WorldWideScience

Sample records for unique work context

  1. Musicians working in community contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rineke Smilde

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore types of learning, which takes place when musicians work in situations where they have to connect to community contexts. It will first address musicians’ changing professional roles in the changing sociocultural landscape and the need for lifelong learning and emergence of

  2. Psychological context of work meaningfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Paulík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant shift of approach to the management of organizations and workers in recent decades. This shift in management philosophy is characterized by converting from traditional, conventional (rather bureaucratic management models to rather humanistic/existential oriented models. This transition comes partly from the understanding that human resources are the most promising and effective way for organization development, partly from a shift in the understanding of the role of organizations in society. The key point of these approaches has become a "meaning" or "meaningfulness" in relation to the work and organization. The importance of work meaningfulness is not only in its potential to increase the competitiveness of organizations, but especially in its major (mostly positive impacts on the employee himself and his work (and by that the organization and its performance. Work meaningfulness is strongly connected to the work engagement, which represents the active personal participation in the work process, manifested by vigor, active cooperation, willingness to contribute to the company's success and dedication to work. Work engagement seems to be next important factor affecting work attitudes and achievements of employees. The paper gives an overview of various approaches to work meaningfulness and work engagement, on the basis of which authors propose new model of work meaningfulness with overlap to work engagement. The work meaningfulness is not seen as one-dimensional variable, but consists of complex of interacting factors and processes that define an individual perceived meaning and importance of the work. Meaningful work is influenced by three areas. The first is the organizational culture. This is defined as a specific pattern of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and assumptions that are often not clearly expressed, but affect the way individuals behave in an organization and how things are done. The second area is the work

  3. Social Symbolic Work in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    ‘the good organisation’ may offer a supportive organisational framework for social symbolic work, thus promoting regional development in peripheral and poorly developed regions. Exploring what qualifies as a ‘good organisation’, the paper identifies three key elements: management, motivation......This paper reports on a research project that explores social symbolic work. The social symbolic work in question seeks to introduce education in entrepreneurship into the school curriculum in a remote part of Greenland – in order to contribute to regional development. The paper investigates how...

  4. Providing care for migrant farm worker families in their unique sociocultural context and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Ann; Layne, Laura; Thomisee, Karen

    2010-04-01

    This article highlights the Farm Worker Family Health Program's (FWFHP) strategies for providing care to migrant farm workers residing within a unique social and cultural context. The care provided by health professions students from a variety of disciplines extends and augments the work of the local migrant farm worker clinic that is pushed beyond capacity during peak growing and harvest times. Nursing's social responsibility to care for underserved populations is a guiding principle of the FWFHP and shapes how the work is translated into action. The FWFHP is a community-academic partnership that began in the rural southeastern United States in 1993. Challenges facing migrant farm worker families include access to health care, language, health literacy, housing and sanitation, family and community integrity, and workplace safety. The nursing practice strategies used to address these health challenges may be adapted to strengthen health programs serving other populations who live in poverty or reside in low-resource settings.

  5. Supporting imagination in the context of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    looks into a specific working practice for problem solving called Proactive Review which was developed and implemented in a global IT company over a period of seven years. This working practice requires imagination from individuals, the teams in which the individuals belong, and the management at all......This chapter explores imagination in the context of work. When we work, we meet challenges and problems that we are obliged to solve. Most often we utilize well-defined work processes for the problem-solving, but now and then we run into new problems that need something else. This “something else......” includes imagination as we have to identify and describe the problem, imagine a path for problem solving, obstacles on this path and finally the possibilities for implementing the solution in the organization. Consequently, imagination involves not only one person, but also the colleagues that collaborated...

  6. Work engagement in the public service context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Work engagement has increasingly captured the attention of researchers and practitioners due to its positive impact on employee level outcomes and overall organizational performance (e.g. Bakker and Bal, 2010, Hallberg and Schaufeli, 2006). Therefore, several studies have been conducted in variou...... investigates the role of public service motivation (PSM) in relation to engagement and how it may be used to enhance engagement in a challenging public context characterized by high levels of emotional labor, control and increasing demands for efficiency....

  7. Codon-triplet context unveils unique features of the Candida albicans protein coding genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira José L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary forces that determine the arrangement of synonymous codons within open reading frames and fine tune mRNA translation efficiency are not yet understood. In order to tackle this question we have carried out a large scale study of codon-triplet contexts in 11 fungal species to unravel associations or relationships between codons present at the ribosome A-, P- and E-sites during each decoding cycle. Results Our analysis unveiled high bias within the context of codon-triplets, in particular strong preference for triplets of identical codons. We have also identified a surprisingly large number of codon-triplet combinations that vanished from fungal ORFeomes. Candida albicans exacerbated these features, showed an unbalanced tRNA population for decoding its pool of codons and used near-cognate decoding for a large set of codons, suggesting that unique evolutionary forces shaped the evolution of its ORFeome. Conclusion We have developed bioinformatics tools for large-scale analysis of codon-triplet contexts. These algorithms identified codon-triplets context biases, allowed for large scale comparative codon-triplet analysis, and identified rules governing codon-triplet context. They could also detect alterations to the standard genetic code.

  8. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  9. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  10. Global work contexts as sites of discursive sense making

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Nils Braad

    2014-01-01

    Global work contexts represent highly complex working environments with simultaneous attachment to several projects and teams (Rosen, Furst & Blackburn, 2007). This complexity increases the for the sense-making capabilities of employees (Weick, 1995). MyPhD project examines this sense-making process at it’s site of articulation by interviewing employees about their work context, identity and knowledge sharing practices. The interviews became sites of discursive sense-making revealing how ...

  11. Work context, job satisfaction and suffering in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greisse da Silveira Maissiat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the work context, job satisfaction and suffering from the perspective of workers in primary health care. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 242 employees of a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May to July 2012. The adopted instruments were the Work Context Assessment Scale (EACT and the Job Satisfaction and Suffering Indicators Scale (EIPST. Research also included descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. RESULTS: Organization (91.3% and work conditions (64% received the worst scores in terms of context. The indicators of job satisfaction were related to professional achievement (55.8%, freedom of expression (62.4% and recognition (59.9%. However, 64.5% presented professional exhaustion, which had an inverse association with age and years in the institution (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The workers evaluated their work context as inappropriate and complained of exhaustion, although they claimed their work affords some satisfaction.

  12. Tough Times: Adult Educators, Microaggressions, and the Work Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzi, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the roots, types, and effects of microaggressions in the workplace and discusses implications for adult educators who work in a domestic and transnational context. In a domestic context, the literature describes microaggressions as being based on differences in race, gender, sexual orientation, culture, and professional role,…

  13. Exploring the Unique Features of a First Nations Graduate-Level Social Work Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph C. Bodor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a one-time cohort of graduate-level social work students completed a unique MSW program. The program was delivered in partnership between the Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary and Blue Quills First Nations College and, of the twenty four graduates; twenty-one were of First Nations or Me´tis ancestry. The program honored traditional knowledge and ways of learning combined with a critical analysis of Western perspectives of social work knowledge. Strong fiscal resources enabled the program to establish a formal support network for the students and to support the development of Indigenous curriculum and programming that encouraged success for the students. The program was fundamentally different than urban on-campus programs while still maintaining graduate level accreditation requirements. This analysis of the program required the use of Indigenous Research Methodology to collect and create an understanding of the program. Instructors commented on the centered, empowered, balanced, and congruent students. The formal and informal, concrete and invisible supports to the students ensured the success of this program and this cohort of students. As one student commented, the program started in ceremony, ended in ceremony, and could not fail within the context ceremony.

  14. Within-culture variations of uniqueness: towards an integrative approach based on social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Elsa; Félonneau, Marie-Line

    2014-01-01

    Research on uniqueness is widely focused on cross-cultural comparisons and tends to postulate a certain form of within-culture homogeneity. Taking the opposite course of this classic posture, we aimed at testing an integrative approach enabling the study of within-culture variations of uniqueness. This approach considered different sources of variation: social status, gender, life contexts, and interpersonal comparison. Four hundred seventy-nine participants completed a measure based on descriptions of "self" and "other." Results showed important variations of uniqueness. An interaction between social status and life contexts revealed the expression of uniqueness in the low-status group. This study highlights the complexity of uniqueness that appears to be related to both cultural ideology and social hierarchy.

  15. The milieu of managerial work: an integrative framework linking work context to role requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Rubin, Robert S; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical and empirical efforts focusing on the interplay between work context and managerial role requirements have been conspicuously absent in the scholarly literature. This paucity exists despite over 60 years of research concerning the requirements of managerial work and with the rather universal recognition that work context meaningfully shapes organizational behavior. The authors developed a theoretical model linking different types of role requirements to different forms of work context. They empirically tested this framework with a nationally representative sample of 8,633 incumbent spanning 52 managerial occupations. Findings from hierarchical linear modeling analyses demonstrated that discrete forms of context (task, social, and physical) exert significant and predictable effects on managerial role requirements.

  16. Group Work Tests for Context-Rich Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion…

  17. Musicians working in community contexts : Perspectives of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore types of learning, which takes place when musicians work in situations where they have to connect to community contexts. It will first address musicians’ changing professional roles in the changing sociocultural landscape and the need for lifelong learning and emergence of li

  18. Unique crater morphologies on Vesta, and the context of a deep regolith and intermediate gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.; Nathues, A.; Vincent, J. B.; Sierks, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Dawn spacecraft orbiting the minor planet Vesta has revealed details of the surface properties on a key object for the understanding of the evolution processes in an early epoch of our planetary system. In order to understand these phenomena the three dimensional structure of the surface must be deduced from identifiable processes known to be present elsewhere in the planetary system. Therefore the morphology of impact craters and their geological context (Keil 2002, Clark et al. 2002) plays an important role. They expose material at significant depth in the surface layers, they show a chronologic sequence of rearrangement of the original uppermost layer of Vesta, and their apparent mechanical properties fill the gap between topographic roughness and micro-structural photometric roughness and porosity. Many impact craters on Vesta show significant differences to impact craters on the Moon and Mercury, where their morphology is basically dominated by a rigid surface, and to those on volatile-rich surfaces like on Mars or the icy satellites of the outer planets. The closest match with Vestan crater morphologies is that with those on Lutetia (Vincent et al. 2012). This similarity can be seen by signs of granular fluidity in land-slide phenomena. A prominent and unique property of craters on Vesta is the occurrence of features showing singular concentric central pits, which so far have been associated with liquid materials: either molten rock on Mercury or the Moon, or the liquefaction of ice on Mars, Ganymede, and Callisto (Schultz, 1988). Selected from a collection of 200 sample features in the diameter range 1 to 30 km, some prototypes of this type are presented as indicators of such a porous regolith. The prototypes include simple hopper-shaped to pan-shaped features (the basic structure), but also a subclass with approximately circular symmetric multiple-depression structure (features typically larger than 10 km), and a subclass with unusual halo shapes not

  19. Global work contexts as sites of discursive sense making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Braad

    2014-01-01

    Global work contexts represent highly complex working environments with simultaneous attachment to several projects and teams (Rosen, Furst & Blackburn, 2007). This complexity increases the for the sense-making capabilities of employees (Weick, 1995). MyPhD project examines this sense-making...... process at it’s site of articulation by interviewing employees about their work context, identity and knowledge sharing practices. The interviews became sites of discursive sense-making revealing how the sense-making process and the multimodal nature of virtual collaboration impact on the formation...... of knowledge communication networks in a global organisation. Interviews were fully transscribed analysed using a combination of James Gee’s approach to discourse analysis, and a novel adaptation of Auatin’s speech act theory....

  20. Brief Report: Tailgating as a unique context for parental modeling on college student alcohol use

    OpenAIRE

    Abar, Caitlin; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Beau

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been directed toward potential differential effects of the various contexts in which parents model alcohol use. The present study examined college football tailgating as a potential context in which parental modeling may be more or less risky. 290 college freshmen were assessed for perceptions of their parents’ drinking and tailgating behaviors, individual alcohol use and consequences. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed and results revealed that parental tai...

  1. Learning from experience in the context of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    ENGLISH SUMMARY My aim for this PhD study is to provide a deeper understanding of how to initiate and maintain learning from experience in the context of work. The development from an industrial-based economy to an information-based economy has increased the demand for employees to learn continuo......ENGLISH SUMMARY My aim for this PhD study is to provide a deeper understanding of how to initiate and maintain learning from experience in the context of work. The development from an industrial-based economy to an information-based economy has increased the demand for employees to learn...... experience in the context of work. The educational design is called Proactive Review (PR) and includes two opposite directions simultaneously, proactive, which entails looking ahead and review, which entails reflecting on the past. The subjects for learning in a PR may be any group of employees that have...... solved a task together and their manager. Originally, the development of PR was not a research project but a task for me to solve in my role as Manager of Organizational Learning, Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) in a global IT company listed in the top 30 global companies by Pricewaterhouse...

  2. How work context shapes physician approach to safety and error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine how different hospital clinical settings compare in their capacity for physicians to attend to safety and employ a learning approach to error. Multiple qualitative methods were used to examine medical residency teams in the emergency department, surgery department, and the medical intensive care unit. The focus was on how physicians responded to errors that occurred and safety-related issues, and what features of the surrounding work context were associated with those responses. Observations of 3 separate medical residency team's everyday work were conducted over three 3-week spans, and follow-up interviews with select team members were conducted after each observational period. Evidence supported that physician capacity for attending to safety and error is shaped by structural features of the surrounding work context within hospitals, as well as the cultural dynamics inherent in physician groups working in a given clinical setting. Compared with the emergency department and surgery, the medical intensive care unit offered the greatest potential from a work setting perspective to have heightened physician attention to safety and error. This was due to its more collegial environment, the low permeability of its doctors and patients, more available physician downtime and group interactions, fewer disruptions, and greater work predictability. The emergency department had less capacity because of its intense workload, excessive disruptions, and high unpredictability of the clinical work found there. Surgery's capacity to deal with error and safety issues was adversely affected by the emphasis on hierarchy among surgeons, the high permeability of surgeons across hospital work settings, emphasis on individual blame when mistakes occurred, and workload. These findings highlight the necessity for health care organizations to conduct regular assessments of their clinical environments to help identify the workplace factors that shape

  3. Individual- and Organization-Level Work-to-Family Spillover Are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; Neuendorf, Claudia; Grandey, Alicia; Lam, Chun Bun; Almeida, David M

    2016-01-01

    Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively) at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers' work exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors' leadership style. Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers), beyond job demands supervisors' leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels). Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor's transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include illuminating organizational work-family climate effects such that coworkers' shared experiences of

  4. Women and Work-Family Interface: Indian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The social division of labour set the role of primary breadearnerfor the man while ascribed the role of home-manager andcaregiver to the woman. This arrangement has been questioned for having given rise to gender inequality and having generated gender role stereotypes for man and woman. The traditionally organized workplace is also predicated on the assumption that families with male bread winners and nonworking housewives constitute the predominant family form. This is no more true since the last few decades have seen a significant number of women coming out of the private sphere of domestic life to enter the public domain. The problem of balancing work and family together has given rise to what is called the ‘work-family conflict’, which has evoked serious scholarly concern in the last few years. The questions that havesurfaced need a sincere rethinking over. The present paper seeks to study work-family conflict in the context of women entering the workforce. However, this does not imply that work-family conflict is a ‘women’s problem’. Studies in the US and elsewhere have amply borne out that men face as much work-family conflict as women do. However, even this phenomenon stands pronounced with women entering the workforce as in the earlier arrangement, men had to worry little for the household responsibilities. Resultantly, there was less negative spillover from the work to family domain and vice versa.

  5. Retirement in the Context of the Changes of Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia Lazzareschi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims: (i to present work relations that emerged from the process of flexibility labour markets in the 90 and the distinction between the processes of  flexibility, deregulation and news precarious labor relations, understood by most authors as part of the neoliberal reforms of the last decades of the twentieth century. This distinction  is necessary because, in Brazil, labor relations are rigidly regulated since the promulgation of the Consolidation of Labor Laws in 1943 and have always been precarious; (ii to present social security reforms undertaken by governments Fernando Henrique Cardoso and  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the new reform bill and its impact on the calculation of the value of retirement in the context of the changes of working conditions that made new labor relations.  

  6. The uniqueness of the Islamic experience: historical context, revelation and conception of God (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Barboza de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present important aspects of Islamic spirituality. To this end, it starts with a presentation of the historical context in which Islam appears in order to place the roots that will give a specific configuration to this religious experience. In that aspect, the life and the figure of the Prophet Muḥammad are fundamental as well as the historical context of the Arabian Peninsula and its socio-political and religious perspectives. Then, one begins to handle on the conception of singular revelation that Islam has from the experience with the angel Gabriel in which content is transmitted and should be repeated without alteration by the followers of this revelation. In this aspect, the prospect about the revelation in Islam differs from the Judeo-Christian conception, in which the revelation has a historical perspective. Finally, this article will deal with the Islamic conception of God, especially as such conception nods to the central point in the Muslim spirituality: the divine omnipotence and the search for unity.

  7. Group Work Tests for Context-Rich Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion phase, when students are given a "number-free" version of the problem. This phase allows students to digest the story-like problem, explore solution ideas, and alleviate some test anxiety. After 10-15 minutes of discussion, students inform the instructor of their readiness for the individual part of the test. What follows next is a pedagogical phase change from lively group discussion to quiet individual work. The group work test is a natural continuation of the group work in our daily physics classes and helps reinforce the importance of collaboration. This method has met with success at York Mills Collegiate Institute, in Toronto, Ontario, where it has been used consistently for unit tests and the final exam of the grade 12 university preparation physics course.

  8. Individual- and Organization-Level Work-to-Family Spillover Are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D.; Neuendorf, Claudia; Grandey, Alicia; Lam, Chun Bun; Almeida, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively) at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers' work exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors' leadership style. Design/Methodology/Approach: Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers), beyond job demands supervisors' leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels). Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings: Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor's transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. Originality/Value: This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include illuminating organizational work

  9. Individual- and Organization-level Work-to-Family Spillover are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomi Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers’ wok exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors’ leadership style. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers, beyond job demands supervisors’ leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels. Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings: Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor’s transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. Originality/value: This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include

  10. The Need for Learning Arenas: Non-Indigenous Teachers Working in Indigenous School Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parding, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Work contexts shape conditions for work. Teachers working in Indigenous school contexts face conditions different from teachers working in mainstream schools. Challenging working conditions for these teachers result in high teacher turnover, making it even more difficult for already disadvantaged students to progress. From a social justice…

  11. Pioneering RTI Systems that Work: Social Validity, Collaboration, and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Jennifer N.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    Using collaborative teamwork to build unique response-to-intervention (RTI) systems responsive to the needs and strengths within their separate schools and communities, two Montana elementary schools forged a trail for other schools. Each school encountered different obstacles along the way as well as distinctive ways of defining success. How can…

  12. Pioneering RTI Systems that Work: Social Validity, Collaboration, and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Jennifer N.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    Using collaborative teamwork to build unique response-to-intervention (RTI) systems responsive to the needs and strengths within their separate schools and communities, two Montana elementary schools forged a trail for other schools. Each school encountered different obstacles along the way as well as distinctive ways of defining success. How can…

  13. The Social Context of Undermining Behavior at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michelle K.; Ganster, Daniel C.; Shaw, Jason D.; Johnson, Jonathan L.; Pagon, Milan

    2006-01-01

    We developed a fairness theory perspective to explain the experience of being "singled out" for social undermining from supervisors and coworkers, and tested our predictions across four distinct social contexts. We argued and predicted that attitudinal and behavioral reactions to undermining (from supervisors and coworkers) would be…

  14. Applications of Context-Aware Computing in Hospital Work - Examples and Design Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind

    2004-01-01

    -aware computing. We present the design of a context-aware pill container and a context-aware hospital bed, both of which reacts and adapts according to what is happening in their context. The applications have been evaluated in a number of workshop with clinicians and patients. Based on this empirical work......Context-awareness is a key concept in ubiquitous computing, which sometimes seems to be a technology looking for a purpose. In this paper we report on the application of context-aware computing for medical work in hospitals, which has appeared to be a strong case for applying context...

  15. The Role of Visual Working Memory in Attentive Tracking of Unique Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2009-01-01

    When tracking moving objects in space humans usually attend to the objects' spatial locations and update this information over time. To what extent do surface features assist attentive tracking? In this study we asked participants to track identical or uniquely colored objects. Tracking was enhanced when objects were unique in color. The benefit…

  16. Adapting the Unique Minds Program: Exploring the Feasibility of a Multiple Family Intervention for Children with Learning Disabilities in the Context of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrosa, Silvia; González-Seijas, Rosa M; Carpenter, John S W

    2017-06-01

    The Unique Minds Program (Stern, Unique Minds Program, 1999) addresses the socio-emotional needs of children with learning disabilities (LD) and their families. Children and their parents work together in a multiple family group to learn more about LD and themselves as people with the capacity to solve problems in a collaborative way, including problems in family school relationships. This article reports the cultural adaptation of the program for use in Spain and findings from a feasibility study involving three multiple family groups and a total of 15 children and 15 mothers, using a pre-post design. This Spanish adaptation of the program is called "Mentes Únicas". Standardized outcome measures indicated an overall statistically significant decrease in children's self-rated maladjustment and relationship difficulties by the end of the program. Improvements were endorsed by most mothers, although they were not always recognized by the children's teachers. The program had a high level of acceptability: Mothers and children felt safe, understood, and helped throughout the sessions. The efficacy of the adapted intervention for the context of Spain remains to be tested in a more rigorous study. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  17. Endogenous Innovation, the Organization of Work and Institutional Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LORENZ Edward

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on the results of the third Community Innovation Survey and the third European Working Conditions Survey, this paper develops aggregate indicators at the national level of innovation modes and forms of work organization for the 15 member nations of the European Union in 2000. The analysis based on these indicators demonstrates that there is a close connection between how people work and learn in a country and the way firms' innovate.Specifically, it shows that in nations where work is organized to support high levels of discretion in solving complex problems firms tend to be more active in terms of endogenous innovation, i.e.innovation developed, at least to some degree, in house. In countries where learning and problem-solving on the job are more constrained, and little discretion is left to the employee, firms tend to engage in a supplier-dominated innovation strategy. The technological renewal of these firms reflects, almost exclusively, absorption of innovations developed elsewhere.

  18. Education and Work in the context of restructuring Productive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Caetano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the binomial education and work, with reference to the strategy of restructuring the production process and educational programs implemented in the construction sector. The process of restructuring the productive sector is to begin in 1983, where the builders were compelled to promote changes in the organization of the work process. It is within this scenario that would fit both the strategy of outsourcing, such as literacy / professional qualification. So our focus of analysis focused on these two distinct types of initiatives, which correspond to two different times in the recent history of the company searched. For in such a way we look for to understand the changes and the implications in the conditions of work, the organization and the decurrently content of the work of the adoption of the outsourcing. This analysis is also occupied the projects of literacy kept billowing in the works, through the confrontation between the vision expressed by the construction sector's administrative and searched by employees about the meaning, importance and role of education.

  19. Context specificity in the assessment of psychosocial risk at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment....... Objectives: To exemplify a method for the assessment of work-related stress that was developed by the University of Milan to allow the definition of risk profiles tailored to the different organizational settings. Methods: We examined risk factors for work-related stress in call centre operators employed......” and the “subjective” evaluation instruments. Results: Results obtained by means of the standardized “Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire“ and “Job Content Questionnaire”, interpreted in the light of consultations with key organizational figures and individual interviews with employees, have allowed the detection...

  20. Multiple Data Stream Measurement of UX in a Work Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Mohit; Clemmensen, Torkil

    environment. We present a theoretical proposition to understand the new user (as body, brain + cognitive object), and suggest an approach to capture the UX of the smart workplace. We present and discuss a pilot experiment where we integrate multiple (physiological, behavioral, environmental and IT processes......In this paper we discuss the emergence of a redefined human work interaction design environment due to Internet of Things. The change in paradigm challenges designers to re-think the category of the user/worker to include their trusted IT devices/cognitive objects while designing for work...

  1. Context specificity in the assessment of psychosocial risk at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fattori, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following EU requirements, in recent years standard procedures for the assessment of work-related stress have been developed in Italy. However, while such standardization has facilitated the spread and use of these procedures, it has brought a lack of specificity in risk assessment. O...

  2. Seat design in the context of knowledge work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, L.

    2015-01-01

    Performing knowledge work often involves prolonged sitting in a limited number of positions with little physical effort. This can lead to discomfort in the neck and shoulder region, and health problems in the back and neck. Subsequently, it can affect job performance adversely. In this PhD project i

  3. Resilience across Contexts: Family, Work, Culture, and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D., Ed.; Wang, Margaret C., Ed.

    Noting that much is known from research and practice regarding what works to promote resilience of children and families in a variety of high-risk life situations, this book considers the impact of culture, economy, employment, poverty, family structure, and social policy on parenting, child development, education, and the life success of youth.…

  4. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  5. Use of Self in the Context of Youth Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Used in the education of counselors, nurses, occupational therapists and social workers, "use of self" is a way of understanding how practitioners bring about human change. In this article, the author discusses how use of self can be applied to youth work and is related to "developmentally responsive practice" thereby providing a deep theoretical…

  6. The elderly in a context of work and renewed dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Brandão Guimarães

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article starts from the assumption that the participation of elderly people in economical activities tends to be higher in our country; therefore, its objective is to search for some of the factors that illustrate this participation. The article tries to identify the existence of renewed morale among these professionals, admitting that it would largely explain their increasing access to the job market today. In order to do that, different sources of statistical data about the population and the job-market are used to identify, in general terms, the transformations occurred in the economy which determine its current dynamics. This shows that there is a higher concentration of elderly professionals working as self-employed people or small business owners, generally, in activities which are relatively autonomous and allow flexible work hours.

  7. DRIVER IDENTITY IN THE CONTEXT OF JOINTLY WORK ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ISABELA BEDOYA ROJAS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article systematizes information of a research project developed during the year of 2002 which had the purposeto describe and analyze discourses of a group of operators of Bogotá’s massive transportation system TransMilenio.Discourses are part of cultural repertoires that construct their work identity. A group of eight drivers of an operatingcompany which led the proposal of Associated Work Organizations- OTAS- as a contracting alternative, were interviewed.The discourse was analyzed having constructionism as a theoretical background; this orientation implies three essentialaspects: language, culture and relationships (Gergen, 1996. It was also necessary to deepen into the EconomicalSolidarity Model. A qualitative ethnographic focus and discourse analysis was adopted (Potter and Weterell, 1996.

  8. The Evolution and Changing Context of Social Work Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelden R. Gelman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The nature of social work education has changed dramatically over the course of my academic career: From the degree(s required for a faculty position to the number of years of practice experience; from expectations for research and publication, to criteria for promotion and tenure; from residential instruction to distance education; from an emphasis on foundation curriculum to practice competencies and outcomes; and, from a commitment to service to a quest to be the highest “ranked” program within the highest ranked institution. Given that change is an ongoing phenomenon, it is difficult to anticipate curriculum direction or plan one’s career path with a high degree of certainty. The future is often determined by external events, fate, where you are at a specific time, the assistance of others, and the opportunities that are presented. These changes and the evolution of social work education as a field of professional practice can best be demonstrated by reflecting on my own experiences in becoming a faculty member and serving in various academic positions over the last 45 years. The contrast between my personal experiences and those of the typical student in 2014 may help demonstrate some of the changes that have occurred in social work education over the intervening years.

  9. Researching and Working for Transgender Youth: Contexts, Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Jones

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In May 2016, two events epitomized the complexities of working for global transgender youth rights. First, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO hosted a ministerial event in which education ministers from around the world released a call to action for protection of students on the basis of their gender identity and expression in schools. Second, the United Nations (UN hosted an event celebrating the family, attended by conservative ministers and activists who mobilized family protectionist discourse against transgender students. This article contemplates, in light of transgender activist Raewyn Connell’s Southern Theory contributions, the complexity of global research and work for transgender youth. It considers key informant interviews with 50 stakeholders in the global push for transgender student rights in education, including members of government and non-government organisations, and academics from Northern and Southern countries. Problems in aiding transgender youth at the global level included safety concerns, the impacts of conservative advocates and media backlash (within family and national protectionist discourses, cultural complexities hampering engagement and translation, dissemination hindrances pertaining to established publishing biases, and financial and collaboration barriers. Solutions including virtual work; multi-level leadership; alliance-building; representation; visibility of transgender youth citizenship and family membership; and legal, financial and capacity-building aid are considered.

  10. The Unique Mental Health Needs of Military Women: A Social Work Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Osborne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Women involved in all aspects of the United States Armed Forces face mental health needs that are unique from women in the general population. Because the most recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are involving more women in combat situations, social workers encounter female clients who are increasingly experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder, substance misuse, and sexual violence. Special attention must be paid particularly to women who serve in the National Guard or Reserves, as they have different concerns than enlisted active duty women. These concerns include less social support and fewer resources upon return from deployment. Thus, it is imperative for social workers in the community to be aware of these military women’s experiences and unique mental health challenges in order to effectively treat their needs.

  11. Gedeo Work Songs in the Context of the Ethiopian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Wedekind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quest’articolo è stato scritto nel 1977 per una conferenza tenuta nell’Etiopia marxista, ma incomincia con un’affermazione controversa: “La società è più di quello che l’economicismo marxista non ci induca a credere” (Attali 1977. Tradizionalmente la gente gedeo possiede la stretta compattezza di una società a strato unico, e in ciascun capitolo il contesto sociologico dei loro “canti di lavoro” fornisce delle indicazioni per la loro comprensione. Il primo capitolo descrive la particolare geografia del territorio densamente popolato di questa società agricola che intrattiene strette relazioni con le popolazioni confinanti (soprattutto con i Gugi. Vengono descritte le condizioni prevalenti all’epoca della rivoluzione etiopica, comprese le condizioni psicologiche e fisiche del loro lavoro e dei loro canti. In ciascun capitolo vengono effettuati dei confronti con altri stili di canto, sulla base dei risultati delle analisi di Alan Lomax. Il secondo capitolo descriver le diverse funzioni dei vari tipi di canti di lavoro – tutti rigorosamente definiti e circoscritti a particolari attività: la raccolta del caffè, la costruzione delle abitazioni e delle strade, la macinatura, la pastorizia, la preparazione dei cibi, o il taglio della legna. Alcune trascrizioni cercano di chiarire il metro, il tempo, l’armonia, la polifonia, il timbro e l’insieme dell’organizzazione tonale. Il terzo capitolo si occupa dei testi. Citazioni in lingua gedeo forniscono un’esemplificazione dei metri e delle rime, ma è la semantica quella che consente a un osservatore esterno di comprendere quanto viene espresso. Il quarto capitolo riassume i diversi rapporti tra gli stili dei canti e i tratti culturali. Keywords: Gedeo, work song, revolution, Ethiopia ISO 693-3: drs, amh, gax Dei file audio consentono al lettore di costruirsi una propria “immagine” di questi canti.

  12. Implications of Shared Interactive Displays for Work at a Surgery Ward: Coordination, Articulation Work and Context-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lis Witte Kjær

    2008-01-01

    context-awareness of collaborating physicians, nurses and surgery technicians. We focus on the implication of the systems for work and describe the changes in coordination, articulation work and context-awareness that occurred. This implied creating a fit between technology and work, attributing......We report on experiences gained from the use at a surgery ward of shared interactive displays to support coordination and communication.  The displays merge large displays, video feed, RFID tag, chat and mobile phones to facilitate better coordination and articulation of work tasks and enhance...... appropriate meaning to new clues by clinicians and learning new ways of cooperating. Trade-offs had to be made, since work and benefits were differentially redistributed. We propose that computer support for medical work should support flexible appropriation and learning....

