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Sample records for unique wheat disease

  1. [Celiac disease: an unique autoinmune model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sáez, Luis Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a unique autoimmune disorder, because the environmental precipitant factor is known. It is gluten, the major storage protein of wheat and similar grains. Originally was considered a rare malabsorption syndrome of childhood, but nowadays is recognized a common condition, that affects to 1% of the general population, all over the world', involves to all different races, may be diagnosed at any age, and affects to many organ systems. Therapy for the disease is a gluten-free-diet that must be strict and long-term. This diet cause a total recovery clinical and analytical, with excellent quality of life of patients.

  2. Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition, is a practical guidebook for the identification and management of over 150 important diseases, insects, and other disorders of wheat. Over 70 expert authors contributed diagnostic photographs and authoritative chapters to this edition. For e...

  3. Fullerenes as unique nanopharmaceuticals for disease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As unique nanoparticles,fullerenes have attracted much attention due to their unparalleled physical,chemical and biological properties.Various functionalized fullerenes with OH,NH2,COOH,and peptide modifications were developed.It summarized the biological activities of fullerenes derivatives in cancer therapy with high efficiency and low toxicity,as reactive oxygen species scavenger and lipid peroxidation inhibitor,to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus and to suppress bacteria and microbial at low concentration.In addition,the mechanism for fullerene to enter cells and biodistribution of fullerene in vivo was also discussed.This research focuses on the current understanding of fullerenes-based nanomaterials in the potential clinical application as well as biological mechanism of fullerenes and its derivatives in disease therapy.

  4. Wheat-related disorders: A broad spectrum of 'evolving' diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarrini, Gb; Mangiola, F

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the world, cereals have always been recognized as a fundamental food. Human evolution, through the development of cooking, led to the production of food rich in gluten, in order to take full advantage of the nutritional properties of this food. The result has been that gluten intolerance has arisen only in those populations that developed the art of cooking wheat. It is also recognized that wheat, one of the central elements of the Mediterranean diet, cannot be tolerated in some individuals. Among the wheat-related pathologies, coeliac disease is the best known: it is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which develops in genetically predisposed individuals. The most common manifestation is the malabsorption of nutrients. Recently, another wheat-related disease has appeared: non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, defined as the onset of a variety of manifestations related to wheat, rye and barley ingestion, in patients in whom coeliac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded. In this paper we will explore the damaging power of wheat, analysing the harmful process by which it realizes the onset of clinical manifestations associated with wheat-related disorders.

  5. Liver diseases in pregnancy: Diseases unique to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khulood T; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. This review summarizes liver diseases that are unique to pregnancy. We discuss clinical conditions that are seen only in pregnant women and involve the liver; from Hyperemesis Gravidarum that happens in 1 out of 200 pregnancies and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (0.5%-1.5% prevalence), to the more frequent condition of preeclampsia (10% prevalence) and its severe form; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count syndrome (12% of pregnancies with preeclampsia), to the rare entity of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (incidence of 1 per 7270 to 13000 deliveries). Although pathogeneses behind the development of these aliments are not fully understood, theories have been proposed. Some propose the special physiological changes that accompany pregnancy as a precipitant. Others suggest a constellation of factors including both the mother and her fetus that come together to trigger those unique conditions. Reaching a timely and accurate diagnosis of such conditions can be challenging. The timing of the condition in relation toward which trimester it starts at is a key. Accurate diagnosis can be made using specific clinical findings and blood tests. Some entities have well-defined criteria that help not only in making the diagnosis, but also in classifying the disease according to its severity. Management of these conditions range from simple medical remedies to measures such as immediate termination of the pregnancy. In specific conditions, it is prudent to have expert obstetric and medical specialists teaming up to help improve the outcomes. PMID:24282353

  6. Liver diseases in pregnancy: diseases not unique to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-11-21

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. Few challenges arise in reaching an accurate diagnosis in light of such physiological changes. Laboratory test results should be carefully interpreted and the knowledge of what normal changes to expect is prudent to avoid clinical misjudgment. Other challenges entail the methods of treatment and their safety for both the mother and the baby. This review summarizes liver diseases that are not unique to pregnancy. We focus on viral hepatitis and its mode of transmission, diagnosis, effect on the pregnancy, the mother, the infant, treatment, and breast-feeding. Autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Wilson's disease, Budd Chiari and portal vein thrombosis in pregnancy are also discussed. Pregnancy is rare in patients with cirrhosis because of the metabolic and hormonal changes associated with cirrhosis. Variceal bleeding can happen in up to 38% of cirrhotic pregnant women. Management of portal hypertension during pregnancy is discussed. Pregnancy increases the pathogenicity leading to an increase in the rate of gallstones. We discuss some of the interventions for gallstones in pregnancy if symptoms arise. Finally, we provide an overview of some of the options in managing hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma during pregnancy.

  7. Tan spot - the most harmful wheat leaf disease in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is one of the most important wheat diseases in Latvia. Significant spreading of this disease was observed from 1998. Field experiments were carried out at the Research and Training Farm "Peterlauki" of the Latvia University of Agriculture, during 1998-2003. Development of diseases was observed on 14 winter wheat varieties, dynamics of development was investigated on 'Donskaja polukarlikovaja' and 'Stava'. Assessments of the disease severity were carried out on the upper three leaves each week from the start of stem elongation to full ripening. Tan spot was observed at the stage of stem elongation in 2003, and only after flowering in 1999. Increase of the disease severity was slow until stage of milk ripeness, and only in late stages of wheat development sharp increase of the disease was observed. Total rate of infection (through the session of vegetation was very slow (0,01-0,19, but during ripening rate achieved 0,5-0,6. The main reason of so unequal development of the disease seems changes in amount of infection sources. Other possible reason of rapid increase of the disease development is the relationship between leaf age and susceptibility to the disease. Further research is necessary for better understanding of tan spot life cycle.

  8. Assessing Wheat Yellow Rust Disease through Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, G.; Sahoo, R. N.; Pargal, S.; Gupta, V. K.; Sinha, P.; Bhagat, S.; Saharan, M. S.; Singh, R.; Chattopadhyay, C.

    2014-12-01

    The potential of hyperspectral reflectance data was explored to assess severity of yellow rust disease (Biotroph Pucciniastriiformis) of winter wheat in the present study. The hyperspectral remote sensing data was collected for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropat different levels of disease infestation using field spectroradiometer over the spectral range of 350 to 2500 nm. The partial least squares (PLS) and multiple linear (MLR) regression techniques were used to identify suitable bands and develop spectral models for assessing severity of yellow rust disease in winter wheat crop. The PLS model based on the full spectral range and n = 36, yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.96, a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 12.74 and a root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 12.41. The validation analysis of this PLS model yielded r2 as 0.93 with a SEP (Standard Error of Prediction) of 7.80 and a RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of prediction) of 7.46. The loading weights of latent variables from PLS model were used to identify sensitive wavelengths. To assess their suitability multiple linear regression (MLR) model was applied on these wavelengths which resulted in a MLR model with three identified wavelength bands (428 nm, 672 nm and 1399 nm). MLR model yielded acceptable results in the form of r2 as 0.89 for calibration and 0.90 for validation with SEP of 3.90 and RMSEP of 3.70. The result showed that the developed model had a great potential for precise delineation and detection of yellow rust disease in winter wheat crop.

  9. Micromycetes associated with wheat diseases in different regions of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriuchkova, L O

    2013-01-01

    The study is largely concerned with the micromycetes that represented the causative agents of harmful diseases of wheat and are severe challenges for grain producers in Ukraine. The potential yield of domestic commercial cultivars is 11-12 t/ha, but only 25-40% of their productivity is realized One of the main factors reducing the yield is ineffective disease control. Eyespot, take-all and sharp eyespot are among the most important diseases of wheat in Ukraine. However they are still underestimated in the country because of difficulties in their detection and causal agent isolation. Results of analysis of 37 Oculimacula strains, causal agents of eyespot, show the prevalence of the O. acuformis in northern regions, O. yallundae - in the south. Both species were detected in the central regions. The wide distribution (up to 100%) of Ceratobasidium cereale, a causal agent of sharp eyespot, has been observed all over the country. Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, a causal agent of take-all, has been detected among darkly pigmented soil-borne fungi. Seed infection has been mainly presented by Alternaria, Fusarium, Penicillium, Helminthosporium and Mucor species. Pathogenicity of Fusarium strains has been confirmed in pathogenicity tests. The information has been obtained during surveys of winter wheat crops under different climatic conditions of Ukraine.

  10. Recurrent intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis: A unique combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an 11-month-old female child, who presented with recurrent episodes of colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea. An abdominal ultrasound revealed small bowel intussusception. She was also noted to have a thick walled gall bladder and a solitary gallstone. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The combination of small bowel intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis is unique and has not been reported in the literature.

  11. Somaclonal variation for disease resistance in wheat and production of dihaploids through wheat x maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven wheat cultivars having some degree of resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea or Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu provided somaclonal variation for disease resistance. Callus induction varied from 69.4 to 100% across the cultivars, whereas regeneration frequency of R1 plants (regenerated plants of first generation varied between 2.7 and 23.1%. Resistance variation in the R2-regenerated second generation plants was observed for B. sorokiniana and M. grisea but not for Xcu. Attempts were made to fix the resistance characteristics of R3-regenerated third generation somaclones through wheat x maize hybrids. Wheat and maize hybridization of seven wheat somaclones yielded 81 embryos. A total of 11,624 somaclone florets were pollinated, of which 8.4% produced haploid embryos across the seven wheat genotypes. Hybrid embryo production varied between 0 and 25%. The somaclones had a constant chromosome number as observed in their original hexaploid wheat genotypes (2n = 6x = 42 whereas the haploid plants had n = 21. Hybrid embryo production and haploid and dihaploid plant production were affected by 2,4-D concentration, but not by the wheat genotype.Sete cultivares de trigo possuindo certo nível de resistência a Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea, Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu, foram usadas para variação somaclonal, a fim de induzir um nível maior de resistência. A freqüência de indução de calos variou entre 69,4 e 100 entre as cultivares, enquanto que, a freqüência de regeneração de plantas R1 variou entre 2,7 e 23,1, dependendo da cultivar. A variação para resistência entre as plantas de R2 foi observada para B. sorokiniana e M. grisea, mas não para Xcu. Procurou-se fixar as características de resistência dos somaclones (R3 através de hibridação com milho. A hibridação entre trigo e milho produziu 81 embriões zigotos. Um total de 11.624 flores de somaclones foram polinizadas, das

  12. Liver diseases in pregnancy: Diseases not unique to pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. Few challenges arise in reaching an accurate diagnosis in light of such physiological changes. Laboratory test results should be carefully interpreted and the knowledge of what normal changes to expect is prudent to avoid clinical misjudgment. Other challenges entail...

  13. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  14. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  15. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  16. Wheat deficient in gliadins: promising tool for treatment of coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, M; Corazza, G R; Lafiandra, D; De Ambrogio, E; Filipponi, C; Bonvicini, F; Borasio, E; Porceddu, E; Gasbarrini, G

    1995-03-01

    The toxicity of two varieties of bread wheat, one poor in alpha and beta gliadins and the other poor in alpha, beta, gamma, and omega gliadins, has been tested. The peptic-tryptic digest of these wheats was assessed using coeliac mucosa in an in vitro organ culture system. A significantly lower toxicity was found in respect of bread wheat containing all gliadin fractions. These results suggest new opportunities for the treatment of coeliac disease.

  17. Wheat deficient in gliadins: promising tool for treatment of coeliac disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Frisoni, M; Corazza, G. R.; Lafiandra, D; De Ambrogio, E; Filipponi, C; Bonvicini, F; Borasio, E; Porceddu, E; Gasbarrini, G.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of two varieties of bread wheat, one poor in alpha and beta gliadins and the other poor in alpha, beta, gamma, and omega gliadins, has been tested. The peptic-tryptic digest of these wheats was assessed using coeliac mucosa in an in vitro organ culture system. A significantly lower toxicity was found in respect of bread wheat containing all gliadin fractions. These results suggest new opportunities for the treatment of coeliac disease.

  18. Genes for wheat resistance ad susceptibility to Fusarium head blight and Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) are two of the most devastating diseases of wheat. Breeding for host resistance is an important component of integrated strategies for STB and FHB control. We identify genes and functional gene markers that can be used to expedite the proc...

  19. Radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin to assess the suitability of gluten free foods for patients with coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (United Medical School of Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Lennox, E.S. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1985-03-01

    Coeliac disease is a clinical condition characterised by malabsorption secondary to abnormalities of the small intestine. The condition is known to be exacerbated by wheat gliadin, rye, barley and possibly oats. The only assays that are available for testing for the presence of wheat gluten in foods are double diffusion against rabbit anti-gliadin antiserum and measurement of Kjeldahl nitrogen in products derived from wheat flour. We have developed a radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin with a detection limit of 1 ng. Nominally gluten free foods based on wheat starch have been shown to contain up to 1.9 x 10/sup -2/% wheat gliadin. Bread made from Nutregen wheat starch which has now been withdrawn contains 6.4 mg gliadin per standard 30 g slice. A radioimmunoassay for wheat gliadin could be used to define standards for the suitability of gluten free products based on wheat starch for patients with coeliac disease.

