tumor microenvironment and survive host defense or therapeutic insults. Intra-tumor heterogeneity and cancer-cell plasticity give rise to therapeutic resistance and recurrence through clonal replacement and reactivation of dormant CSCs, respectively. WNT signaling cascades cross-talk with the FGF, Notch, Hedgehog and TGFβ/BMP signaling cascades and regulate expression of functional CSC markers, such as CD44, CD133 (PROM1), EPCAM and LGR5 (GPR49). Aberrant canonical and non-canonical WNT signaling in human malignancies, including breast, colorectal, gastric, lung, ovary, pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancers, leukemia and melanoma, are involved in CSC survival, bulk-tumor expansion and invasion/metastasis. WNT signaling-targeted therapeutics, such as anti-FZD1/2/5/7/8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (vantictumab), anti-LGR5 antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) (mAb-mc-vc-PAB-MMAE), anti-PTK7 ADC (PF-06647020), anti-ROR1 mAb (cirmtuzumab), anti-RSPO3 mAb (rosmantuzumab), small-molecule porcupine inhibitors (ETC-159, WNT-C59 and WNT974), tankyrase inhibitors (AZ1366, G007-LK, NVP-TNKS656 and XAV939) and β-catenin inhibitors (BC2059, CWP232228, ICG-001 and PRI-724), are in clinical trials or preclinical studies for the treatment of patients with WNT-driven cancers. WNT signaling-targeted therapeutics are applicable for combination therapy with BCR-ABL, EGFR, FLT3, KIT or RET inhibitors to treat a subset of tyrosine kinase-driven cancers because WNT and tyrosine kinase signaling cascades converge to β-catenin for the maintenance and expansion of CSCs. WNT signaling-targeted therapeutics might also be applicable for combination therapy with immune checkpoint blockers, such as atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab, ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, to treat cancers

  9. Non-canonical binding interactions of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of P34 protein modulate binding within the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamina, Anyango D; Williams, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    RNA binding proteins are involved in many aspects of RNA metabolism. In Trypanosoma brucei, our laboratory has identified two trypanosome-specific RNA binding proteins P34 and P37 that are involved in the maturation of the 60S subunit during ribosome biogenesis. These proteins are part of the T. brucei 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP) and P34 binds to 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal protein L5 through its N-terminus and its RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains. We generated truncated P34 proteins to determine these domains' interactions with 5S rRNA and L5. Our analyses demonstrate that RRM1 of P34 mediates the majority of binding with 5S rRNA and the N-terminus together with RRM1 contribute the most to binding with L5. We determined that the consensus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) 1 and 2 sequences, characteristic of canonical RRM domains, are not fully conserved in the RRM domains of P34. However, the aromatic amino acids previously described to mediate base stacking interactions with their RNA target are conserved in both of the RRM domains of P34. Surprisingly, mutation of these aromatic residues did not disrupt but instead enhanced 5S rRNA binding. However, we identified four arginine residues located in RRM1 of P34 that strongly impact L5 binding. These mutational analyses of P34 suggest that the binding site for 5S rRNA and L5 are near each other and specific residues within P34 regulate the formation of the 5S RNP. These studies show the unique way that the domains of P34 mediate binding with the T. brucei 5S RNP.

  10. De Novo Assembly of Human Herpes Virus Type 1 (HHV-1) Genome, Mining of Non-Canonical Structures and Detection of Novel Drug-Resistance Mutations Using Short- and Long-Read Next Generation Sequencing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitros, Timokratis; Harrison, Ian; Piorkowska, Renata; Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Mbisa, Jean Lutamyo

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1) has a large double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 152 kbp that is structurally complex and GC-rich. This makes the assembly of HHV-1 whole genomes from short-read sequencing data technically challenging. To improve the assembly of HHV-1 genomes we have employed a hybrid genome assembly protocol using data from two sequencing technologies: the short-read Roche 454 and the long-read Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencers. We sequenced 18 HHV-1 cell culture-isolated clinical specimens collected from immunocompromised patients undergoing antiviral therapy. The susceptibility of the samples to several antivirals was determined by plaque reduction assay. Hybrid genome assembly resulted in a decrease in the number of contigs in 6 out of 7 samples and an increase in N(G)50 and N(G)75 of all 7 samples sequenced by both technologies. The approach also enhanced the detection of non-canonical contigs including a rearrangement between the unique (UL) and repeat (T/IRL) sequence regions of one sample that was not detectable by assembly of 454 reads alone. We detected several known and novel resistance-associated mutations in UL23 and UL30 genes. Genome-wide genetic variability ranged from genomes will be useful in determining genetic determinants of drug resistance, virulence, pathogenesis and viral evolution. The numerous, complex repeat regions of the HHV-1 genome currently remain a barrier towards this goal.

  11. Group sparse canonical correlation analysis for genomic data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dongdong; Zhang, Jigang; Li, Jingyao; Calhoun, Vince D; Deng, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2013-08-12

    The emergence of high-throughput genomic datasets from different sources and platforms (e.g., gene expression, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and copy number variation (CNV)) has greatly enhanced our understandings of the interplay of these genomic factors as well as their influences on the complex diseases. It is challenging to explore the relationship between these different types of genomic data sets. In this paper, we focus on a multivariate statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method for this problem. Conventional CCA method does not work effectively if the number of data samples is significantly less than that of biomarkers, which is a typical case for genomic data (e.g., SNPs). Sparse CCA (sCCA) methods were introduced to overcome such difficulty, mostly using penalizations with l-1 norm (CCA-l1) or the combination of l-1and l-2 norm (CCA-elastic net). However, they overlook the structural or group effect within genomic data in the analysis, which often exist and are important (e.g., SNPs spanning a gene interact and work together as a group). We propose a new group sparse CCA method (CCA-sparse group) along with an effective numerical algorithm to study the mutual relationship between two different types of genomic data (i.e., SNP and gene expression). We then extend the model to a more general formulation that can include the existing sCCA models. We apply the model to feature/variable selection from two data sets and compare our group sparse CCA method with existing sCCA methods on both simulation and two real datasets (human gliomas data and NCI60 data). We use a graphical representation of the samples with a pair of canonical variates to demonstrate the discriminating characteristic of the selected features. Pathway analysis is further performed for biological interpretation of those features. The CCA-sparse group method incorporates group effects of features into the correlation analysis while performs individual feature

  12. Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms

  13. Inhibition of canonical WNT signaling attenuates human leiomyoma cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masanori; Yin, Ping; Navarro, Antonia; Moravek, Molly B.; Coon, John S.; Druschitz, Stacy A.; Gottardi, Cara J.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dysregulation of WNT signaling plays a central role in tumor cell growth and progression. Our goal was to assess the effect of three WNT/β-catenin pathway inhibitors, Inhibitor of β-Catenin And TCF4 (ICAT), niclosamide, and XAV939 on the proliferation of primary cultures of human uterine leiomyoma cells. Design Prospective study of human leiomyoma cells obtained from myomectomy or hysterectomy. Setting University research laboratory. Patient(s) Women (n=38) aged 27–53 years undergoing surgery. Intervention(s) Adenoviral ICAT overexpression or treatment with varying concentrations of niclosamide or XAV939. Main Outcome Measure(s) Cell proliferation, cell death, WNT/β-catenin target gene expression or reporter gene regulation, β-catenin levels and cellular localization. Result(s) ICAT, niclosamide, or XAV939 inhibit WNT/β-catenin pathway activation and exert anti-proliferative effects in primary cultures of human leiomyoma cells. Conclusion(s) Three WNT/β-catenin pathway inhibitors specifically block human leiomyoma growth and proliferation, suggesting that the canonical WNT pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. Our findings provide rationale for further preclinical and clinical evaluation of ICAT, niclosamide, and XAV939 as candidate anti-tumor agents for uterine leiomyoma. PMID:24534281

  14. Canon multifunction copier machines – now with onsite support!

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Following a retendering process in 2012, the IT Department is pleased to announce that leased multifunction copier machines are now covered by onsite support, provided by Canon technicians via the CERN Service Desk support system.   You can now contact the Service Desk regarding any problems or requests for toner: Telephone: 77777 Email: Service-Desk@cern.ch Please remember to quote the machine printer name and/or serial number (marked on the side of the machine). The following submission forms are available online: Report a failure with a printer or copier Request for network printer or copier installation or move Request toner/ink for my printer or copier The website below details the range of models available, all of which include print, photocopy and scan-to-mail functions as standard. These multifunction copier machines are leased subject to a monthly charge (minimum of 48 months) plus a “per click” charge to cover consumables (except staples), leaving you noth...