  13. Amazing Physics: Learning about Work, Energy and Projectile Motion in a Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Guner

    2013-01-01

    Teaching physics through a historical context provides effective learning and increases students' motivation for and interest in physics. For example, trebuchets and mangonels may be interesting historical contexts for learning about energy, work, and projectile motion. In this study, the implementation of physics lessons related to these subjects…

  14. Amazing Physics: Learning about Work, Energy and Projectile Motion in a Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Guner

    2013-01-01

    Teaching physics through a historical context provides effective learning and increases students' motivation for and interest in physics. For example, trebuchets and mangonels may be interesting historical contexts for learning about energy, work, and projectile motion. In this study, the implementation of physics lessons related to these subjects…

  15. An evaluation of a psychosocial stress and coping model in the police work context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Stress is a social reality which does not exist in isolation, but in many social situations, especially work-related environments. Police officers in particular suffer from highly negative stress related outcomes.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine how Moos's hypothesised stress and coping model (1994 fitted a sample of police officers.Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to understand police officers' unique needs and how the frequency and/or intensity of perceived stress could be reduced so that they would be able to cope more effectively with stress.Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental survey design, following the quantitative tradition, was used in pursuit of the research objectives. A random sample of 505 participants was extracted from a population of serving male and female police officers reflecting the typical South African ethnic groups. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to establish the adequacy of between the hypothesised Moos model and the sample.Main findings: The hypothesised theoretical framework was disproved. A respecified model and inter-correlations confirm that some officers experience burnout, while, paradoxically, others continue to be unaffected because of the buffering effect of social support, personality factors and other resilience factors not revealed in this study.Practical/managerial implications: The study calls on police management for awareness of the negative health consequences of prolonged stressors. Simultaneously, employee assistance programmes could be directed to problem-solving strategies, perceived self-efficacy and learned resourcefulness to improve control over prolonged negative stress consequences among members.Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework to understand, describe and assess individual well-being in the police work context.

  16. Meaningful work for a meaningful life? Work alienation and its effects in the work and the family context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: This paper examines the impact of work alienation on work-related outcomes (organizational commitment and work effort), and its impact outside work (work-family enrichment). Hypotheses are formulated based on two research streams: sociology of work and organization in relation

  17. Repair work in the context of English language mediated computer interface use: A conversation analytic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko

    1992-01-01

    The main aim in this study is to develop an understanding of how repair work is managed in the intertwining of activities and actions with talk and language. By doing this, the richness of the concept of repair in interactional studies is shown. The core work concentrates on exploring repair work...... the English language as a resource. The computer interface use context was chosen to show how narrowly traditional research has seen repair work....

  18. Clarifying My World: Identity Work in the Context of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Premilla; Noronha, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study rooted in van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenology, conducted with agents working in international facing call centers in Mumbai and Bangalore, India, this paper describes targets' identity work in the context of workplace bullying. Data were gathered through conversational interviews and were subject to sententious and selective…

  19. Educating Today's School Social Workers: Are School Social Work Courses Responding to the Changing Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; O'Connor, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    School social work takes place within the dynamic context of the educational landscape, yet research indicates that school social work practice has been slow to adjust to the demands of that landscape. Little research has assessed whether school social workers are being adequately prepared to address the educational shifts that underlie today's…

  20. Early-return-to-work in the context of an intensification of working life and changing employment relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seing, Ida; MacEachen, Ellen; Ståhl, Christian; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Many Western welfare states have introduced early-return-to-work policies, in which getting sick-listed people back to work before they have fully recovered is presented as a rather unproblematic approach. This reflects a belief in the ability of employers and the labour market to solve sickness absence. Against this background, the aim of this study was to analyse return-to-work practice in local workplace contexts, in relation to Swedish early-return-to-work policy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 matched pairs of workers and managers. The material, comprising a total of 36 interviews, was analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three main themes were identified: (1) intensive workplaces and work conditions (2) employer support-a function of worker value and (3) work attachment and resistance to job transition. The results reflected the intensity of modern working life, which challenged return-to-work processes. Managers had different approaches to workers' return-to-work, depending on how they valued the worker. While managers used the discourse of 'new opportunities' and 'healthy change' to describe the transition process (e.g. relocation, unemployment and retirement), workers regularly experienced transitions as difficult and unjust. In the context of early-return-to-work policy and the intensity of modern working life, a great deal of responsibility was placed on workers to be adaptable to workplace demands in order to be able to return and stay at work. Overall, this study illustrates an emerging social climate where sick-listed workers are positioned as active agents who must take responsibility for sick leave and return-to-work process.

  1. Higher education in nursing: the faculty work process in different institutional contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Marli Leonello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the characteristics of faculty work in nursing higher education. Method An exploratory qualitative study with a theoretical-methodological framework of dialectical and historical materialism. The faculty work process was adopted as the analytical category, grounded on conceptions of work and professionalism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 faculty members from three higher education institutions in the city of São Paulo, classified according to the typology of institutional contexts. Results The faculty members at these higher education institutions are a heterogeneous group, under different working conditions. Intensification and precarious conditions of the faculty work is common to all three contexts, although there are important distinctions in the practices related to teaching, research and extension. Conclusion Faculty professionalization can be the starting point for analyzing and coping with such a distinct reality of faculty work and practice.

  2. Working in a context of hostility toward women: implications for employees' well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Cortina, Lilia M

    2004-04-01

    This study examined how working in an organizational context perceived as hostile toward women affects employees' well-being, even in the absence of personal hostility experiences. Participants were 289 public-sector employees who denied any personal history of being targeted with general or gender-based hostility at work. They completed measures of personal demographics, occupational and physical well-being, and perceptions of the organizational context for women. Results showed that 2 contextual indices of hostility toward women related to declines in well-being for male and female employees. The gender ratio of the workgroup moderated this relationship, with employees in male-skewed units reporting the most negative effects. These findings suggest that all employees in the workplace can suffer from working in a context of perceived misogyny.

  3. Meaningful work for a meaningful life? Work alienation and its effects in the work and the family context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. The notion of work alienation and its consequences has fascinated scholars and practitioners for a long time. But most research focused on passive performance indicators (such as job satisfaction), while the effects on work alienation on active performance (work effort) and

  4. Meaningful work for a meaningful life? Work alienation and its effects in the work and the family context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. The notion of work alienation and its consequences has fascinated scholars and practitioners for a long time. But most research focused on passive performance indicators (such as job satisfaction), while the effects on work alienation on active performance (work effort) and out

  5. Object representations in visual working memory change according to the task context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether an item's representation in visual working memory (VWM) can be updated according to changes in the global task context. We used a modified change detection paradigm, in which the items moved before the retention interval. In all of the experiments, we presented identical color-color conjunction items that were arranged to provide a common fate Gestalt grouping cue during their movement. Task context was manipulated by adding a condition highlighting either the integrated interpretation of the conjunction items or their individuated interpretation. We monitored the contralateral delay activity (CDA) as an online marker of VWM. Experiment 1 employed only a minimal global context; the conjunction items were integrated during their movement, but then were partially individuated, at a late stage of the retention interval. The same conjunction items were perfectly integrated in an integration context (Experiment 2). An individuation context successfully produced strong individuation, already during the movement, overriding Gestalt grouping cues (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, a short priming of the individuation context managed to individuate the conjunction items immediately after the Gestalt cue was no longer available. Thus, the representations of identical items changed according to the task context, suggesting that VWM interprets incoming input according to global factors which can override perceptual cues.

  6. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  7. Quality of life and working context of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Nunes Marques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine the relationship between working context and quality of life of nursing professionals of the FamilyHealth Strategy. Methods: observational, cross-sectional study with quantitative approach accomplished with 50 nursingprofessionals from urban and rural areas. Participants answered a questionnaire of socio-demographic and professionalcharacterization, the Work Context Assessment Scale and WHOQOL-brief. Data were submitted to exploratory and bivariateanalysis. Results: predominance of women, married, belonging to economic classes C/D and with only one employmentbond. The factor Work Organization and the Social domain had higher mean scores, while Socio-professional relations andthe Environmental domain, lower scores. Descriptively, there was a negative correlation between all the factors of the workcontext and the Physical, Psychological and Social domains. Conclusion: inadequate conditions to work practice, lack oforganization and the difficulty in social relationships negatively impact the quality of life of nursing professionals.

  8. Moderators between work context and psychological health in a public service sector / S. Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Wiliams, Shelley-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Work context has many consequences for the psychological outcomes of employees. These outcomes also have consequences for the employer through possible loss of productivity, impaired health of employees which may be associated with absenteeism and turnover intention, among others. The literature also shows that these outcomes are not always the same even under similar working conditions. Theorising in cognitive psychology indicates that the way in which an individual appraises a situation may...

  9. Struggling with Involuntary Expressive Behaviours: Chinese Doctors' Professional Learning in Working Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Songge

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore what Chinese doctors have learned in authentic medical practice, what they want to learn, and the dynamics behind their professional learning in working contexts. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses Narrative Inquiry, qualitative data which were collected by open-ended face-to-face interviews and…

  10. Interpersonal work context as a possible buffer against age-related stereotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the impact of relational demography upon occupational expertise ratings, and possible moderating effects of interpersonal work context factors. The results revealed support for a decrease in supervisor ratings of occupational expertise of their subordinates as an effect of

  11. The Interplay between Teachers' Biography and Work Context: Effects on Teacher Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Allison

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I use the process of self-reflection to examine how my biography influenced my teaching experiences in a particular school context. Drawing on these experiences and the work of scholars in this area, I contend that such self-knowledge is critical for teachers' successful socialization and retention in diverse schooling…

  12. Diving in: Adolescents' Experiences of Physical Work in the Context of Theatre Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with adolescents' experiences and perceptions of physical actor training practice in the context of theatre education. The study took place in Kallio Upper Secondary School of Performing Arts in Helsinki, Finland, where I work as a drama teacher. As a researcher, I carried out an authorized inquiry with two groups of 16-year old…

  13. Human Caring in the Social Work Context: Continued Development and Validation of a Complex Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jacquelyn I.; Ellett, Alberta J.; DeWeaver, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: (a) to continue the development of a measure of human caring in the context of social work practice and (b) to expand a line of inquiry exploring the relationship between human caring characteristics and the retention of public child welfare workers. Methodology: Surveys were received from a sample (n = 786) child welfare workers in…

  14. Tensions between work and home: job quality and working conditions in the institutional contexts of Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnič, Sonja; Guillén Rodríguez, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    Good jobs can generate capabilities that allow employees to avoid tensions between work and family/home. Following the conceptual framework of Amartya Sen, we examine how job-related demands and resources are related to the level of interference, as well as satisfaction with managing work and home in Spanish and German employees, using three different large-scale European surveys: European Quality of Life Survey and two waves of the European Social Survey. We find that long working hours systematically increase tensions between work and home, as do time pressure, job-related stress, and working hard. Job control or autonomy at work, which is hypothesized to expand individuals' capabilities and agency, tends to increase work–home interference rather than alleviate it. Family responsibilities and household demands do not seem relevant to the tensions employees experience at the work–home interface. This also holds true for women, which is a surprising result in view of the “double burden” hypothesis. Employed mothers in Germany and Spain are a select group of women, as combining employment with raising children in conservative–corporatist and conservative–familialist states may be particularly problematic. Thus while the institutional contexts of Germany and Spain curtail women's ability to reconcile employment and parenthood, the mothers (and fathers) who are employed do not experience significantly higher levels of work–family/home tensions than nonparents.

  15. (Injustice contexts and work satisfaction: The mediating role of justice perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of the social context, namely (injustice climate and target, in workers' justice perceptions and satisfaction. Individual's justice judgments are expected to mediate the relationship of (injustice climate and target with work satisfaction. We found mediation effects of procedural justice in the relationship between justice climate and satisfaction, and interactional justice in the relationship between injustice target and satisfaction. Distributive justice does not affect the relationship between the (injustice context and satisfaction. Findings demonstrate the relevance of framing organizational justice in a socially contextualized perspective since they seem to influence individual justice reactions and work attitudes. Using an experimental methodology, it was possible to explore the role of seldom studied contextual variables.

  16. Context-aware assistive systems for augmented work : a framework using gamification and projection

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    While context-aware assistive systems (CAAS) have become ubiquitous in cars or smartphones, most workers in production environments still rely on their skills and expertise to make the right choices and movements. The quality gates currently established by the industry successfully remove "waste" i.e. failed work results from the workflow, but they usually operate in a spatial and temporal distance from the workplace and the worker. Thus workers lack the opportunity to learn from problems on ...

  17. Volunteer Activity in the Context of Formation of Social Intellect of Future Specialists in Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Sokolova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes such concepts as ”social intellect” and ”volunteer activity”; presents approaches to the definition of the phenomenon of volunteering. The author proves the possibilities of volunteer activity in the context of formation of social intellect of future specialists in social work, reveals the features of organization of students’ practical volunteer activity to form their social intellect.

  18. Impression management within the Zulu culture: Exploring tactics in the work context

    OpenAIRE

    Debrah Mtshelwane; Jan Alewyn Nel; Lizelle Brink

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Impression management tactics are utilised differently by people depending on the situation and the others around them.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify the impression management tactics Zulu people display when they want to impress people in a work context.Motivation for this study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and people who contribute to the return on investment for the organisation. Individuals display impression tactics to influ...

  19. How Things Work: Teaching Physics in the Context of Everyday Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Louis

    2015-03-01

    How Things Work is an unconventional introduction to physics, a course that starts with whole objects and looks inside them to see what makes them work. Effectively ``case-study physics,'' it is designed primarily for non-science students who are unsure of the role of physics in the world and are looking for relevance in their studies. How Things Work is essentially the generalization of context-based introductory courses (Physics of the Human Body, Physics of the Automobile, and Physics of Music) and demonstrates that when physics is taught in the context of ordinary objects, these students are enthusiastic about it, look forward to classes, ask insightful questions, experiment on their own, and find themselves explaining to friends and family how things in their world work. In this talk, I will discuss the concept and structure of a How Things Work course and look briefly at how to teach its objects and assess what students learn from it. Although this course focuses on concepts rather than on calculations, it is rich in physics and requires that students think hard about the world around them. It also teaches problem solving and logical thinking skills, and demands that students face their misconceptions and failures of intuition. Lastly, it is actually quantitative in many respects, though its results are usually more words than numbers: your weight, the battery's voltage, or the acceleration due to gravity.

  20. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking.

  1. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900

  2. Writing on: Context and Visual Culture in Recent Works of Allen Fisher and Ulli Freer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Virtanen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study of Allen Fisher’s 'Proposals' and 'SPUTTOR', and Ulli Freer’s 'Burner on the Buff'. It aims to demonstrate that these works, despite their individual differences, share certain common parallels: (1 an interest in literary and visual culture, and (2 an awareness of the bearing these aspects of culture have on questions of state and civil authority. In the case of 'Proposals', this is discussed via the context of work – particularly in relation to the marketization of Higher Education (HE – and Fisher’s poetics of ‘confidence in lack’. These analyses are extended further through an examination of the social history of the US Space Shuttle programme under the Reagan administration, and the visual practices of collage in 'SPUTTOR'. The broader claims of these arguments are subsequently paralleled with cultural and socio-legal perspectives pertaining to graffiti–especially in connection to Banksy’s recent work, 'Art Buff', which ultimately provides a crucial context for understanding key aspects of 'Burner on the Buff.'

  3. Public health agenda setting in a global context: the International Labor Organization's decent work agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Cohen, Joanna E; Cole, Donald C; Forman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    We drew on two agenda-setting theories usually applied at the state or national level to assess their utility at the global level: Kingdon's multiple streams theory and Baumgartner and Jones's punctuated equilibrium theory. We illustrate our analysis with findings from a qualitative study of the International Labor Organization's Decent Work Agenda. We found that both theories help explain the agenda-setting mechanisms that operate in the global context, including how windows of opportunity open and what role institutions play as policy entrepreneurs. Future application of these theories could help characterize power struggles between global actors, whose voices are heard or silenced, and their impact on global policy agenda setting.

  4. INTERCULTURAL WORK TEAMS, A CHALLENGE IN THE NEW CONTEXT OF ROMANIA’S EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Has Daniela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, organizations proceed to adapt to exploit new opportunities by creating intercultural work teams (IWT. Consequently, their management acquires new dimensions. To be successful, international companies should adapt to cultural norms of the host country, without neglecting their own organizational cultural values that have ensured their success. IWT are the main instrument used currently to achieve this fit. IWT are the basic unit for performance in any global organization. We analyze the situation of IWT in Siemens VDO Romania and Alcatel-Lucent Romania, as promoters of teamwork and intercultural knowledge transfer inside them.

  5. Dialogue as the basis for learning in the context of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; McKenzie, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how to minimize obstacles to dialogues when they are used for learning from experience in the context of work. Dialogue has been argued to be useful for innovation and learning and therefore suitable for finding solutions to complex problems that may save costs, improve...... efficiency, or develop work processes, products, or services. We examine dialogues in Proactive Reviews (PR), which is a process for organisational learning. The methodological approach takes its departure in learning by applying Design Based Research. The paper provides suggestions for codes of conduct...... and organisational requirements for establishing and maintaining dialogues as they thrive in Proactive Reviews. The originality of the paper lays in approaching organisational learning from a learning perspective, by applying Design Based Research in a world-class IT company rather than in a classroom...

  6. Gendered contexts: Psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-05-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that although psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Impression management within the Zulu culture: Exploring tactics in the work context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrah Mtshelwane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Impression management tactics are utilised differently by people depending on the situation and the others around them.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify the impression management tactics Zulu people display when they want to impress people in a work context.Motivation for this study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and people who contribute to the return on investment for the organisation. Individuals display impression tactics to influence the perceptions of others in the workplace, especially pertaining to performance appraisals and promotional opportunities.Research approach, design and method: The social constructivism paradigm was employed in conducting this study, following a phenomenological approach. The research sample consisted of 30 Zulu-speaking individuals from various organisations who were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The researcher used thematic analysis to analyse the data.Main findings: The main findings in this study included impression management tactics that are used by Zulu people when attempting to impress people in the work context. The findings were divided into different categories (colleagues and supervisor. Conscientiousness,interpersonal amiability, openness and relational action are the themes that were reported as the most common impression management features people display at their workplace with colleagues. Themes that were reported when impressing a supervisor include conscientiousness,integrity, relational action and skilfulness.Practical/managerial implications: This study provides organisations with knowledge on the impression management tactics utilised by isiZulu employees. The nature of this information enables management to not misinterpret the use of certain tactics and will lead to more understanding and resilience by organisations and colleagues when working with isiZulu individuals.Contribution/value-add: This study

  8. Force, Velocity, and Work: The Effects of Different Contexts on Students' Understanding of Vector Concepts Using Isomorphic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no…

  9. Which Dominates? The Relative Importance of Work-Family Organizational Support and General Organizational Context on Employee Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behson, Scott J.

    2002-01-01

    Dominance analysis investigated the effects of organizational context and work-family organizational support on several outcomes for 147 employees. Work-family support contributes to job satisfaction and organizational commitment most strongly through its impact on work-family conflict. However, variance in employee affect is better explained by…

  10. [Work regulation in the context of new public versus private relations in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Nelson Bezerra

    2010-08-01

    This work discusses the management of the work relations in the context of the new systems of public vs. private relation in health, having as reference the experience of the habilitation of Social Organizations (SO), responsible for the administration of a group of hospitals in the state of São Paulo. The urgency in this kind of management supported on the legal figure of the SO has implications in the management of Human Resources in Health (HRH) through the adoption of flexibilization mechanisms which include ways of selection, hiring and dismissal, payment rules and functional progression similar to the actions adopted by the market. The establishment of this sort of administration refers to the new paradigm proposed by the managerial administrative reform which suggests the exhaustion of the bureaucratic model to promote adjustment of the public administration to the transformations originated in the new stage of internationalization of the economy and its unfolding in the work world, as well as to the new standards of requirements of performance of the public field. Aspects related to the management of HHR are approached in the two ruling modalities in the Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo: Direct Administration Hospitals (DAH) and units organized under the SO model (SOH).

  11. Design-based research as a “smart” methodology for studying learning in the context of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Although Design-based Research (DBR) was developed for investigating class-room training this paper discusses methodological issues when DBR is employed for investigating learning in the context of work, as it is an authentic learning environment, a real-world setting for fostering learning...... and creating usable knowledge and knowing. The purpose of this paper is to provide new perspectives on DBR regarding how to conduct DBR for studying learning from experience in the context of work. The research question is: What to consider to make DBR a smart methodology for exploring learning from experience...... in the context of work? The exploration of DBR is based on a literature review and experience with DBR in the context of work....

  12. Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

  13. Exploring factors that influence work analysis data: A meta-analysis of design choices, purposes, and organizational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVernet, Amy M; Dierdorff, Erich C; Wilson, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Work analysis is fundamental to designing effective human resource systems. The current investigation extends previous research by identifying the differential effects of common design decisions, purposes, and organizational contexts on the data generated by work analyses. The effects of 19 distinct factors that span choices of descriptor, collection method, rating scale, and data source, as well as project purpose and organizational features, are explored. Meta-analytic results cumulated from 205 articles indicate that many of these variables hold significant consequences for work analysis data. Factors pertaining to descriptor choice, collection method, rating scale, and the purpose for conducting the work analysis each showed strong associations with work analysis data. The source of the work analysis information and organizational context in which it was conducted displayed fewer relationships. Findings can be used to inform choices work analysts make about methodology and postcollection evaluations of work analysis information.

  14. Managing the Context of Work. Professional Paper No. 1-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    People function within situational contexts, and these contexts define and limit behavior. An organization is a very important context and, accordingly, produces potent forces which circumscribe and channel the activities, attitudes, and motivations of personnel. For this reason, both individual and group behavior within an organization is simply…

  15. Enhancing Practitioner Knowledge through a Unique Abstracting Format Used with "Research on Social Work Practice" Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to bridge the long-standing schism between social work researchers and practitioners, "Research on Social Work Practice" ("RSWP") presents an additional structured abstract for inclusion in their published articles called the practitioner knowledge abstract (PKA). Its conceptualization and rationale are presented, as are some case…

  16. Symmetry and asymmetry in working and commuting arrangements between partners in the Netherlands: Does the residential context matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meester, E.; van Ham, M.

    2009-01-01

    Time spent on work and commuting within dual-earner households is often analysed separately for individuals, but this does no justice to the reality of dual-earner households where decisions on work and commuting are made in a household context. This paper reports on a quantitative study of the impa

  17. [Educational innovation among nurses in the context of early work experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sylvie

    2012-12-01

    During their integration into the health system, new nursing graduates encounter many challenges, in particular with health situations that are becoming ever more complex. They frequently see clinical situations they have not previously been exposed to--an inevitability given the variety and complexity of real-world practice. It is therefore essential to adequately support and equip new nurses for the particular context within which they will be working in the Quebec health care system, while enabling them to provide quality care. Educational innovation is one way to meet the needs of this new generation which will have to learn to navigate in the health system and be rapidly functional. This paper presents a definition and a contextualisation of educational innovation. It will highlight the incentives and barriers to innovation, will describe its impact on training and clinical practice and will differentiate the strategies which lead to the development of innovation. Finally, different levers to ensure sustainability of the innovation will be discussed.

  18. Individual Differences in the Development of Early Writing Skills: Testing the Unique Contribution of Visuo-Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lorna; Davies, Simon J.; Sumner, Emma; Green, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Visually mediated processes including, exposure to print (e.g. reading) as well as orthographic transcription and coding skills, have been found to contribute to individual differences in literacy development. The current study examined the role of visuospatial working memory (WM) in underpinning this relationship and emergent writing. One hundred…

  19. Work-Family Conflict: The Effects of Religious Context on Married Women’s Participation in the Labor Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Griebel Rogers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Past work shows religion’s effect on women’s career decisions, particularly when these decisions involve work-family conflict. This study argues that the religious context of a geographic area also influences women’s solutions to work-family conflict through more or less pervasive normative expectations within the community regarding women’s roles and responsibilities to the family. We use the American Community Survey linked with community-level religious proportions to test the relationship between religious contexts and women’s participation in the labor force in the contiguous United States–2054 census geographic areas. Using spatial analysis, we find that community religious concentration is related to the proportion of women who choose not to work. Communities with a higher proportion of the population belonging to conservative religious traditions also have a greater proportion of married women choosing not to work outside the home.

  20. Corporate ethical values, group creativity, job commitment and performance: The effect of work response on work context

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Nadia; Waheed Akbar BHATTI; Zaheer, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    A business culture supported by positive practices and strong ethical values will produce productive employee work response. Positive work environment encourages ethical decision making and employees feel comfortable in an environment where they have freedom to make ethical decisions. It becomes difficult for employees to make ethical decisions in an unethical work environment. This research studied the relationship between group creativity, corporate ethical values, job commitment and perfor...

  1. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and tsunami resilience on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting tsunami warning communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county tsunami response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist

  2. Teaching Literature With Pictures: Visual Representations of the Context and Imagery in Literary Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Krašovec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature and art influence each other reciprocally, but it is rarely used in the teaching of literature. And the teacher has everything to gain by using this potential: not just to illustrate a text, but as a true didactic tool. Thus, it‘s possible to show the complexity of the context, to immerse themselves in his actuality. And implement analytical methods differently. Key words: didactic of literature, art and literature, literary context

  3. Applying systems-centered theory (SCT) and methods in organizational contexts: putting SCT to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Susan P

    2013-04-01

    Though initially applied in psychotherapy, a theory of living human systems (TLHS) and its systems-centered practice (SCT) offer a comprehensive conceptual framework replete with operational definitions and methods that is applicable in a wide range of contexts. This article elaborates the application of SCT in organizations by first summarizing systems-centered theory, its constructs and methods, and then using case examples to illustrate how SCT has been used in organizational and coaching contexts.

  4. Implications of Shared Interactive Displays for Work at a Surgery Ward: Coordination, Articulation Work and Context-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lis Witte Kjær

    2008-01-01

    We report on experiences gained from the use at a surgery ward of shared interactive displays to support coordination and communication.  The displays merge large displays, video feed, RFID tag, chat and mobile phones to facilitate better coordination and articulation of work tasks and enhance co...... appropriate meaning to new clues by clinicians and learning new ways of cooperating. Trade-offs had to be made, since work and benefits were differentially redistributed. We propose that computer support for medical work should support flexible appropriation and learning....

  5. University Restructuring and the Reconfiguration of Faculty Members' Work Context in a Public State University in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John S.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the effects of neo-liberal restructuring for universities upon the reconfiguration of academics' work context in a public state university in Mexico. Findings show that implementation of the federal program titled Faculty Enhancement Program during the late 1990s created a separation between traditional and new academic…

  6. Are work stressors related to employee substance use? The importance of temporal context assessments of alcohol and illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the author explored the relations of 2 work stressors (work overload and job insecurity) to employee alcohol use and illicit drug use. The primary goal was to explore the importance of temporal context (before work, during the workday, and after work) in the assessment of substance use compared with context-free (overall) assessments. Data were collected from a national sample of U.S. workers (N = 2,790) who took part in a broad cross-sectional survey on workplace health and safety. Consistent with past research, the results fail to support a relation between work stressors and overall measures of alcohol and illicit drug use. However, the results support the relation of work stressors to alcohol and illicit drug use before work, during the workday, and after work. These results provide support for both the stress-induced substance use and stress response dampening propositions of the tension-reduction hypothesis. When exploring the work environment as a potential cause of employee substance use, these results underscore the importance of measures that assess alcohol and illicit drug use in terms of their temporal relation to the workday. 2008 APA

  7. Context-dependent Dynamic Processes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : Differentiating Common and Unique Effects of State Regulation Deficits and Delay Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The ability to specify differential predictions is a mark of a scientific models' value. State regulation deficits (SRD) and delay aversion (DAv) have both been hypothesized as context-dependent dynamic dysfunctions in ADHD. However, to date there has been no systematic comparison of their common an

  8. Unique Nature of the Quality of Life in the Context of Extreme Climatic, Geographical and Specific Socio-Cultural Living Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anastasia; Neyaskina, Yuliya; Frizen, Marina; Shiryaeva, Olga; Surikova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed empirical research, aimed at studying the quality of life in the context of extreme climatic, geographical and specific sociocultural living conditions. Our research is based on the methodological approach including social, economical, ecological and psychological characteristics and reflecting…

  9. The "CEO" of women's work lives: how Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Openness predict 50 years of work experiences in a changing sociocultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Linda G; Helson, Ravenna; John, Oliver P

    2011-10-01

    Few long-term longitudinal studies have examined how dimensions of personality are related to work lives, especially in women. We propose a life-course framework for studying work over time, from preparatory activities (in the 20s) to descending work involvement (after age 60), using 50 years of life data from the women in the Mills Longitudinal Study. We hypothesized differential work effects for Extraversion (work as pursuit of rewards), Openness (work as self-actualization), and Conscientiousness (work as duty) and measured these 3 traits as predictor variables when the women were still in college. In a prospective longitudinal design, we then studied how these traits predicted the women's subsequent work lives from young adulthood to age 70 and how these effects depended on the changing sociocultural context. Specifically, the young adulthood of the Mills women in the mid-1960s was rigidly gender typed and family oriented; neither work nor education variables at that time were predicted from earlier personality traits. However, as women's roles changed, later work variables became related to all 3 traits, as expected from current Big Five theory and research. For example, early personality traits predicted the timing of involvement in work, the kinds of jobs chosen, and the status and satisfaction achieved, as well as continued work participation and financial security in late adulthood. Early traits were also linked to specific cultural influences, such as the traditional feminine role, the women's movement, and graduate education for careers.

  10. Students’ Learning Activities Within and Between the Contexts of Education and Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Maaike D.; Bronkhorst, Larike H.

    2014-01-01

    Many professional educational programs combine learning at an educational institute with learning in the workplace. The differences between these contexts, and the resulting challenges for learning, have been well-documented. However, there are few studies that explore the same students’ learning in

  11. Working as a locum GP: their professional role in organizational context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Hassel, D. van; Velden, L. van der

    2012-01-01

    Context: The workforce of General Practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands is closely monitored and planned to ensure their pivotal role in primary care and the Dutch health care system. While the majority of GPs have their own practice or are employed by other GP practices or health community centres

  12. Social Cognitive Career Theory and Subjective Well-Being in the Context of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being has often been studied as a context-free construct, reflecting overall life satisfaction and characteristic levels of positive affect and negative affect. But there has also been much interest in domain-specific aspects of subjective well-being, such as job satisfaction. The authors provide a brief overview of the two primary…

  13. Students’ Learning Activities Within and Between the Contexts of Education and Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, Maaike Dorine; Bronkhorst, Larike H.

    2014-01-01

    Many professional educational programs combine learning at an educational institute with learning in the workplace. The differences between these contexts, and the resulting challenges for learning, have been well-documented. However, there are few studies that explore the same students’ learning in

  14. [Gerontosocial work in the context of Russian culture and recommendations of Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, R I; Golubeva, E Iu

    2007-01-01

    The definition of gerontosocial work adopted in the majority of the European countries in the context of the Russian culture and priority trends of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing has been discussed. In the article the interaction and differences between terms being used in social work with the elderly people in Russia have been showed; tasks and peculiarities of gerontosocial work have been defined. Peculiarities of interaction between personnel and elderly patients have been studied; the increasing requirements to the professionalism of gerontosocial workers have been proved.