  20. The severity of wheat diseases increases when plants and pathogens are acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váry, Zsolt; Mullins, Ewen; McElwain, Jennifer C; Doohan, Fiona M

    2015-04-20

    Wheat diseases present a constant and evolving threat to food security. We have little understanding as to how increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will affect wheat diseases and thus the security of grain supply. Atmospheric CO2 exceeded the 400 ppmv benchmark in 2013 and is predicted to double or even treble by the end of the century. This study investigated the impact of both pathogen and wheat acclimation to elevated CO2 on the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB) disease of wheat. Here, plants and pathogens were cultivated under either 390 or 780 ppmv CO2 for a period (two wheat generations, multiple pathogen subcultures) prior to standard disease trials. Acclimation of pathogens and the wheat cultivar Remus to elevated CO2 increased the severity of both STB and FHB diseases, relative to ambient conditions. The effect of CO2 on disease development was greater for FHB than for STB. The highest FHB disease levels and associated yield losses were recorded for elevated CO2 -acclimated pathogen on elevated CO2 -acclimated wheat. When similar FHB experiments were conducted using the disease-resistant cultivar CM82036, pathogen acclimation significantly enhanced disease levels and yield loss under elevated CO2 conditions, thereby indicating a reduction in the effectiveness of the defence pathways innate to this wheat cultivar. We conclude that acclimation to elevated CO2 over the coming decades will have a significant influence on the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions and the durability of disease resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplican sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Esselink, D.G.; Goryunova, S.V.; Meer, van der I.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses

  3. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  4. Three-Dimension Visualization for Primary Wheat Diseases Based on Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijuan, Li; Yeping, Zhu

    Crop simulation model has been becoming the core of agricultural production management and resource optimization management. Displaying crop growth process makes user observe the crop growth and development intuitionisticly. On the basis of understanding and grasping the occurrence condition, popularity season, key impact factors for main wheat diseases of stripe rust, leaf rust, stem rust, head blight and powdery mildew from research material and literature, we designed 3D visualization model for wheat growth and diseases occurrence. The model system will help farmer, technician and decision-maker to use crop growth simulation model better and provide decision-making support. Now 3D visualization model for wheat growth on the basis of simulation model has been developed, and the visualization model for primary wheat diseases is in the process of development.

  5. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Jong, de H.C.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Dekking, L.; Bosch, H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the preva

  6. A system for diagnosis of wheat leaf diseases based on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinhua; Zhang, Xiangqian; He, Bing; Liang, Dong; Zhang, Dongyang; Huang, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    Owing to the shortages of inconvenience, expensive and high professional requirements etc. for conventional recognition devices of wheat leaf diseases, it does not satisfy the requirements of uploading and releasing timely investigation data in the large-scale field, which may influence the effectiveness of prevention and control for wheat diseases. In this study, a fast, accurate, and robust diagnose system of wheat leaf diseases based on android smartphone was developed, which comprises of two parts—the client and the server. The functions of the client include image acquisition, GPS positioning, corresponding, and knowledge base of disease prevention and control. The server includes image processing, feature extraction, and selection, and classifier establishing. The recognition process of the system goes as follow: when disease images were collected in fields and sent to the server by android smartphone, and then image processing of disease spots was carried out by the server. Eighteen larger weight features were selected by algorithm relief-F and as the input of Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), and the automatic identification of wheat stripe rust and powdery mildew was realized. The experimental results showed that the average recognition rate and predicted speed of RVM model were 5.56% and 7.41 times higher than that of Support Vector Machine (SVM). And application discovered that it needs about 1 minute to get the identification result. Therefore, it can be concluded that the system could be used to recognize wheat diseases and real-time investigate in fields.

  7. Lyme disease: a unique human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malawista, S. E.; Steere, A. C.; Hardin, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Lyme disease is a complex immune-mediated multi-system disorder that is infectious in origin and inflammatory or "rheumatic" in expression. Through its epidemiologic characteristics, large numbers of a seasonally synchronized patient population are readily available for prospective study. Lyme disease has a known clinical onset ("zero time"), marked by the characteristic expanding skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, and a clearly defined pre-articular phase. At least some manifestations of the disorder are responsive to antibiotics, and the causative agent--a spirochete--is now known. These advantages make Lyme disease unique as a human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease. PMID:6516449

  8. Emergence of a unique group of necrotizing mycobacterial diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobos, K. M.; Quinn, F D; Ashford, D. A.; Horsburgh, C R; King, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Although most diseases due to pathogenic mycobacteria are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several other mycobacterial diseases-caused by M. ulcerans (Buruli ulcer), M. marinum, and M. haemophilum-have begun to emerge. We review the emergence of diseases caused by these three pathogens in the United States and around the world in the last decade. We examine the pathophysiologic similarities of the diseases (all three cause necrotizing skin lesions) and common reservoirs of infection (sta...

  9. Netra darpanamu - A Unique book on eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Goli Penchala

    2007-10-01

    Netra Darpanamu is the only book written exclusively on Eye diseases in Telugu. This Ayurvedic book, which is famous in Andhra Pradesh, was first published in 1908 in Eluru. The book is written in chaste Telugu poetry, comprising the types of treatment followed by 36 recipes. This book contains names of various eye diseases, treatment procedures like bandages, plasters, collyriums and regimen of food and behaviour. This article aims to highlight the importance of this book in treating various eye diseases.

  10. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broeck, Hetty; Hongbing, Chen; Lacaze, Xavier; Dusautoir, Jean-Claude; Gilissen, Ludovicus; Smulders, Marinus; van der Meer, Ingrid

    2010-11-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a T-cell mediated auto-immune disorder, in genetically predisposed individuals after ingestion. Compared to hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat might be reduced in T-cell stimulatory epitopes that cause celiac disease because of the absence of the D-genome. We tested gluten protein extracts from 103 tetraploid wheat accessions (obtained from the Dutch CGN genebank and from the French INRA collection) including landraces, old, modern, and domesticated accessions of various tetraploid species and subspecies from many geographic origins. Those accessions were typed for their level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies against the α-gliadin epitopes Glia-α9 and Glia-α20. In the first selection, we found 8 CGN and 6 INRA accessions with reduced epitope staining. Fourteen of the 57 CGN accessions turned out to be mixed with hexaploid wheat, and 5 out of the 8 selected CGN accessions were mixtures of two or more different gluten protein chemotypes. Based on single seed analysis, lines from two CGN accessions and one INRA accession were obtained with significantly reduced levels of Glia-α9 and Glia-α20 epitopes. These lines will be further tested for industrial quality and may contribute to the development of safer foods for celiac patients.

  11. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  12. Alpha-gliadin genes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat contain different sets of celiac disease epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Goryunova-Svetlana, V.; Schoot, van der J.; Mitreva, M.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Schenk, M.F.; Veelen, van P.; Koning, de F.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Vosman, B.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important staple food. However, wheat gluten proteins cause celiac disease (CD) in 0.5 to 1% of the general population. Among these proteins, the a-gliadins contain several peptides that are associated to the disease. Results - We obtained 230 disti

  13. A unique case of concomitant intra and extracranial Hansen's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divyam; Gupta, Anshul; Chhabra, Satnam Singh; Jain, Shrey

    2017-02-01

    Leprosy is a debilitating disease that usually involves the peripheral branches of the cranial nerves leading to anesthetic/hypoesthetic skin lesions and thickened peripheral nerves. However, the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely rare. To the best of the author's knowledge, the involvement of the cranial nerve nuclei by leprosy has not been reported in the literature and the present case is the first report of involvement of the facial nerve nuclei by leprosy.

  14. Influence of maize straw amendment on soil-borne diseases of winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenchao ZHEN; Shutong WANG; Chengyin ZHANG; Zhiying MA

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted during the 2006-2007 wheat growing season at Baoding, Hebei Province, China, aiming at exploring the influence of different amendment rates of maize straw on winter wheat soil-borne diseases induced by Rhizoctonia cereali, Gaeumannomyces graminis and Bipolaris sorokiniana in field conditions. Wheat root vitality, ion infiltration, SOD activity, MDA content and microbial population of the tillage layer were measured. The results showed that the occurrence of three soil-borne diseases tested was significantly different under different amendment rates. During the greening stage and jointing stage, the disease indexes of three soil-borne diseases were reduced signi-ficantly by treatments at the maize straw amendment rates indexes of wheat common rot and sharp eyespot increased dramatically when the amendment rate decreased, and ion infiltration and cell membrane-lipid peroxidation level increased, respectively. In the mean-time, higher amounts of bacteria and actinomycetes ment, while a higher amount of fungi was recorded in the 15000kg·hm-2 amendment rate treatment.

  15. Potential impacts of ambient ozone on wheat rust diseases and the role of plant ozone sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of rust diseases and the continued rise in tropospheric ozone (O3) levels have the potential to limit global wheat production. We conducted a series of experiments to understand the potential interactions between these two stress factors. Both stem rust and leaf rust were increased o...

  16. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Tomba, Carolina; Villalta, Danilo; Norsa, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Francesca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-21

    Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis.

  17. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Tomba, Carolina; Villalta, Danilo; Norsa, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Francesca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind’s history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient’s clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis. PMID:26109797

  18. Natural variation in toxicity of wheat: potential for selection of nontoxic varieties for celiac disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaenij-Dekking, L.; Kooy-Winkelaar, Y.; Veelen, van P.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Jonker, H.H.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Bosch, H.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Koning, de F.

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal disorder caused by T-cell responses to peptides derived from the gluten proteins present in wheat. Such peptides have been found both in the gliadin and glutenin proteins in gluten. The only cure for CD is a lifelong gluten-free diet. It is

  19. Natural variation in toxicity of wheat: potential for selection of nontoxic varieties for celiac disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaenij-Dekking, L.; Kooy-Winkelaar, Y.; Veelen, van P.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Jonker, H.H.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Bosch, H.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Koning, de F.

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: Celiac disease (CD) is an intestinal disorder caused by T-cell responses to peptides derived from the gluten proteins present in wheat. Such peptides have been found both in the gliadin and glutenin proteins in gluten. The only cure for CD is a lifelong gluten-free diet. It is

  20. Specific nongluten proteins of wheat are novel target antigens in celiac disease humoral response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy that is generally understood to be triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins of wheat and related cereals. The skin manifestation of the condition is known as dermatitis herpetiformis. Antibody response to native and deamidated seque...

  1. Anthesis, the infectious process and disease progress curves for fusarium head blight in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fusarium head blight of wheat (Triticum aestivum, caused by the fungus Gibberella zeae, is a floral infecting disease that causes quantitative and qualitative losses to winter cereals. In Brazil, the sanitary situation of wheat has led to research in order to develop strategies for sustainable production, even under adverse weather conditions. To increase the knowledge of the relationship among the presence of anthesis, the infectious process, the disease progress and the saprophytic fungi present in wheat anthers, studies were conducted in the experimental field of University of Passo Fundo (UPF, using the cultivar Marfim, in the 2011 growing season. The disease incidence in spikes and spikelets was evaluated. The presence of exserted anthers increased the spike exposure time to the inoculum. The final incidence of fusarium head blight, in the field, was dependent on the presence of exserted anthers. The disease followed an aggregation pattern and its evolution increased with time, apparently showing growth according to secondary cycles. The fungi isolated from exserted anthers (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Drechslera spp. and Epicoccum sp. did not compete for the infection site of fusarium head blight in wheat, not interfering with the incidence of F. graminearum.

  2. Ivabradine: A Unique and Intriguing Medication for Treating Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawarskas, James J; Bowman, Brandi N; Anderson, Joe R

    2015-01-01

    There has been much research linking elevated resting heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Based on these findings, a lower resting heart rate would be of theoretical benefit in patients with cardiovascular disease. From a pathophysiologic perspective, a lower resting heart rate would be of particular benefit in patients with ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure. Although β-blockers and nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are effective at lowering heart rate, they have many other pharmacologic effects that may not be desirable in some patients, such as negative inotropy. Ivabradine is a drug designed to lower heart rate without any other demonstrable pharmacologic effects; in other words, a pure heart rate-lowering drug. It functions by blocking the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels (f-channels) specific for the sinoatrial node and disrupting If ion current flow. This effectively prolongs diastolic depolarization and slows firing in the sinoatrial node, which lowers heart rate. The effects of ivabradine are most pronounced at higher heart rates (use-dependence), which is important in minimizing the development of symptomatic bradycardia. Clinical trials have demonstrated ivabradine to be an effective antianginal drug both alone and in combination with β-blocker therapy, although it has not been shown to produce a demonstrable effect on reducing major adverse cardiovascular events. In patients with heart failure, ivabradine has demonstrated many hemodynamic benefits, but its effect on clinical outcomes have been mixed and dependent on baseline heart rate, ie, the drug may be of benefit with higher baseline heart rates, but detrimental with low baseline heart rates. The adverse effects of ivabradine are not uncommon, but are rarely severe and include visual disturbances, bradycardia, and atrial fibrillation. Although ivabradine is a very interesting new agent, its variable benefits in large-scale clinical

  3. Comparative genome analysis of wheat blue dwarf phytoplasma, an obligate pathogen that causes wheat blue dwarf disease in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chen