  15. Canonical autophagy does not contribute to cellular radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Marco B.E.; Jutten, Barry; Keulers, Tom G.; Savelkouls, Kim G.M.; Peeters, Hanneke J.M.; Beucken, Twan van den; Schooten, Frederik-Jan van; Godschalk, Roger W.; Vooijs, Marc; Rouschop, Kasper M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: (Pre)clinical studies indicate that autophagy inhibition increases response to anti-cancer therapies. Although promising, due to contradicting reports, it remains unclear if radiation therapy changes autophagy activity and if autophagy inhibition changes the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity. Discrepancies may result from different assays and models through off-target effects and influencing other signaling routes. In this study, we directly compared the effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy after irradiation in human cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: Changes in autophagy activity after ionizing radiation (IR) were assessed by flux analysis in eight cell lines. Clonogenic survival, DNA damage (COMET-assay) and H2AX phosphorylation were assessed after chloroquine or 3-methyladenine pretreatment and after ATG7 or LC3b knockdown. Results: IR failed to induce autophagy and chloroquine failed to change intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells. Interestingly, 3-methyladenine and ATG7- or LC3b-deficiency sensitized cancer cells to irradiation. Surprisingly, the radiosensitizing effect of 3-methyladenine was also observed in ATG7 and LC3b deficient cells and was associated with attenuated γ-H2AX formation and DNA damage repair. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that the anti-tumor effects of chloroquine are independent of changes in intrinsic radioresistance. Furthermore, ATG7 and LC3b support radioresistance independent of canonical autophagy that involves lysosomal degradation

  16. A Cannibalistic Approach to Grand Canonical Crystal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Tarak; Piaggi, Pablo M; Perego, Claudio; Parrinello, Michele

    2018-04-04

    Canonical molecular dynamics simulations of crystal growth from solution suffer from severe finite-size effects. As the crystal grows, the solute molecules are drawn from the solution to the crystal, leading to a continuous drop in the solution concentration. This is in contrast to experiments in which the crystal grows at an approximately constant supersaturation of a bulk solution. Recently, Perego et al. [ J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 144113] showed that in a periodic setup in which the crystal is represented as a slab, the concentration in the vicinity of the two surfaces can be kept constant while the molecules are drawn from a part of the solution that acts as a molecular reservoir. This method is quite effective in studying crystallization under controlled supersaturation conditions. However, once the reservoir is depleted, the constant supersaturation conditions cannot be maintained. We propose a variant of this method to tackle this depletion problem by simultaneously dissolving one side of the crystal while letting the other side grow. A continuous supply of particles to the solution due to the crystal dissolution maintains a steady solution concentration and avoids reservoir depletion. In this way, a constant supersaturation condition can be maintained for as long as necessary. We have applied this method to study the growth and dissolution of urea crystal from water solution under constant supersaturation and undersaturation conditions, respectively. The computed growth and dissolution rates are in good agreement with those obtained in previous studies.

  17. Grand canonical validation of the bipartite international trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Mika J.; Caldarelli, Guido; Saracco, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Devising strategies for economic development in a globally competitive landscape requires a solid and unbiased understanding of countries' technological advancements and similarities among export products. Both can be addressed through the bipartite representation of the International Trade Network. In this paper, we apply the recently proposed grand canonical projection algorithm to uncover country and product communities. Contrary to past endeavors, our methodology, based on information theory, creates monopartite projections in an unbiased and analytically tractable way. Single links between countries or products represent statistically significant signals, which are not accounted for by null models such as the bipartite configuration model. We find stable country communities reflecting the socioeconomic distinction in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. Furthermore, we observe product clusters based on the aforementioned country groups. Our analysis reveals the existence of a complicated structure in the bipartite International Trade Network: apart from the diversification of export baskets from the most basic to the most exclusive products, we observe a statistically significant signal of an export specialization mechanism towards more sophisticated products.

  18. Decoding the auditory brain with canonical component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cheveigné, Alain; Wong, Daniel D E; Di Liberto, Giovanni M; Hjortkjær, Jens; Slaney, Malcolm; Lalor, Edmund

    2018-05-15

    The relation between a stimulus and the evoked brain response can shed light on perceptual processes within the brain. Signals derived from this relation can also be harnessed to control external devices for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. While the classic event-related potential (ERP) is appropriate for isolated stimuli, more sophisticated "decoding" strategies are needed to address continuous stimuli such as speech, music or environmental sounds. Here we describe an approach based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) that finds the optimal transform to apply to both the stimulus and the response to reveal correlations between the two. Compared to prior methods based on forward or backward models for stimulus-response mapping, CCA finds significantly higher correlation scores, thus providing increased sensitivity to relatively small effects, and supports classifier schemes that yield higher classification scores. CCA strips the brain response of variance unrelated to the stimulus, and the stimulus representation of variance that does not affect the response, and thus improves observations of the relation between stimulus and response. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Applications of temporal kernel canonical correlation analysis in adherence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Majnu; Lencz, Todd; Ferbinteanu, Janina; Gallego, Juan A; Robinson, Delbert G

    2017-10-01

    Adherence to medication is often measured as a continuous outcome but analyzed as a dichotomous outcome due to lack of appropriate tools. In this paper, we illustrate the use of the temporal kernel canonical correlation analysis (tkCCA) as a method to analyze adherence measurements and symptom levels on a continuous scale. The tkCCA is a novel method developed for studying the relationship between neural signals and hemodynamic response detected by functional MRI during spontaneous activity. Although the tkCCA is a powerful tool, it has not been utilized outside the application that it was originally developed for. In this paper, we simulate time series of symptoms and adherence levels for patients with a hypothetical brain disorder and show how the tkCCA can be used to understand the relationship between them. We also examine, via simulations, the behavior of the tkCCA under various missing value mechanisms and imputation methods. Finally, we apply the tkCCA to a real data example of psychotic symptoms and adherence levels obtained from a study based on subjects with a first episode of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder.

  20. Grand canonical validation of the bipartite international trade network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Mika J; Caldarelli, Guido; Saracco, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Devising strategies for economic development in a globally competitive landscape requires a solid and unbiased understanding of countries' technological advancements and similarities among export products. Both can be addressed through the bipartite representation of the International Trade Network. In this paper, we apply the recently proposed grand canonical projection algorithm to uncover country and product communities. Contrary to past endeavors, our methodology, based on information theory, creates monopartite projections in an unbiased and analytically tractable way. Single links between countries or products represent statistically significant signals, which are not accounted for by null models such as the bipartite configuration model. We find stable country communities reflecting the socioeconomic distinction in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. Furthermore, we observe product clusters based on the aforementioned country groups. Our analysis reveals the existence of a complicated structure in the bipartite International Trade Network: apart from the diversification of export baskets from the most basic to the most exclusive products, we observe a statistically significant signal of an export specialization mechanism towards more sophisticated products.

  1. Symmetry groups of state vectors in canonical quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    In canonical quantum gravity, the diffeomorphisms of an asymptotically flat hypersurface S, not connected to the identity, but trivial at infinity, can act nontrivially on the quantum state space. Because state vectors are invariant under diffeomorphisms that are connected to the identity, the group of inequivalent diffeomorphisms is a symmetry group of states associated with S. This group is the zeroth homotopy group of the group of diffeomorphisms fixing a frame of infinity on S. It is calculated for all hypersurfaces of the form S = S 3 /G-point, where the removed point is thought of as infinity on S and the symmetry group S is the zeroth homotopy group of the group of diffeomorphisms of S 3 /G fixing a point and frame, denoted π 0 Diff/sub F/(S 3 /G). Before calculating π 0 Diff/sub F/ (S 3 /G), it is necessary to find π 0 of the group of diffeomorphisms. Once π 0 Diff(S 3 /G) is known, π 0 Diff/sub x/ 0 (S 3 /G) is calculated using a fiber bundle involving Diff(S 3 /G), Diff/sub x/ 0 (S 3 /G), and S 3 /G. Finally, a fiber bundle involving Diff/sub F/(S 3 /G), Diff(S 3 /G), and the bundle of frames over S 3 /G is used along with π 0 Diff/sub x/ 0 (S 3 /G) to calculate π 0 Diff/sub F/(S 3 /G)

  2. Schwinger–Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuehua, E-mail: suyh@ytu.edu.cn

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger–Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

  3. An optimization approach for fitting canonical tensor decompositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2009-02-01

    Tensor decompositions are higher-order analogues of matrix decompositions and have proven to be powerful tools for data analysis. In particular, we are interested in the canonical tensor decomposition, otherwise known as the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (CPD), which expresses a tensor as the sum of component rank-one tensors and is used in a multitude of applications such as chemometrics, signal processing, neuroscience, and web analysis. The task of computing the CPD, however, can be difficult. The typical approach is based on alternating least squares (ALS) optimization, which can be remarkably fast but is not very accurate. Previously, nonlinear least squares (NLS) methods have also been recommended; existing NLS methods are accurate but slow. In this paper, we propose the use of gradient-based optimization methods. We discuss the mathematical calculation of the derivatives and further show that they can be computed efficiently, at the same cost as one iteration of ALS. Computational experiments demonstrate that the gradient-based optimization methods are much more accurate than ALS and orders of magnitude faster than NLS.