  15. Chronotopes and Timespace Contexts: Academic Identity Work Revealed in Narrative Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, David; Symons, Christine; Teo, Stephen T. T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, academic identity work is explored through an examination of its portrayal in a work of narrative fiction using a conceptual tool from literary studies. It is found that such an approach provides insights that would otherwise be difficult to uncover by more conventional methods. The analysis reveals academic identity work as an…

  16. Information Work Analysis: An Approach to Research on Information Interactions and Information Behaviour in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvila, Isto

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: A work roles and role theory-based approach to conceptualise human information activity, denoted information work analysis is discussed. The present article explicates the approach and its special characteristics and benefits in comparison to earlier methods of analysing human information work. Method: The approach is discussed in…

  17. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents…

  18. Exploring Students' Group Work Needs in the Context of Internationalisation Using a Creative Visual Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Andrew; Chiles, Prue; Care, Leo

    2012-01-01

    While UK universities see group work as essential to building higher order intellectual and team skills, many international students are unfamiliar with this way of studying. Group work is also a focus of home students' concerns. Cultural differences in the interpretation of space for learning or how spatial issues affect group work processes has…

  19. A static organization in a dynamic context--A qualitative study of changes in working conditions for Swedish engine officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Rydstedt, Leif W

    2016-07-01

    During the last decades the shipping industry has undergone rapid technical developments and experienced hard economic conditions and increased striving for profitability. This has led to reduced staffing and changes in task performance, which has been reported to increase workload for the remaining seafarers. The working conditions on board have a number of distinct and in many ways unique characteristics, which makes the job demands and resources for seafarers unique in several ways. The purpose of this study was to assess how engine room staff perceives how these major technical and organizational changes in the shipping industry have affected job demands as well as resources. The study compiled individual interviews and focus groups interviews with engine crew members where they were asked to elaborate on the psychosocial work environment and the major changes in the working conditions on board. Engine crew describes a work situation where they feel a lack of resources. The content of the work has changed, staffing has been reduced, new tasks are being added but the organization of the crew and the design of the work place remains unaltered.

  20. Force, velocity, and work: The effects of different contexts on students' understanding of vector concepts using isomorphic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-12-01

    In this article we compare students' understanding of vector concepts in problems with no physical context, and with three mechanics contexts: force, velocity, and work. Based on our "Test of Understanding of Vectors," a multiple-choice test presented elsewhere, we designed two isomorphic shorter versions of 12 items each: a test with no physical context, and a test with mechanics contexts. For this study, we administered the items twice to students who were finishing an introductory mechanics course at a large private university in Mexico. The first time, we administered the two 12-item tests to 608 students. In the second, we only tested the items for which we had found differences in students' performances that were difficult to explain, and in this case, we asked them to show their reasoning in written form. In the first administration, we detected no significant difference between the medians obtained in the tests; however, we did identify significant differences in some of the items. For each item we analyze the type of difference found between the tests in the selection of the correct answer, the most common error on each of the tests, and the differences in the selection of incorrect answers. We also investigate the causes of the different context effects. Based on these analyses, we establish specific recommendations for the instruction of vector concepts in an introductory mechanics course. In the Supplemental Material we include both tests for other researchers studying vector learning, and for physics teachers who teach this material.

  1. Context controls access to working and reference memory in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William A; Macpherson, Krista; Strang, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between working and reference memory systems was examined under conditions in which salient contextual cues were presented during memory retrieval. Ambient colored lights (red or green) bathed the operant chamber during the presentation of comparison stimuli in delayed matching-to-sample training (working memory) and during the presentation of the comparison stimuli as S+ and S- cues in discrimination training (reference memory). Strong competition between memory systems appeared when the same contextual cue appeared during working and reference memory training. When different contextual cues were used, however, working memory was completely protected from reference memory interference.

  2. Using Information Systems to Leverage Knowledge Management Processes: The Role of Work Context, Job Characteristics and Task-Technology Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çev.: Nazlı Alkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focus on how an individual's particular work context, job characteristics and knowledge-related job requirements affect the relationship between task-technology fit (TTF and the use of information systems (IS in knowledge management activities. The literature on Knowledge Management (KM and Knowledge Management Systems (KMS is reviewed to identify relevant constructs and their dimensions. Based on this analysis, a model is proposed and tested. Our findings suggest that providing appropriate IT tools that fit tasks alone is no guarantee that they will be employed to leverage the acquisition, transfer and reuse of knowledge. Certain characteristics of jobs, driven by particular work contexts, generate greater need and opportunity for knowledge use. These latter factors moderate the relationship between TTF and actual use of IS for KM purposes: the greater the need and opportunity to conduct knowledgerelated activities, the stronger the relationship between TTF and actual IS use.

  3. Introduction: Domestic work in the colonial context: race, color, and power in the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen Meerkerk, van E.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic and caregiving work has been at the core of human existence throughout history. Poorly paid or even unpaid, this work has been assigned to women in most societes and occasionally to men often as enslaved, indentures, "adopted" workers. While some use domestic service as training for their o

  4. Algebra Word Problem Solving Approaches in a Chemistry Context: Equation Worked Examples versus Text Editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2013-01-01

    Text editing directs students' attention to the problem structure as they classify whether the texts of word problems contain sufficient, missing or irrelevant information for working out a solution. Equation worked examples emphasize the formation of a coherent problem structure to generate a solution. Its focus is on the construction of three…

  5. Group work in the public health context: A proposal for training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasera, Emerson F; Pegoraro, Renata F; Pereira, Eliane R

    2016-03-01

    The entry of psychologists into the public health sector in Brazil is usually connected to a traditional clinical model, and, thus, marked by a lack of training for group work. A reflection on the training of psychologists for group work is essential. Aiming at contributing to this theme, the objective of this article is to discuss the training for group work in the public health sector. In particular, we aim to introduce a proposal for training in psychology in a Brazilian public university, covering a theoretical-practical module, as well as basic and professionalizing internship programmes.

  6. Environmental considerations in the organizational context : A pathway to pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Carrus, Giuseppe; Dumitru, Adina; Garcia Mira, Ricardo; Stancu, Alexandra; Moza, Daniela

    Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour at work can result in a significant reduction in environmental problems. Research revealed that general environmental considerations such as biospheric values and environmental self-identity are important antecedents of private pro-environmental behaviour.

  7. Work Engagement in the Public Service Context: The Duality of Job Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Due to its positive impact on employee level outcomes, financial performance, and overall organizational performance, work engagement has increasingly captured the attention of researchers and practitioners in the fields of organizational behaviour and human resource management (Tims et al., 2013...... that it is highly critical that very limited research considers the impact of public organization theory in relation to work engagement. Consequently this study investigates how public service motivation, the inherent red tape often associated with public service organizations, and the job demands experienced...... and observations were used to understand caregivers’ perceptions of work engagement and how it is influenced by these public sector characteristics. Findings from the study suggest that public service motivation functions as a buffer minimizing the devastating effect of high demands and low resources on work...

  8. Learning activities in a political context - development of the working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledskov, Annette

    2002-01-01

    are identified – ‘the politically actors’ and ‘the translator’. When facilitating learning activities in the management of work environment it is necessary to be aware of this political nature of the actions .In understanding learning in the management of work environment it is beneficial to look at the concept...... of “communities of practice”, to understand under which conditions the actors are learning and developing new methods....

  9. Cultural, gender, and socioeconomic contexts in therapeutic and social policy work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldegrave, Charles

    2009-03-01

    The contention of this paper is that the context of social and therapeutic problems is critical to their resolution, and that many of them stem from historical and structural injustice. It focuses on the contextual issues of cultural, gender, and socioeconomic equity as providing important insights into authentic notions of social inclusion and well-being, and encourages therapists, service providers, researchers, and policy makers to take responsibility to ensure that these injustices are addressed, and become part of the public discourse about the sources and solutions of endemic social problems. Critique and deconstruction of institutional power in our public, private, and voluntary services is encouraged in a manner that honors diversity and enables sensitive therapy, other forms of service delivery and policy making that genuinely reflect the range of cultural, gender, and socioeconomic experiences of citizens.

  10. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Lunau

    Full Text Available Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment.We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695, with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate, and (2 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life. In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education.Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities.Our results point to different types of policies that may help to

  11. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce

  12. IN THE CONTEXT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE AND ART; THE EFFORTS OF THE UNIQUE TURKISH PAINTING IN EARLY YEARS OF THE REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Uzunoglu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Westernization movement, started in the last period of the Ottoman Empire and continued after the establishment of the Tukish Republic, is a normal result of migration from east to west. However, this process has different characteristics than the other processes of acculturation in Turkish history, because of the internal dynamics. The first one is, Anatolian people encountered with western culture by the Turks who embraced Western culture, not by Europians due to the distance of geographical distance. Therefore the Western cultural forms just barely adopted by the public, and perceived as an imposition for a long time. The second one is the socio-cultural environment in Europe encountered the art students which sent to the west within the framework of the modernization program. The youth who are expected to create an original art language to reflect the rising values of modern Turkey by learning western art, confronted with the art of chaos within the social sructure caused by the capitalism and World War I. in Europe, in the first quarter of 20. century. In 1930's following the discussion at the issues of the relationship between State-Art-Artist and National Art some artists who are the members of " Association of Independent Painters and Sculptors" and "D Group" who paint in understanding of cubist, constructivistic or expresionistic, have been criticized in order to narrate the Turkish Revolution by the modern art forms which were the expression of depression. The events such as the Exibition of Revolution, The State Exibition of Painting and Sculpture, and the countryside excursions of artists, organised these years, have been directed the artists towards the national and local subjects; have tended to searches for unique style by synthesizing Turkish-Islamic Art with the principles of Western Art. Within the Western,zat,on Policies, the building efforts of the Contemporary Turkish Art have continued by the 1950's.

  13. Substance use disorder in the context of LGBT health: a social work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Anthony; Beatty, Rodger L; Friedman, M Reuel

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of public and private funding of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health research, the state of integration of LGBT health issues into the academic and professional training programs of health care practitioners, and the larger social reality experienced by LGBT people profoundly affect substance use and substance use disorders in those populations. This analysis uses a social work perspective and considers the current state of research, professional training, and social oppression as they affect the health of LGBT people. Suggestions for action are offered that may improve the health of LGBT peoples and the practice of social work.

  14. Work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among primary healthcare physicians: A gender perspective in a Serbian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houkes Inge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information exists on work and stress related health of medical doctors in non-EU countries. Filling this knowledge gap is needed to uncover the needs of this target population and to provide information on comparability of health related phenomena such as burnout across countries. This study examined work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among Serbian primary healthcare physicians (PHPs and compared burnout levels with other medical doctors in EU countries. Methods Data were collected via surveys which contained Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated instruments measuring work and home related characteristics. The sample consisted of 373 PHPs working in 12 primary healthcare centres. Data were analysed using t-tests and Chi square tests. Results No gender differences were detected on mean scores of variables among Serbian physicians, who experience high levels of personal accomplishment, workload, job control and social support, medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and work-home interference, and low levels of home-work interference. There were more women than men who experienced low job control and high depersonalisation. Serbian physicians experienced significantly higher emotional exhaustion and lower depersonalisation than physicians in some other European countries. Conclusions To diminish excessive workload, the number of physicians working in primary healthcare centres in Serbia should be increased. Considering that differences between countries were detected on all burnout subcomponents, work-related interventions for employees should be country specific. The role of gender needs to be closely examined in future studies as well.

  15. WORK REDESIGN AND THE BALANCE OF CONTROL WITHIN A NURSING CONTEXT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOLLEMAN, E; VANKNIPPENBERG, A

    Within the nursing organization of four hospital wards, a new work design was introduced, which was primarily characterized by the delegation of responsibilities from head nurses to nurses and by the participation of patients. First, it was hypothesized that the participation of patients in health

  16. Work Engagement in the Public Service Context: The Dual Perceptions of Job Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    Interest in work engagement research has increased significantly due to its positive influence on both employee and organizational performance. Studies show how engagement is explained through job characteristics in the Job Demands-Resource model, yet a more nuanced approach has been proposed...... engagement. Using Public Service Motivation literature, these dual perceptions are discussed...

  17. HIV Disease and Work: Effect on the Individual, Workplace, and Interpersonal Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature 1992-1996 examined effects of HIV on career development and employment; impact on employers, employees, and formal caregivers; and effects on employment of informal caregivers. Most studies defined work narrowly, used cross-sectional designs, and almost exclusively used gay men as respondents. (91 references) (SK)

  18. Professional Listening Competence Promoting Well-Being at Work in the Legal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Kortesmaa, Sanna; Isotalus, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative cross-cultural study sought to contribute to the understanding of listening competence, dialogic listening, and the use of human agency in promoting well-being at work. The participant groups ("N" = 103) consisted of "n" = 76 U.S.-American and "n" = 27 Finnish attorneys. Results suggest that in order…

  19. Coaching in Context: The Role of Relationships in the Work of Three Literacy Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenhaupt, Rebecca; McKinney, Sarah; Reeves, Todd

    2014-01-01

    In the United States and internationally, instructional coaching has been implemented as a mechanism to increase professional capacity, and in so doing improve student achievement. However, instructional coaches often face resistance from the teachers with whom they work; a manifestation of the egalitarian, isolated culture of teaching in many…

  20. Reconceptualizing Teacher-Student Relationships to Foster School Success: Working Alliance within Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toste, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher-student relationship has been shown to be a powerful predictor of students' classroom and school adjustment. Beyond the characteristics of warmth, trust, and bond that define an emotional connection, a positive working relationship also includes a sense of collaboration and partnership shared between the teacher and the student. Classroom…

  1. Reconceptualizing Teacher-Student Relationships: Applicability of the Working Alliance within Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.; Connor, Carol McDonald; Peng, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Relationships with teachers have been found to be particularly salient for elementary-age students, as they relate to successful adjustment to school. The construct of working alliance reconceptualizes traditional definitions of relationship to consider elements of emotional connection, as well as the collaboration central to the working…

  2. Social Augmented Reality: Enhancing Context-Dependent Communication and Informal Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejoska, Jana; Bauters, Merja; Purma, Jukka; Leinonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Our design proposal of social augmented reality (SoAR) grows from the observed difficulties of practical applications of augmented reality (AR) in workplace learning. In our research we investigated construction workers doing physical work in the field and analyzed the data using qualitative methods in various workshops. The challenges related to…

  3. Literacy Coaching Roles in Diverse Contexts of Teaching and Learning: New Ways of Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leent, Lisa J.; Exley, Beryl

    2013-01-01

    As the demands placed on the literacy coach have evolved, so too have the roles of these educational providers who are often responsible for working with school teams to turn around student performance on standardized literacy tests. One literacy coach based in a Queensland primary school recounts her experiences via open-ended interview over a…

  4. Social Augmented Reality: Enhancing Context-Dependent Communication and Informal Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejoska, Jana; Bauters, Merja; Purma, Jukka; Leinonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Our design proposal of social augmented reality (SoAR) grows from the observed difficulties of practical applications of augmented reality (AR) in workplace learning. In our research we investigated construction workers doing physical work in the field and analyzed the data using qualitative methods in various workshops. The challenges related to…

  5. Work Engagement in the Public Service Context: The Dual Perceptions of Job Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    . In this qualitative study, home caregivers’ perceptions of job characteristics are investigated. Semi-structured interviews and observations reveal three main themes: Optimization, helping others and emotional work. These show a dual perception of job characteristics consequently influencing the experienced...... engagement. Using Public Service Motivation literature, these dual perceptions are discussed...

  6. How can context affect what strategies are effective in improving the working environment in small companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    working environment in small asbestos stripping companies and cleaning companies. Another example shows how integration with other areas such as the importance to avoid not only exposure to flour dust in bakeries but also to avoid spreading of flour dust in order to avoid the growth of bugs in bakeries...

  7. Social Work Intervention with Bedouin-Arab Children in the Context of Blood Vengeance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.

    1999-01-01

    "Blood vengeance" is a culturally specific phenomenon that can place Bedouin-Arab children at high risk of neglect. This case study examines psychological and social implications of vengeance on children, the children's coping strategies, and the role of social work. The study provides insight into bridging the "emic-etic" gap in conceptualizing…

  8. How Graduates Make the School-To-Work Transition : A Person-in-Context Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baay, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    After finishing school, some graduates quickly and easily find a suitable job, while others face periods of un(der)employment. The current dissertation investigated such individual differences in school-to-work transition success. Our focus was on Vocational Education and Training graduates (VET – m

  9. [Quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease in the context of professional work and physiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, Joanna; Gorzkowska, Agnieszka; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Cholewa, Jarosław

    2017-07-26

    Of many diseases and disorders of the nervous system Parkinson's disease (PD) deserves a particular attention for its specific effects having an impact on the ability to undertake different forms of professional and economic activities. Due to the constantly growing incidence rate and the lowering age of patients, PD is becoming more and more serious social problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of professional work and physiotherapy on the quality of live in people with Parkinson's disease. The research was carried out on 109 people with diagnosed PD of stage II according to the Hoehn and Yahr classification. They were divided into professionally working and non-working subjects and those participating and not participating in physiotherapy programs. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), was used to estimate the patients' clinical status. The Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire (SF-36) and the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL) were used to estimate the quality of life. In all groups statistically significant differences were observed in each of the used scale. The PDQ-39 (F = 5.278, p = 0.04), SF physical component (F = 4.24, p = 0.005), SF mental component (F = 3.45, p = 0.021), PDQL (F = 6.57, p = 0.003). The highest quality of life was noticed in people working professionally and participating in physiotherapy programs. Professional activity and participation in properly planned physiotherapy help reduce the symptoms and improve the quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease. The study showed that the quality of life of people with PD is determined by professional work and participation in the process of rehabilitation. Med Pr 2017;68(6).

  10. Advancing work practices: Rethinking online professional development in the context of intervention-based sustainable change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    implications In recognition of the vulnerability and situatedness of turning instructional interventions into sustainable change, the paper initiates a rethinking of e-Learning as technologies for on-the-job, just-in-time and individualized performance support. The paper gives concrete examples of current......Purpose The paper aims to discuss the effectiveness of e-Learning in advancing work practices. The paper investigates the assumption that e-Learning is as effective as face-to-face interventions when stimulating change. It also examines the assumption that well-designed and well......-executed instructional interventions will advance work practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper synthesizes contemporary social-psychological and educational research in the creation of a model of intervention-based change. In addition, the findings from an empirical study of online teacher professional...

  11. Influences of attribution and stigma on working relationships with providers practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Wu, Hui-Ching; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study examined influences of causal attributions of schizophrenia and perceived and internalized mental illness stigma on perceived working alliance with, and informational support received from doctors practicing Western psychiatry in the Taiwanese social-cultural context. This cross-sectional quantitative study used a non-probability, purposive sampling technique to recruit 212 Taiwanese diagnosed with schizophrenia from Taiwanese Alliance of the Mentally Ill, 4 community mental health rehabilitation centres and 2 psychiatric hospitals between July 2012 and March 2013. Linear regression models were used for analysis. The results showed that environmental attributions were positively associated with both perceived working alliance and perceived informational support, while supernatural attributions were negatively associated with perceived working alliance and perceived informational support. Perceived stigma had a negative association with perceived working alliance. The discrimination domain of internalized stigma specifically had a positive association with perceived working alliance, while the withdraw domain had a negative association with perceived informational support. Findings inform the importance of culturally sensitive practices in developing an effective working relationship. Western psychiatric care providers need to explore consumers' casual attributions of mental illness and understand the impact of stigma so that providers may successfully engage consumers in care and provide tailored illness education and information.

  12. Pay Satisfaction and Work Meaningfulness as Factors of IT Professionals’ Turnover Intentions: an Investigation in the Romanian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian URIESI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IT employees constitute an important category of workforce, hence their retaining is of great importance. Consequently, there is a great need of understanding the factors that predispose these professionals to turnover, in order to provide companies with solutions that would diminish the turnover rates among their IT staff. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the role of certain specific factors of turnover among these professionals, and to present a research on this topic in the Romanian context. The empirical study focused on two types of factors that might influence turnover intentions in a sample of Romanian IT professionals: financial (pay satisfaction and organizational justice and self-concept related (work meaningfulness and work role fit. The results confirm our hypothesis and reveal two parallel lines of influence on Romanian IT employees’ turnover intentions. First, they show that pay satisfaction exerts a significant influence on employees’ intentions to leave the organization. Pay satisfaction is, in its turn, affected by two facets of perceived organizational justice, namely distributive and procedural justice, and partially mediates the effect of these variables on turnover intentions. The other line of results shows that turnover intentions are also influenced by employees’ work meaningfulness, and that the latter depends on their perceived work role fit, or the match between their self-concept and the work tasks that they have to perform in their current job. Finally, meaningfulness was found to fully mediate the influence of work role fit on turnover intentions.

  13. Work Ideologies and Constructions of Disability in the Puerto Rican Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Báez-Lebrón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2012 with the purpose of analyzing work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability during the 2009 implementation of the Special Act Declaring a State of Fiscal Emergency to Save the Credit of Puerto Rico (Act No. 7.  Through a qualitative design and the manifest and latent content analysis techniques, and using the Disability and Human Subjectivity Models as the theoretical framework, a total of four hundred and sixty-seven (467 newspaper articles published between February and October 2009 was reviewed.  Results demonstrate that only fourteen articles (3%, which constitute the units of analysis, made reference, directly or indirectly, to disability.  The content of these articles is based on an ideology that excludes people with disabilities from social participation because they are considered incapable, unfit and worthless.  The disability and human subjectivity models that predominate are the socio-political and positional-existential ideology, respectively.  It was concluded that the work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability are used to exclude people with disabilities from the job market, without recognizing their power and ability of being and doing.

  14. Working Together: The Context of Teams in an Online MBA Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Gabriel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore learning in an online MBA program and the structures necessary to support and enhance that learning from the perspective of the learners. This qualitative study was multi-method in nature, and included in-depth interviews (the focus of this report with ten of the 32 learners who participated in the study, as well as a document review of course transcripts. Findings indicated that the collaborative nature of the teamwork required in this web-based MBA program provided major benefits as well as challenges for the learners in this program. Benefits included decreased feelings of isolation, the development of support systems, authentic "real world" learning, and an improved ability to communicate clearly online. Challenges included learning how to deal with the different learning styles, academic goals, and varying time commitments to the program of various team members. Learners recognized the pace of the online work, the requirements for technical competence, and the need for alternative communication links as other factors in their learning experience. Learners also identified a strong perception of academic efficacy, and an affirmation of their own individual growth and development through their work in the online MBA program.

  15. Advancing work practices: Rethinking online professional development in the context of intervention-based sustainable change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    -executed instructional interventions will advance work practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper synthesizes contemporary social-psychological and educational research in the creation of a model of intervention-based change. In addition, the findings from an empirical study of online teacher professional...... development simultaneously inspire and exemplify the model. Findings The paper suggests that increased attention to individual motivational drivers is needed, especially post intervention, to help ensure meaningful learning transfer and sustainable behavior change. The importance of individualized on...... interventions currently. It conceptualizes intervention-based change and the key motivational drivers of such change. In doing so, it illuminates highly contextual dynamics presumed to have a critical impact on the effectiveness of e-Learning for PD....

  16. Social influences, social context, and health behaviors among working-class, multi-ethnic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M

    2007-04-01

    Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention studies with working-class, multi-ethnic adults. Several social influence and social contextual variables were associated with fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in both samples. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with social norms and social networks, although different contextual variables also were related to intake across the two samples. Physical activity was associated with social networks, social norms, and competing demands. By examining how key social influence and contextual mediating variables relate to health behaviors, we can learn more about the types of interventions that might be needed to promote sustained health behavior change in this population.

  17. Sacred content, secular context: a generative theory of religion and spirituality for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Although a secular profession, social work practitioners and educators do explore human spirituality, and this is embraced now by the profession as integral to a holistic view of the human being. Social workers in hospice and end-of-life care are on the front line of this shift. Still needed is for the profession to coalesce around a generative theory of religion to inform the discipline. The author proposes that a synthesis of ideas, particularly from anthropologists Ernest Becker and Fredrick Streng, provides a generative theory of religion that advances meaningful interface between diverse religious and spiritual ideations of clients and clinicians alike. This theory of generative death anxiety locates the basic religious urge as response to the human awareness of the ontological condition of mortality, which then becomes expressed existentially in all of its diverse particularities. This approach avoids being overly reductionist, yet does provide categories for clear analysis. It cultivates critical respect for human religiosity and fosters productive and creative incorporation of human spirituality into the practical and pragmatic clinical perspective.

  18. How students interact when working with mathematics in an ICT context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Samuelsson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a common assumption that computers will change the conditions for teaching mathematics. This paper discusses expectations regarding changes in working methods and, specifically, adolescents’ interaction in the computer-aided teaching of mathematics in middle school. The empirical material was collected through interviews with eighteen teachers in grades 7-9. The author also participated in all of the computer-aided lessons given by two teachers during one year, which means access to 700 lessons where teachers and students could use computers. During this year they used computers in only 18 lessons. This particular study reports from a closer analysis of seven observed lessons and 18 teacher interviews.In sum, using the computer when solving mathematical problems with peers is not always a successful learning method. The empirical data indicate that the linguistic interaction consists mostly of one student posing a question and another giving an answer. There was a lot of communication in the classroom but very little could be signified as dialogic. The different forms of interaction observed also tell us that students are not involved in communication about scientific concepts. Their communicative ability is therefore not developing to any large extent. When students collaborate in order to solve math problems they oscillate between disjunctive and complementary tasks. It means that different students practice different skills, some that are important for their mathematical ability and some that are not.

  19. Animal welfare officers in Australian higher education: 3R application, work contexts, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Acceptance of the concept of replacement, refinement, and reduction (the 3Rs) and the need for their implementation is widespread in the research community, and is also backed by local governance requirements in many key jurisdictions. Yet concerns about underutilization of these concepts and practices remain. From a survey of animal welfare officers (AWOs) in Australia, the attitudes to, and the adoption of, 3Rs in Australian public universities is explored. The survey finds that Australian AWOs have considerable concerns about 3R uptake, with 44% agreeing that '3R possibilities often remain unused'. At the same time, these officers see access to relevant information, and the implementation of the 3Rs, as comparatively easy. Thus, a problem of under-implementation appears to exist. A number of explanations for this are put forward. AWOs are comparatively junior professional staff in the Australian university system, constrained from going beyond basic regulative functions and to the training and promotion of the 3Rs. When compared with their international counterparts, Australian AWOs spend less time providing information and advice on the 3Rs to researchers working in their institutions. Significantly, while AWOs tend to see themselves as being well supported institutionally, they have comparatively poor relationships with active researchers who are using animal models. The implications of this are examined, with recommendations for research institutions, as well as for further research.

  20. Residents' perceived barriers to communication skills learning: comparing two medical working contexts in postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dalen, Jan; van Dulmen, Sandra; van der Vleuten, Cees; Scherpbier, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Contextual factors are known to influence the acquisition and application of communication skills in clinical settings. Little is known about residents' perceptions of these factors. This article aims to explore residents' perceptions of contextual factors affecting the acquisition and application of communication skills in the medical workplace. We conducted an exploratory study comprising seven focus groups with residents in two different specialities: general practice (n=23) and surgery (n=18). Residents perceive the use of summative assessment checklists that reduce communication skills to behavioural components as impeding the learning of their communication skills. Residents perceive encouragement to deliberately practise in an environment in which the value of communication skills is recognised and support is institutionalised with appropriate feedback from role models as the most important enhancing factors in communication skills learning. To gradually realise a clinical working environment in which the above results are incorporated, we propose to use transformative learning theory to guide further studies. Provided it is used continuously, an approach that combines self-directed learning with observation and discussion of resident-patient consultations seems an effective method for transformative learning of communication skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation Y and the concept of family. An introductory study of the unique characteristics of Generation Y with specific reference to the concept of family within the context of the URCSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Van Rooi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In South Africa the identity of the so called Generation Y (Millennials is discussed and studied frequently in the broader spectrum of the social sciences. Generally these studies indicate that this generation, with its keen tendency towards the family, has a unique understanding of family life, identity(-ies, and the church, amongst others. The effect of the abovementioned comes to particular expression in the context of a residentially orientated university like Stellenbosch University. This article will explore Generation Y’s understanding of family. The author will give attention not only to the specific understanding of family but will also ask the question if this understanding allows for families as safe spaces where human dignity is fostered. The effect of the identity and culture of the Generation Y on South African university campuses will briefly be noted. In a second instance the role and value ascribed to the family by the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa will be discussed. The church order and regulations of the mentioned church will form the basis for this discussion. With this it will be indicated if indeed churches like the URCSA realises their role in family life and if their understanding of, and ministry towards families correlates with the current realities of Generation Y.

  2. The lost micro-deserts of the Patuxent River using landscape history, insect and plant specimens, and field work to detect and define a unique community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.; Davis, C.A.; Steiner, W.E.; =Mawdsley, J.

    2009-01-01

    Historical and recent records of both plants and insects are synthesized for uplands along the eastern edge of Maryland?s Patuxent River from the edge of the Piedmont south to Jug Bay. This strip is characterized by deep sandy soils found in the Evesboro and Galestown sandy loams soil series. Within this narrow strip there exists a unique flora and fauna adapted to open dry sandy soils and occurring in small remnant patches associated with old sand mining operations and scattered protected areas. We illustrate the uniqueness of these sites using four groups, vascular plants, tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae), and bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Within each of these groups, rare species were detected whose populations were locally restricted to this soil type and whose nearest known populations were often hundreds of kilometers away. In addition to documenting the direct conservation importance of these small sandy openings along the Patuxent, we contrast the lack of any indication from vertebrate inventories that this region is unique. The combination of plant and insect inventories appears to be a better means of clarifying a site?s importance than does any survey of a single taxonomic group.