    Full Text Available Wheat blue dwarf (WBD disease is an important disease that has caused heavy losses in wheat production in northwestern China. This disease is caused by WBD phytoplasma, which is transmitted by Psammotettix striatus. Until now, no genome information about WBD phytoplasma has been published, seriously restricting research on this obligate pathogen. In this paper, we report a new sequencing and assembling strategy for phytoplasma genome projects. This strategy involves differential centrifugation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, whole genome amplification, shotgun sequencing, de novo assembly, screening of contigs from phytoplasma and the connection of phytoplasma contigs. Using this scheme, the WBD phytoplasma draft genome was obtained. It was comprised of six contigs with a total size of 611,462 bp, covering ∼94% of the chromosome. Five-hundred-twenty-five protein-coding genes, two operons for rRNA genes and 32 tRNA genes were identified. Comparative genome analyses between WBD phytoplasma and other phytoplasmas were subsequently carried out. The results showed that extensive arrangements and inversions existed among the WBD, OY-M and AY-WB phytoplasma genomes. Most protein-coding genes in WBD phytoplasma were found to be homologous to genes from other phytoplasmas; only 22 WBD-specific genes were identified. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that WBD phytoplasma had strongly reduced metabolic capabilities. However, 46 transporters were identified, which were involved with dipeptides/oligopeptides, spermidine/putrescine, cobalt and Mn/Zn transport, and so on. A total of 37 secreted proteins were encoded in the WBD phytoplasma chromosome and plasmids. Of these, three secreted proteins were similar to the reported phytoplasma virulence factors TENGU, SAP11 and SAP54. In addition, WBD phytoplasma possessed several proteins that were predicted to play a role in its adaptation to diverse environments. These results will provide clues for research on

  4. Immunogenicity Characterization of Two Ancient Wheat α-Gliadin Peptides Related to Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Ciclitira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenic potential of α-gliadin protein from two ancient wheats was studied with reference to coeliac disease. To this aim we investigated Graziella Ra® and Kamut® (the latter is considered an ancient relative of modern durum wheat in comparison to four durum wheat accessions (Senatore Cappelli, Flaminio, Grazia and Svevo. ELISA and Western Blot analyses - carried out by two monoclonal antibodies raised against the α-gliadin peptides p31-49 (LGQQQPFPQQPYPQPQPF and p56-75 (LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPY containing a core region (underlined reported to be toxic for coeliac patients - always showed an antibody-antigen positive reaction. For all accessions, an α-gliadin gene has also been cloned and sequenced. Deduced amino acid sequences constantly showed the toxic motifs. In conclusion, we strongly recommend that coeliac patients should avoid consuming Graziella Ra® or Kamut®. In fact their α-gliadin not only is as toxic as one of the other wheat accessions, but also occurs in greater amount, which is in line with the higher level of proteins in ancient wheats when compared to modern varieties.

  5. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat.

  6. Efficacy of plant extracts in controlling wheat leaf rust disease caused by Puccinia triticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Shabana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of eight plant extracts (garlic, clove, garden quinine, Brazilian pepper, anthi mandhaari, black cumin, white cedar and neem in controlling leaf rust disease of wheat was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, all treatments inhibited spore germination by more than 93%. Neem extract recorded 98.99% inhibition of spore germination with no significant difference from the fungicide Sumi-8 (100%. Under greenhouse conditions, seed soaking application in neem extract (at concentration of 2 ml/L resulted in 36.82% reduction in the number of pustules/leaf compared with the untreated control. Foliar spraying of plant extracts on wheat seedlings decreased the number of pustules/leaf. Foliar spraying of plant extracts four days after inoculation led to the highest resistance response of wheat plants against leaf rust pathogen. Spray application of wheat seedlings with neem, clove and garden quinine extracts, four days after inoculation with leaf rust pathogen completely prevented rust development (100% disease control and was comparable with the fungicide Sumi-8. Foliar spray application of wheat plants at mature stage with all plant extracts has significantly reduced the leaf rust infection (average coefficient of infection, ACI compared with the untreated control and neem was the most effective treatment. This was reflected on grain yield components, whereas the 1000-kernel weight and the test weight were improved whether under one- or two-spray applications, with two-spray application being more effective in this regard. Thus, it could be concluded that plant extracts may be useful to control leaf rust disease in Egypt as a safe alternative option to chemical fungicides.

  7. Disease Impact on Wheat Yield Potential and Prospects of Genetic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravi P.; Singh, Pawan K.; Rutkoski, Jessica;

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown worldwide in diverse geographical regions, environments, and production systems. Although many diseases and pests are known to reduce grain yield potential and quality, the three rusts and powdery mildew fungi have historically caused major crop losses and continue to remain...... and Bangladesh) have become diseases of major importance in recent years largely because of intensive production systems, the expansion of conservation agriculture, undesirable crop rotations, or increased dependency on fungicides. High genetic diversity for race-specific and quantitative resistance is known...... economically important despite the widespread use of host resistance and fungicides. The evolution and fast spread of virulent and more aggressive race lineages of rust fungi have only worsened the situation. Fusarium head blight, leaf spotting diseases, and, more recently, wheat blast (in South America...

  8. Take-all of Wheat and Natural Disease Suppression: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youn-Sig; Weller, David M

    2013-06-01

    In agro-ecosystems worldwide, some of the most important and devastating diseases are caused by soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogens, against which crop plants generally lack genetic resistance. However, plants have evolved approaches to protect themselves against pathogens by stimulating and supporting specific groups of beneficial microorganisms that have the ability to protect either by direct inhibition of the pathogen or by inducing resistance mechanisms in the plant. One of the best examples of protection of plant roots by antagonistic microbes occurs in soils that are suppressive to take-all disease of wheat. Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most economically important root disease of wheat worldwide. Take-all decline (TAD) is the spontaneous decline in incidence and severity of disease after a severe outbreak of take-all during continuous wheat or barley monoculture. TAD occurs worldwide, and in the United States and The Netherlands it results from a build-up of populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. during wheat monoculture. The antibiotic 2,4-DAPG has a broad spectrum of activity and is especially active against the take-all pathogen. Based on genotype analysis by repetitive sequence-based-PCR analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism of phlD, a key 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis gene, at least 22 genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been described worldwide. In this review, we provide an overview of G. graminis var. tritici, the take-all disease, Pseudomonas biocontrol agents, and mechanism of disease suppression.

  9. Take-all of Wheat and Natural Disease Suppression: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Sig Kwak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In agro-ecosystems worldwide, some of the most important and devastating diseases are caused by soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogens, against which crop plants generally lack genetic resistance. However, plants have evolved approaches to protect themselves against pathogens by stimulating and supporting specific groups of beneficial microorganisms that have the ability to protect either by direct inhibition of the pathogen or by inducing resistance mechanisms in the plant. One of the best examples of protection of plant roots by antagonistic microbes occurs in soils that are suppressive to take-all disease of wheat. Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most economically important root disease of wheat worldwide. Take-all decline (TAD is the spontaneous decline in incidence and severity of disease after a severe outbreak of take-all during continuous wheat or barley monoculture. TAD occurs worldwide, and in the United States and The Netherlands it results from a build-up of populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. during wheat monoculture. The antibiotic 2,4-DAPG has a broad spectrum of activity and is especially active against the take-all pathogen. Based on genotype analysis by repetitive sequence-based-PCR analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism of phlD, a key 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis gene, at least 22 genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been described worldwide. In this review, we provide an overview of G. graminis var. tritici, the take-all disease, Pseudomonas biocontrol agents, and mechanism of disease suppression.

  10. Intestinal cell damage and systemic immune activation in individuals reporting sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Melanie; Ajamian, Mary; Caio, Giacomo; De Giorgio, Roberto; Indart, Alyssa; Green, Peter H; Verna, Elizabeth C; Volta, Umberto; Alaedini, Armin

    2016-12-01

    Wheat gluten and related proteins can trigger an autoimmune enteropathy, known as coeliac disease, in people with genetic susceptibility. However, some individuals experience a range of symptoms in response to wheat ingestion, without the characteristic serological or histological evidence of coeliac disease. The aetiology and mechanism of these symptoms are unknown, and no biomarkers have been identified. We aimed to determine if sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease is associated with systemic immune activation that may be linked to an enteropathy. Study participants included individuals who reported symptoms in response to wheat intake and in whom coeliac disease and wheat allergy were ruled out, patients with coeliac disease and healthy controls. Sera were analysed for markers of intestinal cell damage and systemic immune response to microbial components. Individuals with wheat sensitivity had significantly increased serum levels of soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein, as well as antibody reactivity to bacterial LPS and flagellin. Circulating levels of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2), a marker of intestinal epithelial cell damage, were significantly elevated in the affected individuals and correlated with the immune responses to microbial products. There was a significant change towards normalisation of the levels of FABP2 and immune activation markers in a subgroup of individuals with wheat sensitivity who observed a diet excluding wheat and related cereals. These findings reveal a state of systemic immune activation in conjunction with a compromised intestinal epithelium affecting a subset of individuals who experience sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Intestinal cell damage and systemic immune activation in individuals reporting sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Melanie; Ajamian, Mary; Caio, Giacomo; De Giorgio, Roberto; Indart, Alyssa; Green, Peter H; Verna, Elizabeth C; Volta, Umberto; Alaedini, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Wheat gluten and related proteins can trigger an autoimmune enteropathy, known as coeliac disease, in people with genetic susceptibility. However, some individuals experience a range of symptoms in response to wheat ingestion, without the characteristic serological or histological evidence of coeliac disease. The aetiology and mechanism of these symptoms are unknown, and no biomarkers have been identified. We aimed to determine if sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease is associated with systemic immune activation that may be linked to an enteropathy. Design Study participants included individuals who reported symptoms in response to wheat intake and in whom coeliac disease and wheat allergy were ruled out, patients with coeliac disease and healthy controls. Sera were analysed for markers of intestinal cell damage and systemic immune response to microbial components. Results Individuals with wheat sensitivity had significantly increased serum levels of soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein, as well as antibody reactivity to bacterial LPS and flagellin. Circulating levels of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2), a marker of intestinal epithelial cell damage, were significantly elevated in the affected individuals and correlated with the immune responses to microbial products. There was a significant change towards normalisation of the levels of FABP2 and immune activation markers in a subgroup of individuals with wheat sensitivity who observed a diet excluding wheat and related cereals. Conclusions These findings reveal a state of systemic immune activation in conjunction with a compromised intestinal epithelium affecting a subset of individuals who experience sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease. PMID:27459152

  12. Identification of fungal diseases associated with imported wheat in Iranian silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovvat, S M; Zakeri, Z

    2003-01-01

    In this study, imported wheat varieties used for cookies and bread making were evaluated for the presence of fungal diseases in the silos. Grain samples were taken and cultured on nutrient agar medium and sterile papers impregnated with nutrient. The results showed the presence of pathogenic fungi such as Ulocladium sp., Cladosporium sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium sp. and Trichothecium sp. in varieties from Australian, Mucor sp., R. nigricans, Fusarium sp., A. triticum, Helminthosporium sp. and Penicillium sp. from Argentina, Alternaria sp., Ulocladium sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor mucedo, R. nigricans, Fusorium sp., Curvularia triticola, U. clamydosporium and C. tritici from Kazakistan varieties stored in Karaj silos or unloading trains. It is noteworthy to mention that Fusarium sp., Helminthosporium sp., Alternaria sp., A. tritici, A. triticola and U. clamydosporium are phytopathogenic fungi that often cause serious diseases on crops, produce lots of spores that are widely disseminated across the field and grow and reproduce in plant residues and diseased or wounded plant tissues and mature grains particularly under moist conditions. If in case, farmers try to use contaminated wheat grains that are distributed among them for flour, for cultivation purposes, it is highly probable that new fungal strains and species will be introduced in the areas where wheat production has never been threatened before. Fungal disease such as Indian smut or rusts is not native to Iran but are considered quarantine diseases. In addition, high incidence of contamination due to the presence of mycotoxins produced by Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. in foreign wheat cultivars, could result in serious toxicity and illness in humans and birds.

  13. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroki; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  14. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Nakano

    Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  15. Celiac disease, wheat allergy, and gluten sensitivity: when gluten free is not a fad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzak, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the gluten-free diet (GFD) gains in popularity with the general public, health practitioners are beginning to question its real health benefits. For those patients with celiac disease (CD), the GFD is considered medical nutrition therapy, as well as the only proven treatment that results in improvements in symptomatology and small bowel histology. Those with wheat allergy also benefit from the GFD, although these patients often do not need to restrict rye, barley, and oats from their diet. Gluten sensitivity is a controversial subject, where patients who have neither CD nor wheat allergy have varying degrees of symptomatic improvement on the GFD. Conditions in this category include dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and neurologic diseases such as gluten-sensitive ataxia and autism. It is important for patients and healthcare practitioners to understand the differences between these conditions, even though they may all respond to a GFD. Patients with CD can experience comorbid nutrition deficiencies and are at higher risk for the development of cancers and other autoimmune conditions. Those with wheat allergy and gluten sensitivity are thought not to be at higher risk for these complications. Defining the symptoms and biochemical markers for gluten-sensitive conditions is an important area for future investigations, and high-quality, large-scale randomized trials are needed to prove the true benefits of the GFD in this evolving field.