  4. Canonical quantization of the Proca field in the Rindler wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castineiras, Jorge; Correa, Emerson Benedito Sousa; Crispino, Luis Carlos Bassalo; Matsas, George Emanuel Avraam

    2009-01-01

    Full text. We perform the canonical quantization of a massive vector field in Rindler spacetime. We pay special attention to the zero frequency modes of the Proca field because these are the modes that interact with structureless sources which are static in the Rindler spacetime. Our motivation is the computation of the total response of a static source with some fixed proper acceleration a 0 in Rindler spacetime interacting with the zero energy massive vector particle of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh (FDU) thermal bath and compare it with the response of a static source with the same proper acceleration a 0 outside a Schwarzschild black hole interacting with the massive vector particles of the Hawking thermal radiation. Surprisingly, as it was already shown in a resent article, these responses would be identical if a massless scalar field is consider instead of the massive vector field, the field outside the Schwarzschild black hole is supposed to be in the Unruh vacuum and the source proper acceleration is the same in both cases. This came as a surprise because structureless static sources can only interact with zero-frequency field modes. Such modes can probe the global geometry of spacetime and are accordingly quite different in Schwarzschild spacetime and in the Rindler wedge. (author)

  5. On the Syntax of Canonical Comparatives in European Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Matos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparative constructions in English and other Germanic and Romance languages have been analysed either as subordinate or coordinate structures. Focussing European Portuguese (=EP we will argue, from a syntactic point of view, that there is evidence for the coordinate nature of canonical comparatives in this language. In fact, not only many properties of these constructions distinguish them from subordinate structures, but also most of the characteristics attributed to the subordinate status of comparatives can also be accounted for within the coordinate approach. In particular, the selection of the comparative phrase by the degree marker in the first term of comparison may be viewed as a case of correlative coordination. In the same line of reasoning, the islands effects exhibited by comparative clauses do not constitute a compelling evidence for the systematic presence of a wh-operator, since they may also arise in other cases of A-bar movement. So, though accepting that Comparative and Subcomparative deletions are two distinct cases of Operator-variable chain, relying on empirical evidence across other Romance languages, we will analyse Comparative Deletion in European Portuguese as an instance of (Quantified Null Object and we will impute Subcomparative deletion to Quantifier Raising at LF for scope assignment purposes.

  6. A Laboratory Astrophysical Jet to Study Canonical Flux Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Setthivoine [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-12-20

    Understanding the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields remains a fundamental problem in plasma physics, with important applications to astrophysics, fusion energy, and advanced space propulsion. For example, flows are of primary importance in astrophysical jets even if it is not fully understood how jets become so long without becoming unstable. Theories for the origin of magnetic fields in the cosmos rely on flowing charged fluids that should generate magnetic fields, yet this remains to be demonstrated experimentally. Fusion energy reactors can be made smaller with flows that improve stability and confinement. Advanced space propulsion could be more efficient with collimated and stable plasma flows through magnetic nozzles but must eventually detach from the nozzle. In all these cases, there appears to be a spontaneous emergence of flowing and/or magnetic structures, suggesting a form of self-organization in plasmas. Beyond satisfying simple intellectual curiosity, understanding plasma self-organization could enable the development of methods to control plasma structures for fusion energy, space propulsion, and other applications. The research project has therefore built a theory and an experiment to investigate the interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows. The theory is called canonical field theory for short, and the experiment is called Mochi after a rice cake filled with surprising, yet delicious fillings.

  7. Improved grand canonical sampling of vapour-liquid transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Nigel B

    2016-10-19

    Simulation within the grand canonical ensemble is the method of choice for accurate studies of first order vapour-liquid phase transitions in model fluids. Such simulations typically employ sampling that is biased with respect to the overall number density in order to overcome the free energy barrier associated with mixed phase states. However, at low temperature and for large system size, this approach suffers a drastic slowing down in sampling efficiency. The culprits are geometrically induced transitions (stemming from the periodic boundary conditions) which involve changes in droplet shape from sphere to cylinder and cylinder to slab. Since the overall number density does not discriminate sufficiently between these shapes, it fails as an order parameter for biasing through the transitions. Here we report two approaches to ameliorating these difficulties. The first introduces a droplet shape based order parameter that generates a transition path from vapour to slab states for which spherical and cylindrical droplets are suppressed. The second simply biases with respect to the number density in a tetragonal subvolume of the system. Compared to the standard approach, both methods offer improved sampling, allowing estimates of coexistence parameters and vapor-liquid surface tension for larger system sizes and lower temperatures.

  8. The Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients Is Affected Not Only by Medical but also Psychosocial Factors: a Canonical Correlation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Kang, Gun Woo; Woo, Jungmin

    2018-04-02

    The quality of life (QoL) of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is very poor, plausibly due to both psychosocial and medical factors. This study aimed to determine the relationship among psychosocial factors, medical factors, and QoL in patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In total, 55 male and 47 female patients were evaluated (mean age, 57.1 ± 12.0 years). The QoL was evaluated using the Korean version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Abbreviated Version. The psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Zarit Burden Interview. The medical factors were assessed using laboratory examinations. Correlation and canonical correlation analyses were performed to investigate the association patterns. The QoL was significantly correlated with the psychosocial factors, and to a lesser extent with the medical factors. The medical and psychosocial factors were also correlated. The canonical correlation analysis indicated a correlation between QoL and psychosocial factors (1st canonical correlation = 0.696, P psychosocial factors were also correlated (1st canonical correlation = 0.689, P Psychosocial factors influence QoL in patients with ESRD, and should thus be carefully considered when caring for these patients in clinical practice. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. unique determination of structure and velocity by 3-d tomographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    In this paper the cause of this velocity-depth ambiguity is examined and a methodology is proposed that ..... Thus the matrix. A has a null space and we have infinite solution ... acquired in the North Sea along 10 parallel profiles with a ship ...

  10. A Unique ISR Program Determines Cellular Responses to Chronic Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guan, B.J.; van Hoef, V.; Jobava, R.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Cargnello, M.; Gao, X.H.; Krokowski, D.; Merrick, W.C.; Kimball, S.R.; Komar, A.A.; Koromilas, A.E.; Wynshaw-Boris, A.; Topisirovic, I.; Larsson, O.; Hatzoglou, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2017), s. 885-900 ISSN 1097-2765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06238S EU Projects: Wellcome Trust(GB) 090812/B/09/A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE * EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATION * ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 14.714, year: 2016

  11. Place Of Canon Law Of The Russian Empire In The System Io Humanitarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines place of canon law in the system of humanitarian sciences in the Russian Empire at the end of XVIII - early XX centuries. Author reveals interaction of canon law with philosophy, philology, jurisprudence. In particular, author shows influence of various philosophical schools on the development of the canon law science, value of foreign researches translation for the development of national science of canon law starting from the end of the XVIII century. It is found that all researchers in the field of canon law had special scientific works on philosophy. Interference of cannon law and theological science – dogmatic theology, moral theology, liturgy, church geography, chronology, statistics, history, archeology, pastoral theology is considered. In the article works of leading specialists in the field of canon law the second half of XIX - early XX centuries that were left as a significant legacy after the Archimandrite Gabriel, I.S. Berdnikova, N.A. Zaozerskii, I.M. Skvortsov and others are analyzed. In conclusion author shows complexity and urgency of the problem in the process of church (canon law study at the present stage, when there is some struggle between the secular and religious science.

  12. Methods of Weyl representation of the phase space and canonical transformations. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budanov, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    The kernel structure of canonical transformation and differential equation for the intertwining operator is found. The Weyl symbol of operators producing linear canonical transformations is associated with the Cayley transformation of classical canonical transformation. Due to the invariance of the Weyl formalism a complete study of singularity and factorization of these symbols is manageable. In particular, one can study the symbols of Green functions and elements of Lie groups and find the spectra of arbitrary stationary quadratic Hamiltonians with the help of the known classification of the spectra of classical systems

  13. Linear response calculation using the canonical-basis TDHFB with a schematic pairing functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    A canonical-basis formulation of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory is obtained with an approximation that the pair potential is assumed to be diagonal in the time-dependent canonical basis. The canonical-basis formulation significantly reduces the computational cost. We apply the method to linear-response calculations for even-even nuclei. E1 strength distributions for proton-rich Mg isotopes are systematically calculated. The calculation suggests strong Landau damping of giant dipole resonance for drip-line nuclei.

  14. The canonical partial metric and the uniform convexity on normed spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oltra

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of canonical partial metric associated to a norm to study geometric properties of normed spaces. In particular, we characterize strict convexity and uniform convexity of normed spaces in terms of the canonical partial metric defined by its norm. We prove that these geometric properties can be considered, in this sense, as topological properties that appear when we compare the natural metric topology of the space with the non translation invariant topology induced by the canonical partial metric in the normed space.

  15. An evaluation of canonical forms for non-rigid 3D shape retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, David; Liu, Juncheng; Sun, Xianfang; Rosin, Paul L.; Martin, Ralph R.; Cheng, Zhiquan; Lian, Zhouhui; Nie, Sipin; Jin, Longcun; Shamai, Gil; Sahillioğlu, Yusuf; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Canonical forms attempt to factor out a non-rigid shape’s pose, giving a pose-neutral shape. This opens up the\\ud possibility of using methods originally designed for rigid shape retrieval for the task of non-rigid shape retrieval.\\ud We extend our recent benchmark for testing canonical form algorithms. Our new benchmark is used to evaluate a\\ud greater number of state-of-the-art canonical forms, on five recent non-rigid retrieval datasets, within two different\\ud retrieval frameworks. A tota...