  3. Policy Contexts of Social Work in Britain: the wider implications of 'New' Labour and the 'New Legal Regime'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Several commentators have expressed disappointment with New Labour's apparent adherence to the policy frameworks of the previous Conservative administrations. The employment orientation of its welfare programmes, the contradictory nature of the social exclusion initiatives, and the continuing obsession with public sector marketisation, inspections, audits, standards and so on, have all come under critical scrutiny (c.f., Blyth 2001; Jordan 2001; Orme 2001. This paper suggests that in order to understand the socio-economic and political contexts affecting social work we need to examine the relationship between New Labour's modernisation project and its insertion within an architecture of global governance. In particular, membership of the European Union (EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF and World Trade Organisation (WTO set the parameters for domestic policy in important ways. Whilst much has been written about the economic dimensions of 'globalisation' in relation to social work rather less has been noted about the ways in which domestic policy agenda are driven by multilateral governance objectives. This policy dimension is important in trying to respond to various changes affecting social work as a professional activity. What is possible, what is encouraged, how things might be done, is tightly bounded by the policy frameworks governing practice and affected by those governing the lives of service users. It is unhelpful to see policy formulation in purely national terms as the UK is inserted into a network governance structure, a regulatory framework where decisions are made by many countries and organisations and agencies. Together, they are producing a 'new legal regime', characterised by a marked neo-liberal policy agenda. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship of New Labour's modernisation programme to these new forms of legality by examining two main policy areas and the welfare implications they are enmeshed in. The first is

  4. Difference between Leisure and Work Contexts: The Roles of Perceived Enjoyment and Perceived Usefulness in Predicting Mobile Video Calling Use Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Feng, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing body of literature on mobile video calling, which is a promising communication technology; however, little research has focused on user acceptance of mobile video calling, especially in different use contexts. This study explored factors (especially perceived enjoyment) influencing the intention of users to employ video calling in different contexts (a work and a leisure context) by applying the technology acceptance model (TAM) combined with the theory of planned behavior. The revised research model differentiated external factors (subjective norms and personal innovativeness) from internal factors (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use (PEU), perceived enjoyment, and intention to use mobile video calling). In addition, the current study investigated predictors of perceived enjoyment across these two contexts. With the use of a structured questionnaire, participants were divided in two groups and completed self-report measures related to one context; a total of 386 student respondents' responses were analyzed. The results indicated that users' intentions were directly predicted by their perceived enjoyment of video calling (β ≥ 0.35) and the call's perceived usefulness (β ≥ 0.27) and PEU (β = 0.13, only for the leisure context), which jointly explained at least 55.6% of the variance in use intention. In addition to the effects of these predictors on mobile video calling use acceptance, an assessment of the moderating effects of different contexts indicated that perceived enjoyment played a more important role in influencing intention for the leisure context, while perceived usefulness appeared to be more important for the work context. This study's findings are important in that they provide strong support for the necessity of distinguishing among different types of contexts when predicting users' intentions to use video calling. Furthermore, the results showed that perceived enjoyment was most significantly influenced by

  5. Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that…

  6. Prolonged sedentary time and physical activity in workplace and non-work contexts: a cross-sectional study of office, customer service and call centre employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth; Clark, Bronwyn K; Gardiner, Paul A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2012-10-26

    To examine sedentary time, prolonged sedentary bouts and physical activity in Australian employees from different workplace settings, within work and non-work contexts. A convenience sample of 193 employees working in offices (131), call centres (36) and customer service (26) was recruited. Actigraph GT1M accelerometers were used to derive percentages of time spent sedentary (customer service workers were typically the least sedentary and the most active at work. The workplace is a key setting for prolonged sedentary time, especially for some occupational groups, and the potential health risk burden attached requires investigation. Future workplace regulations and health promotion initiatives for sedentary occupations to reduce prolonged sitting time should be considered.

  7. Trajectories of Change in University Students' General Views of Group Work Following One Single Group Assignment: Significance of Instructional Context and Multidimensional Aspects of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitza, Marold; Volet, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how distinct trajectories of change in students' general views of group work over the duration of one single group assignment could be explained by multidimensional aspects of their experience and the overall instructional context. Science (336) and Education (377) students involved in a semester-long group assignment…

  8. The selection, optimization, and compensation model in the work context : A systematic review and meta-analysis of two decades of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghimi, Darya; Zacher, Hannes; Scheibe, Susanne; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) model has been applied in the work context to investigate antecedents and outcomes of employees’ use of action regulation strategies. We systematically review, meta-analyze, and critically discuss the literature on SOC st

  9. On how German retail buyers perceive the identity, image and competitive context of the retailers they work for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    findings of a study of how German food retailers decide what pork products to buy in which retailer buying behaviour was viewed as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim of the study was to gain...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. This paper presents some preliminary...... an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide. This paper focuses on the beliefs retail buyers have regarding organisational identities and competitive contexts and in particular discusses whether the beliefs regarding organisational identities...

  10. Working memory updating occurs independently of the need to maintain task-context: accounting for triggering updating in the AX-CPT paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Baruchin, Liad J; Bouhsira-Sabag, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that maintenance and updating are two functional states of working memory (WM), which are controlled by a gate between perceptual information and WM representations. Opening the gate enables updating WM with input, while closing it enables keeping the maintained information shielded from interference. However, it is still unclear when gate opening takes place, and what is the external signal that triggers it. A version of the AX-CPT paradigm was used to examine a recent proposal in the literature, suggesting that updating is triggered whenever the maintenance of the context is necessary for task performance (context-dependent tasks). In four experiments using this paradigm, we show that (1) a task-switching cost takes place in both context-dependent and context-independent trials; (2) task-switching is additive to the dependency effect, and (3) unlike switching cost, the dependency effect is not affected by preparation and, therefore, does not reflect context-updating. We suggest that WM updating is likely to be triggered by a simple mechanism that occurs in each trial of the task regardless of whether maintaining the context is needed or not. The implications for WM updating and its relationship to task-switching are discussed.

  11. Teaching Biology in a Wider Context: The History of the Discipline as a Method 2: Worked Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed are three controversial incidents from the history of biomedical science for the lessons they may teach about the nature and context of scientific discoveries. Considered are William Harvey and blood circulation, Louis Pasteur and spontaneous generation, and Frederick Banting's discovery of insulin. (Author/CW)

  12. "I Just Want to Work Hard": Self-Efficacy and the Social Contexts in Adolescents' ICT Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tara M.

    2014-01-01

    The present article is drawn from a year-long ethnographic study of adolescents' uses of information and communication technologies (ICT) and their perceptions of themselves and their uses in multiple contexts. Examining three cases, the author shows how ICT provided participants with powerful opportunities to develop strong self-efficacy beliefs.…

  13. Ornate manuals or practical adab? Some reflections on a unique work by an anonymous author of the 10th century CE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses key concepts pertaining to Adab on the one hand and Abbasid administrative practices on the other, by focusing on an unpublished work that straddles both themes. It is shown that Arabic works on both Adab and bureaucracy are difficult to isolate and categorise conclusively as both genres were receptive to diverse flavourings, be they of an ornamental or of a strictly practical nature. Although the article adopts a comparative approach to these issues, detailed attention is paid to the character of the particular work under discussion and its author.

    Este artículo estudia conceptos claves que se encuentran, por un lado, en el Adab y por otro en las prácticas administrativas abbasíes a partir de una obra inédita que versa sobre ambas cuestiones. Muestra la dificultad de aislar y de colocar en categorías diferentes las obras de Adab y las dedicadas a la burocracia, ya que ambos géneros eran susceptibles de una coloratura tanto ornamental como estrictamente práctica. Aunque el artículo adopta una metodología comparativa, se dedica atención particular a la obra discutida y a su autor.

  14. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  15. On how German retail buyers perceive the identity, image and competitive context of the retailers they work for

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. This paper presents some preliminary...... an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide. This paper focuses on the beliefs retail buyers have regarding organisational identities and competitive contexts and in particular discusses whether the beliefs regarding organisational identities......How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyers...

  16. Exploring a model for finding meaning in the changing world of work (Part 3: Meaning as framing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Burger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article, the final in a series of three papers, locates organisational change, specifically within the context of individuals’ experience of ‘meaning’, as conceptualised in Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy.Research purpose: The purpose of this theoretical paper is to investigate the context of meaning in organisational change by exploring the relationship between meaning and change.Motivation for the study: Although literature on change management is available in abundance, very little research has been focussed on the micro-level issues pertaining to organisational change, and virtually no research relating to the ‘existential meaning’ context of such change could be found.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted by means of a review of literature, guided by the theoretical perspectives of logotherapy.Main findings: Whilst systems to which individuals traditionally turned for meaning decline, organisations become increasingly important for employees’ experience of meaning. As organisational change threatens such meaning, resistance to change may occur, which inhibits organisations’ ability to change. Logotherapy provides a useful framework for understanding this meaning context, which could be utilised to inform frameworks to guide change implementation more successfully.Practical and managerial implications: An understanding of the role that meaning can play in causing − and hence reducing − resistance to change may be of great value to organisations attempting to implement change initiatives.Contribution: The value-add of the article is grounded on its exploration of the relatively uncharted territory of how the experience of meaning by employees may impact organisational change. This article therefore provides a novel perspective for conceptualising change. In addition, it suggests specific recommendations for utilising an understanding of the meaning change relationship with the

  17. LGBT-Competence in Social Work Education: The Relationship of School Contexts to Student Sexual Minority Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty-Caplan, David

    2017-03-29

    This study examined the relationship between master of social work program's (MSW) support of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people (LGBT-competence), and the sexual minority competence (LGB-competence) of social work students. Data was gathered from a sample of MSW program directors, faculty members, and students (N = 1385) within 34 MSW programs in the United States. A series of hierarchical linear models tested if a MSW program's LGBT-competence was associated with the LGB-competence of its students. Results showed a significant relationship between organizational LGBT-competence and individual LGB-competence within schools of social work, and that programs with greater LGBT-competence also had students who felt more competent to work with sexual minorities. These findings suggest schools of social work can take substantive action at an organizational level to improve the professional LGB-competence of future social workers. Implications for social work education are discussed.

  18. Role conflict and satisfaction in the work-family context: Age differences in the moderating effect of role commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiu Ching; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene H

    2015-03-01

    This study examined age differences in the buffering effects of role commitment on the associations between role conflicts and satisfaction from the within-domain and cross-domain perspectives. Eighty-five working mothers participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that work conflicts were negatively associated with job satisfaction of younger employees but not older employees. Commitment to both work and family buffered against the negative association between family conflicts and family satisfaction for older employees but not younger employees. These findings highlight the importance of role commitment for working mothers across adulthood to cope with the demands in the work-family interface. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Contexts of Social Vulnerability and Health Risks: Tuberculosis in Bolivian Immigrants Who Work and Live in Clandestine Textile Workshops of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Goldberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a specific case within the range of migration processes of Bolivians in Argentina: the young men and women, originally recruited through transnational networks of trafficking in persons, which were reduced to servitude illegally in order to work in clandestine textile workshops of the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (BAMA. Recognizing the complex dimensions of analysis that interact in this process, we particularly focus on social vulnerability contexts and health risks posed by their work and living conditions in workshops. We identify the diverse sufferings these conditions cause, among which tuberculosis infection and transmission.

  20. Risk factors for job turnover among Dutch nurse anaesthetists : the influence of job satisfaction, work climate, work context and personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, V.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explore bottlenecks and to make recommendations for an optimalisation of the work environment of nurse anaesthetists in order to keep them preserved for the job. NAs have been providing anaesthesia care in the United States and in some European countries for nearly 150

  1. Risk factors for job turnover among Dutch nurse anaesthetists : the influence of job satisfaction, work climate, work context and personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, V.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explore bottlenecks and to make recommendations for an optimalisation of the work environment of nurse anaesthetists in order to keep them preserved for the job. NAs have been providing anaesthesia care in the United States and in some European countries for nearly 150

  2. Risk factors for job turnover among Dutch nurse anaesthetists : the influence of job satisfaction, work climate, work context and personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeusen, V.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explore bottlenecks and to make recommendations for an optimalisation of the work environment of nurse anaesthetists in order to keep them preserved for the job. NAs have been providing anaesthesia care in the United States and in some European countries for nearly

  3. Context in a wider context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  4. Prolonged sedentary time and physical activity in workplace and non-work contexts: a cross-sectional study of office, customer service and call centre employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorp Alicia A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine sedentary time, prolonged sedentary bouts and physical activity in Australian employees from different workplace settings, within work and non-work contexts. Methods A convenience sample of 193 employees working in offices (131, call centres (36 and customer service (26 was recruited. Actigraph GT1M accelerometers were used to derive percentages of time spent sedentary ( Results Working hours were mostly spent sedentary (77.0%, 95%CI: 76.3, 77.6, with approximately half of this time accumulated in prolonged bouts of 20 minutes or more. There were significant (p Conclusion The workplace is a key setting for prolonged sedentary time, especially for some occupational groups, and the potential health risk burden attached requires investigation. Future workplace regulations and health promotion initiatives for sedentary occupations to reduce prolonged sitting time should be considered.

  5. Envisioning Improved Work Practices and Associated Technology Requirements in the Context of the Broader Socio-technical System

    OpenAIRE

    CAHILL, JOAN

    2008-01-01

    Crucially, the introduction of new technologies follows from the envisionment of new or improved work processes and related task workflows. Proposed technology concepts must be derived in conjunction with end users. Further, the advancement of new or improved work technologies must be predicated on operational requirements and fit the organisational environment. Technology innovation should support operational and organisational goals, as opposed to been driven by new or innovative technical ...

  6. Maternal child-centered attributions and harsh discipline: the moderating role of maternal working memory across socioeconomic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Skibo, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive models of parenting give emphasis to the central role that parental cognitions may play in parental socialization goals. In particular, dual process models suggest that parental attribution styles affect the way parents interpret caregiving situations and enact behaviors, particularly within the realm of discipline. Although research has documented the negative behavioral repercussions of dysfunctional child-centered responsibility biases, there is heterogeneity in the level of these associations. Research has also demonstrated that parental working memory capacity may serve as an individual difference factor in influencing caregiving behaviors. Thus, our first aim was to document how maternal working memory capacity may moderate the association between mother's dysfunctional child-oriented attributions and use of harsh discipline. In addition, from an ecological perspective, a second aim was to examine how socioeconomic risk may further potentiate the impact of maternal working memory. To accomplish these aims, a socioeconomically diverse sample of 185 mothers and their 3-year old children were recruited to participate in a laboratory-based research assessment. Findings revealed that lower maternal working memory capacity may operate as a risk factor for attributional biases and harsh discipline, and higher working memory may serve as a protective factor in this relationship. Socioeconomic risk further moderated these findings. Results suggest that the moderating role of working memory may be particularly pronounced under conditions of socioeconomic risk. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Adaptind the US Main Street Philosophy and Program to the Romanian Urban Context. Could it Possibly Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdana NEAMTU

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis herein explores the topic of downtown revitalization and focuses on a specific strategy, namely the Main Street approach, as a venue for addressing physical decay, business retention, and historic preservation within small cities/communities throughout the entire US. The paper also addresses how the main street philosophy could be used to deal with urban problems in a completely different setting – Romanian cities – and which would be the steps Romanian public authorities at both the central and local level need to undertake in order to implement a Main Street Program in Romania. The paper has a threefold structure. In the first section the focus is on the US urban context. A brief analysis of the causes that have generated the decline of downtowns and their commercial/business districts is provided. It is underscored that cities are not merely the passive recipients of change; rather decision-makers have the ability to make choices that maximize the assets the community has while minimizing the obstacles they face. The Main Street program implemented by the National Trust for Historic Preservation is described as one possible strategy aiming at the revitalization of downtowns and commercial/business districts. The focus is on assessing how such a strategy responds to the challenges downtowns face. The Main Street approach is then compared and contrasted against other possible downtown redevelopment strategies. In the second part of the paper the focus shifts from the US context to Romanian cities. A brief analysis of the problems Romanian municipalities face with regard to downtowns is provided. The authors argue that the main street approach is relevant and worth taking into consideration as a counterpoint to urban sprawl - (increase in the number of retailers and malls at the outskirts of the urban cores, decline of open space and opportunities for leisure in the downtown, increase in the number of suburban single family

  8. Influencing Factors for Developing Managerial Behaviours That Encourage a Work-Family Culture in the University Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Álvarez-Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article develops and tests a theoretical model to find out which factors influence the behaviour of supervisors in terms of promoting a work-family culture. This model explains to what extent the factors studied are relevant to encourage deans to promote this type of culture at Spanish universities. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression analysis. Data were obtained through a questionnaire to deans. The results yield five key factors: (1 the personal work-family conflict of managers; (2 the transformational leadership style of managers; (3 the identification with subordinates in need of work-family cares; (4 the perceived institutional support; and (5 the perceived support from other supervisors in the centre. The findings have practical implications for human resources management (HRM practices. Human resources management practices such as (a providing deans and other supervisors with training about the importance of work-family programs; (b promoting deans’ training in order to develop transformational leadership skills; or (c increasing institutional support can be useful when implementing a work-family culture in Spanish universities.

  9. The quality of the work–home and home–work relationship in the context of personal resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Szymańska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to examine whether gain or loss of personal resources is associated with conflict or facilitation between work and family. Material and Methods: The study involved 90 employees (mean age: 34.5 years. The Polish version of COR-Evaluation (Conservation of Resources-Evaluation questionnaire, developed by Hobfoll and adapted by Dudek et al, was used to assess personal resources. The questionnaire enables to estimate gain and loss of 40 resources and calculate the overall level of gained or lost resources. SWING Questionnaire (Survey Work-Home Interaction, Nijmegen, developed by Geurts et al. and adapted by Mościcka-Teske and Merecz, was used to examine the quality of work–home and home–work relationship. Results: The gain of personal resources positively correlates with both home–work facilitation (HWF and work–home facilitation (WHF. Improvement of the family relations proved to be the most significant predictor of HWF and WHF. The loss of personal resources coincides with high level of conflict between the investigated areas of life. The main predictor of home–work conflict (HWC was the variable relating to restrictions of access to medical services. In case of work–home conflict (WHC the reduction of material security in case of dramatic life events was the major predictor. Conclusions: The results confirmed that the gain of resources is crucial for HWF/WHF, while their loss is an important factor, when the HWC/WHC is considered. The resources, which proved to be the main predictors of work–home and home–work relationship were also indicated. The obtained information may be beneficial to human resources managers, especially in designing the activities aimed at increasing the satisfaction and effectiveness of employees. Med Pr 2014;65(6:755–764

  10. Developing a communication skills training program for pharmacists working in Southern African HIV/AIDS contexts: some notes on process and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    In an attempt to understand why patients do not take medications, researchers are increasingly focusing on how communication processes influence adherence behaviors. Pharmacists have an important role to play in this regard. However, existing communication skills training (CST) programs for pharmacists are not necessarily sensitive to the needs of pharmacists working in specific contexts such as Southern Africa. In addition, CST programs are often poorly described in the literature, lack a theoretical background, and focus excessively on evaluation. This article describes the process of developing a CST program for pharmacists working in Southern African HIV/AIDS contexts, focusing on conceptualization and design. Some shortfalls in current approaches to CST are addressed. A number of sources were consulted during the development phase of the project, including interactional and focus group research, previously developed training models, analysis of currently available CST materials for pharmacists, and a literature review. These are discussed and some attention is also given to the challenges of implementing and evaluating the program. The project highlights the importance of providing CST that is disease- and context-specific, grounded in appropriate research and theoretical frameworks, and based on a rigorous process of development.

  11. Work-family enrichment : development, validation and application of a new instrument within the South African context / Marissa de Klerk

    OpenAIRE

    De Klerk, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades it has become evident that the work/family interface is a much broader concept that does not only stress the negative side of the relationship, but also include a positive side. This refers to the process by which participation in one role (e.g. work role) is made better or easier by virtue of participation in the other role (e.g. family role). South Africa is a multicultural society, which consists of four groups (i.e. Black, White, Coloured and Indian), speaking el...

  12. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived

  13. Social Responsibility in Research Practice: Engaging applied scientists with the socio-ethical context of their work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurbiers, D.

    2010-01-01

    How to encourage researchers to critically reflect on the ethical and social dimensions of their work? That is the central research question of this thesis. It starts from the assumption that the neutrality view of the social responsibility of the researcher – the view that researchers have no busin

  14. Evaluating Experiential Learning in the Business Context: Contributions to Group-Based and Cross-Functional Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Niall

    2013-01-01

    The use of experiential learning techniques has become popular in business education. Experiential learning approaches offer major benefits for teaching contemporary management practices such as cross-functional and team-based working. However, there remains relatively little empirical data on the success of experiential pedagogies in supporting…

  15. HR Practices Perceptions, Emotional Exhaustion, and Work Outcomes: A Conservation-of-Resources Theory in the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Yun; Pan, Wen

    2008-01-01

    The conservation-of-resources theory provided the theoretical underpinning for the relationship among HR practices perceived by employees, emotional exhaustion, and work outcomes (job satisfaction and job performance). To fully understand the underlying mechanism of the relationship, the study examined (1) the main and interactive effects of HR…

  16. The "Insider/Outsider" Dilemma of Ethnography: Working with Young Children and Their Families in Cross-Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera

    2011-01-01

    In this article we unravel the difficulty of being researchers in the homes and classrooms of children and their families whose origins are, for one of us, very different and, for the other, very similar to our own. We first situate our work within theories of early socialization and literacy teaching which underpin our understanding of how young…

  17. Evaluating Experiential Learning in the Business Context: Contributions to Group-Based and Cross-Functional Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Niall

    2013-01-01

    The use of experiential learning techniques has become popular in business education. Experiential learning approaches offer major benefits for teaching contemporary management practices such as cross-functional and team-based working. However, there remains relatively little empirical data on the success of experiential pedagogies in supporting…

  18. HR Practices Perceptions, Emotional Exhaustion, and Work Outcomes: A Conservation-of-Resources Theory in the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Yun; Pan, Wen

    2008-01-01

    The conservation-of-resources theory provided the theoretical underpinning for the relationship among HR practices perceived by employees, emotional exhaustion, and work outcomes (job satisfaction and job performance). To fully understand the underlying mechanism of the relationship, the study examined (1) the main and interactive effects of HR…

  19. Application of the perspective-based reading technique in the nuclear I and C context. CORSICA work report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    Inspections and reviews are one of the most effective ways of detecting errors in software development. The methods are also cost-effective because defects can be spotted early in the development, and thus the cost of repairing the defects is lower. Reading techniques are the procedures that are used in the inspection or review of a software artefact. The most common procedures are simple ad-hoc reading and a checklist- based reading technique. However, more advanced and detailed procedures have been created for various purposes. This report reviews the state-of-the-art software reading techniques used in inspections and reviews, and briefly reviews some of the empirical research in this context. The majority of the empirical research results indicate that, for example, perspective-based reading is more cost-effective and can detect more defects than more basic reading techniques. This report also describes how perspective-based reading can be applied to the inspection of nuclear-domain requirement specifications. For this purpose, seven perspective-based reading scenarios have been created. (orig.)

  20. ENTERPRISE’S TECHNOLOGIES OF SELF: THE CONSTRUCTION OF LABOR SUBJECTS IN THE CONTEXT OF IMMATERIAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA MARÍA GARCÍA ÁLVAREZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to make a reflection about the new nature of work and the role of Organizational Psychology as atechnology displayed in organizations for the production of certain type of subjectivities. In the case analyzed it isshown how the management of human resources through psychological knowledge, produces entrepreneur,autonomous, responsible, competent, involved and flexible subjects who contribute to the reproduction of dominantinterests, making evident the political nature of Psychology.

  1. In the physics class: university physics students' enactment of class and gender in the context of laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.

    2014-06-01

    This article explores how the doing of social class and gender can intersect with the learning of science, through case studies of two male, working-class university students' constitutions of identities as physics students. In doing so, I challenge the taken-for-granted notion that male physics students have an unproblematic relation to their chosen discipline, and nuance the picture of how working-class students relate to higher education by the explicit focus on one disciplinary culture. Working from the perspective of situated learning theory, the interviews with the two male students were analysed for how they negotiated the practice of the physics student laboratory and their own classed and gendered participation in this practice. By drawing on the heterogeneity of the practice of physics the two students were able to use the practical and technological aspects of physics as a gateway into the discipline. However, this is not to say that their participation in physics was completely frictionless. The students were both engaged in a continuous negotiation of how skills they had learned to value in the background may or may not be compatible with the ones they perceived to be valued in the university physicist community.

  2. [Implementation and validation in the Italian context of the HSE management standards: a contribution to provide a practical model for the assessment of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, S; Natali, E; Rondinone, B M; Castaldi, T; Persechino, B

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, stress has been recognized as a potential work-related risk factor. Unfortunately, work-related stress is a very delicate subject, especially because it is difficult to assess it objectively and in broadly acceptable terms. In fact, work-related stress is a subjective personal response to a specific work environment, ad is of a multifactorial origin. In order to provide a practical tool for the assessment of work-related stress, the authors carried out a thorough benchmarking analysis of the various models to manage work stress problems adopted by EU countries. As a result, the authors have chosen to apply and implement the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards approach in the Italian context. In compliance with the European Framework Agreement signed on October 8, 2004, HSE Management Standards ask for the coordinated and integrated involvement of workers and safety personnel and represent a valid assessment approach based on principles widely acknowledged in the scientific literature.

  3. Context-dependent feature selection using unsupervised contexts applied to GPR-based landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2010-04-01

    Context-dependent classification techniques applied to landmine detection with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have demonstrated substantial performance improvements over conventional classification algorithms. Context-dependent algorithms compute a decision statistic by integrating over uncertainty in the unknown, but probabilistically inferable, context of the observation. When applied to GPR, contexts may be defined by differences in electromagnetic properties of the subsurface environment, which are due to discrepancies in soil composition, moisture levels, and surface texture. Context-dependent Feature Selection (CDFS) is a technique developed for selecting a unique subset of features for classifying landmines from clutter in different environmental contexts. In past work, context definitions were assumed to be soil moisture conditions which were known during training. However, knowledge of environmental conditions could be difficult to obtain in the field. In this paper, we utilize an unsupervised learning algorithm for defining contexts which are unknown a priori. Our method performs unsupervised context identification based on similarities in physics-based and statistical features that characterize the subsurface environment of the raw GPR data. Results indicate that utilizing this contextual information improves classification performance, and provides performance improvements over non-context-dependent approaches. Implications for on-line context identification will be suggested as a possible avenue for future work.

  4. Mechanism on How Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence Works on Chinese Consumers' Need for Uniqueness%人际间影响敏感性对中国消费者独特性需求的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚海峰

    2012-01-01

    以本土消费者为样本,采用实证研究方法就消费者的人际间影响敏感性与独特性需求之间的作用关系进行了分析.通过分析发现,从总体来看本土消费者对人际间影响所持有的敏感性对独特性需求产生了促进作用,这种因果关系在一定程度上解释了中国消费者在消费过程中所体现出的从众、攀比、好面子等独特现象的产生机理.%Based on the previous works, some hypotheses are put forward and the relationship between consumers' need for uniqueness and interpersonal influence is analyzed through empirical research methods by sampling local consumers. It is concluded that local consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence is positively related to the need for uniqueness. Accordingly, this causality makes it understandable for us to some extent many particular phenomena including conformity, keeping up with the Joneses and keeping face of Chinese consumers during the process of consumption.

  5. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to the Einstein Field Equations in Eternal Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Ikjyot Singh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Einstein field equations for an arbitrary FLRW universe in the context of stochastic eternal inflation where the stochastic mechanism is modeled by adding a stochastic forcing term representing Gaussian white noise to the Klein-Gordon equation. We show that under these considerations, the Klein-Gordon equation actually becomes a stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the existence and uniqueness of solutions to Einsteins equations depend on whether the drift coefficient of this stochastic differential equation obeys global Lipschitz continuity and growth conditions. We then show that only three unique solutions are possible in the context of this model. The first unique solution we obtain is a de Sitter space solution with a linear inflation potential. The other two solutions that we obtain are both Einstein static universe solutions with linear and quadratic potentials. An important implication of this work is that o...

  6. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  7. Evaluación de la inestabilidad laboral como estresor psicosocial en el trabajo Assessment Of Job Instability As A Psychosocial Stressor In Work Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Leibovich de Figueroa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se presenta como un estresor psicosocial en los contextos laborales y se hace imprescindible evaluar su impacto en los trabajadores. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis factorial exploratorio del Inventario de Malestar Percibido en la Inestabilidad Laboral (IMPIL. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (método de componentes principales, rotación promax para examinar cómo se agrupaban los ítems. Se comenzó con una solución forzada de ocho factores para ver si se mantenía la agrupación conceptual original del inventario. Se descartaron los ítems con cargas inferiores a .40 y con doble pesaje. Esto dejó un total de 44 ítems, con los que se llegó a una solución forzada de ocho factores que describen el 64.11% de la varianza de las puntuaciones. Los ítems agrupados en los 8 factores reproducen pensamientos positivos y negativos del trabajador y su relación con el contexto laboral.Job Instability appears as a psychosocial stressor in work contexts and it is imperative to assess its impact among workers. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the Inventory of Perceived Uneasiness in an Unstable Work Setting (IMPIL are presented. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted (method of principal components, promax rotation, to discuss how the items were grouped. To see if original grouping maintained, an eight factors solution was forced. Items with loads less than .40 and dual weighing were discarded. This left a total of 44 items, and we arrived at a forced eight factors solution that describes the 64.11% of the variance. The items grouped in the eight factors reproduced positive and negative thoughts of the workers and their relationship to the employment context.

  8. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctoral...... day, Monday November 2, 2015, the day prior to the start of the main CONTEXT 2015 conference....

  9. Processo de trabalho no samu e humanização do sus do ponto de vista da atividade humana The samu work process and the humanization developed by the unique health system from the standpoint of human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Castro Trajano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Procura-se analisar o trabalho dos profissionais do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (Samu e a Política Nacional de Humanização do Sistema Único de Saúde (PNH/SUS do ponto de vista da atividade humana. Pergunta-se sobre as possibilidades de 'humanização do processo de trabalho' no Samu e sobre o 'agir competente' da urgência móvel em saúde, a partir de referenciais ergológicos. Para construção do artigo partiu-se de discussões marxistas sobre o processo de trabalho como produção de valores de uso; em seguida, abriu-se diálogo sobre processo de trabalho em saúde com base em autores do campo da saúde coletiva e da PNH. A perspectiva ergológica do trabalho é aprofundada no item seguinte, de modo a contribuir para uma análise da atividade dos trabalhadores do Samu/Belo Horizonte durante o atendimento a uma ocorrência de acidente.It is aimed to analyse the work of the professionals from Samu (Service of Mobile Emergency and the Nacional Humanization Politics (PNH developed by the Unique Health System (SUS from the standpoint of human activity. Wondering about the possibilities of 'humanizing the Samu work process' and about the 'act in competence' in the mobile health emergency since the ergologic regardings. The article has as primary basis marxist references on debating about the work process as production of values of use; forththwith, a dialogue about the work process regarding health care since the authors of Public Heath and PNH field. The ergologic perspective about labor is further discussed on the next item, in such a way that contributes to the analisis of Samu/Belo Horizonte workers activities, during the attendance for an accident occurrence.

  10. Persuasion---A Unique and Wonderful Work of Jane Austen's Novels%《劝导》--简·奥斯汀作品中的一朵奇葩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡威

    2015-01-01

    《劝导》是英国小说家简·奥斯汀作品中的一朵盛放的奇葩。一方面,它展示了作家娴熟而高超的写作技巧;另一方面,它呈现出前所未有的新特点:女主人公从单纯可爱型转向成熟稳重型、目标男性群从传统地主阶级转向新兴海军阶层、婚姻观从理性务实转向感性浪漫,体现出作家晚年社会价值观和创作思想的新变化。%Persuasion is British novelist Jane Austen's unique and wonderful work of her novels. One hand, it displays her skillful and su-perb writing technique. One the other hand, it presents unprecedented new features:shaping the heroine who is not pure and lovely but mature and prudent, choosing the target group of men who is not traditional landlord class but the emerging naval, putting forward to an ideal marriage which is not rational and pragmatic but emotional and romantic, etc., which reflects the writer's new changes in her later years about social values and creative thoughts.

  11. National context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    2011-01-01

    This document forms part of the tasks of Work Package 3 for the European project PLACES (Platform of Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science) whose main goal is to offer to a wide and diverse community of actors a common platform to structure their science communication activities,......, at a city/regional level (www.openplaces.eu). The main objective of this document is to have an overview of different contexts of scientific culture that are present around Europe with a particular focus on the local dimension of the initiatives and policies in science communication....