  16. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

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    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  17. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

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    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of complex wheat gliadins, the dominant carriers of celiac disease epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Da; Wang, Junjun; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhaojun; Yue, Guidong; Liu, Xin; Qin, Huanju; Zhang, Kunpu; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Daowen

    2017-03-16

    Gliadins, specified by six compound chromosomal loci (Gli-A1/B1/D1 and Gli-A2/B2/D2) in hexaploid bread wheat, are the dominant carriers of celiac disease (CD) epitopes. Because of their complexity, genome-wide characterization of gliadins is a strong challenge. Here, we approached this challenge by combining transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic investigations. Through third-generation RNA sequencing, full-length transcripts were identified for 52 gliadin genes in the bread wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 81. Of them, 42 were active and predicted to encode 25 α-, 11 γ-, one δ- and five ω-gliadins. Comparative proteomic analysis between Xiaoyan 81 and six newly-developed mutants each lacking one Gli locus indicated the accumulation of 38 gliadins in the mature grains. A novel group of α-gliadins (the CSTT group) was recognized to contain very few or no CD epitopes. The δ-gliadins identified here or previously did not carry CD epitopes. Finally, the mutant lacking Gli-D2 showed significant reductions in the most celiac-toxic α-gliadins and derivative CD epitopes. The insights and resources generated here should aid further studies on gliadin functions in CD and the breeding of healthier wheat.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of complex wheat gliadins, the dominant carriers of celiac disease epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Da; Wang, Junjun; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhaojun; Yue, Guidong; Liu, Xin; Qin, Huanju; Zhang, Kunpu; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Daowen

    2017-01-01

    Gliadins, specified by six compound chromosomal loci (Gli-A1/B1/D1 and Gli-A2/B2/D2) in hexaploid bread wheat, are the dominant carriers of celiac disease (CD) epitopes. Because of their complexity, genome-wide characterization of gliadins is a strong challenge. Here, we approached this challenge by combining transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic investigations. Through third-generation RNA sequencing, full-length transcripts were identified for 52 gliadin genes in the bread wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 81. Of them, 42 were active and predicted to encode 25 α-, 11 γ-, one δ- and five ω-gliadins. Comparative proteomic analysis between Xiaoyan 81 and six newly-developed mutants each lacking one Gli locus indicated the accumulation of 38 gliadins in the mature grains. A novel group of α-gliadins (the CSTT group) was recognized to contain very few or no CD epitopes. The δ-gliadins identified here or previously did not carry CD epitopes. Finally, the mutant lacking Gli-D2 showed significant reductions in the most celiac-toxic α-gliadins and derivative CD epitopes. The insights and resources generated here should aid further studies on gliadin functions in CD and the breeding of healthier wheat. PMID:28300172

  20. Virus disease in wheat predicted to increase with a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Nancarrow, Narelle; Cole, Ellen; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Constable, Fiona E; Freeman, Angela J; Rodoni, Brendan; Yen, Alan L; Luck, Jo E; Fitzgerald, Glenn J

    2015-09-01

    Current atmospheric CO2 levels are about 400 μmol mol(-1) and are predicted to rise to 650 μmol mol(-1) later this century. Although the positive and negative impacts of CO2 on plants are well documented, little is known about interactions with pests and diseases. If disease severity increases under future environmental conditions, then it becomes imperative to understand the impacts of pathogens on crop production in order to minimize crop losses and maximize food production. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) adversely affects the yield and quality of economically important crops including wheat, barley and oats. It is transmitted by numerous aphid species and causes a serious disease of cereal crops worldwide. This study examined the effects of ambient (aCO2 ; 400 μmol mol(-1) ) and elevated CO2 (eCO2 ; 650 μmol mol(-1) ) on noninfected and BYDV-infected wheat. Using a RT-qPCR technique, we measured virus titre from aCO2 and eCO2 treatments. BYDV titre increased significantly by 36.8% in leaves of wheat grown under eCO2 conditions compared to aCO2 . Plant growth parameters including height, tiller number, leaf area and biomass were generally higher in plants exposed to higher CO2 levels but increased growth did not explain the increase in BYDV titre in these plants. High virus titre in plants has been shown to have a significant negative effect on plant yield and causes earlier and more pronounced symptom expression increasing the probability of virus spread by insects. The combination of these factors could negatively impact food production in Australia and worldwide under future climate conditions. This is the first quantitative evidence that BYDV titre increases in plants grown under elevated CO2 levels. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The evaluation of winter wheat roots and leaf sheath diseases diagnostic methods

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    Ewa Solarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The maltose and mineral media for isolation of Gaeumannomyces graminis from roots were assessed. The differences in numbers of obtained isolates were found depending on the medium used and sampling date. Easier identification of pathogen was possible employing maltose medium. The fungi from genus Fusarium occurring on winter wheat leaf sheaths were identified by mycological analysis and PCR, while the fungus Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides was detected by PCR and ELISA methods. PCR and ELISA methods enabled to detect pathogens also in periods before the disease symptoms on plants occurred.

  2. Development of a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species for improvement of wheat for activity against chronic diseases

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    Santra Meenakshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species as a resource for the identification and characterization of wheat lines with preventive activity against chronic diseases. Given that cancer is the leading cause of mortality in the world and shares risk factors with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and given that wheat has been reported to protect against these diseases, the core collection was developed based on cancer prevalence. Methods The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database was used to identify Triticum and Aegilops species grown in regions of the world that vary in cancer prevalence based on the International Agency for Cancer Research GLOBOCAN world map of cancer statistics (2008. Cancer incidence data drove variety selection with secondary consideration of ploidy, center of origin, and climate. Results Analysis indicated that the geographic regions from which wheat is considered to have originated have a lower incidence of cancer than other geographic regions (P Conclusions A diverse core collection of wheat germplasm has been established from a range of regions worldwide. This core collection will be used to identify wheat lines with activity against chronic diseases using anticancer activity as a screening tool.

  3. The Role of Peroxidase Isozymes in Resistance to Wheat Stem Rust Disease 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, P. M.; Daly, J. M.; Catedral, F. F.

    1971-01-01

    In common with other disease situations, rust-resistant wheat leaves show a large increase in peroxidase activity during infection. Peroxidase isozymes from healthy or infected lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) near isogenic for resistance and susceptibility to race 56 of Puccinia graminis tritici were separated by gel electrophoresis and the activity of each was estimated by photometric scanning. In order to ensure that the activity of isozymes observed on gels reflected the changes found in peroxidase enzymes assayed spectrophotometrically in extracts, a study was made of extraction procedures, substrates, and reaction conditions for both types of enzyme measurements. Of the 14 isozymes detected in both healthy and infected leaves, increases in only 1 (isozyme 9) were associated consistently with the development of resistant disease reaction at 20 C. Additional evidence was obtained to show that this isozyme can account for the increased peroxidase activity observed in extracts from resistant plants. When plants with high induced peroxidase activity due to resistance at 20 C were treated with ethylene or transferred to 25 C, they reverted to complete susceptibility. However, the disease-induced activity of isozyme 9 did not fall. The data suggest that, in this case, the association of peroxidase with resistance was a consequence of, not a determinant in, resistance. PMID:16657797

  4. The role of peroxidase isozymes in resistance to wheat stem rust disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, P M; Daly, J M; Catedral, F F

    1971-09-01

    In common with other disease situations, rust-resistant wheat leaves show a large increase in peroxidase activity during infection. Peroxidase isozymes from healthy or infected lines of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) near isogenic for resistance and susceptibility to race 56 of Puccinia graminis tritici were separated by gel electrophoresis and the activity of each was estimated by photometric scanning. In order to ensure that the activity of isozymes observed on gels reflected the changes found in peroxidase enzymes assayed spectrophotometrically in extracts, a study was made of extraction procedures, substrates, and reaction conditions for both types of enzyme measurements. Of the 14 isozymes detected in both healthy and infected leaves, increases in only 1 (isozyme 9) were associated consistently with the development of resistant disease reaction at 20 C. Additional evidence was obtained to show that this isozyme can account for the increased peroxidase activity observed in extracts from resistant plants. When plants with high induced peroxidase activity due to resistance at 20 C were treated with ethylene or transferred to 25 C, they reverted to complete susceptibility. However, the disease-induced activity of isozyme 9 did not fall. The data suggest that, in this case, the association of peroxidase with resistance was a consequence of, not a determinant in, resistance.

  5. Coeliac disease: a unique model for investigating broken tolerance in autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A

    2016-11-01

    Coeliac disease, a prevalent immune-mediated enteropathy driven by dietary gluten, provides an exceptional human model to dissect the genetic, environmental and immunologic factors operating in autoimmunity. Despite the causative antigen being an exogenous food protein, coeliac disease has many features in common with autoimmune disease including a strong HLA class II association and the presence of pathogenic CD4(+) T cells and autoantibodies. CD8(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes specifically target and destroy intestinal epithelium in response to stress signals and not a specific antigen. A unique feature of coeliac disease is the ability to remove gluten to induce disease remission and reintroduce it to trigger a memory response. This provides an unparalleled opportunity to study disease-relevant CD4(+) T cells that have been expanded in vivo. As a result, the causative peptides have been characterised at a level unprecedented for any autoimmune disease. Despite the complexity of the gluten proteome, resistance to gastrointestinal proteolysis and susceptibility to post-translational modification by transglutaminase help shape a restricted repertoire of immunogenic gluten peptides that have high affinity for disease-associated HLA. The critical steps in coeliac disease pathogenesis have been broadly elucidated and provide the basis for experimental therapies in pre-clinical or clinical development. However, little is known about how and why tolerance to gluten sometimes breaks or fails to develop. Understanding the interactions between genes, the environment, gluten immunity and the microbiome may provide novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of disease.

  6. Developing Two Spectral Disease Indices for Detection of Wheat Leaf Rust (Pucciniatriticina

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    Davoud Ashourloo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spectral vegetation indices (SVIs have been widely used to detect different plant diseases. Wheat leaf rust manifests itself as an early symptom with the leaves turning yellow and orange. The sign of advancing disease is the leaf colour changing to brown while the final symptom is when the leaf becomes dry. The goal of this work is to develop spectral disease indices for the detection of leaf rust. The reflectance spectra of the wheat’s infected and non-infected leaves at different disease stages were collected using a spectroradiometer. As ground truth, the ratio of the disease-affected area to the total leaf area and the fractions of the different symptoms were extracted using an RGB digital camera. Fractions of the various disease symptoms extracted by the digital camera and the measured reflectance spectra of the infected leaves were used as input to the spectral mixture analysis (SMA. Then, the spectral reflectance of the different disease symptoms were estimated using SMA and the least squares method. The reflectance of different disease symptoms in the 450~1000 nm were studied carefully using the Fisher function. Two spectral disease indices were developed based on the reflectance at the 605, 695 and 455 nm wavelengths. In both indices, the R2 between the estimated and the observed was as highas 0.94.

  7. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.

    2016-01-01

    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  8. Fungicides efficiency on wheat diseases control in response to the application with different spray nozzles

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides to leaf control diseases of wheat, when applied to different models of spray nozzles. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of factorial (4 x 3+1. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungicides used were: Opera® (pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole 0.75 L.ha-1 , Opera® 0.75 L.ha-1 +Folicur® (tebuconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® (azoxystrobin+cyproconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® 0.3 L.ha-1 +Tilt® (propiconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 . These fungicides were applied with three models of spray nozzles jet planes: XR 11 001 (fine drop, AIRMIX 11,001 (average drop and AVI 11,001 (coarse drop. We evaluated the incidence and severity (damage per plant leaf of yellow spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis, spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and grain yield (kg.ha-1 culture. The results show that the application of fungicides for control of leaf diseases in wheat resulted in increases in grain yield, and yield higher values were observed with the application of Opera®, using the XR 11001.

  9. Mapping of resistance to spot blotch disease caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Uttam; Joshi, Arun K; Kumar, Sundeep; Chand, Ramesh; Röder, Marion S

    2009-02-01

    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. The development of disease resistant cultivars is considered as the most effective control strategy for spot blotch. An intervarietal mapping population in the form of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from a cross 'Yangmai 6' (a Chinese source of resistance) x 'Sonalika' (a spot blotch susceptible cultivar). The 139 single seed descent (SSD) derived F(6), F(7), F(8) lines of 'Yangmai 6' x 'Sonalika' were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of the 3 years. Joint and/or single year analysis by composite interval mapping (CIM) and likelihood of odd ratio (LOD) >2.2, identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the chromosomes 2AL, 2BS, 5BL and 6DL. These QTLs were designated as QSb.bhu-2A, QSb.bhu-2B, QSb.bhu-5B and QSb.bhu-6D, respectively. A total of 63.10% of phenotypic variation was explained by these QTLs based on the mean over years. Two QTLs on chromosomes 2B and 5B with major effects were consistent over 3 years. All QTL alleles for resistance were derived from the resistant parent 'Yangmai 6'.

  10. Autoimmune Hepatitis as a Unique Form of an Autoimmune Liver Disease: Immunological Aspects and Clinical Overview

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    Hind I. Fallatah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a unique form of immune-mediated disease that attacks the liver through a variety of immune mechanisms. The outcomes of AIH are either acute liver disease, which can be fatal, or, more commonly, chronic progressive liver disease, which can lead to decompensated liver cirrhosis if left untreated. AIH has characteristic immunological, and pathological, features that are important for the establishment of the diagnosis. More importantly, most patients with AIH have a favorable response to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine, although some patients with refractory AIH or more aggressive disease require more potent immune-suppressant agents, such as cyclosporine or Mycophenolate Mofetil. In this paper, we discuss the immunological, pathological and clinical features of AIH, as well as the standard and alternative treatments for AIH.