  16. An unconventional canonical quantization of local scalar fields over quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1985-12-01

    An unconventional extension of the canonical quantization method is presented for a classical local field theory. The proposed canonical commutation relations have a solution in the A-valued Hilbert space where A is the algebra of the bounded operators of the Hilbert space Lsup(2) (IRsup(3)). The canonical equations as operator equations are equivalent formally with the classical field equations, and are well defined for interacting systems, too. This model of quantized field lacks some of the difficulties of the conventional approach. Examples satisfying the asymptotic condition provide examples for Haag-Kastler's axioms, however, they satisfy Wightman's axioms only partially. (author)

  17. Application of the TRAC-PD2 code to the simulation of the CANON experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves Conti, T. das; Freitas, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison between the TRAC -PD2 code calculations and results from the CANON experiment is presented. The CANON experiment simulates the loss of coolant accident through the depressurization of a horizontal tube containing water at different temperatures. The experiment consist of the instantaneous rupture at one end of the tubing and the corresponding pressure and void fraction measurements during the transient. The comparison shows that the TRAC-PD2 code predicts satisfactorily the pressure and void fraction evolution in the CANON experiment. (F.C.) [pt

  18. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  19. Benchmarking Measures of Network Controllability on Canonical Graph Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Yan, Elena; Betzel, Richard F.; Tang, Evelyn; Gu, Shi; Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2018-03-01

    The control of networked dynamical systems opens the possibility for new discoveries and therapies in systems biology and neuroscience. Recent theoretical advances provide candidate mechanisms by which a system can be driven from one pre-specified state to another, and computational approaches provide tools to test those mechanisms in real-world systems. Despite already having been applied to study network systems in biology and neuroscience, the practical performance of these tools and associated measures on simple networks with pre-specified structure has yet to be assessed. Here, we study the behavior of four control metrics (global, average, modal, and boundary controllability) on eight canonical graphs (including Erdős-Rényi, regular, small-world, random geometric, Barábasi-Albert preferential attachment, and several modular networks) with different edge weighting schemes (Gaussian, power-law, and two nonparametric distributions from brain networks, as examples of real-world systems). We observe that differences in global controllability across graph models are more salient when edge weight distributions are heavy-tailed as opposed to normal. In contrast, differences in average, modal, and boundary controllability across graph models (as well as across nodes in the graph) are more salient when edge weight distributions are less heavy-tailed. Across graph models and edge weighting schemes, average and modal controllability are negatively correlated with one another across nodes; yet, across graph instances, the relation between average and modal controllability can be positive, negative, or nonsignificant. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that controllability statistics (and their relations) differ across graphs with different topologies and that these differences can be muted or accentuated by differences in the edge weight distributions. More generally, our numerical studies motivate future analytical efforts to better understand the mathematical

  20. The Final Problem: Constructing Coherence in the Holmesian Canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ulleland Hoel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The death and resurrection of Sherlock Holmes, a contrarian reading in which Holmes helps the murderer, and the century-long tradition of the Holmesian Great Game with its pseudo-scholarly readings in light of an ironic conviction that Holmes is real and Arthur Conan Doyle merely John Watson’s literary agent. This paper relies on these events in the afterlife of Sherlock Holmes in order to trace an outline of the author function as it applies to the particular case of Doyle as the author of the Sherlock Holmes stories. The operations of the author function can be hard to identify in the encounter with the apparently natural unity of the individual work, but these disturbances at the edges of the function make its effects more readily apparent.  This article takes as its starting point the apparently strong author figure of the Holmesian Great Game, in which “the canon” is delineated from “apocrypha” in pseudo-religious vocabulary. It argues that while readers willingly discard provisional readings in the face of an incompatible authorial text, the sanctioning authority of the author functions merely as a boundary for interpretation, not as a personal-biographical control over the interpretation itself. On the contrary, the consciously “writerly” reading of the text serves to reinforce the reliance on the text as it is encountered. The clear separation of canon from apocrypha, with the attendant reinforced author function, may have laid the ground not only for the acceptance of contrarian reading, but also for the creation of apocryphal writings like pastiche and fan fiction.

  1. Canonical correlation analysis for gene-based pleiotropy discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Seoane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified a wealth of genetic variants involved in complex traits and multifactorial diseases. There is now considerable interest in testing variants for association with multiple phenotypes (pleiotropy and for testing multiple variants for association with a single phenotype (gene-based association tests. Such approaches can increase statistical power by combining evidence for association over multiple phenotypes or genetic variants respectively. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA measures the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables, and thus offers the potential to combine these two approaches. To apply CCA, we must restrict the number of attributes relative to the number of samples. Hence we consider modules of genetic variation that can comprise a gene, a pathway or another biologically relevant grouping, and/or a set of phenotypes. In order to do this, we use an attribute selection strategy based on a binary genetic algorithm. Applied to a UK-based prospective cohort study of 4286 women (the British Women's Heart and Health Study, we find improved statistical power in the detection of previously reported genetic associations, and identify a number of novel pleiotropic associations between genetic variants and phenotypes. New discoveries include gene-based association of NSF with triglyceride levels and several genes (ACSM3, ERI2, IL18RAP, IL23RAP and NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes. In multiple-phenotype analyses we find association of NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes, fibrinogen and urea and pleiotropic relationships of F7 and F10 with Factor VII, Factor IX and cholesterol levels.

  2. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  3. Canonical path integral measures for Holst and Plebanski gravity: I. Reduced phase space derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, Jonathan; Han Muxin; Thiemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect in defining a path integral quantum theory is the determination of the correct measure. For interacting theories and theories with constraints, this is non-trivial, and is normally not the heuristic 'Lebesgue measure' usually used. There have been many determinations of a measure for gravity in the literature, but none for the Palatini or Holst formulations of gravity. Furthermore, the relations between different resulting measures for different formulations of gravity are usually not discussed. In this paper we use the reduced phase technique in order to derive the path-integral measure for the Palatini and Holst formulation of gravity, which is different from the Lebesgue measure up to local measure factors which depend on the spacetime volume element and spatial volume element. From this path integral for the Holst formulation of general relativity we can also give a new derivation of the Plebanski path integral and discover a discrepancy with the result due to Buffenoir, Henneaux, Noui and Roche whose origin we resolve. This paper is the first in a series that aims at better understanding the relation between canonical loop quantum gravity and the spin-foam approach.

  4. Social inequality, lifestyles and health - a non-linear canonical correlation analysis based on the approach of Pierre Bourdieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Janssen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theoretical and empirical approach of Pierre Bourdieu, a multivariate non-linear method is introduced as an alternative way to analyse the complex relationships between social determinants and health. The analysis is based on face-to-face interviews with 695 randomly selected respondents aged 30 to 59. Variables regarding socio-economic status, life circumstances, lifestyles, health-related behaviour and health were chosen for the analysis. In order to determine whether the respondents can be differentiated and described based on these variables, a non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed. The results can be described on three dimensions; Eigenvalues add up to the fit of 1.444, which can be interpreted as approximately 50 % of explained variance. The three-dimensional space illustrates correspondences between variables and provides a framework for interpretation based on latent dimensions, which can be described by age, education, income and gender. Using non-linear canonical correlation analysis, health characteristics can be analysed in conjunction with socio-economic conditions and lifestyles. Based on Bourdieus theoretical approach, the complex correlations between these variables can be more substantially interpreted and presented.

  5. RNase MRP is required for entry of 35S precursor rRNA into the canonical processing pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lasse; Bommankanti, Ananth; Li, Xing; Hayden, Lauren; Jones, Adrienne; Khan, Miriam; Oni, Tolulope; Zengel, Janice M

    2009-07-01

    RNase MRP is a nucleolar RNA-protein enzyme that participates in the processing of rRNA during ribosome biogenesis. Previous experiments suggested that RNase MRP makes a nonessential cleavage in the first internal transcribed spacer. Here we report experiments with new temperature-sensitive RNase MRP mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that show that the abundance of all early intermediates in the processing pathway is severely reduced upon inactivation of RNase MRP. Transcription of rRNA continues unabated as determined by RNA polymerase run-on transcription, but the precursor rRNA transcript does not accumulate, and appears to be unstable. Taken together, these observations suggest that inactivation of RNase MRP blocks cleavage at sites A0, A1, A2, and A3, which in turn, prevents precursor rRNA from entering the canonical processing pathway (35S > 20S + 27S > 18S + 25S + 5.8S rRNA). Nevertheless, at least some cleavage at the processing site in the second internal transcribed spacer takes place to form an unusual 24S intermediate, suggesting that cleavage at C2 is not blocked. Furthermore, the long form of 5.8S rRNA is made in the absence of RNase MRP activity, but only in the presence of Xrn1p (exonuclease 1), an enzyme not required for the canonical pathway. We conclude that RNase MRP is a key enzyme for initiating the canonical processing of precursor rRNA transcripts, but alternative pathway(s) might provide a backup for production of small amounts of rRNA.

  6. Canonical correlation analysis of the career attitudes and strategies inventory and the adult career concerns inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene C Lew

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between the scales of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI and those of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (CASI. The scores of 202 South African adults for the two inventories were subjected to a canonical correlation analysis. Two canonical variates made statistically significant contributions to the explanation of the relationships between the two sets of variables. Inspection of the correlations of the original variables with the first canonical variate suggested that a high level of career concerns in general, as measured by the ACCI, is associated with high levels of career worries, more geographical barriers, a low risk-taking style and a non-dominant interpersonal style, as measured by the CASI. The second canonical variate suggested that concerns with career exploration and advancement of one’s career is associated with low job satisfaction, low family commitment, high work involvement, and a dominant style at work.