  12. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  13. A Brief History of Context

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Kaiyu

    2009-01-01

    Context is a rich concept and is an elusive concept to define. The concept of context has been studied by philosophers, linguists, psychologists, and recently by computer scientists. Within each research community the term context was interpreted in a certain way that is well-suited for their goals, however no attempt was made to define context. In many areas of research in computer science, notably on web-based services, human-computer interaction (HCI), ubiquitous computing applications, and context-aware systems there is a need to provide a formal operational definition of context. In this brief survey an account of the early work on context, as well as the recent work on many working definitions of context, context modeling, and a formalization of context are given. An attempt is made to unify the different context models within the formalization. A brief commentary on the usefulness of the formalization in the development of context-aware and dependable systems is included.

  14. Envolvimento de docentes-gestores com o trabalho no contexto universitário Involvement of teachers-managers with the work in the university context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Aparecida Kanan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizar o envolvimento de docentes-gestores com o trabalho no contexto universitário constituiu objetivo deste estudo. A pesquisa, de caráter qualitativo com enfoque exploratório e descritivo, teve a recorrência como procedimento associado à técnica de entrevistas. Os participantes, docentes-gestores de universidades de Santa Catarina, destacam que seu trabalho representa oportunidade de realização pessoal e de exercício de seu potencial e talento; há valor, sentido e importância para si e para a sociedade a ele associados. De forma geral os docentes-gestores não se percebem preparados suficientemente para as atividades de gestão do curso. As relações de poder, a hierarquia, o formalismo, a centralização da autoridade, os esquemas de controle, as poucas ou inexistentes oportunidades de avaliação e feedback da atuação são alguns aspectos que obstaculizam possibilidades de maior envolvimento.Characterizing the involvement of teachers-managers with work in the university context was the objective of this study. It was a qualitative research with descriptive and exploratory approach. The procedure involved in the technique of interviews was a recurrence. The participants, teachers-managers of universities of Santa Catarina, Brazil, highlight that their work represents an opportunity for personal fulfillment and the pursuit of his/her potential and his/her talent. There is value, meaning and importance for themselves and for society associated with it. In general, teachers-managers do not feel sufficiently prepared for the activities of managing the course. The relations of power, hierarchy, the formalism, centralization of authority, the control schemes, and the few or no opportunities for assessment and feedback of performance are some aspects that hinder opportunities for greater involvement.

  15. Aging in cultural context and as narrative process: conceptual foundations of the anthropology of aging as reflected in the works of Margaret Clark and Sharon Kaufman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, Margaret A; Solimeo, Samantha L

    2014-02-01

    Although the discipline of anthropology has much to contribute to the understanding of the nature and experience of aging, it is a relative latecomer to gerontology. After briefly discussing why this is the case, the authors discuss the contributions of two anthropologists who brought a substantive anthropological voice to gerontological discussion of aging. Examining the "ancestral roots" of the anthropology of aging, we spotlight the intellectual heritage of Margaret Clark, arguably the "mother" of this anthropological subfield, and that of Sharon Kaufman, her student, colleague, and a pioneer in her own right. Clark and Anderson's Culture and aging: an anthropological study of older Americans (1967; Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas) remains a touchstone for the concept of situated aging. This examination of value orientations and mental health of older San Franciscans is foundational for understanding aging as an interactive, socially embedded process that is adapted to specific sociocultural contexts. Research and therapies grounded in narrativity and meaning benefit from Sharon Kaufman's The ageless self: sources of meaning in late life (1986; Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press), which articulated narrative thinking as a conduit for understanding, performing, and constructing identity and meaning. Kaufman's work has ongoing relevance to gerontological research on embodiment, chronic illness, and later life social transitions. Their research has continued relevance to contemporary gerontological scholarship and practice, signaling both prevailing and emergent agendas for anthropologically informed gerontology.

  16. The priming of priming: Evidence that the N400 reflects context-dependent post-retrieval word integration in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten; Royle, Phaedra; Drury, John E; Fromont, Lauren A

    2017-06-09

    Which cognitive processes are reflected by the N400 in ERPs is still controversial. Various recent articles (Lau et al., 2008; Brouwer et al., 2012) have revived the idea that only lexical pre-activation processes (such as automatic spreading activation, ASA) are strongly supported, while post-lexical integrative processes are not. Challenging this view, the present ERP study replicates a behavioral study by McKoon and Ratcliff (1995) who demonstrated that a prime-target pair such as finger - hand shows stronger priming when a majority of other pairs in the list share the analogous semantic relationship (here: part-whole), even at short stimulus onset asynchronies (250ms). We created lists with four different types of semantic relationship (synonyms, part-whole, category-member, and opposites) and compared priming for pairs in a consistent list with those in an inconsistent list as well as unrelated items. Highly significant N400 reductions were found for both relatedness priming (unrelated vs. inconsistent) and relational priming (inconsistent vs. consistent). These data are taken as strong evidence that N400 priming effects are not exclusively carried by ASA-like mechanisms during lexical retrieval but also include post-lexical integration in working memory. We link the present findings to a neurocomputational model for relational reasoning (Knowlton et al., 2012) and to recent discussions of context-dependent conceptual activations (Yee and Thompson-Schill, 2016). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Unique Implication of Pu Songling' s Fu Works%高堂华屋外的野百合——蒲松龄辞赋的独特意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜莉莉

    2012-01-01

    蒲松龄辞赋从赋的高堂华屋走向世俗民间。蒲松龄以其感同身受的切肤之痛叙写民间的艰辛和苦难,表现出对底层深入骨髓的体认和关怀,并将役使鬼神、抒发孤愤的聊斋笔法与香草美人以寓忠贞的屈骚传统完美结合,在香花幽草的灵异世界里雕刻出人间社会的微缩景观。其语言收放自如、雅俗共赏,生动热闹的俗世场景在相对凝固的赋体中自由跳动,由此表现出独特的文化意蕴。%In Fu works, Pu Songling recorded the severe hardships and sufferings of the bottom society with painful feelings from his own experience, showing his deep care and concern for the ordinary people. He created a miniature society in the miraculous world of vanilla and grass by perfectly combining the writing technique of Li- aozhai Zhiyi (Strange Tales from a Lonely Studio ) Qusao tradition, which is applying patriotism and loy aozhai Zhiyi ( Strange Tales from a Lonely Studio) i Lively and noisy common scenes are springing freely nique cultural implication. , which is to depict his resentments by driving ghosts, with ahy to vanilla and beauty. The language of Fu articles in Li- s free, vivid and suitable to both refined and popular taste. in the relatively fixed Fu prose style, thereby presenting a unique cultural implication.

  18. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  19. Belarus - a unique case in the European context? / Kim Lausten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausten, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Valgevene presidendi Aleksander Lukashenko autoritaarsest režiimist, sellega seonduvatest võimalikest ohtudest Valgevene naaberriikide julgeolekule. Autor analüüsib Lukashenko režiimi institutsioonilisi ning sotsiaalpoliitilisi tagamaid

  20. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  1. Towards comprehensive and transparent reporting: context-specific additions to the ICF taxonomy for medical evaluations of work capacity involving claimants with chronic widespread pain and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Urban; Anner, Jessica; Glässel, Andrea; Brach, Mirjam; De Boer, Wout; Cieza, Alarcos; Trezzini, Bruno

    2014-08-29

    Medical evaluations of work capacity provide key information for decisions on a claimant's eligibility for disability benefits. In recent years, the evaluations have been increasingly criticized for low transparency and poor standardization. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive spectrum of categories for reporting functioning and its determinants in terms of impairments and contextual factors and could facilitate transparent and standardized documentation of medical evaluations of work capacity. However, the comprehensiveness of the ICF taxonomy in this particular context has not been empirically examined. In this study, we wanted to identify potential context-specific additions to the ICF for its application in medical evaluations of work capacity involving chronic widespread pain (CWP) and low back pain (LBP). A retrospective content analysis of Swiss medical reports was conducted by using the ICF for data coding. Concepts not appropriately classifiable with ICF categories were labeled as specification categories (i.e. context-specific additions) and were assigned to predefined specification areas (i.e. precision, coverage, personal factors, and broad concepts). Relevant specification categories for medical evaluations of work capacity involving CWP and LBP were determined by calculating their relative frequency across reports and setting a relevance threshold. Forty-three specification categories for CWP and fifty-two for LBP reports passed the threshold. In both groups of reports, precision was the most frequent specification area, followed by personal factors. The ICF taxonomy represents a universally applicable standard for reporting health and functioning information. However, when applying the ICF for comprehensive and transparent reporting in medical evaluations of work capacity involving CWP and LBP context-specific additions are needed. This is particularly true for the documentation of

  2. Works Councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne; Markey, Ray

    2002-01-01

    The article outlines the operation of works councils in Europe and in the context of disscussing their viability in Austalia.......The article outlines the operation of works councils in Europe and in the context of disscussing their viability in Austalia....

  3. Using theories of behaviour to understand transfusion prescribing in three clinical contexts in two countries: Development work for an implementation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is an essential part of healthcare and can improve patient outcomes. However, like most therapies, it is also associated with significant clinical risks. In addition, there is some evidence of overuse. Understanding the potential barriers and enablers to reduced prescribing of blood products will facilitate the selection of intervention components likely to be effective, thereby reducing the number of costly trials evaluating different implementation strategies. Using a theoretical basis to understand behaviours targeted for change will contribute to a 'basic science' relating to determinants of professional behaviour and how these inform the selection of techniques for changing behaviour. However, it is not clear which theories of behaviour are relevant to clinicians' transfusing behaviour. The aim of this study is to use a theoretical domains framework to identify relevant theories, and to use these theories to identify factors that predict the decision to transfuse. Methods The study involves two steps: interview study and questionnaire study. Using a previously identified framework, we will conduct semi-structured interviews with clinicians to elicit their views about which factors are associated with waiting and further monitoring the patient rather than transfusing red blood cells. Interviews will cover the following theoretical domains: knowledge; skills; social/professional role and identity; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; motivation and goals; memory, attention, and decision processes; environmental context and resources; social influences; emotion; behavioural regulation; nature of the behaviour. The interviews will take place independently in Canada and the UK and involve two groups of physicians in each country (UK: adult and neonatal intensive care physicians; Canada: intensive care physicians and orthopaedic surgeons. We will: analyse interview transcript content to

  4. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctor...

  5. How Does an Interactive Approach to Literary Texts Work in an English as a Foreign Language Context? Learners' Perspectives in Close-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu

    2016-01-01

    Interactive approaches to literary texts in second/foreign language education have enjoyed wide theoretical and empirical support. However, the teaching of literary texts in traditional English as a foreign language contexts still remains information-oriented, with a focus on the transmission and replication of an objectified interpretation of a…

  6. How Context Matters in High-Need Schools: The Effects of Teachers' Working Conditions on Their Professional Satisfaction and Their Students' Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Kraft, Matthew A.; Papay, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational policy makers have begun to recognize the challenges posed by teacher turnover. Schools and students pay a price when new teachers leave the profession after only 2 or 3 years, just when they have acquired valuable teaching experience. Persistent turnover also disrupts efforts to build a strong organizational…

  7. Using objective, real-time measures to investigate the effect of actual physical activity on affective states in everyday life differentiating the contexts of working and leisure time in a sample with students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina K. Kanning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple studies suggest that physical activity causes positive affective reactions and reduces depressive mood. However, studies and interventions focused mostly on structured activity programs, but rarely on actual physical activity (aPA in daily life. Furthermore, they seldom account for the context in which the aPA occur (e.g. work, leisure. Using a prospective, real time assessment design (ambulatory assessment, we investigated the effects of aPA on affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness in real time during everyday life while controlling for the context. 87 undergraduates students (Age: M = 24.6; SD = 3.2, females: 54% participated in this study. aPA was assessed through accelerometers during 24-hours. Palmtop devices prompted subjects approximately every 45 minutes during a 14-hour daytime period to assess their affective states and the context. We analyzed within- and between-person effects with hierarchical modeling (HLM 6.0.Multilevel analyses revealed that both aPA and context influenced subsequent affective states. The interaction of aPA and context did predict energetic arousal only. State levels of affects did not differ between men and women. For both men and women, aPA in everyday life has an effect on individual’s affective states. For valence and calmness, it seems to be independent of the context in which the aPA occur. For energetic arousal, men reported to have lower feelings of energy and women reported to have more feelings of energy during leisure time compared to working episodes.

  8. Existence and uniqueness theorem for ODE: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poria, Swarup; Dhiman, Aman

    2016-01-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solutions became important due to the lack of general formula for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Compact form of existence and uniqueness theory appeared nearly 200 years after the development of the theory of differential equation. In the article, we shall discuss briefly the differences between linear and nonlinear first order ODE in context of existence and uniqueness of solutions. Special emphasis is given on the Lipschit...

  9. Le sens du travail dans un contexte de dérégulation : le cas des cadres d’entreprise The Meaning of Work in a Context of Deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Cousin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La loyauté a longtemps défini le lien particulier qui unissait les cadres à leur entreprise. Ce principe s’affaiblit aujourd’hui et laisse la place à une autre logique où la défection domine, ce qui suppose que les cadres deviennent les acteurs et les sujets de leur histoire. Comment vivent-ils ce changement et quel sens donnent-ils à leur travail ? À partir du récit qu’ils font de leur expérience du travail, on peut analyser leur rapport au travail selon trois dimensions : l’intégration à l’entreprise, la nature de l’activité et la construction d’une image de soi qui se matérialise par la gestion de sa carrière. Chacune de ces dimensions donne un rapport particulier au travail qui, pour les cadres, demeure un élément de construction de soi positif mais empreint de très fortes incertitudes.Loyalty long defined the peculiar link between managers and their company. Now on the wane, this principle is being replaced by a logic where defection dominates, making of managers actors of their own lot. How do the concerned feel about this and what impact does it have on their work ? Thanks to life histories three attitudes to work emerge : integrating with the company, the kind of work done and self-imaging via career construction. Each relates in its own way to work which despite its uncertainties contributes to self esteem

  10. Doctoral Education in Social Work: What We Know and What We Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.; Kuerbis, Alexis N.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about social work doctoral students and graduates: why they chose doctoral study, the kind of work they do, and the nature of their unique contributions to the profession. This article reviews past studies of doctoral education in social work in the context of general trends in doctoral education in the United States, underscoring…

  11. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  12. Effect of Functional Capacity Evaluation information on the judgment of physicians about physical work ability in the context of disability claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, H.; Gouttebarge, V.; Kuijer, P.P.F.M.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To test whether Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) information lead insurance physicians (IPs) to change their judgment about the physical work ability of claimants with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Methods Twenty-seven IPs scored twice the physical work ability of two claimants for

  13. The eastern necropolis of Baelo Claudia in the context of Punic-Mauritanian religion. A reading from the last archaeological works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando PRADOS MARTÍNEZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new study of the oriental necropolis of Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Cádiz is approached in this work. This taking into account new digs and re-interpretation of old works. As a result, new readings in funerary landscape, religiosity, ethnicity, architectonical typology, materials and goods are proposed.

  14. Moving beyond the Lone Scientist: Helping 1st-Grade Students Appreciate the Social Context of Scientific Work Using Stories about Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…

  15. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  16. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  17. A task is a task is a task: Putting complex span, n-back, and other working memory indicators in psychometric context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eSchmiedek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a meta-analysis, Redick and Lindsey (2013 found that complex span and n-back tasks show an average correlation of r = .20, and concluded that complex span and n-back tasks cannot be used interchangeably as working memory measures in research applications (p. 1102. Here, we comment on this conclusion from a psychometric perspective. In addition to construct variance, performance on a test contains measurement error, task-specific variance, and paradigm-specific variance. Hence, low correlations among dissimilar indicators do not provide strong evidence for the existence, or absence, of a construct common to both indicators. One way to arrive at such evidence is to fit hierarchical latent factors that model task-specific, paradigm-specific, and construct variance. We report analyses for 101 younger and 103 older adults who worked on 9 different working memory tasks. The data are consistent with a hierarchical model of working memory, according to which both complex span and n-back tasks are valid indicators of working memory. The working memory factor predicts 71% of the variance in a factor of reasoning among younger adults (83% for among older adults. When the working memory factor was restricted to any possible triplet of working memory tasks, the correlation between working memory and reasoning was inversely related to the average magnitude of the correlations among the indicators, indicating that more highly intercorrelated indicators may provide poorer coverage of the construct space. We stress the need to go beyond specific tasks and paradigms when studying higher-order cognitive constructs, such as working memory.

  18. A task is a task is a task: putting complex span, n-back, and other working memory indicators in psychometric context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedek, Florian; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Based on a meta-analysis, Redick and Lindsey (2013) found that complex span and n-back tasks show an average correlation of r = 0.20, and concluded that "complex span and n-back tasks cannot be used interchangeably as working memory measures in research applications" (p. 1102). Here, we comment on this conclusion from a psychometric perspective. In addition to construct variance, performance on a test contains measurement error, task-specific variance, and paradigm-specific variance. Hence, low correlations among dissimilar indicators do not provide strong evidence for the existence, or absence, of a construct common to both indicators. One way to arrive at such evidence is to fit hierarchical latent factors that model task-specific, paradigm-specific, and construct variance. We report analyses for 101 younger and 103 older adults who worked on nine different working memory tasks. The data are consistent with a hierarchical model of working memory, according to which both complex span and n-back tasks are valid indicators of working memory. The working memory factor predicts 71% of the variance in a factor of reasoning among younger adults (83% for among older adults). When the working memory factor was restricted to any possible triplet of working memory tasks, the correlation between working memory and reasoning was inversely related to the average magnitude of the correlations among the indicators, indicating that more highly intercorrelated indicators may provide poorer coverage of the construct space. We stress the need to go beyond specific tasks and paradigms when studying higher-order cognitive constructs, such as working memory.

  19. Why don't patients take their drugs? The role of communication, context and culture in patient adherence and the work of the pharmacist in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer; Evans, Melanie

    2011-06-01

    This study examined facilitators and barriers to adherence in four South African antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic sites and explored context and communication factors in relation to the role of the pharmacist. Data were collected from interviews and narratives of patients and health professionals around the issues of adherence and qualitatively analysed using principles of Thematic Content Analysis. Findings confirm the complex interplay between illness, communication, sociocultural, economic, context and systemic issues. Analysis suggests adherence is multifaceted and reinforces the critical role of communication factors in achieving concordance between patient and pharmacist. Successful treatment of HIV/AIDS depends on pharmacists and healthcare teams understanding contextual and interactional factors which play a role in adherence. The findings reinforce the importance of embedding a patient-centred approach in the training and everyday practice of pharmacists. The value of qualitative methods in understanding barriers to adherence and the potential value of the cultural broker in intercultural settings is discussed. Some suggestions are made as to how adherence counselling can be made relevant and effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Local Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic approach posits that a presupposition must be satisfied in its local context. But how is a local context derived from the global one? Extant dynamic analyses must specify in the lexical entry of any operator what its 'Context Change Potential' is, and for this very reason they fail to be sufficiently explanatory. To circumvent the problem, we revise two assumptions of the dynamic approach: we take the update process to be derivative from a classical, non-dynamic semantics -- which obviates the need for dynamic lexical entries; and we deny that a local context encodes what the speech act participants 'take for granted.' Instead, we take the local context of an expression E in a sentence S to be the smallest domain that one may restrict attention to when assessing E without jeopardizing the truth conditions of S. To match the results of dynamic semantics, local contexts must be computed incrementally, using only information about the expressions that precede E. This version of the theory can be shown to be nearly equivalent to the dynamic theory of Heim 1983 -- but unlike the latter, it is entirely predictive. We also suggest that local contexts can, at some cost, be computed symmetrically, taking into account information about all of S (except E; this leads to gradient predictions, whose assessment is left for future research. doi:10.3765/sp.2.3 BibTeX info

  1. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human......: patients and IT; usability test and evaluation; work tasks and related contexts; human factors and simulation; and context and systems design, and outline theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights related to how health information technologies can be better designed to accommodate...

  2. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  3. Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe

    forståelse. Traditionelt har denne form for information ikke været tilstede i informationssystemer, men med bølgen af Pervasive Computing og Communication begynder ting så småt at ændre sig. Et af målene for context aware computing er, at udnytte denne ekstra ressource af informationer der ellers er...... forbeholdt mennesker, til at forbedre interaktionen med og udnyttelsen af IT-systemer. Information om kontekst fra forskellige kilder kombineres og systemet foreslår relevante handlinger eller udfører dem automatisk. I dette dokument beskrives begreberne context og context awareness og hvorfor de er vigtige...

  4. Successful Aging in the Context of the Disablement Process: Working and Volunteering as Moderators on the Association Between Chronic Conditions and Subsequent Functional Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the successful aging model by assessing the impact of two forms of productive engagement-working and volunteering-as potential interventions in the process of disablement. The Health and Retirement Study was used to (a) estimate two-stage selection equations of (i) currently working part time and full time and (ii) currently volunteering less than 100 hours and volunteering 100 hours or more per year (net of chronic health problems) and (b) assess whether, net of selection, working, and volunteering moderate the association between chronic conditions and subsequent functional limitations. Chronic conditions were associated with elevated levels of subsequent functional limitations, whereas both working and volunteering were associated with lower levels of subsequent functional limitations. Moreover, workers and volunteers of less than 100 hours per year experienced a reduction in the association of chronic conditions on subsequent functional limitations. This research highlights the role of productive engagement as a key element in successful aging. Not only do work and volunteering have direct associations with health outcomes themselves, but they also act as potential interventions in the process of disablement by attenuating the way in which chronic conditions are translated into subsequent functional limitations. This suggests that (a) future research should apply successful aging models to health processes as well as health outcomes and (b) policy makers should support social institutions that foster late-life productive engagement.

  5. Current Work Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Hvid, Helge

    2003-01-01

    A presentation of the development of the Danish work politics during the last decade, discussed in an international context.......A presentation of the development of the Danish work politics during the last decade, discussed in an international context....

  6. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores how the context of competencies affects the way we see and value competence and how it thereby forms communication and strategies of action. The paper puts forward the view that the context of competence is often spoken of in incomprehensible terms and generally taken...... for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  7. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minou, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a 'disease' and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as 'corrosion' and 'consumption'. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy.

  8. What makes employees engaged with their work? The role of self-efficacy and employee’s perceptions of social context over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consiglio, Chiara; Borgogni, Laura; Di Tecco, Cristina; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Work engagement represents an important aspect of employee well-being and performance and has been related to both job and personal resources. The purpose of this paper, based on Social Cognitive Theory, is to emphasize the proactive role of self-efficacy which is hypothesized to predict w

  9. What makes employees engaged with their work? The role of self-efficacy and employee’s perceptions of social context over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Consiglio, Chiara; Borgogni, Laura; Di Tecco, Cristina; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Work engagement represents an important aspect of employee well-being and performance and has been related to both job and personal resources. The purpose of this paper, based on Social Cognitive Theory, is to emphasize the proactive role of self-efficacy which is hypothesized to predict w

  10. Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Silverman, Jay G; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2016-03-25

    Public health regulations practices surrounding sex work and their enforcement can have unintended consequences for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and care among sex workers. This analysis was based on qualitative in-depth (n = 33) and focus groups interviews (n = 20) conducted with migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and explored the implementation of sex work regulations and related consequences for HIV prevention and care among migrant sex workers. Sex work regulations were found to have health-related benefits (e.g., access to HIV/STI testing) as well as negative impacts, such as abuse by police and harassment, detention/deportation of migrant sex workers. Whereas public health regulations may improve access to HIV/STI testing, their implementation may inadvertently jeopardize sex workers' health through unintended negative consequences. Non-coercive, evidence-based public health and sex work policies and programs are needed to expand access to HIV/STI prevention and care among migrant sex workers, while protecting their dignity and human rights.

  11. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...... trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing...

  12. Refletindo sobre avaliação de desempenho do enfermeiro no contexto do sistema único de saúde Reflexionando sobre la avaliación del desempeño del enfermero en el contexto del sistema único de salud Refleting about evaluation of acting of the male nurse in the context of the unique system of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bianchet de Souza Neves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir sobre avaliação de desempenho do enfermeiro no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde. As modificações observadas a partir da implementação da reforma do Estado brasileiro destacam antigos problemas e introduzem outros novos para a área de recursos humanos em saúde. Neste contexto a avaliação de desempenho dos profissionais enfermeiros parte da nova abordagem de gestão de pessoas. Desenvolve-se a necessidade de ampliação e aprofundamento do conhecimento deste tema ainda tão pouco discutido; indicando mecanismos de avaliação não excludentes; destacando o profissional de saúde como participante da implementação das políticas de recursos humanos no contexto do SUS tornando-o membro ativo e participativo durante todo este processo.Este artículo tiene por objetivo abordar y traer a discusión la evaluación de desempeño del enfermero en el contexto del Sistema Único de Salud. Las modificaciones observadas a partir de la implementación de la reforma del Estado brasilero destacan antiguos problemas e introducen otros nuevos para la área de recursos humanos en salud. En este contexto la evaluación de desempeño de los profesionales enfermeros parte de una nueva visión de la gestión de personas. Desenvolviéndose la necesidad de ampliación y aprofundamiento del conocimiento de este tema poco discutido; indicando mecanismos de evaluación no excluyentes; destacando el profesional de salud como participante de la implementación de las políticas de recursos humanos en el contexto del SUS volviéndolo miembro activo y participativo durante todo este proceso.This article has for objective discussion to the evaluation of the male nurse acting in the context of the Unique Health System. The modifications observed starting from the implementation of the reform of the Brazilian State they detach old problems and they introduce other new ones for the area of human resources in health. In this

  13. Divine Love: The Reception of Leda and the Swan Myth in Works by Jewish and Arab Israeli Artists - Contexts and Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Sevilla Sadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The motif of the abduction of a woman is one of the most frequent in Ancient Greek and Roman art. Abductions in mythology are generally portrayed as carried out by a god disguised as a human or an animal, such as Zeus who, in the form of a bull, golden rain or a swan, seduces a beautiful young maiden. These myths have been interpreted from different viewpoints, such as gender, social, political and philosophical. One of the most frequent myths of abduction is that of Leda and the Swan, which appears in both Greek and Roman painting and sculpture. This theme has found many echoes in contemporary Israeli art, and constitutes the case study for this discussion, which belongs to the field of Classical Reception studies. The interpretations of this myth are diverse, ranging from a socio-gender context, to post-colonialism and its relevance to the local situation; to subversives, concerning tradition versus contemporary culture; to emotionality and romantic suffering; and to love as phantasmagoria. These varied interpretations will be examined in the following analysis in light of both ancient concepts and contemporary outlooks, based on literary and philosophical sources.

  14. THE PRECARIZATION OF THE TEACHING WORK IN THE CONTEXT OF CAPITALIST REORGANIZATION AND OF CHANGES IN BRAZILIAN EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION AFTER 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Francielli Maroneze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the new configurations that characterize the work of teachers connected to basic education, having as reference the changes brought with the process of capitalist reorganization and the new requirements for the Brazilian educational policy after 1990, limiting its articulation with the new parameters of productive restructuring, which emerged during this new phase of globalization of capital. With a closer look at the changes in Brazilian educational policy after 1990, we seek to establish a dialog with the following sources: Law of Directives and Bases of National Education (Brazil, 1996, the National Plan of Education (BRAZIL, 2001 and the Fund for the Maintenance and Development of the Fundamental Education and Valorization of Teaching (Brazil, 1996, aiming to analyze what guidance these documents provide on the teaching profession, particularly, on the enhancement of professional status. This approach demonstrates, in a contradictory move, the mediation between valorization and the complex relationship of precarization of this kind of work.

  15. A profile of HIV risk factors in the context of sex work environments among migrant female sex workers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-03-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g. boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a sexually transmitted infection symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk factors were compared by three types of sex work environments: (1) entertainment establishments, (2) personal services sectors, and (3) street-based venues, including roadside brothels. Street-based FSWs, compared to the other FSWs, were more likely to be older, married with children, migrate from rural areas, and be arrested by police, and less likely to be educated, have contact with prevention services, be knowledgeable about HIV, and be tested for HIV. The FSWs in entertainment establishments were more likely than street-based FSWs to have reported being physically, verbally, and/or sexually abused by clients. Multiple discriminant analysis distinguished a profile of two different groups of risk factors: (1) police arrest, lack of protection from violence, access to prevention and health care, and HIV knowledge, and (2) verbal and physical abuse and clients' refusal of condom use. In the massive internal migration in China, disadvantages in economic sectors drive women to become involved in sex work. HIV prevention strategies must target socio-structural factors embedded in sex work environments.

  16. A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E.; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-01-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk ...

  17. Context trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

  18. Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes--a Foucault-inspired analysis of discourses in the last decade in a Danish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karen T; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-12-01

    International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites - 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) 'the work of the professional caregivers - a complex low-status work'; (2) 'the education of the professionals - the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications' and (3) 'the vulnerable professionals'. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within which the professionals care for dying residents, although the medical, the social/critical and the religious discourses attempt to speak against it. All positions articulate that the professional caregivers' job has a low status and that it is not possible to provide an optimal care due to lack of time, resources and education. Psychical or mental demands make the professionals vulnerable. The meaning of optimal care varies according to the positions of speech.

  19. Euler equation existence, non-uniqueness and mesh converged statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Lim, Hyunkyung; Kaufman, Ryan; Hu, Wenlin

    2015-09-13

    We review existence and non-uniqueness results for the Euler equation of fluid flow. These results are placed in the context of physical models and their solutions. Non-uniqueness is in direct conflict with the purpose of practical simulations, so that a mitigating strategy, outlined here, is important. We illustrate these issues in an examination of mesh converged turbulent statistics, with comparison to laboratory experiments.

  20. Temps du care et organisation sociale du travail en famille Time for Care and the social organization of work in a family context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Damamme

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available L’organisation du care en famille interroge les manières de restituer les activités que ce travail recouvre, les multiples agents qu’il implique, et les temporalités diverses qu’il engage. Si le sexe et la  disponibilité temporelle quasi-permanente permettent de rapprocher le care du travail domestique, c’est le travail de coordination sur le long cours qui vient spécifier le care, tout à la fois travail et éthique. L’effort de mise en cohérence des protagonistes, professionnels et non professionnels, membres de la famille et quasi-parents, défie les frontières entre privé et public. Processus d’intégration de différentes temporalités, le care est décrit comme agencement et enchaînement de phases. C’est par le souci d’assurer la continuité des soins que s’identifie alors la figure du principal responsable, engagée dans une temporalité qui la met souvent en porte-à-faux avec celle des organisations du travail contemporain. Pourtant, c’est bien par la reconnaissance de l’importance politique de ce temps de care que peuvent être bousculées les hiérarchies variées auxquelles il peut donner lieu, selon les lignes de genre, de classe et de race.The organization of Care in families challenges the ways the work accomplished by a wide range of agents and their various temporalities are accounted for. If gender and a quasi-permanent temporal availability allow one to combine Care and household work, it is the task of coordination in the long term that specifies Care, both as labour and ethics. Creating coherence between protagonists - professionals and non professionals, family members and quasi-relatives - challenges the separation between private and public spheres. As a process integrating different temporalities, Care is described as both an organization in itself and a sequence of phases. Maintaining continuity and coherence is identified as the main role and concern of the principal caregiver

  1. Masculinity, sexuality and vulnerability in 'working' with young men in South African contexts: 'you feel like a fool and an idiot … a loser'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Kruger, Lou-Marie; Schepers, Yeshe

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has seen a rapid increase in scholarship and programmatic interventions focusing on gender and sexuality, and more recently on boys, men and masculinities. In this paper, we argue that a deterministic discourse on men's sexuality and masculinity in general is inherent in many current understandings of adolescent male sexuality, which tend to assume that young women are vulnerable and powerless and young men are sexually powerful and inevitably also the perpetrators of sexual violence. Framed within a feminist, social constructionist the oretical perspective, the current research looked at how the masculinity and sexuality of South African young men is constructed, challenged or maintained. Focus groups were conducted with young men between the ages of 15 and 20 years from five different schools in two regions of South Africa, the Western and Eastern Cape. Data were analysed using Gilligan's listening guide method. Findings suggest that participants in this study have internalised the notion of themselves as dangerous, but were also exploring other possible ways of being male and being sexual, demonstrating more complex experiences of manhood. We argue for the importance of documenting and highlighting the precariousness, vulnerability and uncertainty of young men in scholarly and programmatic work on masculinities.