  11. [The Dead Sea--a unique resort for patients suffering from joint diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, Shaul; Flusser, Daniel; Codish, Shlomi; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud

    2010-03-01

    The Dead Sea area is an excellent and unique resort for patients suffering from a wide range of inflammatory and non-inflammatory joint diseases. Factors contributing to the beneficial effect are the high concentration of salts and minerals in the Dead Sea water and in the water from springs in the area, medical mud, and the unique climatic conditions including high barometric pressure, relative low humidity and high temperatures. This review describes the various balneotherapy modalities and the existing body of research describing their utility. Balneotherapy significantly improves most patients' conditions and in some cases leads to complete remission of several months duration. Although of importance, balneotherapy is not curative. An important advantage of balneotherapy is the lack of serious adverse effects, and, in contrast to some physicians' beliefs, the scarcity of contraindications for therapy at the Dead Sea area.

  12. Effect of Early Foliar Disease Control on Wheat Scab Severity (Fusarium graminearum in Argentina

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    Jorge David Mantecón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat scab is common in Argentina mainly durum wheat and some bread varieties. The epidemics occur every 5 to 7 years. During the 2007, 2008, and 2009 growing seasons, three trials were conducted at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station. Each plot had six rows of 5 m long, spaced 0.15 m apart and was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Trifloxystrobin plus cyproconazole was sprayed at Z3.1 stage. Treatments were sprayed at Z6.1 stage with tebuconazole, prochloraz, and metconazole to improve scab control. Artificial inoculations were made in Z6.1. Severity of Septoria leaf bloth and leaf rust was assessed in boot stage (Z3.9. Scab severity was rated at early dough stage (Z8.3. Yields were recorded each year. Fungicide only applied at Z3.1 stage did not reduce field scab severity but reduced the seeds infection and increased the yields. Early fungicide spray produced yield increase at about 22% and a decrease in seed infection of up to 40%. Yields increased in a 55.3% and in a 19.6% when compared with the inoculated and not inoculated check, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar disease control on scab, crop yield, and seed health.

  13. Transamidation of wheat flour inhibits the response to gliadin of intestinal T cells in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrani, Carmen; Siciliano, Rosa A; Facchiano, Angelo M; Camarca, Alessandra; Mazzeo, Maria F; Costantini, Susan; Salvati, Virginia M; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Bergamo, Paolo; Rossi, Mauro

    2007-09-01

    Celiac disease is characterized by activation of HLA-DQ2/DQ8-restricted intestinal gluten-specific CD4(+) T cells. In particular, gluten becomes a better T-cell antigen following deamidation catalyzed by tissue transglutaminase. To date, the only available therapy is represented by adherence to a gluten-free diet. Here, we examined a new enzyme strategy to preventively abolish gluten activity. Enzyme modifications of the immunodominant alpha-gliadin peptide p56-68 were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and peptide binding to HLA-DQ2 was simulated by modeling studies. Wheat flour was treated with microbial transglutaminase and lysine methyl ester; gliadin was subsequently extracted, digested, and deamidated. Gliadin-specific intestinal T-cell lines (iTCLs) were generated from biopsy specimens from 12 adult patients with celiac disease and challenged in vitro with different antigen preparations. Tissue transglutaminase-mediated transamidation with lysine or lysine methyl ester of p56-68 or gliadin in alkaline conditions inhibited the interferon gamma expression in iTCLs; also, binding to DQ2 was reduced but not abolished, as suggested by in silico analysis. Lysine methyl ester was particularly effective in abrogating the activity of gliadin. Notably, a block in the response was observed when iTCLs were challenged with gliadin extracted from flour pretreated with microbial transglutaminase and lysine methyl ester. Transamidation of wheat flour with a food-grade enzyme and an appropriate amine donor can be used to block the T cell-mediated gliadin activity. Considering the crucial role of adaptive immunity in celiac disease, our findings highlight the potential of the proposed treatment to prevent cereal toxicity.

  14. Identification, Characterization and Full-Length Sequence Analysis of a Novel Polerovirus Associated with Wheat Leaf Yellowing Disease

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    Peipei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify the pathogens responsible for leaf yellowing symptoms on wheat samples collected from Jinan, China, we tested for the presence of three known barley/wheat yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV-GAV, -PAV, WYDV-GPV (most likely pathogens using RT-PCR. A sample that tested negative for the three viruses was selected for small RNA sequencing. Twenty-five million sequences were generated, among which 5% were of viral origin. A novel polerovirus was discovered and temporarily named wheat leaf yellowing-associated virus (WLYaV. The full genome of WLYaV corresponds to 5,772 nucleotides (nt, with six AUG-initiated open reading frames, one non-AUG-initiated open reading frame, and three untranslated regions, showing typical features of the family Luteoviridae. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses suggested that WLYaV had the closest relationship with sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV, but the identities of full genomic nucleotides and deduced amino acid sequence of coat protein (CP were 64.9 and 86.2%, respectively, below the species demarcation thresholds (90% in the family Luteoviridae. Furthermore, agroinoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with a cDNA clone of WLYaV caused yellowing symptoms on the plant. Our study adds a new polerovirus that is associated with wheat leaf yellowing disease, which would help to identify and control pathogens of wheat.

  15. The ectopic expression of a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor increases pectin methyl esterification and limits fungal diseases in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Janni, Michela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2011-09-01

    Cell wall pectin methyl esterification can influence plant resistance because highly methyl-esterified pectin can be less susceptible to the hydrolysis by pectic enzymes such as fungal endopolygalacturonases (PG). Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl-esterified form and, here, is de-methyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME). The activity of PME is controlled by specific protein inhibitors called PMEI; consequently, an increased inhibition of PME by PMEI might modify the pectin methyl esterification. In order to test the possibility of improving wheat resistance by modifying the methyl esterification of pectin cell wall, we have produced durum wheat transgenic lines expressing the PMEI from Actinidia chinensis (AcPMEI). The expression of AcPMEI endows wheat with a reduced endogenous PME activity, and transgenic lines expressing a high level of the inhibitor showed a significant increase in the degree of methyl esterification. These lines showed a significant reduction of disease symptoms caused by the fungal pathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana or Fusarium graminearum. This increased resistance was related to the impaired ability of these fungal pathogens to grow on methyl-esterified pectin and to a reduced activity of the fungal PG to hydrolyze methyl-esterified pectin. In addition to their importance for wheat improvement, these results highlight the primary role of pectin despite its low content in the wheat cell wall.

  16. Dough quality of bread wheat lacking ¿-gliadins with celiac disease epitopes and addition of celiac-safe avenins to improve dough quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Meer, van der I.M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated immune response in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals caused by ingested gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. In the allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on the homoeol

  17. Unique inflammatory RNA profiles of microglia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher A.; Manuelidis, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) have shown that myeloid cells in the periphery as well as derivative microglial cells in the brain are infectious. Microglia can show an activated phenotype before prion protein (PrP) pathology is detectable in brain, and isolated infectious microglia contain very little PrP. To find whether a set of inflammatory genes are significantly induced or suppressed with infection, we analyzed RNA from isolated microglia with relevant cDNA arrays, and identified 30 transcripts not previously examined in any transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. This CJD expression profile contrasted with that of uninfected microglia exposed to prototypic inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide and IFN-, as well as PrP amyloid. These findings underscore inflammatory pathways evoked by the infectious agent in brain. Transcript profiles unique for CJD microglia and other myeloid cells provide opportunities for more sensitive preclinical diagnoses of infectious and noninfectious neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. A Unique Opportunity for an Intercultural Discussion on CAM and Liver Disease

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    Francesco Marotta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of the APASL, Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, was held in December 2004, in New Delhi, India. The meeting was held under the patronage of the APASL Committee and Board of Presidents of the National Liver Association and in conjunction with the annual conference of the Indian Association for the Study of Liver (INASL. The congress was designed to have a core meeting with three parallel sessions running throughout, dedicated research workshops and intensive breakfast sessions. This report concentrates on the two sessions devoted to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and shows the latest research in CAM for liver disease and the concerns of doctors about integrating CAM with more traditional treatments. With researchers and practitioners gathering from all over the world, it was a unique opportunity for an intercultural discussion on CAM and liver disease.

  19. Postmortem diagnosis of Fabry disease with acromegaly and a unique vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Masaki; Mori, Taisuke; Orikasa, Hideki; Oh, Haengphil; Suzuki, Kinuko; Koto, Atsuo; Yamazaki, Kazuto

    2007-09-01

    A 44-year-old Japanese man with elevated growth hormone levels and gradual deterioration of mental and renal function was admitted to the hospital. With his deteriorated general condition and renal failure, the patient developed pulmonary thromboembolism and died of respiratory failure. Autopsy examination was conducted, which revealed abnormal accumulation or intracytoplasmic storage of lipid-rich material in the small blood vessels, kidney, heart, and nervous system. After postmortem pathologic studies, including light-microscopic histochemistry, electron microscopy, and biochemical analysis of the stored lipid contents, a final diagnosis of Fabry disease was made. Histopathologic examination revealed a unique vasculopathy characterized by the presence of abnormal intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions and vascular remodeling. With regard to the clinical presentation of acromegaly, hyperplasia but not adenomatous transformation of the acidophils of the anterior pituitary gland with immunohistochemical detection of growth hormone within the cells was noted. In this case, the complication of acromegaly with hyperplasia of the acidophilic cells of the anterior pituitary gland and the unique vasculopathy causing significant organ failure, mainly of the kidney, heart, and central nervous systems, possibly as a result of microcirculatory failure, are considered to be not incidental findings but to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of Farby disease.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Disease Stratified Human Pancreas Tissue Indicates Unique Signature of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tanya C; Morris, Margaret A; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Pugliese, Alberto; Nadler, Jerry L; Nyalwidhe, Julius O

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with functional beta cell loss due to ongoing inflammation. Despite shared similarities, T1D is an autoimmune disease with evidence of autoantibody production, as well as a role for exocrine pancreas involvement. Our hypothesis is that differential protein expression occurs in disease stratified pancreas tissues and regulated proteins from endocrine and exocrine tissues are potential markers of disease and potential therapeutic targets. The study objective was to identify novel proteins that distinguish the pancreas from donors with T1D from the pancreas from patients with T2D, or autoantibody positive non-diabetic donors. Detailed quantitative comprehensive proteomic analysis was applied to snap frozen human pancreatic tissue lysates from organ donors without diabetes, with T1D-associated autoantibodies in the absence of diabetes, with T1D, or with T2D. These disease-stratified human pancreas tissues contain exocrine and endocrine tissues (with dysfunctional islets) in the same microenvironment. The expression profiles of several of the proteins were further verified by western blot. We identified protein panels that are significantly and uniquely upregulated in the three disease-stratified pancreas tissues compared to non-disease control tissues. These proteins are involved in inflammation, metabolic regulation, and autoimmunity, all of which are pathways linked to, and likely involved in, T1 and T2 diabetes pathogenesis. Several new proteins were differentially upregulated in prediabetic, T1D, and T2D pancreas. The results identify proteins that could serve as novel prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic tools to preserve functional islet mass in Type 1 Diabetes.

  1. Evidence of unique genotypes of beak and feather disease virus in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Livio; Martin, Darren P; Warburton, Louise; Perrin, Mike; Horsfield, William; Kingsley, Chris; Rybicki, Edward P; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2004-09-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), caused by Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), is the most significant infectious disease in psittacines. PBFD is thought to have originated in Australia but is now found worldwide; in Africa, it threatens the survival of the indigenous endangered Cape parrot and the vulnerable black-cheeked lovebird. We investigated the genetic diversity of putative BFDVs from southern Africa. Feathers and heparinized blood samples were collected from 27 birds representing 9 psittacine species, all showing clinical signs of PBFD. DNA extracted from these samples was used for PCR amplification of the putative BFDV coat protein (CP) gene. The nucleotide sequences of the CP genes of 19 unique BFDV isolates were determined and compared with the 24 previously described sequences of BFDV isolates from Australasia and America. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight BFDV lineages, with the southern African isolates representing at least three distinctly unique genotypes; 10 complete genome sequences were determined, representing at least one of every distinct lineage. The nucleotide diversity of the southern African isolates was calculated to be 6.4% and is comparable to that found in Australia and New Zealand. BFDVs in southern Africa have, however, diverged substantially from viruses found in other parts of the world, as the average distance between the southern African isolates and BFDV isolates from Australia ranged from 8.3 to 10.8%. In addition to point mutations, recombination was found to contribute substantially to the level of genetic variation among BFDVs, with evidence of recombination in all but one of the genomes analyzed.

  2. Progress of foliar diseases in wheat crops at Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the progress of the yellow spot, brown spot and leaf rust in wheat cultivar FUNDACEP 50 in Passo Fundo. Was evaluated the incidence of yellow spot [Drechslera tritici-repentis (Died Drechs.] brown spot [Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.] and leaf rust [Puccinia triticina (Eriks]. Values obtained were integralized as Area Under the Disease Incidence Progress Curve (AUDIPC and to analyze the progress of the disease was considered the disease progress rate (r, which was obtained with the Logistic and Gompertz. Determination coefficients were high (0.93 to 0.98, as well as the mean square error (4.0706 to 7.6831. The r were 0.02 to 0.22 units, while the accumulated AUDIPC 787.5, 1216.3 and 1338.8 units for yellow spot, brown spot and leaf rust, respectively. The two models used satisfactorily explain the progress of yellow spot and brown spot, while the Gompertz explains better leaf rust.