  7. Logic, algebra and topology: investigations into canonical extensions, duality theory and point-free topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosmaer, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation we discuss three subjects: canonical extensions of lattice-based algebras, Stone duality for distributive lattices with operators, and a generalization of the point-free Vietoris powerlocale construction.

  8. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis 90-Day Seasonal Forecast of Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) precipitation forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface precipitation anomalies. The ECCA uses...

  9. Sparse canonical correlation analysis for identifying, connecting and completing gene-expression networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijenborg, S.; Zwinderman, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We generalized penalized canonical correlation analysis for analyzing microarray gene-expression measurements for checking completeness of known metabolic pathways and identifying candidate genes for incorporation in the pathway. We used Wold's method for calculation of the

  10. The influence of canon law on ius commune in its formative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmeti Sami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Medieval period, Roman law and canon law formed ius commune or the common European law. The similarity between Roman and canon law was that they used the same methods and the difference was that they relied on different authoritative texts. In their works canonists and civilists combined the ancient Greek achievements in philosophy with the Roman achievements in the field of law. Canonists were the first who carried out research on the distinctions between various legal sources and systematized them according to a hierarchical order. The Medieval civilists sought solutions in canon law for a large number of problems that Justinian’s Codification did not hinge on or did it only superficially. Solutions offered by canon law were accepted not only in the civil law of Continental Europe, but also in the English law.

  11. Dissipative quantum mechanics: The generalization of the canonical quantization and von Neumann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.E.

    1994-07-01

    Sedov variational principle, which is the generalization of the least actional principle for the dissipative processes is used to generalize the canonical quantization and von Neumann equation for dissipative systems (particles and strings). (author). 66 refs, 1 fig

  12. New integral representations of the Maslov canonical operator in singular charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Nazaikinskii, V. E.; Shafarevich, A. I.

    2017-04-01

    We construct a new integral representation of the Maslov canonical operator convenient in numerical-analytical calculations, present an algorithm implementing this representation, and consider a number of examples.

  13. Unique molecular landscapes in cancer: implications for individualized, curated drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheler, Jennifer; Lee, J Jack; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2014-12-15

    With increasingly sophisticated technologies in molecular biology and "omic" platforms to analyze patients' tumors, more molecular diversity and complexity in cancer are being observed. Recently, we noted unique genomic profiles in a group of patients with metastatic breast cancer based on an analysis with next-generation sequencing. Among 57 consecutive patients, no two had the same molecular portfolio. Applied genomics therefore appears to represent a disruptive innovation in that it unveils a heterogeneity to metastatic cancer that may be ill-suited to canonical clinical trials and practice paradigms. Upon recognizing that patients have unique tumor landscapes, it is possible that there may be a "mismatch" between our traditional clinical trials system that selects patients based on common characteristics to evaluate a drug (drug-centric approach) and optimal treatment based on curated, individualized drug combinations for each patient (patient-centric approach). ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Traditional Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing in Canon of Avicenna

    OpenAIRE

    Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Burns are a worldwide problem. The incidence of severe burns has been higher than the combined incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Throughout history there have been many different treatments prescribed for burns. The Canon is the masterpiece of Avicenna’s medical books. The Canon includes a description of 785 simple drugs. Avicenna believed in burn treatment, which follows two goals. The first goal is prevention of blistering and the second goal is treatment of the burn wound after...

  15. The Canon is el Boom, et. al., or the Hispanic Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Bell-Villada, Gene H.

    2002-01-01

    In his article, Gene H. Bell-Villada's "The Canon is el Boom, et. al., or the Hispanic Difference," argues that the rich, globally acclaimed, foundational yet contestatory prose literature produced in Latin America allows teachers and scholars of Spanish to teach what is essentially the "canon" via work that is still fresh, yet historically provocative. Bell-Villada argues that in a time of reconsidering the importance of literature in literature programs, programs of Spanish language and cul...

  16. Cable Connected Spinning Spacecraft, 1. the Canonical Equations, 2. Urban Mass Transportation, 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitchin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Work on the dynamics of cable-connected spinning spacecraft was completed by formulating the equations of motion by both the canonical equations and Lagrange's equations and programming them for numerical solution on a digital computer. These energy-based formulations will permit future addition of the effect of cable mass. Comparative runs indicate that the canonical formulation requires less computer time. Available literature on urban mass transportation was surveyed. Areas of the private rapid transit concept of urban transportation are also studied.

  17. Beyond or Below the Horizon? Sublime and Subliminal Challenges in Stewarding the Literary Canon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børch, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The chapter discusses how certain texts may be excluded from canonical status by forms of resistance traceable to scholars' anxiety. Examples of such exiety are the 'fear of faith' and the 'fear of the literal.'......The chapter discusses how certain texts may be excluded from canonical status by forms of resistance traceable to scholars' anxiety. Examples of such exiety are the 'fear of faith' and the 'fear of the literal.'...

  18. Discourse context and the recognition of reduced and canonical spoken words

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, S.; Mitterer, H.; Huettig, F.

    2013-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments we examined whether wider discourse information helps the recognition of reduced pronunciations (e.g., 'puter') more than the recognition of canonical pronunciations of spoken words (e.g., 'computer'). Dutch participants listened to sentences from a casual speech corpus containing canonical and reduced target words. Target word recognition was assessed by measuring eye fixation proportions to four printed words on a visual display: the target, a "reduced form" ...

  19. A note on T-duality, open strings in B-field background and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper we study T-duality for open strings ending on branes with non-zero B-field on them from the point of view of canonical transformations. For the particular case of type II strings on the two torus we show that the Sl(2, Z) N transformations can be understood as a sub-class of canonical transformations on the open strings in the B-field background. (author)

  20. Canonical Primal-Dual Method for Solving Non-convex Minimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Changzhi; Li, Chaojie; Gao, David Yang

    2012-01-01

    A new primal-dual algorithm is presented for solving a class of non-convex minimization problems. This algorithm is based on canonical duality theory such that the original non-convex minimization problem is first reformulated as a convex-concave saddle point optimization problem, which is then solved by a quadratically perturbed primal-dual method. %It is proved that the popular SDP method is indeed a special case of the canonical duality theory. Numerical examples are illustrated. Comparing...

  1. Inhibition of adipocytogenesis by canonical WNT signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Longxiang; Glowacki, Julie; Zhou, Shuanhu

    2011-01-01

    The WNT signaling pathway plays important roles in the self-renewal and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Little is known about WNT signaling in adipocyte differentiation of human MSCs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that canonical and non-canonical WNTs differentially regulate in vitro adipocytogenesis in human MSCs. The expression of adipocyte gene PPARγ2, lipoprotein lipase, and adipsin increased during adipocytogenesis of hMSCs. Simultaneously, the expression of canonical WNT2, 10B, 13, and 14 decreased, whereas non-canonical WNT4 and 11 increased, and WNT5A was unchanged. A small molecule WNT mimetic, SB-216763, increased accumulation of β-catenin protein, inhibited induction of WNT4 and 11 and inhibited adipocytogenesis. In contrast, knockdown of β-catenin with siRNA resulted in spontaneous adipocytogenesis. These findings support the view that canonical WNT signaling inhibits and non-canonical WNT signaling promotes adipocytogenesis in adult human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  2. Clifford Algebras and Spinorial Representation of Linear Canonical Transformations in Quantum Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R.; Rakotoson, H.

    2017-11-01

    This work is a continuation of previous works that we have done concerning linear canonical transformations and a phase space representation of quantum theory. It is mainly focused on the description of an approach which permits to establish spinorial representation of linear canonical transformations. It begins with an introduction section in which the reason and context of the content are discussed. The introduction section is followed by a brief recall about Clifford algebra and spin group. The description of the approach is started with the presentation of an adequate parameterization of linear canonical transformations which permits to represent them with special pseudo-orthogonal transformations in an operators space. The establishment of the spinorial representation is deduced using relation between special pseudo-orthogonal groups and spin groups. The cases of one dimension quantum mechanics and general multidimensional theory are both studied. The case of linear canonical transformation related to Minkowski space is particularly studied and it is shown that Lorentz transformation may be considered as particular case of linear canonical transformation. Some results from the spinorial representation are also exploited to define operators which may be used to establish equations for fields if one considers the possibility of envisaging a field theory which admits as main symmetry group the group constituted by linear canonical transformations.

  3. Extending Local Canonical Correlation Analysis to Handle General Linear Contrasts for fMRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwu Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local canonical correlation analysis (CCA is a multivariate method that has been proposed to more accurately determine activation patterns in fMRI data. In its conventional formulation, CCA has several drawbacks that limit its usefulness in fMRI. A major drawback is that, unlike the general linear model (GLM, a test of general linear contrasts of the temporal regressors has not been incorporated into the CCA formalism. To overcome this drawback, a novel directional test statistic was derived using the equivalence of multivariate multiple regression (MVMR and CCA. This extension will allow CCA to be used for inference of general linear contrasts in more complicated fMRI designs without reparameterization of the design matrix and without reestimating the CCA solutions for each particular contrast of interest. With the proper constraints on the spatial coefficients of CCA, this test statistic can yield a more powerful test on the inference of evoked brain regional activations from noisy fMRI data than the conventional t-test in the GLM. The quantitative results from simulated and pseudoreal data and activation maps from fMRI data were used to demonstrate the advantage of this novel test statistic.