  2. The atmospheric pollution in the context of the environmental education: experiences and challenges in the interdisciplinary work at a private school in Contagem-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Ângelo Silva Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims, as its general objective, to raise, by means of interviews with the teachers involved, issues on the obstacles of the application of the interdisciplinary project of environmental education with emphasis on atmospheric pollution, at a private school in Contagem, in Minas Gerais State. The development was based on methodological procedures performed by means of a bibliographical research and case study, having as subject of the research high school teachers and the pedagogic coordinator who work in the morning at a downtown school in the municipal district of Contagem. The techniques used for the collection of data were the semi-structuralized interviews and reports derived from the interdisciplinary project developed. The results have demonstrated that the development of projects that have the interdisciplinary as their goal, even being a theme of the teachers' general knowledge, still faces a series of challenges that go from the absence of schools infrastructure and the directors' general support, to issues related to the absence of a more complete pedagogic political project which, in fact, contemplates subjects of the students' real interest. Keywords: Environment; Pollution; Interdisciplinary; Projects; Environmental Education

  3. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  4. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  5. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  6. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  7. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  8. 当代市场语境中的陶瓷产品之道--我的制陶之路%THE CERAMIC PRODUCTS IN MARKET CONTEXT--The experience of My work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋

    2015-01-01

    Recently, “ceramic” has become an independent category of art in modern China. As“art”is often associated with artists' personal thought and unique personal style, therefor, “uniqueness”, “personality” have become the evaluation criteria of contemporary ceramics. on the other hand, in recent market context, with the development of science and technology, industrial ceramic design that regard functional form as the central task of ceramic products gradual y become the main current. As the result, the traditional ceramic production mode is almost lost their living space. The paper is discuss how the traditional ceramic production technology develops in modern society according to my practical experience in the market context.%在当今的市场语境下,当代的陶瓷产品呈“百花齐放、百家争鸣”的态势。其一,是“陶瓷设计产品”;其二,是艺术家们以陶瓷材料作为其思想的媒介创作的作品;其三,是产区的艺匠们所制作生产的陶瓷产品。在这样的情境下,艺术院校陶艺专业的毕业生几乎失去了生存空间。本文即是笔者在实践中探讨的一个可行的途径。

  9. Metalworking Techniques Unlock a Unique Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Approached by West Hartford, Connecticut-based Abbot Ball Company, Glenn Research Center agreed to test an intriguing alloy called Nitinol 60 that had been largely unused for a half century. Using powdered metallurgy, the partners developed a method for manufacturing and working with the material, which Abbott Ball has now commercialized. Nitinol 60 provides a unique combination of qualities that make it an excellent material for ball bearings, among other applications.

  10. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  11. The Unique Destination Proposition of Eskisehir: Industrial Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Unique Sales Proposition (USP concept which is one of the most important strategies of advertising history, to the Unique Destination Proposition (UDP for the case of Eskisehir. This study aims to propose industrial heritage as the UDP of Eskisehir by a descriptive approach. Industrial heritage helps Eskisehir destination brand to attain a meaningful, sustainable and distinctive dimension from its competitors. The current industrial heritage samples of Eskisehir were initially evaluated in this context. Subsequently, in the focus of the relation between industrial heritage and tourism, an excursion route and a tour program is suggested including the unique industrial heritage values of Eskisehir.

  12. The Electronic ApJ in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemesderfer, C. D.

    1995-12-01

    The on-line edition of the Astrophysical Journal provides the first opportunity for astronomical researchers to interact with the literature in a network context. Other electronic journals will follow. Astronomers will continue to develop ways to take advantage of information on the network, and these will be most effective when ApJ articles, observations from data centers, proposals for telescope time, communications with collaborators, and so on, are meshed. Astronomical literature, as a resource on the Internet, is not unique from the viewpoint of function or management, and astronomers are not unique as scholars in their desire to use the Internet as a tool to advance their work. We need to ensure as a community that all our resources for research --- journals and data --- fit in a global context on an Internet being used by everyone. In other words, we have to be sure that the ApJ fits into all the digital libraries of the future, including the ones we don't build. This paper will present a scenario in which many varied forms of information, astronomical and otherwise, can be catalogued and distributed so that they can be discovered and used by the research community.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI for the Brazilian context Adaptación transcultural del Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI para el contexto brasileño Adaptação transcultural do Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI para o contexto brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Aline Mininel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI is a structured interview guide developed by the University of Sherbrooke, Canada to help clinicians detect the most important work-related disability predictors and to identify one or more causes of prolonged absenteeism. This methodological study aims for the cross-cultural adaptation of the WoDDI for the Brazilian context. The method followed international guidelines for studies of this kind, including the following steps: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, evaluation by an expert committee and testing of the penultimate version. These steps allowed obtaining conceptual, semantic, idiomatic, experiential and operational equivalences, in addition to content validity. The results showed that the translated WoDDI is adapted to the Brazilian context and can be used after training.El Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI es una guía de entrevista estructurada desarrollada por la Universidad de Sherbrooke (Canadá, para ayudar a los profesionales de la salud a detectar los predictores de mayor importancia para personas con trastornos relacionados con el trabajo y para identificar una o más causas de ausentismo prolongado del trabajo. Este estudio metodológico se dirige a la adaptación transcultural (WoDDI para el contexto brasileño. El método siguió las recomendaciones internacionales para este tipo de estudio, el que comprende las siguientes etapas: traducción inicial, síntesis de las traducciones, retraducción, revisión del comité de expertos y prueba de la versión pre-final. Estas medidas permitieron obtener la equivalencia conceptual, semántica, idiomática y la experiencia operacional, además de la validación del contenido. Los resultados mostraron que el WoDDI traducido se adapta a la realidad brasileña e puede ser utilizado, después de la capacitación previa.O Work Disability Diagnosis Interview (WoDDI é um guia de entrevista estruturada

  14. Uniqueness theorem for black hole space-times with multiple disconnected horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Harmark, Troels

    2010-05-01

    We show uniqueness of stationary and asymptotically flat black hole spacetimes with multiple disconnected horizons and with two rotational Killing vector fields in the context of five-dimensional minimal supergravity (Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons gravity). The novelty in this work is the introduction in the uniqueness theorem of intrinsic local charges measured near each horizon as well as the measurement of local fluxes besides the asymptotic charges that characterize a particular solution. A systematic method of defining the boundary conditions on the fields that specify a black hole space-time is given based on the study of its rod structure (domain structure). Also, an analysis of known solutions with disconnected horizons is carried out as an example of an application of this theorem. ”But the perfect scientist is also a gardener: he believes that beauty is knowledge.” Gonçalo M. Tavares in Brief Notes on Science

  15. Context and Implicature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2014-01-01

    that has a lot in common with non-linguistic behavior. But what exactly is its role? We invite the reader to view conversational implicature as a way of negotiating meaning in conversational contexts. Along the way, the reader will learn something of the theoretical properties of implicatures, why...... they are tricky to work with empirically, what can be done with them computationally, and (perhaps) where future research on the topic may lead. But the basic message of the paper is actually quite simple: context and conversational implicature are highly intertwined, and unravelling their interactions...

  16. THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT IN EATING DISORDERS DEVELOPED BY MACIEJ PILECKI AND BARBARA JÓZEFIK - A SUMMARY OF THE CURRENT STAGE OF WORK ON THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To create the most coherent version of the scales of The Questionnaire on Sociocultural Context developed by Maciej Pilecki and Barbara Józefik and to assess the relationship that they have with disordered eating and eating disorders. Method. Firstly, a factor analysis on selected items of the research instrument based on a population of 614 girls attending Krakow schools was conducted. Then, in the same group, an analysis of the relationship between the obtained factors and the results of the Polish version of the The Eating Attitude Test (EAT26 was performed. Subsequently, a comparison of the obtained factors was conducted between 47 teenage female patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa, 16 diagnosed with binge/purge anorexia, 34 with a diagnosis of bulimia and 76 schoolgirls with a low risk of presenting eating disorders (EAT26≤19 points. Results. Coherent 7-scaled factorial structure of the tool including 32 out of 62 of the items of the questionnaire was obtained, relating to areas such as: the importance of thinness and media pressure on it, pressure for thinness, family success, a negative assessment of family context, the importance of control, the cultural importance of the problem, peer group pressure. The created scales retain 50.4% common factor variance and the achieved Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the scales were as follows respectively: 0.747; 0.850; 0.737; 0.617; 0.593; 0.668; 0.544. Obtained scales significantly differentiated the girls in the context of the prevalence of disturbed eating and eating disorders, particularly the girls with bulimic symptoms. Conclusions. The results of the current stage of work on the in strument are promising. However, the questionnaire does require further transformations.

  17. Learning Context for Text Categorization

    CERN Document Server

    Haribhakta, Y V

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes our work which is based on discovering context for text document categorization. The document categorization approach is derived from a combination of a learning paradigm known as relation extraction and an technique known as context discovery. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our categorization approach using reuters 21578 dataset and synthetic real world data from sports domain. Our experimental results indicate that the learned context greatly improves the categorization performance as compared to traditional categorization approaches.

  18. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and non-uniqueness of superpotentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARTHA MANDAL; ABHIJIT BANERJEE

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a family of periodic quantum Hamiltonians, that is subject to a closure condition is considered. In the context of the factorization method, we address the question of non-uniqueness of the governing superpotentials and study an alternative factorization to generate new hierarchies of potentials.

  19. The Innovation of College Counselors’ Ideological and Political Education Work in Social Media Context%社会化媒体语境下高校辅导员思想政治教育工作的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马强; 包训成

    2015-01-01

    高校辅导员置于教育和管理学生的前线,其主要工作任务是做好学生的思想政治教育工作,运用新媒体技术手段,通过思想政治教育,将社会主义的道德观、人生观教诲于学生。社会化媒体语境下,辅导员正确的角色定位、创新思想政治教育观、探索新工作模式,是有效开展工作、创新教育体制的重要课题。%As the front of educating and managing students ,the work of counselors in universities is mainly to do a good job of ideological and political work of students ,to use the technology of new media ,and teach the moral value of socialism and the outlook on life to students through the ideological and political education .The correct role positioning of counselors ,innovation of ideological and political education concept and the new mode of operation are important topics to work effectively and innovate education system in social media context .

  20. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...

  1. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    personnel and documentation on C2. During data analysis, three important themes that highlight the why, what, how and consequences of information behavior in C2 emerged. The first is the concept of interwoven situational awareness consisting of individual, intragroup and intergroup shared understanding...

  2. Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2011-01-01

    Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: "What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?" and "How do they handle this concern?" We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23-29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants' constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern). This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category). This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability.

  3. Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Löve

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: “What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?” and “How do they handle this concern?” We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23–29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants’ constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern. This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category. This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability.

  4. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  5. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  6. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  7. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  8. Behaviour of M X-80 Bentonite at Unsaturated Conditions and under Thermo-Hydraulic Gradient - Work Performed by CIEMAT in the Context of the TB T Project - Behaviour of M X-80 Bentonite at Unsaturated Conditions and under Thermo-Hydraulic Gradient - Work Performed by CIEMAT in the Context of the TB T Project -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M.V.; Gomez-Espina, R.; Martin, P.L.

    2006-07-01

    This document reports the thermo-hydro-mechanical characterisation of the MX-80 bentonite performed at CIEMAT between 2004 and 2006 in the context of the Agreement CIEMAT/CIMNE 04/113. This Agreement took place in the framework of the Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) Project, Whose experimental part is going on at the underground research laboratory of Aspo (Sweden) and in which the MX-80 bentonite is used as sealing material in a large scale test. A methodology has been developed for the determination of retention curves at high temperature, what has allowed checking the decrease of the retention capacity of the bentonite with temperature. Infiltration and infiltration/heating tests have been carried out, some of them with simultaneous measurement of temperature and relative humidity. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. La epistemología de reichenbach aplicada al desarrollo de trabajos prácticos contextualizados (TPC Reichenbach's epistemology applied to the development of context practical work (CPW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina T. Speltini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe la aplicación, durante tres cuatrimestres, de una innovación didáctica en el enfoque de los trabajos experimentales de un curso de Física para Ingeniería. El objetivo de la innovación fue trabajar en contextos, desde una ampliación de la perspectiva epistemológica de Reichenbach. Se planteó la enseñanza de temas de Física integrando los contextos: de descubrimiento, de justificación y de aplicación. Se observó que los trabajos experimentales contextualizados permiten extender la lógica disciplinar al relacionar aspectos históricos, epistemológicos, didácticos y tecnológicos del conocimiento enseñado. Una encuesta de opinión permitió conocer las ideas de los estudiantes sobre la innovación; los resultados obtenidos se muestran en el presente trabajo. Se advirtió que la implementación sistemática de esta innovación requeriría una organización curricular diferente, por lo menos en los cursos de Física para Ingeniería.This paper presents a didactic innovation applied to the experimental work within a course of Physics for Engineers, during a period of three terms. The aim of this innovation was to work with “context” from an extended Reichenbach epistemological perspective. Physics concepts were taught, integrating the following contexts: discovery, justification, teaching and employment. It was noticed that when contexts are applied to experimental work, the disciplinary logic is broadened, as a result of linking historical, epistemological and technological aspects of the subject being taught. The students ideas about the innovation were gathered through a questionnaire and the results are included in this work. The systematic use of this innovation would require a different curricular organization at least in Physics courses for engineers.

  10. Uniqueness and existence results for ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, J. Angel; Heikkila, Seppo; Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2006-04-01

    We establish some uniqueness and existence results for first-order ordinary differential equations with constant-signed discontinuous nonlinear parts. Several examples are given to illustrate the applicability of our work.

  11. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well-defined and memo...

  12. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...

  13. New Historicism: Text and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta M. Vesić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identified with the study of Renaissance and Romanticism, but nowadays it has been increasingly involved in other literary trends. Although there are great differences in the arguments and practices at various representatives of this school, New Historicism has clearly recognizable features and many new historicists will agree with the statement of Walter Cohen that New Historicism, when it appeared in the eighties, represented something quite new in reference to the studies of theory, criticism and history (Cohen 1987, 33. Theoretical connection with Bakhtin, Foucault and Marx is clear, as well as a kind of uneasy tie with deconstruction and the work of Paul de Man. At the center of this approach is a renewed interest in the study of literary works in the light of historical and political circumstances in which they were created. Foucault encouraged readers to begin to move literary texts and to link them with discourses and representations that are not literary, as well as to examine the sociological aspects of the texts in order to take part in the social struggles of today. The study of literary works using New Historicism is the study of politics, history, culture and circumstances in which these works were created. With regard to one of the main fact which is located in the center of the criticism, that history cannot be viewed objectively and that reality can only be understood through a cultural context that reveals the work, re-reading and interpretation of

  14. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  15. On the Issue of Individual Culture in Teachers in the Context of Approbation and Implementation of Professional Standard for Teachers on Municipal Level (From the Author’s Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityashov P.V.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article refers to one of the most difficult for realization directions of the work of managers of different levels with teaching staff - the expansion of cultural horizons, formation of particular outlook and development of intelligence of the modern school teacher. From his point of view, this direction is a necessary condition for approbation and implementation of the professional standard "Teacher (educational activities in the field of preschool, primary general, basic general, secondary education (tutor, teacher" (hereinafter - Professional standard of the teacher and in general - requirement of life. Analyzing the overall situation in terms of readiness of the teacher to work in the context of the development of the federal state educational standard for general education (hereinafter referred to as FSES, approbation of professional standard, the author refers to the experience of educational management body of Novonikolaevsk municipal district of the Volgograd region offering concrete steps and measures for solution of the overall problem of general culture of teacher personality.

  16. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  17. Context Awareness Framework Based on Contextual Graph

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Huy; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays computing becomes increasingly mobile and pervasive. One of the important steps in pervasive computing is context-awareness. Context-aware pervasive systems rely on information about the context and user preferences to adapt their behavior. However, context-aware applications do not always behave as user's desire, and can cause users to feel dissatisfied with unexpected actions. To solve these problems, context-aware systems must provide mechanisms to adapt automatically when the context changes significantly. The interesting characteristic of context is its own behaviors which depend on various aspects of the surrounding contexts. This paper uses contextual graphs to solve the problem "the mutual relationships among the contexts". We describe the most relevant work in this area, as well as ongoing research on developing context-aware system for ubiquitous computing based on contextual graph. The usage of contextual graph in context-awareness is expected to make it effective for developers to develop...

  18. Espiritualidade, religião e trabalho no contexto organizacional Espiritualid, religión y trabajo en el contexto organizacional Spirituality, religion and work in the organizational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rodrigues da Silva

    2009-09-01

    in religious and non religious organizational contexts, the article points out to what extent spirituality can contribute, especially, to a deeper understanding of the work activity and how pleasant it can be. This text also reveals the motives which may explain a tendency to deny the bonds between spirituality, religiosity and religion within organizational context. Moreover, it suggests some critical readings of the proposition of using these variables in organizational context - as the recovery movement of classic religious values, now renamed to the work collective, updating old gaining profits strategies of the enterprises.

  19. Spatiotemporal Context Modelling in Pervasive Context-Aware Computing Environment: A Logic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darine Ameyed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive context-aware computing, is one of the topics that received particular attention from researchers. The context, itself is an important notion explored in many works discussing its: acquisition, definition, modelling, reasoning and more. Given the permanent evolution of context-aware systems, context modeling is still a complex task, due to the lack of an adequate, dynamic, formal and relevant context representation. This paper discusses various context modeling approaches and previous logic-based works. It also proposes a preliminary formal spatiotemporal context modelling based on first order logic, derived from the structure of natural languages.

  20. The HFEA in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    While the regulatory role of the HFEA, its independence and its shortcomings are debated in the context of a fiscal economic crisis, the larger sociological importance of the Authority may be overlooked. Harder to calculate than its annual budget and more elusive than its technical remit as a licensing body, the cultural value of the HFEA as a historical and symbolic entity that was born out of a pioneering debate unique to the UK must be included in a discussion of its future role. Against its perceived shortcomings as an expensive and outdated quango is the importance of the Authority as a public instrument for enhancing the future of translational bioscience. From this point of view, the HFEA is crucial not only to ensuring the successful realization of a domestic bioscience agenda but also to protecting the international reputation of UK Plc as a best-practice model of publicly supported bioinnovation.

  1. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  2. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  3. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  4. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows...

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  6. Unique cardiac and cerebral anomalies with chondrodysplasia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciske, D J; Waggoner, D J; Dowton, S B

    1998-01-06

    Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is associated with a variety of genetic and nongenetic conditions. We report a girl with CDP, complex congenital cardiac disease, central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, and clinical findings that resemble those of the sibs described by Toriello et al. [1993, Am J Med Genet 47:797-799]. The cardiac defects and CNS abnormalities reported are unique in the context of CDP and may serve to expand the phenotypic spectrum of the unique form of CDP described by Toriello et al. [1993].

  7. 从经典著作的原始语境反观法国学派的民族中心主义%Reflecting upon the Ethnocentrism of the French School in the Original Context of the Classic Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林满平; 王宁宁

    2012-01-01

    In the pioneering days of comparative literature, the French School, regarding influence research as the essence to rely upon, insists on paying attention to the factual relations in literature among different countries and various ethnic groups. The French School is criticized by later scholars for having fallen into the category of narrow ethnocentrism, due to the unavoidable limitation of history at the beginning, and its own defect that the theory has been divorced from the practice. The author holds that one should carefully read and reflect upon classic works of disciplines to comprehensively learn about the influence research of the French School, and grasp it as a whole in the original context of those classic works.%比较文学初创时期的法国学派,坚持以实证主义的态度,关照不同国家不同民族之间文学上的事实联系,以影响研究为自己安身立命之根本。法国学派在初创时期因为历史无可避免的局限性,以其自身理论与实践相脱节的缺陷,被后来学者指责陷入了狭隘的民族中心主义。笔者认为,对法国学派的影响研究的全面认识。应该细读和反思元典著作,立足于学科经典著作的原始语境来整体把握。

  8. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  9. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  10. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  11. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  12. Work and Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2000-01-01

    Examines four conceptual features of decent work essential to its achievement in a context of globalization: (1) an inclusive approach, (2) rights-based thinking, (3) placing work within a broad economic, political, and social context, and (4) extension of thinking from international to truly global. Contains 17 references. (JOW)

  13. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  14. Context based multimedia information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    with the help of contextual knowledge. Our approach to model the context of multimedia is based on unsupervised methods to automatically extract meaning. We investigate two paths of context modelling. The first part extracts context from the primary media, in this case broadcast news speech, by extracting...... through an approximation based on non-negative matrix factorisation NMF. The second part of the work tries to infer the contextual meaning of music based on extra-musical knowledge, in our case gathered from Wikipedia. The semantic relations between artists are inferred using linking structure...

  15. Life Stories in Context: Using the Three-Sphere Context Model To Analyze Amos's Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Rivka Tuval-Mashiach

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wide theoretical consensus among narrative researchers about the importance of referring to context in analyzing narratives, it seems that the various contexts at work in individual life stories and the specific methodological implications of the importance of context are not that clear. In this paper, I will describe a model for context analysis, which refers to three distinct spheres of contexts in which narrators situate their life stories (Zilber, Tuval-Mashiach, & Lieblich, 200...

  16. Context in place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie

    specifically argue for a more grounded approach to the conception of context - a topographic approach - in which the physical setting - i.e. 'the place' becomes an inevitable part of analyses of guidance practices in order to understand participants' sense-making processes. In the paper we draw on two case...... studies on interdisciplinary clinical supervision and work place guidance in which there appears to be a mismatch between intended outcomes and actual events. The analyses demonstrate and support that 'the place' seems - to influence partipants' responses in the guidance sessions and, therefore, must...

  17. Context Sensitive Article Ranking with Citation Context Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Doslu, Metin

    2015-01-01

    It is hard to detect important articles in a specific context. Information retrieval techniques based on full text search can be inaccurate to identify main topics and they are not able to provide an indication about the importance of the article. Generating a citation network is a good way to find most popular articles but this approach is not context aware. The text around a citation mark is generally a good summary of the referred article. So citation context analysis presents an opportunity to use the wisdom of crowd for detecting important articles in a context sensitive way. In this work, we analyze citation contexts to rank articles properly for a given topic. The model proposed uses citation contexts in order to create a directed and weighted citation network based on the target topic. We create a directed and weighted edge between two articles if citation context contains terms related with the target topic. Then we apply common ranking algorithms in order to find important articles in this newly cre...

  18. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  19. UNIQUENESS ON ZERO PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞敏; 王振

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a new idea, the authors prove the uniqueness of weak solution of pressureless gases with the large initial data. In particular, uniqueness theorem is obtained in the same functional space as the existence theorem.

  20. On existence and uniqueness of solutions for variational data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a term from the geosciences and refers to methods for estimating orbits of dynamical models from observations. Variational techniques for data assimilation estimate these orbits by minimising an appropriate cost functional which takes the error with respect to the observations but also deviations of the orbits from the model equations into account. Such techniques are very important in practice. In this contribution, the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions to variational data assimilation is investigated. Under mild hypotheses a solution to this problem exists. The problem of uniqueness is investigated as well, and several results (which all have analogues in optimal control) are established in the present context. The value function is introduced as the cost of an optimal trajectory starting from a given initial condition. The necessary conditions in combination with an envelope theorem can be used to demonstrate that the solution is unique if and only if the value function is differentiable at the given initial condition. This occurs for all initial conditions except maybe on a set of Lebesgue measure zero. Several examples are studied which demonstrate that non-uniqueness of solutions cannot be ruled out altogether though, which has important consequences in practice. References: J. Bröcker, "Existence and Uniqueness For Four Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation in Discrete Time.", SIAM Journal of Applied Dynamical Systems (accepted).

  1. On the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniya Mandal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity theories coupled to n vector multiplets. We prove that for a given charge configuration the supersymmetry preserving axion free attractors are unique. We generalise the analysis to axionic attractors and state the conditions for uniqueness explicitly. We consider the example of a two-parameter model and find all solutions to the supersymmetric attractor equations and discuss their uniqueness.

  2. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work.

  3. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 801 RIN 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification... unique device identification system as required by recent amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and..., FDA published a proposed rule to establish a unique device identification system, as required by...

  4. On chromatic and flow polynomial unique graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Yinghua; Wu, Haidong; Yu, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    ... research on graphs uniquely determined by their chromatic polynomials and more recently on their Tutte polynomials, but rather spotty research on graphs uniquely determined by their flow polynomials or the combination of both chromatic and flow polynomials. This article is an initiation of investigation on graphs uniquely determin...

  5. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  6. No contexto da travessia para o ambiente de trabalho: treinamento de habilidades sociais com universitários On the crossing for the work context: social skills training with undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Del Prette

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base nos atuais desafios inerentes à inserção no mercado de trabalho e a crescente valorização da competência para as relações interpessoais nesse contexto, descreve-se um programa de treinamento de habilidades sociais conduzido em um grupo formado por dez universitários em fase final de graduação na área de ciências exatas. O programa, com delineamento A-B-A, teve uma duração de trinta e seis horas, em duas sessões semanais de aproximadamente duas horas cada e foi planejado em módulos teórico e prático, que ocorriam em uma mesma sessão. A avaliação da intervenção foi realizada por meio da aplicação de um inventário tipo auto-relato (IHS-Del-Prette antes e depois da intervenção e da avaliação por pares ao final do programa. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas (teste de Wilcoxon entre os escores pré e pós-intervenção para a maioria dos participantes e avaliações positivas dos colegas com relação a tais mudanças.Considering the current challenges concerning the insertion in the work context and the growing valorization of the interpersonal competence by employers, this paper describes a group program of social skills training with ten undergraduates attending the final stages of their courses, all in the area of exact sciences. The program, with A-B-A design, lasted thirty-six hours, with two weekly sessions of about two hours each. The whole program was planned in theoretical and practical modules, both occurring in a single session. The program was evaluated with the application of a self-report inventory (HIS-Del-Prette before and after the intervention and with a peer evaluation at the final session. The results indicated significant differences (Wilcoxon test between the first and final intervention scores for most of the participants with peer positive evaluations about these changes.

  7. O Serviço Social crítico no atual contexto de redemocratização da América Latina Critical Social Work in the current context of Latin American redemocratization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ribeiro Barboza

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo busca analisar as particularidades do processo de redemocratização dos regimes políticos latino-americanos, tentando contribuir para o esclarecimento de fenômenos hoje centrais na compreensão destas sociedades e, conseqüentemente, do solo onde se desenvolvem as práticas do Serviço Social. Desde os anos 1980, a tentativa da América Latina em reorganizar sua vida pública em conformidade com os preceitos democráticos liberais demonstrou uma desigualdade de forças políticas na negociação desta transição, onde avanços políticos foram acompanhados pelo agravamento das condições de vida das maiorias nacionais. Como o Serviço Social crítico surge - historicamente - no marco de ordenamentos democráticos, a conformação da profissão relaciona-se intrinsecamente com as debilidades deste processo, onde emergem novos desafios para construção da identidade dos assistentes sociais, principalmente no debate do sentido da sua prática, do processo de conhecimento crítico e no redimensionamento de propostas relevantes na defesa de um projeto socialmente necessário no contexto latino-americano atual.This article analyses the particularities of the redemocratization process of Latin American political regimes, in an attempt to contribute to the understanding of phenomenon central to our societies today. Since the 1980's, the attempt by Latin America to reorganize its public life in conformity with liberal democratic precepts demonstrated an inequality of political forces in the negotiation of this transition, where political advances were accompanied by the deterioration of living conditions among national majorities. Since critical Social Work historically arose in the framework of democratic regulations, the formation of the profession was intrinsically related to the weaknesses of this process, from which emerge new challenges to the construction of the identity of social workers, principally in the debate over the meaning

  8. The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular

  9. Engineering: Defining and differentiating its unique culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Mary K.

    The world of work for engineering professionals is changing. At a rapid pace, experienced engineers are exiting the workforce due to retirement of the Baby Boomer generation, while at the same time the problems facing engineers are increasingly complex and frequently global in nature. For firms to protect their knowledge assets, they must ensure that acquired understandings are shared among their engineering work groups. Engineering teaching and learning in the workplace (i.e., knowledge sharing), is a social activity that resides in a social context governed by the professional engineering culture. This quantitative study uses Hofstede's Organizational Cultural Values Model (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990) to examine dimensions of engineering culture in the workplace, producing a central tendency profile of engineering's cultural practices. Further, it explores through hypotheses if demographic differentiators, including birth generation, gender, race, industry sector of employment, and engineering discipline, play roles in forming engineering cultural practices. Results both corroborate aspects of Hofstede's model and assert new understandings relative to factors influencing dimensions of engineering practice. Outcomes are discussed in terms of their potential impact on industrial knowledge sharing and formation of beneficial engineering cultures.

  10. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  11. Montessori and Jerome W. Berryman: Work, Play, Religious Education and the Art of Using the Christian Language System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the thinking and writing of Jerome W. Berryman has made a significant and unique contribution to the religious education of children and adults in faith-based contexts. Claiming to be influenced primarily by the work of Maria Montessori, his writings reveal the purpose of religious education to be teaching children the art…

  12. Unique aspect of Tibetan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakpa, Tenzing

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan medicine is known as the knowledge of healing in the Four Tantras, the main medical text studied by Tibetan doctors. In the 8th century, King Trisong Deutsen (718-785 CE) invited eminent physicians from India, China, Persia, East Turkestan, Mongolia, and Nepal for the First International Medical Symposium in Samye, Tibet and ordered his personal physician Elder Yuthog Yonten Gonpo (708-833 CE), who lived 125 years, and participated in this conference to summarize. By combining all the information available and presented during this symposium, he compiled the Four Tantras. He established the Tanadug medical school at Menlung in Kongpo, Southern Tibet in 763 CE, and worked for the propagation of Tibetan medicine. He is considered an emanation of Medicine Buddha, who is a symbol of mental and physical well being. In his left hand, the Medicine Buddha clasps a begging bowl with long-life nectar, signifying immortality, and in his right, the Chebulic myrobalan (Haritaki), a symbol of good health. Chebulic myrobalan, Belleric myrobalan, and Emblic myrobalan are together called the "3 Fruits" and are common ingredients in Tibetan medicines. Prof. Omura, Y of NY Medical College evaluated these "3 Fruits" and found that one of them available as a "Haritaki," had the highest normal cell telomere increasing effect by optimal dose, with improvement of circulation all over the body, which in turn inhibits cancer activity. He considered Tibetan medicine to be the most advanced medicine in the world before the 19th Century with its well-organized systematic method as described by colorful Tibetan medical paintings by Sangye Gyamtso (1653-1705 CE). During a typical diagnosis, the physician examines the patients' tongue, radial arteries for pulse beats by the index, middle, and ring fingers of both hands and the urine for features like color, vapor, and bubbles, etc.