  3. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  4. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  5. Coeliac disease: a diverse clinical syndrome caused by intolerance of wheat, barley and rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Norma; Cummings, John H

    2005-11-01

    Coeliac disease is a lifelong intolerance to the gluten found in wheat, barley and rye, and some patients are also sensitive to oats. The disease is genetically determined, with 10% of the first-degree relatives affected and 75% of monozygotic twins being concordant. Of the patients with coeliac disease 95% are human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 positive. Characteristically, the jejunal mucosa becomes damaged by a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response that is thought to be initiated by a 33-mer peptide fragment in A2 gliadin, and patients with this disorder have raised levels of anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in their blood. Coeliac disease is the major diagnosable food intolerance and, with the advent of a simple blood test for case finding, prevalence rates are thought to be approximately 1:100. Classically, the condition presented with malabsorption and failure to thrive in infancy, but this picture has now been overtaken by the much more common presentation in adults, usually with non-specific symptoms such as tiredness and anaemia, disturbance in bowel habit or following low-impact bone fractures. Small intestinal biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and shows a characteristically flat appearance with crypt hypoplasia and infiltration of the epithelium with lymphocytes. Diet is the key to management and a gluten-free diet effectively cures the condition. However, this commitment is lifelong and many aisles in the supermarket are effectively closed to individuals with coeliac disease. Compliance can be monitored by measuring antibodies in blood, which revert to negative after 6-9 months. Patients with minor symptoms, who are found incidentally to have coeliac disease, often ask whether it is necessary to adhere to the diet. Current advice is that dietary adherence is necessary to avoid the long-term complications, which are, principally, osteoporosis and small bowel lymphoma. However, risk of these complications diminishes very

  6. In situ follicular neoplasia/lymphoma: Three illustrative cases exemplifying unique disease presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sakhadeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three elderly patients with follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS each highlighting a unique pattern of disease presentation and progression. The first patient had incidentally detected FLIS with peripheral blood spill and yet had an 11-year uneventful follow up. The second patient with an overt follicular lymphoma (FL developed high-grade transformation in jejunum with FLIS extensively involving the Payers patches. The third patient had a FLIS but that qualified as higher grade and was treated in spite of lack of overt FL mainly because of higher grade and patient subsequently did develop overt FL. The first case of typical FLIS confirms that peripheral blood spill does not connote poor prognosis in FLIS, the second case illustrates that FLIS may colonize mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue as part of homing in process of a disseminated FL and the third case validates the aggressive nature of high-grade FLIS.

  7. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities.

  8. MORTALITY FROM DIABETES MELLITUS (TYPE 2) AND ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE IN FOUR U.S. WHEAT-PRODUCING STATES: A HYPOTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this ecologic study we examined ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetes mortality in rural agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, in association with environmental exposure to chlorophenoxy herbicides, using wheat acreage as a surrogate ...

  9. Genetic diversity among synthetic hexaploid wheat accessions with resistance to several fungal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) is known to be an excellent vehicle for transferring large genetic variations especially the many useful traits present in the D genome of Aegilops tauschii Coss (2n=2x=14, DD) for improvement of cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=6x=42, AABBDD). The objectiv...

  10. 远缘杂交不需幼胚培养的节节麦基因型%A Unique Aegilops tauschii Genotype Needless to Immature Embryo Culture in Cross with Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登才; 兰秀锦; 杨足君; 郑有良; 魏育明; 周永红

    2002-01-01

    Common or bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.,AABBDD,2n=42) originated ca.8 000 years ago from hybridization of tetraploid wheat ( Triticum turgidum L.,AABB,2n=28) and diploid Aegilops tauschii Coss.(DD,2n=14).An essential prerequisite for this evolutionary step is that the natural hybrids between tetraploid wheat and diploid Aegilops tauschii can produce relatively many filled seeds which germinated well.In this study,without special techniques,e.g.immature embryo culture,out of 22 Ae.tauschii accessions,the genotype AS60 produced relatively many filled seeds which germinated well.The seed germination percentages in the crosses of Ae.tauschii ×tetraploid wheat,tetraploid wheat× Ae.tauschii and Ae.tauschii ×common wheat were,respectively,50.0%,57.1% and 45.5%.It seems that Ae.tauschii accession AS60 has a unique genotype which facilitate hybrid seed development and viability,and which meets with the prerequisite for wheat evolutionary.Furthermore,the significance of this finding for common wheat improvement and evolution was discussed.%六倍体普通小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)是由四倍体小麦(T.turgidum L.)与二倍体节节麦(Aegilops tanschii Coss.)天然杂交然后通过染色体自然加倍形成的异源多倍体.这一起源过程是自然条件下天然发生的,它的发生需要具备一个条件:四倍体小麦与节节麦的天然杂交种子在自然条件(没有幼胚培养等)下能够正常发芽出苗.我们从22份节节麦中发现来自中东的节节麦AS60在不采用幼胚培养等人工辅助条件下,仍然很容易与四倍体小麦和普通小麦产生有生活力的杂种植株.AS60与四倍体小麦的杂交种子有50.0%(反交)及57.1%(正交)的种子,而AS60与六倍体普通小麦的杂交种子则有45.5%不需幼胚培养等措施能够正常发芽、生长.AS60的这一特征正是普通小麦起源过程需要的条件.最后探讨了这一发现对小麦遗传改良和对普通小麦起源演化研究的意义.

  11. Psoriasis,non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,and cardiovascular disease:Three different diseases on a unique background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia Ganzetti; Anna Campanati; Elisa Molinelli; Annamaria Offidani

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated skin disease, frequently associated with systemic comorbidities. According to recent data, patients with psoriasis show a greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which confers a higher cardiovascular risk. The link between these pathological conditions appears to be a chronic low-grade inflammatory status. The aim of this review is to focus on the multiple epidemiological and physio-pathogenetic aspects linking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, psoriasis, and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet.

  13. [Chromosome composition of wheat-rye lines and the influence of rye chromosomes on disease resistance and agronomic traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P

    2014-11-01

    Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution.

  14. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew.

  15. Analysis of the Legionella longbeachae genome and transcriptome uncovers unique strategies to cause Legionnaires' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Cazalet

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila and L. longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature. L. pneumophila is mainly found in natural and artificial water circuits while L. longbeachae is mainly present in soil. Under the appropriate conditions both species are human pathogens, capable of causing a severe form of pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of four L. longbeachae genomes, one complete genome sequence of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 serogroup (Sg 1, and three draft genome sequences another belonging to Sg1 and two to Sg2. The genome organization and gene content of the four L. longbeachae genomes are highly conserved, indicating strong pressure for niche adaptation. Analysis and comparison of L. longbeachae strain NSW150 with L. pneumophila revealed common but also unexpected features specific to this pathogen. The interaction with host cells shows distinct features from L. pneumophila, as L. longbeachae possesses a unique repertoire of putative Dot/Icm type IV secretion system substrates, eukaryotic-like and eukaryotic domain proteins, and encodes additional secretion systems. However, analysis of the ability of a dotA mutant of L. longbeachae NSW150 to replicate in the Acanthamoeba castellanii and in a mouse lung infection model showed that the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system is also essential for the virulence of L. longbeachae. In contrast to L. pneumophila, L. longbeachae does not encode flagella, thereby providing a possible explanation for differences in mouse susceptibility to infection between the two pathogens. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that L. longbeachae has a less pronounced biphasic life cycle as compared to L. pneumophila, and genome analysis and electron microscopy suggested that L. longbeachae is encapsulated. These species-specific differences may account for the different environmental niches and disease epidemiology of these

  16. Treated Follicular Lymphoma, Recurrent Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Nonresponsiveness to Vaccination, and a Unique Pneumococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonneutropenic patient with treated low-grade non-Hodgkin’s (Follicular lymphoma and secondary hypogammaglobulinemia recovered from pneumococcal pneumonia and septicemia (serotype 7F; ST191 subsequent to influenza A H1N1 (2009. Both infections were potentially vaccine preventable. The patient then developed pneumococcal meningitis due to a serotype 35F pneumococcus with a unique Multilocus Sequence Type (ST7004 which was not vaccine preventable. Patient management was influenced by host predisposition to pneumococcal infection, antibiotic intolerance, and poor response to polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Indirect immunofluorescence with anti-human immunoglobulin confirmed a poor or intermediate response to Pneumovax II. Prophylactic erythromycin was initiated, and immunoglobulin transfusions were also commenced as a preventive strategy. ST7004 is a single locus variant of ST1635 which has been associated with the serotype 35F capsule in England. The spi gene in ST7004, which differentiates it from ST1635, is the same as the spi gene present in ST191 which could have arisen from the first disease episode suggesting that horizontal gene transfer may have occurred between different populations of pneumococci present within the patient in an attempt to evade vaccination selection pressure.

  17. Microwave-based treatments of wheat kernels do not abolish gluten epitopes implicated in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrani, Carmen; Mamone, Gianfranco; la Gatta, Barbara; Camarca, Alessandra; Di Stasio, Luigia; Maurano, Francesco; Picascia, Stefania; Capozzi, Vito; Perna, Giuseppe; Picariello, Gianluca; Di Luccia, Aldo

    2017-03-01

    Microwave based treatment (MWT) of wet wheat kernels induced a striking reduction of gluten, up to gluten-free. In contrast, analysis of gluten peptides by G12 antibody-based ELISA, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and in vitro assay with T cells of celiac subjects, indicated no difference of antigenicity before and after MWT. SDS-PAGE analysis and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that MWT simply induced conformational modifications, reducing alcohol solubility of gliadins and altering the access of R5-antibody to the gluten epitopes. Thus, MWT neither destroys gluten nor modifies chemically the toxic epitopes, contradicting the preliminary claims that MWT of wheat kernels detoxifies gluten. This study provides evidence that R5-antibody ELISA alone is not effective to determine gluten in thermally treated wheat products. Gluten epitopes in processed wheat should be monitored using strategies based on combined immunoassays with T cells from celiacs, G12-antibody ELISA after proteolysis and proper molecular characterization.

  18. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Timothy C. Paulitz; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

  19. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

  20. Characterization of LORF11, a unique gene common to the three Marek's disease virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy F; Silva, Robert F; Cui, Xiaoping; Zhang, Huanmin; Heidari, Mohammad; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2007-12-01

    The unique open reading frame 11 (LORF11) of Marek's disease virus (MDV) is present in all three serotypes of MDV and is located in the unique long region of the MDV genome. In the serotype 1 Md5 genome, LORF11 comprises 2711 nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 903 amino acids. In order to study the biological function of LORF11 we deleted it from the MDV cosmid A6 by using the RecA-assisted restriction endonuclease cleavage method. The recombinant cosmid, A6DeltaLORF11, was transfected into duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) in conjunction with parental SN5, P89, SN16, and B40 cosmid clones. Recombinant rMd5DeltaLORF11 plaques were evident at 12-13 days after transfection. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DEF cells infected with rMd5DeltaLORF11 viruses confirmed the deletion of a 2.57-kb fragment resulting in a 296-bp fragment. Three rMd5DeltaLORF11 mutants were generated and their biological functions were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro growth characteristics of rMd5DeltaLORF11 viruses were similar to those of parental rMd5, indicating that LORF11 is not essential for replication in vitro. In vivo studies of rMd5DeltaLORF11 mutants showed that they were impaired in viral replication in the lymphoid organs and had 100x lower viremia than chickens infected with the parental rMd5 virus. Furthermore, rMd5-infected chickens horizontally transmitted the virus to contact controls whereas no horizontal transmission occurred in rMd5DeltaLORF11-infected chickens. Three independent deletion mutants were tested and showed the same phenotypes, so it is unlikely that the observed phenotype is because of any random mutation in the genome. Therefore the LORF11 gene of MDV is essential for normal virus replication in chickens and deletion of LORF11 renders an attenuated virus.

  1. Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Food: How to Reconcile Nutritional and Technological Properties of Wheat Proteins with Safety for Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Lamacchia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a process somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.

  2. Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamacchia, Carmela; Camarca, Alessandra; Picascia, Stefania; Di Luccia, Aldo; Gianfrani, Carmen

    2014-01-29

    The gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for patients with Celiac Disease. In recent years, the impressive rise of Celiac Disease incidence, dramatically prompted changes in the dietary habit of an increasingly large population, with a rise in demand of gluten-free products. The formulation of gluten-free bakery products presents a formidable challenge to cereal technologists. As wheat gluten contributes to the formation of a strong protein network, that confers visco-elasticity to the dough and allows the wheat flour to be processed into a wide range of products, the preparation of cereal-based gluten-free products is a somehow difficult process. This review focuses on nutritional and technological quality of products made with gluten-free cereals available on the market. The possibility of using flour from naturally low toxic ancient wheat species or detoxified wheat for the diet of celiacs is also discussed.