  4. Canonical failure modes of real-time control systems: insights from cognitive theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-04-01

    Newly developed necessary conditions statistical models from cognitive theory are applied to generalisation of the data-rate theorem for real-time control systems. Rather than graceful degradation under stress, automatons and man/machine cockpits appear prone to characteristic sudden failure under demanding fog-of-war conditions. Critical dysfunctions span a spectrum of phase transition analogues, ranging from a ground state of 'all targets are enemies' to more standard data-rate instabilities. Insidious pathologies also appear possible, akin to inattentional blindness consequent on overfocus on an expected pattern. Via no-free-lunch constraints, different equivalence classes of systems, having structure and function determined by 'market pressures', in a large sense, will be inherently unreliable under different but characteristic canonical stress landscapes, suggesting that deliberate induction of failure may often be relatively straightforward. Focusing on two recent military case histories, these results provide a caveat emptor against blind faith in the current path-dependent evolutionary trajectory of automation for critical real-time processes.

  5. Proactive interference does not meaningfully distort visual working memory capacity estimates in the canonical change detection task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Han eLin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The change detection task has become a standard method for estimating the storage capacity of visual working memory. Most researchers assume that this task isolates the properties of an active short-term storage system that can be dissociated from long-term memory systems. However, long-term memory storage may influence performance on this task. In particular, memory traces from previous trials may create proactive interference that sometimes leads to errors, thereby reducing estimated capacity. Consequently, the capacity of visual working memory may be higher than is usually thought, and correlations between capacity and other measures of cognition may reflect individual differences in proactive interference rather than individual differences in the capacity of the short-term storage system. Indeed, previous research has shown that change detection performance can be influenced by proactive interference under some conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the canonical version of the change detection task—in which the to-be-remembered information consists of simple, briefly presented features—is influenced by proactive interference. Two experiments were conducted using methods that ordinarily produce substantial evidence of proactive interference, but no proactive interference was observed. Thus, the canonical version of the change detection task can be used to assess visual working memory capacity with no meaningful influence of proactive interference.

  6. Proactive interference does not meaningfully distort visual working memory capacity estimates in the canonical change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Han; Luck, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    The change detection task has become a standard method for estimating the storage capacity of visual working memory. Most researchers assume that this task isolates the properties of an active short-term storage system that can be dissociated from long-term memory systems. However, long-term memory storage may influence performance on this task. In particular, memory traces from previous trials may create proactive interference that sometimes leads to errors, thereby reducing estimated capacity. Consequently, the capacity of visual working memory may be higher than is usually thought, and correlations between capacity and other measures of cognition may reflect individual differences in proactive interference rather than individual differences in the capacity of the short-term storage system. Indeed, previous research has shown that change detection performance can be influenced by proactive interference under some conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the canonical version of the change detection task - in which the to-be-remembered information consists of simple, briefly presented features - is influenced by proactive interference. Two experiments were conducted using methods that ordinarily produce substantial evidence of proactive interference, but no proactive interference was observed. Thus, the canonical version of the change detection task can be used to assess visual working memory capacity with no meaningful influence of proactive interference.

  7. From Flies to Mice: The Emerging Role of Non-Canonical PRC1 Members in Mammalian Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Bajusz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Originally two types of Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs were described, canonical PRC1 (cPRC1 and PRC2. Recently, a versatile set of complexes were identified and brought up several dilemmas in PRC mediated repression. These new class of complexes were named as non-canonical PRC1s (ncPRC1s. Both cPRC1s and ncPRC1s contain Ring finger protein (RING1, RNF2 and Polycomb group ring finger catalytic (PCGF core, but in ncPRCs, RING and YY1 binding protein (RYBP, or YY1 associated factor 2 (YAF2, replaces the Chromobox (CBX and Polyhomeotic (PHC subunits found in cPRC1s. Additionally, ncPRC1 subunits can associate with versatile accessory proteins, which determine their functional specificity. Homozygous null mutations of the ncPRC members in mice are often lethal or cause infertility, which underlines their essential functions in mammalian development. In this review, we summarize the mouse knockout phenotypes of subunits of the six major ncPRCs. We highlight several aspects of their discovery from fly to mice and emerging role in target recognition, embryogenesis and cell-fate decision making. We gathered data from stem cell mediated in vitro differentiation assays and genetically engineered mouse models. Accumulating evidence suggests that ncPRC1s play profound role in mammalian embryogenesis by regulating gene expression during lineage specification of pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  9. Clinical EPR: Unique Opportunities and Some Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Hartford, Alan C.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice; Comi, Richard J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G.; Flood, Ann B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe and regulatory constraints. This paper describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry), and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease, by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

  10. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  11. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  12. Peatlands as a unique climatic hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinska, S.; Marcisz, K.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blazejczyk, K.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are unique environments, often acting as microrefugia of various taxa. High groundwater table, organic soils, specific vegetation and topography are important determinants of their local climatic conditions. However, relations between those determinants are not stable. For example, seasonal changes in weather patterns, hydrological dynamics, and local vegetation may alter microclimate. Additionally, long-term changes are important factor, as for example overgrowing due to significant change of microclimate conditions, what in turn changes geochemical and biological processes in the peat layer. We have been investigating interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of a small Sphagnum mire (ca. 6.0 ha) for over ten years now. The mire is located in Poland in transitional temperate climate and is the only place in polish lowlands where glacial relict Betula nana occurs. Identification of local climate of the mire, its microclimatic differentiation and its influence on surroundings were objectives of the study. We recorded water level fluctuations, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature and humidity, and peat temperature at five monitoring plots at the mire and observed significant differences between them. We also investigated Sphagnum mosses growth and testate amoeba diversity and community structure to understand biological response of those differences. We observed that local climate of the mire was significantly different from open area reference place, it was much colder especially during nights. The average minimal temperature at the height 30 cm for growing seasons 2010-2012 was 3.7oC lower there and ground frosts occurred even in the summer. The climate of the mire affected the forest directly adjacent to it, and depending on weather conditions the strength and the distance of this interaction was different. Our results show that micro-environmental changes affects on biological processes and should be taken into consideration

  13. Regional cluster policy between best practices and cultural uniqueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Boneschansker, E.; van Dijk, J.; Jansma, L.G.J.; Verhaar, K.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter deals with an intriguing paradox in current regional economic policy: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, more and more governments simultaneously try to copy policy experiences that have proved successful in a particular

  14. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. Copyright © 2013

  15. Canonical correlation between the gamma and X-ray data of Swift GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, L. G.; Horvath, I.; Meszaros, P.; Tusnady, G.; Veres, P.

    2009-01-01

    We used the canonical correlation analysis of the multivariate statistics to study the interrelation between the gamma (Fluence, 1 sec Peakflux, duration) and X-ray (early X flux, 24 hours X flux, X decay index, X spectral index, X HI column density) data. We computed the canonical correlations and variables showing that there is a significant interrelation between the gamma and X-ray data. Using the canonical variables resulted in the analysis we computed their correlations (canonical loadings) with the original ones. The canonical loadings revealed that the gamma-ray fluence and the early X-ray flux give the strongest contribution to the correlation in contrast to the X-ray decay index and spectral index. An interesting new result appears to be the strong contribution of the HI column density to the correlation. Accepting the collapsar model of long GRBs this effect may be interpreted as an indication for the ejection of an HI envelope by the progenitor in the course of producing the GRB.

  16. Total reduplication in Japanese ideophones: An exercise in Localized Canonical Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Kwon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linguistically, reduplication associated with iconic readings, such as plurality, iteration, and continuation, is prevalent in ideophones. However, not all reduplicative processes in ideophones are clearly iconic. Notably, both less and more iconic uses of reduplication are encountered in ordinary vocabulary resulting in the overlapping semantic functions of reduplication between ideophonic and non-ideophonic (i.e., prosaic lexical categories. Given this, the aim of this paper is not to establish one clear-cut point to distinguish ideophonic reduplication from prosaic reduplication that may be impossible, but to specify dimensions of possibilities along which several instances of ideophonic and prosaic reduplication can be calibrated, using Canonical Typology (Corbett 2003; 2005; 2006; 2007; 2012; 2015. The current paper adopts the canonical approach of typology in an innovative way – not to compare a reduplicative phenomenon across languages (classic “typology”, but within a language by drawing ideophonic and prosaic data from Japanese, which is rich in reduplication and ideophones. Measuring the canonicity values of the various occurring types of ideophonic and prosaic reduplication against six criteria for canonical ideophonic reduplication, this paper shows how many and what criteria can differentiate the two sets of phenomena. Consequently, it reveals how ideophonic and prosaic reduplication are alike or different from each other. It also demonstrates the utility of Localized Canonical Typology, for the precise description and analysis of complex categories in a single language.