  13. Motivational Interviewing in Relational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Responds to M. Stanton's comments on the current author's original article. One of the puzzles of motivational interviewing is why it works at all. How can it be that an individual interview or two yields change in a long-standing problem behavior even without any effort to alter social context? The time involved is such a tiny part of the…

  14. A border context of violence: Mexican female sex workers on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M

    2014-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) represent a population confronted with an array of intersecting social problems. We explore the case of FSW in Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juarez to understand the everyday violence associated with sex work within the unique context of Mexico. Life history interviews were conducted with 109 FSW revealing violent acts by clients and other sex industry employees (bar owners, police, other FSW). The risk of violence by different types of persons associated with the sex work industry varied by venue and geographic area. Moreover, the violence was shaped by the social structural constraints of dominant gender ideologies.

  15. Persuasion, Learning and Context Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Ryberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper further develops the notion of distinguishing between Persuasive Technology and Persuasive Design, and considering Persuasive Design a meta-perspective which may be applied to more established design traditions as an ethics and context-oriented perspective. The paper addresses...... a challenge often met when aiming to apply persuasive design principles to more established design fields, namely that the unique claim of persuasive design and the relevance of taking it into consideration is unclear. Furthermore, this paper aims to extend the argumentation and exemplify how this new...... understanding of Persuasive Design may potentially facilitate the more established field of technology enhanced learning....

  16. Three Unique Implementations of Processes for PyCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we motivate and describe three unique implementations of processes for PyCSP: process, thread and greenlet based. The overall purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of Communicating Sequential Processes as a framework for different application types and target platforms. The resul...

  17. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology.

  18. Ensemble coding of context-dependent fear memory in the amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A Orsini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After fear conditioning, presenting the conditioned stimulus (CS alone yields a context-specific extinction memory; fear is suppressed in the extinction context, but renews in any other context. The context-dependence of extinction is mediated by a brain circuit consisting of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala. In the present work, we sought to determine at what level of this circuit context-dependent representations of the CS emerge. To explore this question, we used cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescent in situ hybridization (catFISH. This method exploits the intracellular expression profile of the immediate early gene, Arc, to visualize neuronal activation patterns to two different behavioral experiences. Rats were fear conditioned in one context and extinguished in another; twenty-four hours later, they were sequentially exposed to the CS in the extinction context and another context. Control rats were also tested in each context, but were never extinguished. We assessed Arc mRNA expression within the basal amygdala (BA, lateral amygdala (LA, ventral hippocampus (VH, prelimbic cortex (PL and infralimbic cortex (IL. We observed that the sequential retention tests induced context-dependent patterns of Arc expression in the BA, LA, and IL of extinguished rats; this was not observed in non-extinguished controls. In general, non-extinguished animals had proportionately greater numbers of non-selective (double-labeled neurons than extinguished animals. Collectively, these findings suggest that extinction learning results in pattern separation, particularly within the BA, in which unique neuronal ensembles represent fear memories after extinction.

  19. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  20. THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT IN EATING DISORDERS DEVELOPED BY MACIEJ PILECKI AND BARBARA JÓZEFIK - A SUMMARY OF THE CURRENT STAGE OF WORK ON THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecki, Maciej; Sałapa,Kinga; Józefik, Barbara; Kozłowska-Jasnos, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To create the most coherent version of the scales of The Questionnaire on Sociocultural Context developed by Maciej Pilecki and Barbara Józefik and to assess the relationship that they have with disordered eating and eating disorders. Method. Firstly, a factor analysis on selected items of the research instrument based on a population of 614 girls attending Krakow schools was conducted. Then, in the same group, an analysis of the relationship between the obtained factors and ...

  1. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  2. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  3. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  4. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 16, 801, 803, et al. Unique Device Identification System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... will substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in...

  5. Uniqueness Domains in the Workspace of Parallel Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    This work investigates new kinematic features of parallel manipulators. It is well known that parallel manipulators admit generally several direct kinematic solutions for a given set of input joint values. The aim of this paper is to characterize the uniqueness domains in the workspace of parallel manipulators, as well as their image in the joint space. The study focuses on the most usual case of parallel manipulators with only one inverse kinematic solution. The notion of aspect introduced for serial manipulators in [Borrel 86] is redefined for such parallel manipulators. Then, it is shown that it is possible to link several solutions to the forward kinematic problem without meeting a singularity, thus meaning that the aspects are not uniqueness domains. An additional set of surfaces, namely the characteristic surfaces, are characterized which divide the workspace into basic regions and yield new uniqueness domains. This study is illustrated all along the paper with a 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator. An oc...

  6. Meaning in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    A model for context-dependent natural language semantics is proposed and formalized in terms of possible worlds. The meaning of a sentence depends on context and at the same time affects that context representing the knowledge about the world collected from a discourse. The model fits well...

  7. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  8. New Historicism: Text and Context

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta M. Vesić

    2016-01-01

    During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identifie...

  9. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  10. The Texts and Contexts of Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Uses case studies of intensive writing courses in government, history, and computer science to explain the differences between the disciplinary contexts for writing, and to help tutors in their work with students from those disciplines. (RS)

  11. Context and Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Context is very important factor that can't be ignored in speech communication. Context contributes much to understanding the meaning of words. The exact and thorough interpretation of words and utterance results from contexts. The relation is discussed between context and listening comprehension, and the functions of context are analyzed in listening. It is pointed out that the analysis of contextual clues is useful in understanding listening materials and also introduces some ways on contextual clues in listening so as to improve listening comprehension.

  12. Optimization of Multimedia English Teaching in Context Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyan; Fang, Fan

    2008-01-01

    Using multimedia to create a context to teach English has its unique advantages. This paper explores the characteristics of multimedia and integrates how to use multimedia to optimize the context of English teaching as its purpose. In this paper, eight principles, specifically Systematization, Authenticity, Appropriateness, Interactivity,…

  13. The Unique Context of Identity-Based Student Organizations in Developing Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M; Laylo, Rhonda

    2017-09-01

    This chapter addresses the important role of identity-based student organizations in developing leadership, particularly for students who may feel marginalized because of their racial/ethnic, religious, or gender identities. Understanding the influence of these groups can help leadership educators develop a more inclusive and diverse perspective on student leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Situating CASBEE, a Japanese-made unique building rating and certification system, within a broader context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J. Cole

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An underlying premise of the voluntary assessments and certifications offered by existing major building performance assessment systems is that if the market is provided with improved information and mechanisms, a discerning client group can and will provide leadership in environmental responsibility, and that others will follow suit to remain competitive. Building environmental ratings have provided building owners with a credible and objective means to communicate to prospective tenants the environmental qualities of the building they are leasing and, by emphasizing more demanding performance goals and the benefits over typical practice, have begun to reframe expectations. Over the past twenty plus years, building environmental assessment has matured into a legitimate area of research and study. Assessment tools in use worldwide generally fall into two general categories: 1 Those developed by an organization within a country that maintains and manages it and provides the associated educational support and operational infrastructure. All the major recognized systems – BREEAM, LEED, CASBEE, Green Star in Australia, etc., – fall into this category. 2 Those developed by academics either for research purposes or in hopes that they could become a certification system but to date have yet to gain widespread adoption in their respective countries.

  15. A Unique Betrayal: Clergy Sexual Abuse in the Context of the Catholic Religious Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    The sexual abuse of children and adolescents by Roman Catholic priests entails a violation of meaning as well as persons. Precisely because the priest is regarded by Catholics as an "alter Christus," another Christ, his violation of a child's or adolescent's body is also a violation of a sacred trust and worldview. The implications of this…

  16. Educating towards Inclusive Education: Assessing a Teacher-Training Program for Working with Pupils with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) Enrolled in General Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Hebel, Orly

    2016-01-01

    Implementing inclusive education is one of the major challenges facing the educational system. One of the main difficulties in implementing inclusive education is that general education teachers receive insufficient training to work in complex teaching contexts and to respond to the unique needs of all the pupils in their classroom. The objective…

  17. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing...

  18. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  19. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Opalak

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions.

  20. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  1. Causes for the Rise of Medieval European Universities:from the Perspec-tive of Social Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏

    2014-01-01

    Social context is mainly classified into four types as generative context, cultural context, productive context and trans-portation context according to their different functions. This essay will discuss the causes for the rise of universities in medieval Europe from the four types of the social context in the Middle Times specifically. The social contexts are all unique to the medi-eval Europe, functioning as the necessary conditions and historical background of medieval universities.

  2. Grammars with two-sided contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Barash

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  3. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  4. Intercultural Learning Across Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Beate VASBØ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available International youth work in Europe (i.e. non-formal learning demands a renewal of the prominent intercultural theory and framework in the youth field in order to cope with contemporary questions concerning pluralism and global challenges. This article provides a new theoretical framework for intercultural learning that departs from a complex, multicultural, social reality. Furthermore, the article explores how young people today experience international youth exchanges as arenas for learning in relation to other learning arenas in and out of school. The data consists of interviews and participant observation of a Norwegian youth group preparing for, participating in and reflecting on their experiences in an international youth exchange programme. The findings show that participation in international youth exchanges, in addition to cultural knowledge, may contribute to increased motivation for learning, enhanced self-understanding and personal growth that seems transferable to other contexts. Furthermore,global youth culture plays a crucial role in young people`s experiences of being like one another across national borders, cultures and social realities.

  5. Translation science and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, Marita G

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based health care practices are available for a number of conditions such as asthma, smoking cessation, heart failure, and management of diabetes. However, these practices are not routinely implemented in care delivery and variations in practices abound. Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) is challenging, and difficulties implementing evidence may be largely explained by contextual factors. Thus, strategies are needed that address the complexity and systems of care, individual practitioners, senior leadership, and ultimately changing health care cultures to promote an evidence-based practice environment. To advance knowledge about promoting and sustaining adoption of EBPs in health care, translation science needs more studies that test translating research into practice (TRIP) interventions; studies are needed that investigate what TRIP interventions work, for whom, in what circumstances, in what types of settings, and studies that explain the underlying mechanisms of effective TRIP interventions. According to the Translation Research Model, adoption of innovations, such as EBPs, are influenced by the nature of the innovation (e.g., the type and strength of evidence; the clinical topic), and the manner in which it is communicated (disseminated) to members (e.g., physicians, nurses) of a social system (organization, nursing profession). This article discusses the importance of context in translation using this framework as a guide.

  6. Does "grief work" work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, M; Stroebe, W

    1991-01-01

    This article challenges the long-standing belief in the necessity of "grief work" for adjustment to bereavement. Evidence is offered from a prospective study of 30 widows and 30 widowers that indicates that grief work is not always as essential for adjustment to bereavement as theorists and clinicia

  7. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed....

  8. Context in place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework - i.e. a vocabulary - for understanding the importance of integrating context in analyses of guidance practices. The paper delineates a conceptual landscape of context based on social practice and interactional theories on context. We...... specifically argue for a more grounded approach to the conception of context - a topographic approach - in which the physical setting - i.e. 'the place' becomes an inevitable part of analyses of guidance practices in order to understand participants' sense-making processes. In the paper we draw on two case...

  9. Comparative Perspectives on Work-Life Balance and Gender Equality: Fathers on Leave Alone

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Margaret; Wall, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This book portrays men’s experiences of home alone leave and how it affects their lives and family gender roles in different policy contexts and explores how this unique parental leave design is implemented in these contrasting policy regimes. The book brings together three major theoretical strands: social policy, in particular the literature on comparative leave policy developments; family and gender studies, in particular the analysis of gendered divisions of work and care and recent shi...

  10. Condições de trabalho de parteiras tradicionais: algumas características no contexto domiciliar rural Working conditions of traditional birth attendants: some characteristics at home and rural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineide Frota Bessa

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo de abordagem qualitativa e dialética, que tem como objetivo analisar as condições de trabalho da parteira tradicional, numa perspectiva de trabalho reprodutivo e, portanto, desvalorizado economicamente. A análise foi construída tendo como categoria central o trabalho à partir de pressupostos marxista e feminista. Os resultados obtidos nos permitem, afirmar que as parteiras realizam seu trabalho em precárias condições materiais, financeiras, relativas ao transporte e ao acesso e, ainda, ao ambiente de trabalho. A análise dessa prática nos proporcionou apresentar uma discussão em torno de algumas características do trabalho da parteira tradicional, o qual se caracteriza como trabalho reprodutivo, desvalorizado economicamente, informal, autônomo e eminentemente feminino. Se configura, ainda, como uma prática social de saúde popular legitimada pela comunidade. Na prática obstétrica domiciliar rural evidenciamos relações desiguais, à medida que homens e mulheres realizam atividades diferentes numa mesma ocupação, cabendo às mulheres as tarefas que reproduzem o papel feminino.This is a study of qualitative and dialectical approach, which subject is to analize the working conditions of the traditional birth attendants, in a reproductive perspective of work, and for this reason, economically undervalued. The analysis has been constructed having as central category the work, under Marxist and feminist premises. Obtained results permit us to state these traditional birth attendants do their work in material and financial poor conditions, related to transportation, access, and still, working enviroment. The analysis of this practice has given us a possibility to present a discussion on some traits of the traditional birth attendant's work, which is characterized as a reproductive work, economically undervalued, autonomous and eminently feminine. It still configures as a social practice of popular health

  11. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  12. Challeng es for context manag ement s ystems imposed by context inference

    OpenAIRE

    Korbinian Frank; Nikos Kalatzis; Ioanna Roussaki; Nicolas Liampotis

    2009-01-01

    This work gives an overview over the challenges for context management systems in Ubiquitous Computing frameworks or Personal Smart Spaces. Focused on the integration of context inference in today’s context management systems (CMSs) we address important design decisions for future frameworks. The inference system we have in mind is probabilistic and relies on the concept of Bayeslets, special inference rules extending Bayesian networks. We show that for inference rule creation, storage, infer...

  13. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  14. Incest in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Stan

    1984-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive view of the societal, cultural, familial, and personality factors that form the context of people at risk for incest and associated problems. Summarizes the consequences and the causal context of incest and describes an ecosystems approach to intervention. (Author/LLL)

  15. Conflict and love: predicting newlywed marital outcomes from two interaction contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Elana C; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Miga, Erin; Chango, Joanna; Coan, James

    2011-08-01

    Research on marital interaction has focused primarily on couples in conflict contexts to understand better processes associated with concurrent and longitudinal outcomes such as marital stability and quality. Although this work has consistently revealed particular emotions (e.g., contempt) or behavioral sequences (e.g., demand/withdraw) predictive of later marital distress, it largely has neglected to take positive contexts into consideration. The present longitudinal study begins to address this gap in the literature by directly comparing newlywed behaviors from a conflict-resolution interaction with those from a love-paradigm interaction to predict relationship satisfaction and divorce proneness approximately 15 months later. Results showed that actor and partner negative (contempt) and positive (affection) emotions elicited in both positive (i.e., love) and negative (i.e., conflict) interaction contexts emerged as unique predictors of relationship quality and stability for both husbands and wives. Moreover, using a linear growth model, the temporal course of positive emotion during the love context, but not the conflict context, was predictive of later relationship satisfaction. Implications for future marital research and intervention are discussed.

  16. Evaluation in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaap, Kamps; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger

    All search happens in a particular context - such as the particular collection of a digital library, its associated search tasks, and its associated users. Information retrieval researchers usually agree on the importance of context, but they rarely address the issue. In particular, evaluation...... in the Cranfield tradition requires abstracting away from individual differences between users. This paper investigates if we can bring some of this context into the Cranfield paradigm. Our approach is the following: we will attempt to record the "context" of the humans already in the loop - the topic authors....../assessors - by designing targeted questionnaires. The questionnaire data becomes part of the evaluation test-suite as valuable data on the context of the search requests.We have experimented with this questionnaire approach during the evaluation campaign of the INitiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX...

  17. Existence and Uniqueness in Shape from Shading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雁萍; 李价谷

    1997-01-01

    For the image of a smooth surface object fully contained within the field of view and illuminated in and arbitrary direction,this paper discusses the existence and uniqueness o the conditions for solving a shape-from-shading problem under the conditions that the Fourier series expansion of the image intensity contains only zero and first order terms in a polar coordinate system.Three theorems are established,one for the existence and two for the uniqueness of z-axis symmetric shape from shading.

  18. Cultural intelligence and work-related outcomes: A meta-analytic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas

    2017-01-01

    -cultural work context. Tests of the relative incremental validity show that CQ and its dimensions explain desirable work outcomes beyond the effect of personality traits and emotional intelligence. The results of commonality analysis reveal the unique and shared contribution of CQ dimensions in explaining......Over the last 15 years the research on cultural intelligence (CQ) has grown to a point that a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical evidence on the relationship between CQ and work-related outcomes is needed to provide a foundation for future research in this direction. Based on 110...

  19. Learning, Working and Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke

    In the recent years, learning and knowing have emerged as key issues in understanding work organizations. Identifying ways in which learning can be supported in the workplace has been a long standing concern for organization studies and education. The book presents new ways of thinking about...... learning at work. Moreover it paves the way for the repositioning of learning, working and living in the context of organizationel complexity....

  20. Uniqueness vs non-uniqueness in complete connections with modified majority rules

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, J. C. A.; Friedli, S.

    2013-01-01

    We take a closer look at a class of chains with complete connections introduced by Berger, Hoffman and Sidoravicius. Besides giving a sharper description of the uniqueness and non-uniqueness regimes, we show that if the pure majority rule used to fix the dependence on the past is replaced with a function that is Lipschitz at the origin, then uniqueness always holds, even with arbitrarily slow decaying variation.

  1. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  2. A unique role for the human amygdala in novelty detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Avery, Suzanne N; Zald, David H

    2010-04-15

    Previous research indicates that the amygdala and hippocampus are sensitive to novelty; however, two types of novelty can be distinguished - stimuli that are ordinary, but novel in the current context, and stimuli that are unusual. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) response of the human amygdala and hippocampus to novel, commonly seen objects versus novel unusual objects. When presented with the novel common stimuli, the BOLD signal increased significantly in both the amygdala and hippocampus. However, for the novel unusual stimuli, only the amygdala showed an increased response compared to the novel common stimuli. These findings suggest that the amygdala is distinctly responsive to novel unusual stimuli, making a unique contribution to the novelty detection circuit.

  3. The organisational context for teamwork: comparing health care and business literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, S; Rodger, S

    2000-01-01

    Teams are a significant tool for promoting and managing change. There are shared definitions of teamwork in the literature, and agreement on general benefits and limitations of working in teams. However, the historical development of teamwork differs between health care and the business environments of manufacturing and service industries. The impact of the organisational context on teamwork appears to differ most, when literature from the two environments is compared. As a result, there are specific issues that are unique to the development and implementation of health care teams. This article summarises the unique team structures and the issue of professionalization in health care teams, while recommending that team members acknowledge their professional differences and focus foremost on meeting patient needs.

  4. In a unique position or squeezed out?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Christensen, Inge

    2009-01-01

    language, they experience that their patients disappear, they are seldom involved, and they lack knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: GPs have few experiences with YA cancer patients, but they have a potentially unique role in general primary cancer care if they develop their vocational vocabulary, relate more...

  5. Uniqueness of meromorphic functions concerning differential polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lei

    2007-01-01

    Based on a unicity theorem for entire funcitions concerning differential polynomials proposed by M. L. Fang and W. Hong, we studied the uniqueness problem of two meromorphic functions whose differential polynomials share the same 1-point by proving two theorems and their related lemmas. The results extend and improve given by Fang and Hong's theorem.

  6. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  7. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor questionnaire, a…

  8. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  9. Multicultural Poetry: Voices Unique, yet Universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    As teachers gravitate more and more to the use of literature and strive to include a range of cultural experiences in their classrooms, the use of poetry from various cultural groups should be considered. Poetry is a very real means of having children see themselves and others as being both unique and yet the same. In considering poetry across…

  10. Tulane Student Designs Unique Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A Louisiana architect has created plans for a unique supplementary learning environment consisting of five circular buildings featuring a planetarium, an indoor display of small animals in their native habitat, an indoor pond, a library, a media center, and an auditorium. (Author/MLF)

  11. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  12. UNIQUENESS OF DIFFERENCE POLYNOMIALS OF MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 祁晓光

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the uniqueness problems of difference polynomials of meromorphic functions and obtain some results which can be viewed as discrete analogues of the results given by Shibazaki. Some examples are given to show the results in this article are best possible.

  13. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  14. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  15. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  16. [Modern methods application of genotyping of infectious diseases pathogens in the context of operational work of specialized anti-epidemic team during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkin, B P; Kulichenko, A N; Volynkina, A S; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Kotenev, E S; Lyamkin, G I; Kartsev, N N; Klindukhov, V P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the experience of genotyping and sequencing technologies in laboratories of specialized anti-epidemic team (SAET) during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The work carried out during the pre-Olympic period on performance of readiness by SAET for these studies is analyzed. The results of genotyping strains of pathogens during the Olympic Games are presented. A conclusion about the effectiveness of the use of molecular genetic techniques in terms of SAET is made.

  17. Boundary Unique Continuation Properties for Elliptic Operators With Singular Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥兴

    2006-01-01

    @@ 0 Introduction Because of applications to control theory, see Schmit and Weck's work in [1], the following unique continuation question (UCP) was raised in [2-3]: if u is a harmonic function in a connected Lipschitz domainΩ, vanishing continuously on an open subset Г of the boundary ( )Ω and whose normal derivative vanishes on a subset of Г of positive surface measure, does it follows that u is identically zero in Ω? On the other hand, the unique continuation problem has been focusing on second order equations in which the coefficients of the lower-order terms are allowed to be singular, which is suggested by situations of physical interest; see for instance the extensive survey papers [4-6].

  18. Medians and means in Riemannian geometry: existence, uniqueness and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc; Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short summary of our recent work on the medians and means of probability measures in Riemannian manifolds. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness results of local medians are given. In order to compute medians in practical cases, we propose a subgradient algorithm and prove its convergence. After that, Fr\\'echet medians are considered. We prove their statistical consistency and give some quantitative estimations of their robustness with the aid of upper curvature bounds. We also show that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet medians of generic data points are always unique. Stochastic and deterministic algorithms are proposed for computing Riemannian p-means. The rate of convergence and error estimates of these algorithms are also obtained. Finally, we apply the medians and the Riemannian geometry of Toeplitz covariance matrices to radar target detection.

  19. Dynamic context bindings : infrastructural support for context-aware applications

    OpenAIRE

    Broens, Tom Henri Ferdinand

    2008-01-01

    The world is increasingly equipped with high-capacity, interconnected, mobile and embedded computing devices. Context-awareness provides an attractive approach to personalize applications such that they better suit the user’s needs in this rich computing environment. Context-aware applications use context information, offered by context sources, to adapt their behavior to the situation at hand. The exchange of context information requires an association between a context consuming context-awa...

  20. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  1. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...... involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...

  2. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...

  3. Mass Media and Rural Out-Migration in the Context of Social Change: Evidence from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This work examines the influence of mass media on rural out-migration using historical and contemporary data from a setting experiencing massive social and economic development in the last half-century. Data come from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, an ongoing study of an agrarian region in rural Nepal. Media are hypothesized to affect migration by inducing attitudinal and behavioral changes similar to those of other determinants of migration. As their influence differs from other determinants in important ways, media represent a unique form of influence that should be taken into account. I find that movie and television exposure are significant determinants of out-migration in historical contexts, although television exposure was important in more contemporary contexts. Differences in these effects probably indicate the timing of the spread of each type of media and changing preferences among media consumers.

  4. Automatic Identification of Nutritious Contexts for Learning Vocabulary Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Gates, Donna; Ellison, Ross; Goutam, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to literacy development and academic success. Previous research has shown learning the meaning of a word requires encountering it in diverse informative contexts. In this work, we try to identify "nutritious" contexts for a word--contexts that help students build a rich mental representation of the word's…

  5. Unique Properties of Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利玲

    2011-01-01

    We study tie unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks. A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dot-lead coupling. The relation of Q o I (I is the system current) fails in nanosystems, while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias. As a result, one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one, the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.%We study the unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks.A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dotlead coupling.The relation of Q o I(I is the system current)fails in nanosystems,while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias.As a result,one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one,the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.

  6. LSTM recurrent networks learn simple context-free and context-sensitive languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gers, F A; Schmidhuber, E

    2001-01-01

    Previous work on learning regular languages from exemplary training sequences showed that long short-term memory (LSTM) outperforms traditional recurrent neural networks (RNNs). We demonstrate LSTMs superior performance on context-free language benchmarks for RNNs, and show that it works even better than previous hardwired or highly specialized architectures. To the best of our knowledge, LSTM variants are also the first RNNs to learn a simple context-sensitive language, namely a(n)b(n)c(n).

  7. UNIQUENESS PROBLEM FOR MEROMORPHIC MAPPINGS IN SEVERAL COMPLEX VARIABLES INTO PN(C) WITH TRUNCATED MULTIPLICITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhan TU; Zhonghua WANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper proves some uniqueness theorems for meromorphic mappings in several complex variables into the complex projective space PN(C) with truncated multiplicities,and our results improve some earlier work.

  8. From context to condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Martin; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Based on studies at Morphogenetic Studio, the article discusses how the term context in relation to generative design techniques can be understood as conditions integrated in both the form development and the production process.......Based on studies at Morphogenetic Studio, the article discusses how the term context in relation to generative design techniques can be understood as conditions integrated in both the form development and the production process....

  9. Knowledge in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kompa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to motivate and defend a version of epistemic contextualism; a version, that is, of what came to be called attributor or ascriber contextualism. I will begin by outlining, in the first part, what I take to be the basic idea of and motivation behind the version of epistemic contextualism that I favor. In the second part, a couple of examples will be presented in order to illustrate the contextualist point. Since epistemic (ascriber contextualists commonly claim that knowledge ascriptions are context-sensitive, the third part of the paper will be concerned with the phenomenon of context-sensitivity at a more general level. A more detailed inquiry into the context-sensitivity natural language expressions exhibit will prove helpful in order to counter the objection that postulating context-sensitivity in the case of knowledge ascriptions is an ad-hoc-maneuver. Given that epistemic contextualism is partly an epistemological thesis, party a linguistic thesis, the remainder of the paper will be devoted to the question of how to semantically model the kind of context-sensitivity exhibited by knowledge ascriptions. The upshot will be that there are two differ-ent ways of semantically accommodating the context-sensitivity at issue. Both call for a more or less drastic departure from epistemological and semantic orthodoxy.

  10. Unique device identification system. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use.

  11. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  12. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  13. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  14. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  15. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  16. “Sin nosotras el mundo no se mueve”. Mujeres inmigrantes en España: género y cultura en el contexto laboral "Without us the world does not move." Immigrant women in the Spanish work context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Moreno Jiménez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el presente estudio pretendemos conocer la perspectiva de las mujeres inmigrantes en el ámbito laboral, teniendo en cuenta los discursos de las propias protagonistas. El objetivo general de la investigación ha sido conocer las condiciones laborales de estas trabajadoras desde sus propias perspectivas. Realizamos cuatro grupos focales (latinoamericanas, europeas del este, marroquíes y africanas subsaharianas con un total de 47 mujeres. El análisis de sus discursos muestra puntos en común por ser mujer, trabajadora e inmigrante, y algunas diferencias según su lugar de origen. Describimos contenidos sobre los antecedentes del proyecto migratorio, las condiciones de trabajo (pérdida de estatus y etnización laboral, inestabilidad, víctimas de descalificaciones y los efectos de estas condiciones laborales (cinismo, aislamiento social, diferentes relaciones con los empleadores, resignación y sumisión. Las reflexiones a lo largo del texto dialogan con reflexiones de otros/as autores/as para enriquecer la visibilidad de las mujeres migrantes, a la vez diferentes, a la vez con muchos puntos comunes.

    The present study aimed to learn the perspective of immigrant women in the workplace, taking into account the speeches of the protagonists themselves. The overall objective was to find the job conditions from their own perspectives. We conducted four focus groups (Latin American, Eastern European, Moroccan and sub-Saharan Africa with a total of 47 women. The analysis of their speeches shows points in common because they are women, workers and immigrants, and some differences according to their place of origin. We describe the background of the migration project, working conditions (loss of job status and ethnicization, instability, prejudice and the effects of these working conditions (cynicism, social

  17. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main e...

  18. A unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khizar

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year-old Asian girl was referred to the nephrology unit with rapidly progressive renal failure. At the age of 15 she was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus but had defaulted treatment. Her renal functions improved with cyclophosphamide pulse treatment but she continued to have central nervous system vasculitis, gastrointestinal vasculitis and opportunistic infections making her a unique and challenging case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  19. Uniqueness from locality and BCFW shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodina, Laurentiu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a BCFW shift which can be used to recursively build the full Yang-Mills amplitude as a function of polarization vectors. Furthermore, in line with the recent results of arXiv:1612.02797, we conjecture that the Yang-Mills scattering amplitude is uniquely fixed by locality and demanding the usual asymptotic behavior under a sufficient number of shifts. Unitarity therefore emerges from locality and constructability. We prove this statement at the leading order in the soft expansion.

  20. Information on the Social Context of the College Students' Ideological and Political Education Work%浅谈信息社会背景下的大学生思想政治教育工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐坤

    2012-01-01

    信息社会的发展带动了新媒体技术的发展,影响大学生思想观念的因素也因此增多。如何借助信息社会的优势条件进行大学生的思想政治教育工作是一个重要的问题,通过分析信息社会对大学生产生的影响,阐明信息社会网络发展带给大学生政治教育工作的新机遇并提出个人的一些建议。%Led to the development of the information society, the development of new media technologies, factors affecting student ideology is therefore increased. How to use the advantages of the information society, college students' ideological and political education work is an important issue to clarify the development of the information society networks to bring new opportunities for the political education of college students and presented some of the recommendations of the individual, through the analysis of the impact of the information society of the college students.

  1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a unique presentation in a pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, Michael V.; Monson, Matthew [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Infection by the Aspergillus species of fungus can result in a variety of clinically and radiographically unique pulmonary diseases. The specific disease manifested is most dependent upon the immunocompetency of the infected individual. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is most commonly seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since its original description in 1952, much has been published describing the radiographic manifestations of this disease. In this article, we present the unusual case of a 13-year-old whose initial radiographic presentation was that of a dense lobar consolidation. Additionally, we highlight the contributory role of the radiologist in guiding the appropriate clinical work-up and treatment of this disease. (orig.)

  2. On the Uniqueness of Ghost-Free Special Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dong; Xing, Yu-Hang

    2017-09-01

    Special gravity refers to interacting theories of massless gravitons in Minkowski space-time which are invariant under the abelian gauge invariance {h}ab\\to {h}ab+{\\partial }(a{χ }b) only. In this article we determine the most general form of special gravity free of Ostrogradski ghosts, meaning its equation of motion is of at most second order. Together with the recent works, this result could be helpful in formulating proofs of General Relativity as the unique physical theory of self-interacting massless gravitons. We also study how to construct gauge invariant couplings to matter fields.