  3. PESTICIDES EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  4. Biofabricated silver nanoparticles act as a strong fungicide against Bipolaris sorokiniana causing spot blotch disease in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandhya; Singh, Braj Raj; Singh, Akanksha; Keswani, Chetan; Naqvi, Alim H; Singh, H B

    2014-01-01

    The present study is focused on the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using culture supernatant of an agriculturally important bacterium, Serratia sp. BHU-S4 and demonstrates its effective application for the management of spot blotch disease in wheat. The biosynthesis of AgNPs by Serratia sp. BHU-S4 (denoted as bsAgNPs) was monitored by UV-visible spectrum that showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 410 nm, an important characteristic of AgNPs. Furthermore, the structural, morphological, elemental, functional and thermal characterization of bsAgNPs was carried out using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron and atomic microscopies, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectrometer, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. The bsAgNPs were spherical in shape with size range of ∼10 to 20 nm. The XRD and EDAX analysis confirmed successful biosynthesis and crystalline nature of AgNPs. The bsAgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against Bipolaris sorokiniana, the spot blotch pathogen of wheat. Interestingly, 2, 4 and 10 µg/ml concentrations of bsAgNPs accounted for complete inhibition of conidial germination, whereas in the absence of bsAgNPs, conidial germination was 100%. A detached leaf bioassay revealed prominent conidial germination on wheat leaves infected with B. sorokiniana conidial suspension alone, while the germination of conidia was totally inhibited when the leaves were treated with bsAgNPs. The results were further authenticated under green house conditions, where application of bsAgNPs significantly reduced B. sorokiniana infection in wheat plants. Histochemical staining revealed a significant role of bsAgNPs treatment in inducing lignin deposition in vascular bundles. In summary, our findings represent the efficient application of bsAgNPs in plant disease management, indicating the exciting possibilities of nanofungicide employing agriculturally important bacteria.

  5. Biofabricated silver nanoparticles act as a strong fungicide against Bipolaris sorokiniana causing spot blotch disease in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Mishra

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using culture supernatant of an agriculturally important bacterium, Serratia sp. BHU-S4 and demonstrates its effective application for the management of spot blotch disease in wheat. The biosynthesis of AgNPs by Serratia sp. BHU-S4 (denoted as bsAgNPs was monitored by UV-visible spectrum that showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR peak at 410 nm, an important characteristic of AgNPs. Furthermore, the structural, morphological, elemental, functional and thermal characterization of bsAgNPs was carried out using the X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron and atomic microscopies, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX spectrometer, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, respectively. The bsAgNPs were spherical in shape with size range of ∼10 to 20 nm. The XRD and EDAX analysis confirmed successful biosynthesis and crystalline nature of AgNPs. The bsAgNPs exhibited strong antifungal activity against Bipolaris sorokiniana, the spot blotch pathogen of wheat. Interestingly, 2, 4 and 10 µg/ml concentrations of bsAgNPs accounted for complete inhibition of conidial germination, whereas in the absence of bsAgNPs, conidial germination was 100%. A detached leaf bioassay revealed prominent conidial germination on wheat leaves infected with B. sorokiniana conidial suspension alone, while the germination of conidia was totally inhibited when the leaves were treated with bsAgNPs. The results were further authenticated under green house conditions, where application of bsAgNPs significantly reduced B. sorokiniana infection in wheat plants. Histochemical staining revealed a significant role of bsAgNPs treatment in inducing lignin deposition in vascular bundles. In summary, our findings represent the efficient application of bsAgNPs in plant disease management, indicating the exciting possibilities of nanofungicide employing agriculturally important bacteria.

  6. Evaluation of the safety of ancient strains of wheat in coeliac disease reveals heterogeneous small intestinal T cell responses suggestive of coeliac toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuligoj, Tanja; Gregorini, Armando; Colomba, Mariastella; Ellis, H Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since it is unknown if all wheat varieties are equally toxic to coeliac patients seven Triticum accessions showing different origin (ancient/modern) and ploidy (di-, tetra- hexaploid) were studied. Selected strains of wheat were ancient Triticum monococcum precoce (AA genome) and Triticum speltoides (BB genome), accessions of Triticum turgidum durum (AABB genome) including two ancient (Graziella Ra and Kamut) and two modern (Senatore Cappelli and Svevo) durum strains of wheat and Triticum aestivum compactum (AABBDD genome). Small intestinal gluten-specific T-cell lines generated from 13 coeliac patients were tested with wheat accessions by proliferation assays. All strains of wheat independent of ploidy or ancient/modern origin triggered heterogeneous responses covering wide ranges of stimulation indices. Ancient strains of wheat, although previously suggested to be low or devoid of coeliac toxicity, should be tested for immunogenicity using gluten-specific T-cell lines from multiple coeliac patients rather than gluten-specific clones to assess their potential toxicity. Our findings provide further evidence for the need for a strict gluten-free diet in coeliac patients, including avoidance of ancient strains of wheat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromosome engineering, mapping, and transferring of resistance to Fusarium head blight disease from Elymus tsukushiensis into wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and wheat corn rotation agriculture have spawned massive epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on cereal crops mainly wheat and barley since the 1990’s and devastated farm economies of north central US and many of the major wheat growing regions of the world. Wheat has limited resis...

  8. Economical effectiveness of fungal diseases control of winter wheat in 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jaczewska-Kalicka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is a very susceptible species to infection by pathogenic fungi requires the application of plant protection products. Their effectiveness and profitability of application depend on numerous factors. The most important of them are: weather and environmental conditions, managing and organisation of production, the intensity of oc-currence and harmfulness of occurring pathogenes, the amount of obtained yield, costs of protection and grain selling prices. Presented research results are derived from plot ex-periments conducted in the Field Experimental Station IOR-PIB Grodzisk Mazowiecki, on the fields of Agricultural Experimental Station SGGW Chylice, mazowieckie voivode-ship, in 2000-2008 on winter wheat. A high differentiation was stated in profitability of applying particular fungicides, as well as considerable differences between particular vegetative seasons of winter wheat cultivation. In each year, except 2000, protection treatments were profitable, in spite of high costs being on average 10% of the value of protected crop.

  9. Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease--a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A James Daveson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between hygiene and prevalence of autoimmune disease has been attributed in part to enteric helminth infection. A pilot study of experimental infection with the hookworm Necator americanus was undertaken among a group of otherwise healthy people with celiac disease to test the potential of the helminth to suppress the immunopathology induced by gluten. METHODS: In a 21-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we explored the effects of N. americanus infection in 20 healthy, helminth-naïve adults with celiac disease well controlled by diet. Staged cutaneous inoculations with 10 and 5 infective 3(rd stage hookworm larvae or placebo were performed at week-0 and -12 respectively. At week-20, a five day oral wheat challenge equivalent to 16 grams of gluten per day was undertaken. Primary outcomes included duodenal Marsh score and quantification of the immunodominant α-gliadin peptide (QE65-specific systemic interferon-γ-producing cells by ELISpot pre- and post-wheat challenge. RESULTS: Enteric colonisation with hookworm established in all 10 cases, resulting in transiently painful enteritis in 5. Chronic infection was asymptomatic, with no effect on hemoglobin levels. Although some duodenal eosinophilia was apparent, hookworm-infected mucosa retained a healthy appearance. In both groups, wheat challenge caused deterioration in both primary and several secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental N. americanus infection proved to be safe and enabled testing its effect on a range of measures of the human autoimmune response. Infection imposed no obvious benefit on pathology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00671138.

  10. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHEAT TAKE-ALL DISEASE: II – RAPID SELECTION OF BACTERIA SUPPRESSIVE TO GAEUMANNOMYCES GRAMINIS VAR. TRITICI IN LABORATORY WITH GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONFIRMATION TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening large collections of bacteria for potential biological control activity on economically important diseases is often difficult. A quick test tube assay was developed to rapidly screen selected bacterial isolates for their ability to suppress take-all disease of wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyc...

  11. Quantifying the effect of interactions between disease control, nitrogen supply and land use change on the greenhouse gas emissions associated with wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, P M; Kindred, D R; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    A method for calculating the effect of disease control on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with wheat production, reported previously, was developed further to account for effects of disease control on the amount of fertilizer nitrogen (N) which should be applied and on changes in land use...

  12. Lower extremity necrotizing fasciitis: A unique initial presentation of Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Weiss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease is a disease of the bowel, typically presenting with diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal pain. Complications such as abscesses, fistulas, and strictures may require surgical intervention. We would like to report a patient with Crohn's disease who presented for the first time with left lower extremity necrotizing fasciitis. There are very few reports of necrotizing fasciitis in Crohn's disease as the initial presentation.

  13. Molecular characterization of α-gliadin genes from common wheat cultivar Zhengmai 004 and their role in quality and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuge Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 43 unique clones (Z4A-1 to Z4A-43 with GenBank accession numbers of HM120221, HM120222, JX828270, JN831402, JN831403, JN831404, JN831405 and JN831406, and KC715889, KC715890, KC715891, KC715892, KC715893, KC715894, KC715895, KC715896, KC715897, KC715898, KC715899, KC715900, KC715901, KC715902, KC715903, KC715904, KC715905, KC715906, KC715907, KC715908, KC715909, KC715910, KC715911, KC715912, KC715913, KC715914, KC715915, KC715916, KC715917, KC715918, KC715919, KC715920, KC715921, KC715922 and KC715923, respectively were amplified and cloned from common wheat cultivar Zhengmai 004 using a PCR-based strategy. They included 22 full-ORF α-gliadin genes and 21 pseudogenes containing at least one in-frame stop codon. Comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that all the isolated genes displayed the typical structural features of α-gliadin genes and that the putative proteins of Z4A-7, Z4A-14, Z4A-17 and Z4A-20 had an extra cysteine residue in the unique domain II, while Z4A-15 lacked the second conserved cysteine residue in the unique domain I. The two fusion proteins of Z4A-15 and Z4A-20 were successfully detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, although the protein level was relatively low. Based on the occurrence of the four major epitopes, as well as the lengths of the two glutamine repeats, 8, 6, and 8 genes were assigned to the Gli-2 loci on the respective chromosomes 6A, 6B, and 6D and a total of respectively 16, 0 and 23 immunogenic peptides were identified. In addition, 4 of the 5 genes with odd numbers of cysteine residues were assigned to chromosome 6D, suggesting that common wheat cultivar Zhengmai 004 has the potential to induce celiac disease (CD and that the D genome exerts the most influence on gluten quality, but is the most deleterious for CD patients. By phylogenetic analysis, 11 exceptional α-gliadins with few or no immunogenic peptides from Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii were

  14. Does wheat genetically modified for disease resistance affect root-colonizing pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Beatrice Meyer

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE method to characterize the diversity of the pqqC gene, which is involved in Pseudomonas phosphate solubilization. A major result was that in the first field season Pseudomonas abundances and diversity on roots of GM pm3b lines, but also on non-GM sister lines were different from those of the parental lines and conventional wheat cultivars. This indicates a strong effect of the procedures by which these plants were created, as GM and sister lines were generated via tissue cultures and propagated in the greenhouse. Moreover, Pseudomonas population sizes and DGGE profiles varied considerably between individual GM lines with different genomic locations of the pm3b transgene. At individual time points, differences in Pseudomonas and AMF accumulation between GM and control lines were detected, but they were not consistent and much less pronounced than differences detected between young and old plants, different conventional wheat cultivars or at different locations and field seasons. Thus, we conclude that impacts of GM wheat on plant-beneficial root-colonizing microorganisms are minor and not of ecological importance. The cultivation-independent pqqC-DGGE approach proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the dynamics of Pseudomonas populations in a wheat field and even sensitive enough for detecting population responses to altered plant physiology.

  15. Proteomic analysis in allergy and intolerance to wheat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2011-02-01

    Owing to its extensive use in the human diet, wheat is among the most common causes of food-related allergies and intolerances. Allergies to wheat are provoked by ingestion, inhalation or contact with either the soluble or the insoluble gluten proteins in wheat. Gluten proteins, and particularly the gliadin fraction, are also the main factor triggering celiac disease, a common enteropathy induced by ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related prolamins from oat, rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The role of gliadin and of its derived peptides in eliciting the adverse reactions in celiac disease are still far from being completely explained. Owing to its unique pathogenesis, celiac disease is widely investigated as a model immunogenetic disorder. The structural characterization of the injuring agents, the gluten proteins, assumes a particular significance in order to deepen the understanding of the events that trigger this and similar diseases at the molecular level. Recent developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of several basic aspects of wheat protein-related diseases. These include: the identification of gluten fractions and derived peptides involved in wheat allergy and intolerance, including celiac disease, and the elucidation of their mechanism of toxicity; the development and validation of sensitive and specific methods for detecting trace amounts of gluten proteins in gluten-free foods for intolerant patients; and the formulation of completely new substitute foods and ingredients to replace the gluten-based ones. In this article, the main aspects of current and prospective applications of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies to the structural characterization of gluten proteins and derived peptides are critically presented, with a focus on issues related to their detection, identification and quantification, which are relevant to the biochemical, immunological and toxicological

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Different Wheat Rust Disease Symptoms on Vegetation Indices Using Hyperspectral Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Ashourloo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVIs have been widely used to indirectly detect plant diseases. The aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of different disease symptoms on SVIs and introduce suitable SVIs to detect rust disease. Wheat leaf rust is one of the prevalent diseases and has different symptoms including yellow, orange, dark brown, and dry areas. The reflectance spectrum data for healthy and infected leaves were collected using a spectroradiometer in the 450 to 1000 nm range. The ratio of the disease-affected area to the total leaf area and the proportion of each disease symptoms were obtained using RGB digital images. As the disease severity increases, so does the scattering of all SVI values. The indices were categorized into three groups based on their accuracies in disease detection. A few SVIs showed an accuracy of more than 60% in classification. In the first group, NBNDVI, NDVI, PRI, GI, and RVSI showed the highest amount of classification accuracy. The second and third groups showed classification accuracies of about 20% and 40% respectively. Results show that few indices have the ability to indirectly detect plant disease.