  17. Quantum correlations of ideal Bose and Fermi gases in the canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Kazumasa; Kita, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    We derive an expression for the reduced density matrices of ideal Bose and Fermi gases in the canonical ensemble, which corresponds to the Bloch-De Dominicis (or Wick's) theorem in the grand canonical ensemble for normal-ordered products of operators. Using this expression, we study one- and two-body correlations of homogeneous ideal gases with N particles. The pair distribution function g (2) (r) of fermions clearly exhibits antibunching with g (2) (0) = 0 due to the Pauli exclusion principle at all temperatures, whereas that of normal bosons shows bunching with g (2) (0) ≈ 2, corresponding to the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect. For bosons below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature T 0 , an off-diagonal long-range order develops in the one-particle density matrix to reach g (1) (r) = 1 at T = 0, and the pair correlation starts to decrease towards g (2) (r) ≈ 1 at T = 0. The results for N → ∞ are seen to converge to those of the grand canonical ensemble obtained by assuming the average <ψ(r)> of the field operator ψ(r) below T 0 . This fact justifies the introduction of the 'anomalous' average <ψ(r)> ≠ 0 below T 0 in the grand canonical ensemble as a mathematical means of removing unphysical particle-number fluctuations to reproduce the canonical results in the thermodynamic limit. (author)

  18. Spatio-chromatic adaptation via higher-order canonical correlation analysis of natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Michael U; Laparra, Valero; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Malo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Independent component and canonical correlation analysis are two general-purpose statistical methods with wide applicability. In neuroscience, independent component analysis of chromatic natural images explains the spatio-chromatic structure of primary cortical receptive fields in terms of properties of the visual environment. Canonical correlation analysis explains similarly chromatic adaptation to different illuminations. But, as we show in this paper, neither of the two methods generalizes well to explain both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation at the same time. We propose a statistical method which combines the desirable properties of independent component and canonical correlation analysis: It finds independent components in each data set which, across the two data sets, are related to each other via linear or higher-order correlations. The new method is as widely applicable as canonical correlation analysis, and also to more than two data sets. We call it higher-order canonical correlation analysis. When applied to chromatic natural images, we found that it provides a single (unified) statistical framework which accounts for both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation. Filters with spatio-chromatic tuning properties as in the primary visual cortex emerged and corresponding-colors psychophysics was reproduced reasonably well. We used the new method to make a theory-driven testable prediction on how the neural response to colored patterns should change when the illumination changes. We predict shifts in the responses which are comparable to the shifts reported for chromatic contrast habituation.

  19. A review of the evidence for the canonical Wnt pathway in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkman Hans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microdeletion and microduplication copy number variations are found in patients with autism spectrum disorder and in a number of cases they include genes that are involved in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (for example, FZD9, BCL9 or CDH8. Association studies investigating WNT2, DISC1, MET, DOCK4 or AHI1 also provide evidence that the canonical Wnt pathway might be affected in autism. Prenatal medication with sodium-valproate or antidepressant drugs increases autism risk. In animal studies, it has been found that these medications promote Wnt signaling, including among others an increase in Wnt2 gene expression. Notably, the available genetic information indicates that not only canonical Wnt pathway activation, but also inhibition seems to increase autism risk. The canonical Wnt pathway plays a role in dendrite growth and suboptimal activity negatively affects the dendritic arbor. In principle, this provides a logical explanation as to why both hypo- and hyperactivity may generate a similar set of behavioral and cognitive symptoms. However, without a validated biomarker to stratify for deviant canonical Wnt pathway activity, it is probably too dangerous to treat patients with compounds that modify pathway activity.

  20. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of the Gowdy T3 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jeronimo; Marugan, Guillermo A. Mena; Velhinho, Jose M.

    2007-01-01

    After its reduction by a gauge-fixing procedure, the family of linearly polarized Gowdy T 3 cosmologies admits a scalar field description whose evolution is governed by a Klein-Gordon type equation in a flat background in 1+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of S 1 , though in the presence of a time-dependent potential. The model is still subject to a homogeneous constraint, which generates S 1 -translations. Recently, a Fock quantization of this scalar field was introduced and shown to be unique under the requirements of unitarity of the dynamics and invariance under the gauge group of S 1 -translations. In this work, we extend and complete this uniqueness result by considering other possible scalar field descriptions, resulting from reasonable field reparametrizations of the induced metric of the reduced model. In the reduced phase space, these alternate descriptions can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the field, the inverse scaling of its canonical momentum, and the possible addition of a time-dependent, linear contribution of the field to this momentum. Demanding again unitarity of the field dynamics and invariance under the gauge group, we prove that the alternate canonical pairs of fieldlike variables admit a Fock representation if and only if the scaling of the field is constant in time. In this case, there exists essentially a unique Fock representation, provided by the quantization constructed by Corichi, Cortez, and Mena Marugan. In particular, our analysis shows that the scalar field description proposed by Pierri does not admit a Fock quantization with the above unitarity and invariance properties

  1. Building the image of modern art : the rhetoric of two museums and the representation and canonization of modern art (1935-1975) : the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leigh, Nana

    2008-01-01

    The Rhetoric of Two Museums and the Representation and Canonization of Modern Art (1935-1975): The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York Museums of modern art have determined the course of modern art history. Their contributions to the representation and

  2. Contraction of high eccentricity satellite orbits using uniformly regular KS canonical elements with oblate diurnally varying atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Xavier James

    2016-07-01

    Accurate orbit prediction of an artificial satellite under the influence of air drag is one of the most difficult and untraceable problem in orbital dynamics. The orbital decay of these satellites is mainly controlled by the atmospheric drag effects. The effects of the atmosphere are difficult to determine, since the atmospheric density undergoes large fluctuations. The classical Newtonian equations of motion, which is non linear is not suitable for long-term integration. Many transformations have emerged in the literature to stabilize the equations of motion either to reduce the accumulation of local numerical errors or allowing the use of large integration step sizes, or both in the transformed space. One such transformation is known as KS transformation by Kustaanheimo and Stiefel, who regularized the nonlinear Kepler equations of motion and reduced it into linear differential equations of a harmonic oscillator of constant frequency. The method of KS total energy element equations has been found to be a very powerful method for obtaining numerical as well as analytical solution with respect to any type of perturbing forces, as the equations are less sensitive to round off and truncation errors. The uniformly regular KS canonical equations are a particular canonical form of the KS differential equations, where all the ten KS Canonical elements αi and βi are constant for unperturbed motion. These equations permit the uniform formulation of the basic laws of elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic motion. Using these equations, developed analytical solution for short term orbit predictions with respect to Earth's zonal harmonic terms J2, J3, J4. Further, these equations were utilized to include the canonical forces and analytical theories with air drag were developed for low eccentricity orbits (e 0.2) orbits by assuming the atmosphere to be oblate only. In this paper a new non-singular analytical theory is developed for the motion of high eccentricity satellite

  3. Gauge invariance and canonical quantization applied in the study of internal structure of gauge field systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Chen Xiangsong; Lue Xiaofu; Sun Weiming; Goldman, T.

    2010-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However, we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed.

  4. On the completeness of the canonical reductions from Kac-Moody to W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlinn, W.

    1997-01-01

    We study the question as to whether the canonical reductions of Kac-Moody (KM) algebras to W-algebras are exhaustive. We first review and consolidate previous results. In particular we show that, apart from the two lowest grades, the canonical reductions are the only ones that respect the physically reasonable requirement that the W-algebra have no negative conformal weights. We then break new ground by formulating a condition that the W-algebra be differential polynomial. We apply the condition that the W-algebra be polynomial (in a particular gauge) and primary to the groups SL(N,R) with integral SL(2,R) embeddings. We find that, subject to some reasonable technical assumptions, the canonical reductions are exhaustive (except possibly at grade one). The derivation suggests that similar results hold for the other classes of simple groups. (orig.)

  5. Transforming differential equations of multi-loop Feynman integrals into canonical form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Christoph [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-03

    The method of differential equations has been proven to be a powerful tool for the computation of multi-loop Feynman integrals appearing in quantum field theory. It has been observed that in many instances a canonical basis can be chosen, which drastically simplifies the solution of the differential equation. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that computes the transformation to a canonical basis, starting from some basis that is, for instance, obtained by the usual integration-by-parts reduction techniques. The algorithm requires the existence of a rational transformation to a canonical basis, but is otherwise completely agnostic about the differential equation. In particular, it is applicable to problems involving multiple scales and allows for a rational dependence on the dimensional regulator. It is demonstrated that the algorithm is suitable for current multi-loop calculations by presenting its successful application to a number of non-trivial examples.

  6. Paintings beyond the Boundaries of the Canon: Bulgarian Churches and Monasteries XVII - XIX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sabev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditions in the decoration of Christian temples on the Balkans are largely related to strictly established rules, deriving from Byzantium and developed in the theological ranges in the empire. The holy fathers like John of Damascus and Theodore the Studite announced themselves in defense of veneration of the icons (overcoming the crisis of persecution, something more – their theological insights and logically consistent studies give the possibility to artists to express their feelings and conceptions but taking into consideration the ecclesiastical rules – canons. The article explores process of breaking the boundaries of canon set by Church Fathers as a result of unpreparedness, ignorance and total aesthetic decline after Ottoman invasion. It is appeared various levels of naive art and breaking of the canon established by the Orthodox Church. Many examples passing beyond the boundaries of ecclesiastical rules are presented.