  3. On the Uniqueness of the Standard Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Gabriel S; José, Marco V

    2017-02-13

    In this work, we determine the biological and mathematical properties that are sufficient and necessary to uniquely determine both the primeval RNY (purine-any base-pyrimidine) code and the standard genetic code (SGC). These properties are: the evolution of the SGC from the RNY code; the degeneracy of both codes, and the non-degeneracy of the assignments of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) to amino acids; the wobbling property; the consideration that glycine was the first amino acid; the topological and symmetrical properties of both codes.

  4. O quadro de trabalhadores federais em saúde no Brasil: uma análise no contexto dos anos 2000 The federal health work force in Brazil: an analysis in the context of the 2000's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Galdino Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o quadro de trabalhadores do Ministério da Saúde e entidades vinculadas - agências reguladoras da saúde e Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - de 2000 a 2008, relacionando a evolução quantitativa e o perfil dos vínculos dos trabalhadores federais da saúde com os condicionantes históricos e as políticas para o funcionalismo. As estratégias metodológicas da pesquisa foram: revisão bibliográfica, análise documental e de dados primários e secundários. Os resultados sugerem que a partir de 2003 houve uma recomposição parcial de quadros na administração pública federal, por meio de concursos públicos. Tal movimento foi heterogêneo entre áreas, sendo que a saúde apresentou um aumento de servidores ativos inferior à média federal. Observaram-se diferenças na situação do quadro de trabalhadores do Ministério da Saúde e entidades vinculadas. O nível central do Ministério foi pouco beneficiado com a realização de concursos, mantendo baixa proporção de servidores e alta dependência de consultores, terceirizados e contratos temporários. As agências reguladoras da saúde receberam servidores concursados a partir de 2005, mas em 2008 ainda apresentavam trabalhadores com outros tipos de vínculos. Na Fiocruz, observou-se um incremento do número de servidores, porém um aumento maior dos terceirizados. Por fim, discutem-se os desafios de conformação de uma adequada força de trabalho no Ministério da Saúde e entidades vinculadas, visto que no Brasil a esfera federal mantém um papel estratégico para a consolidação do Sistema Único de Saúde.This paper analyzes the work force of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and associated entities -the health regulatory agencies and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation -from 2000 to 2008, focusing on the quantitative evolution and types of employment relation. The methods involved a bibliographical review, documental analysis and analysis of primary and secondary data. The

  5. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  6. Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berla, Bertram M; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M; Maranas, Costas D; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as "chassis" strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a "green E. coli." In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  7. 全球一体化背景下统一战线工作的战略思路%Strategic Thoughts on the United Front Work in the Globalization Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平功

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of globalization initiated by world economy, there is emerging a deepening process of political, economic, cultural and societal interconnections among nation-states. Specifically, more frequent exchange, communication and cooperation are now taking place between governmental agencies, political parties, business enterprises, as well as societal organizations. In view of these, it is significant to pay more attention to the efforts of the United Front work as such undertaking is concerned with the security of the country and the national well-being. It is also imperative that the practitioners of the United Front need to be strategically aware and competent of the national policy and tactics as well as their implementation.%以经济为主导的全球一体化时代已经到来,伴随着全球化的发展,我国与其他国家和地区间的政治、经济、文化、社会等领域的联系不断加深,不同政府组织、政党、企事业单位、社会团体间的相互交往、交流、合作等活动更加频繁,统一战线工作的重要性由此更加凸现,统战工作的范围和难度逐步拓宽和增加。在全球一体化的大背景下,做好统一战线工作不仅有益于我国的国家安全,更关系到中华民族的复兴。同时,从事和致力于统战工作的人员要始终牢记和遵循党和国家的统战政策和策略,认清统战工作面临的新形势,进一步增强统战工作人员的责任感和使命感,找准立足点,拓宽工作渠道和平台,以卓有成效的工作成果服务于国家的发展大局。

  8. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  9. Social Work Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social work research has gathered a greater transparency and clarity of identity in North American and parts of Europe. Furthermore, the rapid emergence of social work research in other European countries, China, India, Japan and elsewhere in Asia and Pacific Rim countries, and gradually in South...... understanding of the different aspects involved in the research. Volume One: Historical Trajectories, Purposes and Key Concepts Volume Two: Key Decisions about Research Strategy Volume Three: The Practice of Social Work Research Volume Four: The Contexts of Social Work Research...

  10. Preparing Students for After-College Life: The Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelli K.

    2012-01-01

    Historical context informs the work of student affairs professionals and others in higher education in striking the right balance in helping prepare students for life after college, but significant new pressures face students, their mentors, and educational institutions today. This chapter discusses the contexts that shape the work of student…

  11. Context and Content: From Language to Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCOIS RECANATI

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I present an overview of my research in the philosophy of language in mind over more than tmrty years, from my early work on speech act theory to my current work on mental files. The unifying theme is context-dependence, both in language and thought. I distinguish several varieties of context-dependence and, along the way, provide tentative accounts of various phenomena: performative utterances, indexicals, modulation (metonymy and loose talk, free enrichment), de se thought, the content of experiential states, and immunity to error through misidentification.

  12. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  13. Context, you need

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt

    that object-initial clauses like “Her, he invited” are more difficult to read and comprehend than subject-initial clauses like “He invited her”. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the difference particularly affects a brain area known by the name of Broca’s area. Whether one says “He invited her” or “Her......, he invited” depends on the context – it is therefore relevant to take contextual factors into account when examining how language users process information structure. The dissertation is based on a psycholinguistic reading experiment and three neuroimaging experiments that all examine the interplay...... between context and information structure. The experimental results indicate that context plays a significant role when it comes to sentence comprehension and that the activity in Broca’s area is also affected by contextual factors. Based on the results of the four language experiments, it is also argued...

  14. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    Although research into contextual influences on food/beverage choices is increasing, limited knowledge exists about the relative impact context variables and to which degree these factors interact with each other. Habit is also acknowledged as being important in shaping food/beverage choices......, but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... among the context factors studied. For instance hot beverages were more likely to be consumed at breakfast, while alcoholic beverages were strongly related to dinner meals. Beer/wine was considerably more likely to be consumed outside home or in on-premise locations in the presence of friends or family...

  15. Context-dependent generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation vs. visual translation) have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement) or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement). The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  16. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  17. Succesful Aging at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    As the context of work and the age composition of the workforce are changing, this raises several issues to the work capacity and participation of the older age groups in the workforce. With the growth of positive psychology researchers have begun to focus not only on the problems that mature workers encounter in the workplace, such as cognitive loss and discrimination deriving from stereotypes, but also on the potential strengths and resources. Despite the attention paid to this subject, the...

  18. Mobile Context Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomail, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights...

  19. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  20. Adaptive Context Tree Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Alexander; Shao, Wen; Sunehag, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe an adaptive context tree weighting (ACTW) algorithm, as an extension to the standard context tree weighting (CTW) algorithm. Unlike the standard CTW algorithm, which weights all observations equally regardless of the depth, ACTW gives increasing weight to more recent observations, aiming to improve performance in cases where the input sequence is from a non-stationary distribution. Data compression results show ACTW variants improving over CTW on merged files from standard compression benchmark tests while never being significantly worse on any individual file.

  1. Context and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄念峰

    2004-01-01

    The exponents of Functional Teaching Approach hold that only when the linguistic expressions are presented(by the teacher)and practised(by the students)in the specifte context,can language teaching cultivate students' competence of understanding and using language forms.Based on two years' practice,The author argues that excellent effects on setting up context can livene up the atmosphere of the classroom,foster the students' competitive consciousness and collective spirit,stimulate the students' rich imagination and creativity,satisfy their thirst for knowledge,promote the harmonious relationship between teacher and students and improve the quality of teaching.

  2. Learning in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of the concept of learning context. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann and Gregory Bateson it suggests an alternative to situated, social learning and activity theory. The conclusion is that learning context designates an individual's reconstruction of the environment...... through contingent handling of differences and that the individual emerge as learning through the actual construction. Selection of differences is influenced by the learner's actual knowledge, the nature of the environment and the current horizon of meaning in which the current adaptive perspective...... becomes a significant factor. The re-description contributes to didaktik  through renewed understandings of participants' background in teaching and learning....

  3. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  4. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  5. Unique double recurrence of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Surgically treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered cured when the postoperative angiogram proves complete resection. However, despite no residual nidus or early draining vein on postoperative angiogram, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in adults. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old woman with asymptomatic double recurrence of her cerebral AVM after angiographically proven complete resection. To the authors' knowledge, this patient represents the first case with double de novo asymptomatic recurrence of Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Also, she represents the first case with unique AVM criteria in each recurrence.

  6. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  7. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  8. Uniqueness of Centauro-type events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Beggio, P.C.; Carvalho, A.O. de; Menon, M.J.; Navia, C.E.; Oliveira, R. de; Shibuya, E.H

    2003-07-01

    Analysis to discriminate Centauro events from normal events is made without previous identification of secondary emitted particles. For this purpose their energy and derived quantities like distance from the center of momenta it were mainly used. As a result we found in a sample of (280+87) experimental events only 3 were compatible with 5 Centauro events, but none of them dad a high content of hadrons, characteristic of Centauro events. With this result we are confident about the uniqueness of Centauro events, especially for two events that have vertex directly determined. Comparing with some interaction models features we depict a possible scenario to explain Centauro events.

  9. Uniqueness of the Trautman-Bondi mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T; MacCallum, M A H; Chru\\'sciel, Piotr T.; Jezierski, Jacek; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the only functionals, within a natural class, which are monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri, are those depending on the metric only through a specific combination of the Bondi `mass aspect' and other next--to--leading order terms in the metric. Under the extra condition of passive BMS invariance, the unique such functional (up to a multiplicative factor) is the Trautman--Bondi energy. It is also shown that this energy remains well-defined for a wide class of `polyhomogeneous' metrics.

  10. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Paer [Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  11. [Celiac disease: an unique autoinmune model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sáez, Luis Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a unique autoimmune disorder, because the environmental precipitant factor is known. It is gluten, the major storage protein of wheat and similar grains. Originally was considered a rare malabsorption syndrome of childhood, but nowadays is recognized a common condition, that affects to 1% of the general population, all over the world', involves to all different races, may be diagnosed at any age, and affects to many organ systems. Therapy for the disease is a gluten-free-diet that must be strict and long-term. This diet cause a total recovery clinical and analytical, with excellent quality of life of patients.

  12. Uniqueness, Self belonging and Intercourse in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Dr. Marvin / E.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript has ensued from my past studies in biochemistry (PhD, CUNY 1986) and my current endeavors in graduate study in philosophy and anthropology. The current research project began during my period as a graduate student in biochemistry with a professor of classical genetics comment that DNA was unique in the physical world. The paradox presented to relate this notion to existing natural law lead me to evolve and communicate a view that the world itself is a special case of a general...

  13. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  14. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Rosati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  15. Towards a Research Agenda for Social Work Practice in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Anstadt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unique applications of virtual reality in many modern contexts, Second Life (SL offers inimitable opportunities for research and exploration. A review of current research regarding SL has examined the influence of real world social influences in online interactions and what the effects on users may be. This suggests the importance of developing an understanding of the relationship between users’ real life and their Second Life, and how the two are related. Some research has begun to reveal the effectiveness of telecommunication and computer simulation with certain clients in the fields of mental health and social work, yet there is a lack of sufficient research done within the context of virtual worlds. The implications for social work intervention in virtual reality could solve persistent concerns with transportation, distance, access to services and education, however questions about the relevance of social work practice in SL and the potential for implementation must be answered.

  16. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  17. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  18. An experiment on Lowest Unique Integer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Hanaki, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally study Lowest Unique Integer Games (LUIGs) to determine if and how subjects self-organize into different behavioral classes. In a LUIG, N(≥ 3) players submit a positive integer up to M and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. LUIGs are simplified versions of real systems such as Lowest/Highest Unique Bid Auctions that have been attracting attention from scholars, yet experimental studies are scarce. Furthermore, LUIGs offer insights into choice patterns that can shed light on the alleviation of congestion problems. Here, we consider four LUIGs with N = { 3 , 4 } and M = { 3 , 4 } . We find that (a) choices made by more than 1/3 of subjects were not significantly different from what a symmetric mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) predicts; however, (b) subjects who behaved significantly differently from what the MSE predicts won the game more frequently. What distinguishes subjects was their tendencies to change their choices following losses.

  19. Context based semantics for multimodal retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandra; Santini, Simone

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative to formal annotation for the representation of semantics, and presents an extension to it capable of handling multimedia (text and images) documents. The article argues that meaning is not a property of a document, but an outcome of a contextualized and situated process of interpretation. The consequence of this position is that one should not quite try to represent the meaning of a document (the way formal annotation does), but the context of the activity of which search is part. We present some general considerations on the representation and use of the context, and a simple example of a technique to encode the context represented by the documents collected in the computer in which one is working, and to use them to direct search. We show preliminary results showing that even this rather simpleminded context representation can lead to considerable improvements with respect to commercial search engines both for text and images.

  20. Formative Assessment in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenford-O'Brian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to critical gaps in current research on formative assessment practice which could limit successful implementation of this practice within the K-12 classroom context. The study applies a socio cultural perspective of learning to interpret a cross-case analysis of formative assessment practice occurring during one…

  1. Context 2010/2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT 2010/2011 består af 16 artikler og essays, forfattet af forskere og undervisere på Arkitektskolen Aarhus. Forfatterne præsenterer hér deres individuelle, faglige tilgange til kontekst-begrebet, som det helt aktuelt anvendes i forskning og undervisning på Arkitektskolen. Teksterne ledsages...

  2. The Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2015-01-01

    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  3. DANS LE CONTEXTE IVOIRIEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA RELATION "GENRE" ET SES IMPLICATIONS SOCIOLOGIQUES. DANS LE CONTEXTE IVOIRIEN ... de base et de la gestion des affaires publiques en milieu rural .... Les raisons économiques; du fait du faible pouvoir d'achat des parents face au ..... cause de rupture du contrat, toute femme a le droit de suspendre son.

  4. Context, Learning, and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

    2010-01-01

    A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

  5. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  6. Adaptive context exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alan N.; Bowman, Christopher L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents concepts and an implementation scheme to improve information exploitation processes and products by adaptive discovery and processing of contextual information. Context is used in data fusion - and in inferencing in general - to provide expectations and to constrain processing. It also is used to infer or refine desired information ("problem variables") on the basis of other available information ("context variables"). Contextual exploitation becomes critical in several classes of inferencing problems in which traditional information sources do not provide sufficient resolution between entity states or when such states are poorly or incompletely modeled. An adaptive evidence-accrual inference method - adapted from developments in target recognition and scene understanding - is presented; whereby context variables are selected on the basis of (a) their utility in refining explicit problem variables, (b) the probability of evaluating these variables to within a given accuracy, given candidate system actions (data collection, mining or processing), and (c) the cost of such actions. The Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Model, with its extension to dual Resource Management functions, has been adapted to accommodate adaptive information exploitation, to include adaptive context exploitation. The interplay of Data Fusion and Resource Management (DF&RM) functionality in exploiting contextual information is illustrated in terms of the dual-node DF&RM architecture. An important advance is in the integration of data mining methods for data search/discovery and for abductive model refinement.

  7. Context modification in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop the positive fragment of Context Modification Logic. This logical system is a variant of Dynamic Predicate Logic that employs multiple-access variables and that treats argument places in the same way as Latin. The positive fragment is purely incremental.

  8. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  9. Context as a Spurious Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, G

    1997-01-01

    I take issue with AI formalizations of context, primarily the formalization by McCarthy and Buvac, that regard context as an undefined primitive whose formalization can be the same in many different kinds of AI tasks. In particular, any theory of context in natural language must take the special nature of natural language into account and cannot regard context simply as an undefined primitive. I show that there is no such thing as a coherent theory of context simpliciter -- context pure and simple -- and that context in natural language is not the same kind of thing as context in KR. In natural language, context is constructed by the speaker and the interpreter, and both have considerable discretion in so doing. Therefore, a formalization based on pre-defined contexts and pre-defined `lifting axioms' cannot account for how context is used in real-world language.

  10. Social context of HIV risk behaviours among male-to-female transgenders of colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T; Operario, D; Keatley, J; Villegas, D

    2004-08-01

    To explore the social context of drug use and sexual behaviours that put male-to-female (MTF) transgenders at risk for HIV, focus groups were conducted consisting of African American, Latina and Asian and Pacific Islander MTF transgenders (N = 48) who reside or work in San Francisco, California. Participants were likely to report having unprotected sex with primary partners to signify love and emotional connection, as well as to receive gender validation from their partners. In contrast, viewing sex work with customers as a business encouraged intentious to use condoms. Safer sex intentions with customers were frequently undermined by urgent financial needs, which stemmed from transphobia, employment discrimination and costly procedures associated with gender transition. Participants reported using drugs as a way to cope with or escape life stresses associated with relationships, sex work, transphobia and financial hardship. Interventions with at-risk MTF transgenders should address the interpersonal and social context of unsafe sex and drug use, particularly the unique roles of relationship issues with male partners, stigma, discrimination and community norms regarding sex work and drug use.

  11. Stereotypes in a context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we tested some hypotheses concerning the influence of a context on stereotypes. Our first hypothesis concerns explicit stereotypes. According to it Czech respondents will ascribe to their own category more positive attributes if a list of categories will include only Czech and Roma people than when it will include also some categories which are more positively evaluated than Czechs. The next hypothesis concerns implicit stereotypes. According to it when using IAT (Implicit Association Test; Greenwald et al., 1998, where there are compared two categories, we will ascertain a more profound difference between attitudes to Czech and Roma people than when we use BFP (Bona Fide Pipeline; Fazio et al., 1995, in which there is no such a comparison. Our next two hypotheses concern consensual stereotypes. According to one of them the content of a consensual stereotype will overlap with content of a no personal stereotype. According to the other, the valences of consensual stereotypes will be more polarized than the mean valences of personal stereotypes. The context will have similar influences on consensual and personal stereotypes. In our two researches there took part two samples (N1 = 86, N2 = 201 of adult members. To ascertain the content of explicit stereotypes we used an open-form technique. The first sample adduced attributes of members of two categories, the second sample adduced attributes of members of twelve categories. We define the consensual stereotype as a set of ten most often cited attributes. To measure implicit stereotypes, we used IAT and BFP. Results show that responses of the respondents were influenced by context in the directions expected. The content of no personal stereotype overlapped with the content of any consensual stereotype. The context had influence on both explicit and implicit measures. At the same time it was found that context had on personal and consensual stereotypes similar, but not identical

  12. Creativity in context; the courage in Therivel's GAM/DP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Craig W

    2013-03-01

    The desire to quantify and categorize creativity so that we can easily identify the individual characteristics which serve as its precursors is one which authors have been attempting to successfully complete for some time. In this light, William Therivel's High Creativity Unmasked, discusses how his GAM/DP theory accounts for highly creative people from history as well as a rationale for the rise and fall of creativity in selected cultures throughout history. By examining the latest published work on how Genetic Endowment, Assistances, Misfortunes and Divisions of Power, and how they relate to creativity, Therivel proposes unique rationales for the rises and declines of cultures. This paper examines how creativity and courage work together and in some cases side by side, to explain more fully the role of creativity in culture. This article examines some of Therivel's examples and provides alternate explanations for the phenomena he ascribes to the decline of creativity. In addition, the complexity of both creativity and courage are discussed, both in the current context, and in the next steps for research and theoretical discussion.

  13. The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capes Melinda D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs. We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs, of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs, the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all

  14. Towards an understanding of the virtual context in mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature theorising mobile learning emphasises the importance of context with physical and social contexts identified to date. Our work to design and implement authentic mobile simulation activities using SMS text messaging suggests that a third context may also be important. This is a virtual context, the learner-created cognitive space within which the activity takes place. The arrival of a message during a simulation activity will disrupt the real world physical and social contexts in which the learner finds themselves and transfer them into the virtual context. We argue that this disruptive power of the mobile device to shift the user's presence may be one of the distinguishing characteristics of certain mobile learning applications. This paper will explore the idea of the virtual context and discuss the role of issues of context, presence and disruption, illustrating these with reference to a case study of mobile simulation learning using SMS text messaging.

  15. Management challenges of context-aware learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

  16. Organizing Construction Practices in Different Cultural Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Rasmussen, Christian K. S.

    2013-01-01

    participating in the construction management on site working for three different contractors in different cultural contexts: (1) Construir Futuro S.A. in Quito, Ecuador; (2) Anker Hansen & co. A/S in Copenhagen, Denmark; and (3) E. Pihl & Soen A/S in Stockholm, Sweden. Based on these explorative case studies......This paper presents in-depth case studies of construction practices with a specific focus on understanding the emergent and dynamic nature of construction management in different cultural contexts. The cases are based on actual working-experiences by the author as an assistant project manager...... a number of characteristics and challenges related to the cultural context have been identified highlighting a central issue in existing and future construction practices due to the globalization and thereby increasing importance of cultural understanding in project-based organizing. The empirical findings...

  17. Conditional and Unique Coloring of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2011-01-01

    For integers $k, r > 0$, a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper $k$-coloring of the vertices of $G$ such that every vertex $v$ of degree $d(v)$ in $G$ is adjacent to at least $\\min\\{r, d(v)\\}$ differently colored vertices. Given $r$, the smallest integer $k$ for which $G$ has a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring is called the $r$th order conditional chromatic number $\\chi_r(G)$ of $G$. We give results (exact values or bounds for $\\chi_r(G)$, depending on $r$) related to the conditional coloring of some graphs. We introduce \\emph{unique conditional colorability} and give some related results. (Keywords. cartesian product of graphs; conditional chromatic number; gear graph; join of graphs.)

  18. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M

    1994-12-01

    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  19. Computational Transition at the Uniqueness Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Sly, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The hardcore model is a model of lattice gas systems which has received much attention in statistical physics, probability theory and theoretical computer science. It is the probability distribution over independent sets $I$ of a graph weighted proportionally to $\\lambda^{|I|}$ with fugacity parameter $\\lambda$. We prove that at the uniqueness threshold of the hardcore model on the $d$-regular tree, approximating the partition function becomes computationally hard on graphs of maximum degree $d$. Specifically, we show that unless NP$=$RP there is no polynomial time approximation scheme for the partition function (the sum of such weighted independent sets) on graphs of maximum degree $d$ for fugacity $\\lambda_c(d) 0$. Weitz produced an FPTAS for approximating the partition function when $0<\\lambda < \\lambda_c(d)$ so this result demonstrates that the computational threshold exactly coincides with the statistical physics phase transition thus confirming the main conjecture of [28]. We further analyze the s...

  20. Organizing the spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic activity is quickly changing the hydrosphere. Panta Rhei calls for improved understanding of changing hydrosphere dynamics in their connection with human systems. I argue that progress within the Panta Rhei initiative is strongly limited by the absence of hydrological principles that help to organise our spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere; without guiding principles (e.g. classification systems) hydrology will continue to be a case study dominated science that will have a hard time to efficiently improve understanding, estimation and prediction of human affected systems. Exposing such organising principles should not be considered as a step backwards into the recent PUB decade. Instead, it should be regarded as an exciting scientific challenge that is becoming increasingly relevant now the hydrosphere is quickly changing.

  1. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Trikha; Tarun Goyal; Amit K Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant dislocation of the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury.Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously.We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient.These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient.These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be quite severe.This case is presented in view of its uniqueness along with possible mechanism of injury,the sequence of reduction and follow-up.Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons.

  2. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  3. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  4. Fullerenes as unique nanopharmaceuticals for disease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As unique nanoparticles,fullerenes have attracted much attention due to their unparalleled physical,chemical and biological properties.Various functionalized fullerenes with OH,NH2,COOH,and peptide modifications were developed.It summarized the biological activities of fullerenes derivatives in cancer therapy with high efficiency and low toxicity,as reactive oxygen species scavenger and lipid peroxidation inhibitor,to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus and to suppress bacteria and microbial at low concentration.In addition,the mechanism for fullerene to enter cells and biodistribution of fullerene in vivo was also discussed.This research focuses on the current understanding of fullerenes-based nanomaterials in the potential clinical application as well as biological mechanism of fullerenes and its derivatives in disease therapy.

  5. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  6. Static context model for context aware E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu. M. Das

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Context aware E-Learning systems provide learning content according to a learner’s context. In order to determine a learner’s context, the parameters that constitute the context and the values of these parameters in the current learner’s situation have to be found. There are several existing context aware E-Learning systems and each of these are taking care of some of the context parameters - like learning styles, learner preferences etc. But, a standardized static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context in its ntirety is not available. This paper proposes a static context model that helps to capture a learner’s context. The static context model is developed by consolidating the various context parameters used in the existing context aware E-Learning systems and organizing them into an appropriate structure. The structure of the static context model along with the parameters that constitute the context is explained in the paper

  7. Industrial rehabilitation medicine. 1. Why is industrial rehabilitation medicine unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J P; Rondinelli, R D; Scheer, S J; Weinstein, S M

    1997-03-01

    This self-directed learning module is part of the chapter on industrial rehabilitation medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Industrial rehabilitation medicine encompasses injuries and illnesses that occur in the workplace and are covered under workers' compensation. The central thesis of this article is that industrial rehabilitation medicine is a unique area because the workers' compensation system influences the behavior of injured workers. The article is divided into three sections. The first briefly reviews the history of workers' compensation in the United States, and describes eight key features of compensation systems. The second explores several hypotheses to explain why injured workers frequently have less favorable outcomes than noncompensation patients with similar medical conditions. Some explanations focus on dysfunctional psychologic reactions such as "compensation neurosis" and "disability syndrome." Others focus on contextual factors, including return to work policies by employers and financial incentives or disincentives for return to work. The third section outlines reasons why the physiatrist is often the "preferred provider" in industrial rehabilitation medicine. One crucial consideration is that many of the most important disabling work injuries are those with which physiatrists are familiar. Also, physiatric training and philosophy prepare the physician to focus on function, to work with a rehabilitation team, and to be sensitive to psychologic factors that might impede an injured worker's recovery. All of these skills are important in the treatment of injured workers.

  8. Point-cloud registration using 3D shape contexts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price, M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contexts Recently, Tombari et al. [9] showed that a simple yet intuitive solution proposed by Bro et al. [14] held the key to solving the problem of selecting reference frames for 3D descriptors. This lead to their definition of the Unique Shape Context.... Malik, and J. Puzicha, ?Shape matching and object recognition using shape context,? IEEE Trans Patt Anal Mach Intell, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 509?522, 2002. [14] R. Bro, E. Acar, and T. Kolda, ?Resolving the Sign Ambiguity in the Singular Value...

  9. Community Context, Land Use, and First Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…

  10. Situationally Embodied Curriculum: Relating Formalisms and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barab, Sasha; Zuiker, Steve; Warren, Scott; Hickey, Dan; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Kwon, Eun-Ju; Kouper, Inna; Herring, Susan C.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes an example of design-based research in which we make theoretical improvements in our understanding, in part based on empirical work, and use these to revise our curriculum and, simultaneously, our evolving theory of the relations between contexts and disciplinary formalisms. Prior to this study, we completed a first cycle of…

  11. Social Work in the context of political conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2010-01-01

    Anmeldelsen præsenterer og diskuterer Shulamit Ramons antologi om politisk konflikt og socialt og pædagogisk arbejde. Basalt set handler atologien om menneskerettigheder for mennesker på flugt fra krig og katastrofer. Ejendommeligt nok har temaet politisk konflikt ikke fået den opmærksomhed, det...

  12. Transformative Leadership: Working for Equity in Diverse Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is twofold: to delineate a theory of transformative leadership, distinct from other theories (transformational or transactional leadership); and to assess the utility of the theory for guiding the practice of educational leaders who want to effect both educational and broader social change. Approach and…

  13. WORKING CONTEXT IN A HEMODIALYSIS SERVICE: EVALUATION OF NURSING STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Cassol Prestes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el contexto de trabajo y relacionarlo con sufrimiento psíquico entre el personal de enfermería en un servicio de hemodiálisis del sur de Brasil. Estudio cuantitativo realizado en 2011, con 46 trabajadores. Criterios de inclusión: trabajar en la enfermería al menos 6 meses. Fueron excluidos los trabajadores apartados en el periodo de la colecta de datos. Utilizaron un formulario auto-rellenable con datos sociodemográficos, laborales y la Escala de Evaluación del Contexto de Trabajo. Se realizó el análisis descriptivo y bivariado con niveles de confianza del 95%, utilizando los programas Epi-info® y Predictive Analytics Software. La organización del trabajo fue considerada crítica, las relaciones socio profesionales y condiciones de trabajo satisfactorias. Los trabajadores menos satisfechos con el sueldo y los que sufrieron accidente de trabajo evaluaron las relaciones socios profesionales. El contexto investigado no es favorable habiendo necesidad de intervenciones con la finalidad de evitar a la salud de los trabajadores.

  14. Émission de photons uniques par un atome unique piégé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquié, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2006-10-01

    En illuminant un atome unique piégé dans une pince optique de taille micrométrique à l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses résonantes d'une durée de 4 ns, nous avons réalisé une source efficace de photons uniques déclenchés, de polarisation bien définie. Nous avons mesuré la fonction d'autocorrélation temporelle en intensité qui met en évidence un dégroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possède des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

  15. Context-descriptive Prototypes and Their Application to Medicine Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2004-01-01

    A context-descriptive prototype is an interactive graphical animation, driven by a formal, executable engine, implemented in some programming or modelling language. The two main properties of a context-descriptive prototype are: (1) it is an integrated description that describes system, work...... processes, and context of use; (2) it is a formal description. Because of (1), designers, including users, are provided with a means to investigate the system in the context of the envisioned work processes. Because of (2), investigations into questions of formalisation and automation, not only...

  16. 14 CFR 221.203 - Unique rule numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unique rule numbers required. 221.203... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.203 Unique rule numbers required... bear a unique rule number. (b) The unique rule numbers for the fares specified in this section shall...

  17. Cue conflicts in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...... in discourse-pragmatically felicitous contexts. Our results extend previous findings of preschoolers’ sensitivity to discourse-contextual cues in sentence comprehension (Hurewitz, 2001; Song & Fisher, 2005) to the basic task of assigning agent and patient roles....

  18. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    are colored by contextual information. This can be longterm contextual information, such as knowledge of phonological or emotional categories, but can also be short-term local expectancies, such as the previous sound heard. In this paper, I present original electrophysiological data illustrating the early...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  19. Unique neurobiology during the sensitive period for attachment produces distinctive infant trauma processing

    OpenAIRE

    Opendak, Maya; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma has neurobehavioral effects when experienced at any stage of development, but trauma experienced in early life has unique neurobehavioral outcomes related to later life psychiatric sequelae. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences. Trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver child maltreatment, is particularly detrimental.Methods:...

  20. Focus+context metro maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chi, Ming-Te

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a focus+context method to visualize a complicated metro map of a modern city on a small displaying area. The context of our work is with regard the popularity of mobile devices. The best route to the destination, which can be obtained from the arrival time of trains, is highlighted. The stations on the route enjoy larger spaces, whereas the other stations are rendered smaller and closer to fit the whole map into a screen. To simplify the navigation and route planning for visitors, we formulate various map characteristics such as octilinear transportation lines and regular station distances into energy terms. We then solve for the optimal layout in a least squares sense. In addition, we label the names of stations that are on the route of a passenger according to human preferences, occlusions, and consistencies of label positions using the graph cuts method. Our system achieves real-time performance by being able to report instant information because of the carefully designed energy terms. We apply our method to layout a number of metro maps and show the results and timing statistics to demonstrate the feasibility of our technique. © 2011 IEEE