  7. Black-hole horizons in modified spacetime structures arising from canonical quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Paily, George M; Reyes, Juan D; Tibrewala, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Several properties of canonical quantum gravity modify spacetime structures, sometimes to the degree that no effective line elements exist to describe the geometry. An analysis of solutions, for instance in the context of black holes, then requires new insights. In this paper, standard definitions of horizons in spherical symmetry are first reformulated canonically, and then evaluated for solutions of equations and constraints modified by inverse-triad corrections of loop quantum gravity. When possible, a spacetime analysis is performed which reveals a mass threshold for black holes and small changes to Hawking radiation. For more general conclusions, canonical perturbation theory is developed to second order to include back-reaction from matter. The results shed light on the questions of whether renormalization of Newton's constant or other modifications of horizon conditions should be taken into account in computations of black-hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.

  8. Horizon-preserving dualities and perturbations in non-canonical scalar field cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the cosmological duality between inflation and cyclic contraction under the interchange a↔H to the case of non-canonical scalar field theories with varying speed of sound. The single duality in the canonical case generalizes to a family of three dualities constructed to leave the cosmological acoustic horizon invariant. We find three classes of models: (I) DBI inflation, (II) the non-canonical generalization of cyclic contraction, and (III) a new cosmological solution with rapidly decreasing speed of sound and relatively slowly growing scale factor, which we dub stalled cosmology. We construct dual analogs to the inflationary slow roll approximation, and solve for the curvature perturbation in all three cases. Both cyclic contraction and stalled cosmology predict a strongly blue spectrum for the curvature perturbations inconsistent with observations

  9. Generalized second law of thermodynamics for non-canonical scalar field model with corrected-entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudipta; Mamon, Abdulla Al; Debnath, Ujjal

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, we have assumed two types of horizons viz apparent horizon and event horizon for the universe and using first law of thermodynamics, we have examined the validity of GSL on both apparent and event horizons. Next, we have considered two types of entropy-corrections on apparent and event horizons. Using the modified area law, we have examined the validity of GSL of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons under some restrictions of model parameters. (orig.)

  10. Stabilizing canonical-ensemble calculations in the auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, C. N.; Alhassid, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods are powerful techniques for studying strongly interacting Fermi systems. However, implementing these methods on computers with finite-precision arithmetic requires careful attention to numerical stability. In the auxiliary-field Monte Carlo (AFMC) method, low-temperature or large-model-space calculations require numerically stabilized matrix multiplication. When adapting methods used in the grand-canonical ensemble to the canonical ensemble of fixed particle number, the numerical stabilization increases the number of required floating-point operations for computing observables by a factor of the size of the single-particle model space, and thus can greatly limit the systems that can be studied. We describe an improved method for stabilizing canonical-ensemble calculations in AFMC that exhibits better scaling, and present numerical tests that demonstrate the accuracy and improved performance of the method.

  11. Transforming differential equations of multi-loop Feynman integrals into canonical form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The method of differential equations has been proven to be a powerful tool for the computation of multi-loop Feynman integrals appearing in quantum field theory. It has been observed that in many instances a canonical basis can be chosen, which drastically simplifies the solution of the differential equation. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that computes the transformation to a canonical basis, starting from some basis that is, for instance, obtained by the usual integration-by-parts reduction techniques. The algorithm requires the existence of a rational transformation to a canonical basis, but is otherwise completely agnostic about the differential equation. In particular, it is applicable to problems involving multiple scales and allows for a rational dependence on the dimensional regulator. It is demonstrated that the algorithm is suitable for current multi-loop calculations by presenting its successful application to a number of non-trivial examples.

  12. Transforming differential equations of multi-loop Feynman integrals into canonical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The method of differential equations has been proven to be a powerful tool for the computation of multi-loop Feynman integrals appearing in quantum field theory. It has been observed that in many instances a canonical basis can be chosen, which drastically simplifies the solution of the differential equation. In this paper, an algorithm is presented that computes the transformation to a canonical basis, starting from some basis that is, for instance, obtained by the usual integration-by-parts reduction techniques. The algorithm requires the existence of a rational transformation to a canonical basis, but is otherwise completely agnostic about the differential equation. In particular, it is applicable to problems involving multiple scales and allows for a rational dependence on the dimensional regulator. It is demonstrated that the algorithm is suitable for current multi-loop calculations by presenting its successful application to a number of non-trivial examples.

  13. Algorithm for advanced canonical coding of planar chemical structures that considers stereochemical and symmetric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichi, Shungo; Iwata, Satoru; Uno, Takeaki; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroko

    2007-01-01

    We describe a rigorous and fast algorithm for advanced canonical coding of planar chemical structures based on the algorithm of Faulon et al. (J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2004, 44, 427-436). Our algorithm works well even for highly symmetric structures; moreover, an advantage of our algorithm includes providing a rigorous canonical numbering of atoms with a consideration of stereochemistry and recognizing symmetric moieties. The planar structural line notation with the canonical numbering is also fit for use with stereochemical line notation. These capabilities are usable for general purposes in chemical structural coding and are particularly essential for detecting equivalent atoms in NMR studies. This algorithm was implemented on a 13C NMR chemical shift prediction system CAST/CNMR. Applications of the algorithm to several organic compounds demonstrate the practical efficiency of the rigorous coding.

  14. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  15. Canonical correlations between agronomic traits and seed physiological quality in segregating soybean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E M; Silva, F M; Val, B H P; Pizolato Neto, A; Mauro, A O; Martins, C C; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between agronomic traits and physiological traits of seeds in segregating soybean populations by canonical correlation analysis. Seven populations and two commercial cultivars in three generations were used: F 3 plants and F 4 seeds; F 4 plants and F 5 seeds, and F 4 seeds and plants. The following agronomic traits (group I) were evaluated: number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, insertion height of first pod, number of pods, grain yield, and oil content. The physiological quality of seeds (group II) was evaluated using germination, accelerated aging, emergence, and emergence rate index tests. The results showed that agronomic traits and physiological traits of seeds are not independent. Intergroup associations were established by the first canonical pair for the generation of F 3 plants and F 4 seeds, especially between more productive plants with a larger pod number and high oil content and seeds with a high germination percentage and emergence rate. For the generation of F 4 plants and F 5 seeds, the first canonical pair indicated an association between reduced maturity cycle, seeds with a high emergence percentage and a high percentage of normal seedlings after accelerated aging. According to the second canonical pair, more productive and taller plants were associated with seed vigor. For the generation of F 4 seeds and plants, the associations established by the first canonical pair occurred between seed vigor and more productive plants with high oil content and reduced maturity cycle, and those established by the second canonical pair between seeds of high physiological quality and tall plants.

  16. A demonstration of the improved efficiency of the canonical coordinates method using nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Economic dispatch is the short-term determination of the optimal output from a number of electricity generation facilities to meet the system load while providing power. As such, it represents one of the main optimization problems in the operation of electrical power systems. This article presents techniques to substantially improve the efficiency of the canonical coordinates method (CCM) algorithm when applied to nonlinear combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problems. The improvement is to eliminate the need to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations, which appears in the line search process in the CCM algorithm. The modified algorithm was tested and the analytical solution was verified using nonlinear CHPED optimization problems, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of the algorithm. The CCM methods proved numerically stable and, in the case of nonlinear programs, produced solutions with unprecedented accuracy within a reasonable time.

  17. On the 'near to minimal' canonical realizations of the Lie algebra Csub(n)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, M.; Lassner, W.

    1975-01-01

    It is proved that canonical realizations of the Lie algebra Csub(n) in the quotient division ring Dsub(2(2n-2)) of the Weyl algebra Wsub(2(2n-2)) in 2n-2 quantum canonical pairs are, in a definite sense, related to the standard minimal one in Dsub(2n) contains Dsub(2(2n-2)). Further, in any realization of Csub(n) in Wsub(2(2n-1)) all Casimir operators are realized by multiples of identity element

  18. Newton equation for canonical, Lie-algebraic, and quadratic deformation of classical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daszkiewicz, Marcin; Walczyk, Cezary J.

    2008-01-01

    The Newton equation describing particle motion in a constant external field force on canonical, Lie-algebraic, and quadratic space-time is investigated. We show that for canonical deformation of space-time the dynamical effects are absent, while in the case of Lie-algebraic noncommutativity, when spatial coordinates commute to the time variable, the additional acceleration of the particle is generated. We also indicate that in the case of spatial coordinates commuting in a Lie-algebraic way, as well as for quadratic deformation, there appear additional velocity and position-dependent forces

  19. Canonical analysis of sentinel-1 radar and sentinel-2 optical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives results from joint analyses of dual polarimety synthetic aperture radar data from the Sentinel-1 mission and optical data from the Sentinel-2 mission. The analyses are carried out by means of traditional canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and canonical information analysis (CIA......). Where CCA is based on maximising correlation between linear combinations of the two data sets, CIA maximises mutual information between the two. CIA is a conceptually more pleasing method for the analysis of data with very different modalities such as radar and optical data. Although a little...

  20. Method of collective variables with reference system for the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukhnovskii, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    A method of collective variables with special reference system for the grand canonical ensemble is presented. An explicit form is obtained for the basis sixth-degree measure density needed to describe the liquid-gas phase transition. Here the author presents the fundamentals of the method, which are as follows: (1) the functional form for the partition function in the grand canonical ensemble; (2) derivation of thermodynamic relations for the coefficients of the Jacobian; (3) transition to the problem on an adequate lattice; and (4) obtaining of the explicit form for the functional of the partition function