  17. Macrophage activation syndrome triggered by coeliac disease: a unique case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palman, J; May, J; Pilkington, C

    2016-12-09

    Macrophage activation syndrome is described as a "clinical syndrome of hyperinflammation resulting in an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response" in the context of an autoinflammatory or rheumatic disease. Current associations of macrophage activation syndrome with autoimmune disease most notably include a host of rheumatological conditions and inflammatory bowel disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that macrophage activation syndrome is precipitated by autoimmune disease more commonly than previously thought. Diagnosing the precipitating factor is essential for effective treatment and prognosis. We report a case of a six year old girl with coeliac disease diagnosed after two episodes of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Her condition only responded to treatment once the patient was placed on a gluten free diet. Further immunological testing confirmed anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysial antibodies, however histological biopsy was deemed inappropriate due to the severity of her condition. She has remained stable with no further episodes of macrophage activation syndrome since commencing a gluten free diet. This case report is the first literature that links macrophage activation syndrome to coeliac disease and highlights the challenge of diagnosing coeliac disease with unusual features such as associated prolonged fever. Clinicians should have a low threshold for screening children with other autoimmune diseases for coeliac disease.

  18. Protein misfolding in the late-onset neurodegenerative diseases: common themes and the unique case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2013-08-01

    Enormous strides have been made in the last 100 years to extend human life expectancy and to combat the major infectious diseases. Today, the major challenges for medical science are age-related diseases, including cancer, heart disease, lung disease, renal disease, and late-onset neurodegenerative disease. Of these, only the neurodegenerative diseases represent a class of disease so poorly understood that no general strategies for prevention or treatment exist. These diseases, which include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are generally fatal and incurable. The first section of this review summarizes the diversity and common features of the late-onset neurodegenerative diseases, with a particular focus on protein misfolding and aggregation-a recurring theme in the molecular pathology. The second section focuses on the particular case of ALS, a late-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the death of central nervous system motor neurons, leading to paralysis and patient death. Of the 10% of ALS cases that show familial inheritance (familial ALS), the largest subset is caused by mutations in the SOD1 gene, encoding the Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The unusual kinetic stability of SOD1 has provided a unique opportunity for detailed structural characterization of conformational states potentially involved in SOD1-associated ALS. This review discusses past studies exploring the stability, folding, and misfolding behavior of SOD1, as well as the therapeutic possibilities of using detailed knowledge of misfolding pathways to target the molecular mechanisms underlying ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Molecular characterization of α-gliadin genes from common wheat cultivar Zhengmai 004 and their role in quality and celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuge; Li; Ranran; Xin; Dale; Zhang; Suoping; Li

    2014-01-01

    A total of 43 unique clones(Z4A-1 to Z4A-43 with GenBank accession numbers of HM120221, HM120222, JX828270, JN831402 to JN831406, and KC715889 to KC715923, respectively) were amplified and cloned from common wheat cultivar Zhengmai 004 using a PCR-based strategy. They included 22 full-ORF α-gliadin genes and 21 pseudogenes containing at least one in-frame stop codon. Comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that all the isolated genes displayed the typical structural features of α-gliadin genes and that the putative proteins of Z4A-7, Z4A-14, Z4A-17 and Z4A-20 had an extra cysteine residue in the unique domain II, while Z4A-15 lacked the second conserved cysteine residue in the unique domain I. The two fusion proteins of Z4A-15 and Z4A-20 were successfully detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, although the protein level was relatively low. Based on the occurrence of the four major epitopes, as well as the lengths of the two glutamine repeats, 8, 6, and 8 genes were assigned to the Gli-2 loci on the respective chromosomes 6A, 6B, and 6D and a total of respectively 16, 0 and 23 immunogenic peptides were identified. In addition, 4 of the 5 genes with odd numbers of cysteine residues were assigned to chromosome 6D, suggesting that common wheat cultivar Zhengmai 004 has the potential to induce celiac disease(CD) and that the D genome exerts the most influence on gluten quality, but is the most deleterious for CD patients. By phylogenetic analysis, 11 exceptional α-gliadins with few or no immunogenic peptides from Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii were detected, a finding that further supports the prospect of CD prevention. Finally, secondary structure prediction showed that most(98.48%) of the α-gliadins invariably contained five conserved α-helices(H1 to H5) in the two glutamine repeats and unique domains and 67.68% of the α-gliadins also contained a β-strand(S) in the C-terminal unique domains. An absent α-helix H2, 1–2

  20. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provide a unique opportunity to take care of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Beghé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD identifies the acute phase of COPD. The COPD patient is often frail and elderly with concomitant chronic diseases. This requires the physician not only looks at specific symptoms or organs, but to consider the patient in all his or her complexity.

  1. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  2. Interactions between crop biomass and development of foliar diseases in winter wheat and the potential to graduate the fungicide dose according to crop biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    is typically carried out using a constant fungicide dose in the entire field although there may be large differences in crop development and biomass across the field. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test whether the fungicide dose response curve controlling septoria leaf blotch...... and other foliar diseases in winter wheat was dependent on crop development and biomass level. If such a biomass dependent dose response was found it was further the purpose to evaluate the potential to optimize fungicide inputs in winter wheat crops applying a site-specific crop density dependent fungicide...... dose. The study was carried out investigating fungicide dose response controlling foliar diseases in winter wheat at three biomass densities obtained growing the crop at three nitrogen levels and using variable seed rates. Further the field experiments included three fungicide dose rates at each...

  3. Biological control of wheat root diseases by the CLP-producing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ming; Wen, Shan-Shan; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; von Wettstein, Diter; Thomashow, Linda S; Guo, Jian-Hua; Weller, David M

    2014-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, previously isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, suppresses the soilborne disease of wheat take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. We report here that strain HC1-07 also suppresses Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. Strain HC1-07 produced a cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) with a molecular weight of 1,126.42 based on analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Extracted CLP inhibited the growth of G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro. To determine the role of this CLP in biological control, plasposon mutagenesis was used to generate two nonproducing mutants, HC1-07viscB and HC1-07prtR2. Analysis of regions flanking plasposon insertions in HC1-07prtR2 and HC1-07viscB revealed that the inactivated genes were similar to prtR and viscB, respectively, of the well-described biocontrol strain P. fluorescens SBW25 that produces the CLP viscosin. Both genes in HC1-07 were required for the production of the viscosin-like CLP. The two mutants were less inhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici and R. solani in vitro and reduced in ability to suppress take-all. HC1-07viscB but not HC-07prtR2 was reduced in ability to suppress Rhizoctonia root rot. In addition to CLP production, prtR also played a role in protease production.

  4. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Paul C C; Baley, G James; Clinton, William P; Bunkers, Greg J; Alibhai, Murtaza F; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

    2005-11-29

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. Growth-chamber studies demonstrated wheat rust control at multiple plant growth stages with a glyphosate spray dose typically recommended for weed control. Rust control was absent in formulation controls without glyphosate, dependent on systemic glyphosate concentrations in leaf tissues, and not mediated through induction of four common systemic acquired resistance genes. A field test with endemic stripe rust inoculum confirmed the activities of glyphosate pre- and postinfestation. Preliminary greenhouse studies also demonstrated that application of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans suppressed Asian soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi.

  5. Computed tomography-based biomarker provides unique signature for diagnosis of COPD phenotypes and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbán, Craig J; Han, Meilan K; Boes, Jennifer L; Chughtai, Komal A; Meyer, Charles R; Johnson, Timothy D; Galbán, Stefanie; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Kazerooni, Ella A; Martinez, Fernando J; Ross, Brian D

    2012-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a highly heterogeneous disorder, composed of varying pathobiology. Accurate detection of COPD subtypes by image biomarkers is urgently needed to enable individualized treatment, thus improving patient outcome. We adapted the parametric response map (PRM), a voxel-wise image analysis technique, for assessing COPD phenotype. We analyzed whole-lung computed tomography (CT) scans acquired at inspiration and expiration of 194 individuals with COPD from the COPDGene study. PRM identified the extent of functional small airways disease (fSAD) and emphysema as well as provided CT-based evidence that supports the concept that fSAD precedes emphysema with increasing COPD severity. PRM is a versatile imaging biomarker capable of diagnosing disease extent and phenotype while providing detailed spatial information of disease distribution and location. PRM's ability to differentiate between specific COPD phenotypes will allow for more accurate diagnosis of individual patients, complementing standard clinical techniques.

  6. The MS(E)-proteomic analysis of gliadins and glutenins in wheat grain identifies and quantifies proteins associated with celiac disease and baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvackova, Lubica; Skultety, Ludovit; Bekesova, Slavka; McClain, Scott; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-20

    Precise content of gliadin (Glia) and glutenin (Glu) proteins in wheat grain are largely unknown despite their association with celiac disease, various allergies, and physical processing properties of wheat. Developing methods to quantitatively measure clinically relevant proteins could support advancement in understanding exposure thresholds and clinical study design. The aim of this study was to use a data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)) approach for quantifying gliadin and glutenin proteins in wheat grain. The biologically replicated analysis yielded concentrations for 34 gliadin and 22 glutenin proteins. The primary focus of this survey was on measuring celiac disease proteins and baker's asthma associated proteins along with the proteins associated with viscoelastic properties of wheat flour and grain texture. The technical coefficients of variation ranged from 0.12 to 1.39 and indicate that MS(E) proteomics is a reproducible quantitative method for the determination of gliadin and glutenin content in the highly complex matrix of protein extracts from wheat grain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics.

  7. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E.; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K.; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A.; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472

  8. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but also, in some cases, by inhaling wheat flour. Wheat can be found in many foods, including ... protein Soy sauce Some condiments, such as ketchup Meat products, such as hot dogs or cold cuts ...

  9. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  10. Might gluten traces in wheat substitutes pose a risk in patients with celiac disease? A population-based probabilistic approach to risk estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibert, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Neuhold, S.; Houben, G.F.; Canela, M.A.; Fasano, A.; Catassi, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with treated celiac disease (CD), the ingestion of gluten traces contained in gluten-free (GF) wheat substitutes (eg, GF bread, flour, and pasta) could cause persisting intestinal mucosal damage. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the proportion of CD patients at risk

  11. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  12. Combined uphill and downhill varices as a consequence of rheumatic heart disease: a unique presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Yogesh P; Kumar, Ajit; Chaudhary, Akash; Kumar, Manoj; Choudeswari, Padmavathi R; Kankanala, Vishnu V; Joshi, Nayana; Kansagra, Chintan; Shah, Sandip; Tripathi, Abhisheka

    2014-03-01

    Hemorrhage from downhill varices is a rare manifestation. The etiology of downhill varices is due to superior vena cava obstruction while uphill varices are secondary to portal hypertension. We report a rare case of 55-year-old female with bleeding downhill varices not associated with obstruction or compression of superior vena cava, but was due to severe pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to chronic rheumatic heart disease.

  13. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  14. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING SHENGJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June,jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia, wheat prices increased 70 percent recently. And Europe's wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  15. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Soaringwheat prices are unlikely to endanger globalgrain security chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June, jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia,wheat prices increased 70 percent recently.And Europe’s wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  16. Unique roles of SPET brain imaging in clinical and research studies. Lessons from Parkinson's disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibyl, J; Jennings, D; Tabamo, R; Marek, K

    2005-06-01

    The increasing availability of PET imaging in nuclear medicine expands the armamentarium of clinical and research tools for improving diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, the role of SPECT imaging remains critical to both research and clinical practice. The development of rational strategies for guiding the selection of imaging modalities flows from primarily the nature of the clinical or research question and the availability of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals. There has been extensive SPECT and PET work in Parkinson's disease (PD) which highlights the value of both these scintigraphic modalities. Three main areas of interest in PD include imaging for improving diagnostic accuracy, for monitoring the progression of disease, and for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of drugs with neuroprotective potential. The demands of the clinical or research question posed to imaging dictates the selection of radiotracer and imaging modality. Diagnosis of PD represents the easiest challenge with many imaging biomarkers showing high sensitivity for detecting abnormal reduction of dopaminergic function based on qualitative review of images. On the other hand, using imaging to evaluate treatments which purportedly slow the rate of disease progression, indicated by the reduction in the rate of loss in a quantitative imaging signal in patients studied over time, represents the most rigorous requirement of the imaging measure. In each of these applications presynaptic markers of dopaminergic function using SPECT and PET have been extremely valuable. Review of neuroimaging studies of PD provides a useful example of optimized approaches to clinical and research studies in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Evolution of new disease specificity at a simple resistance locus in a crop-weed complex: reconstitution of the Lr21 gene in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C; Gill, Bikram

    2009-06-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F(2) progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse "dead" alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a "death-recycle" model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop-weed complexes contributes to this process.

  18. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  19. QTL for spot blotch resistance in bread wheat line Saar co-locate to the biotrophic disease resistance loci Lr34 and Lr46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemo, Morten; Joshi, Arun K; Prasad, Ravindra; Chand, Ramesh; Singh, Ravi P

    2013-03-01

    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world including south Asian countries such as India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar which carries the leaf tip necrosis (LTN)-associated rust resistance genes Lr34 and Lr46 has exhibited a low level of spot blotch disease in field trials conducted in Asia and South America. One hundred and fourteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Avocet (Susceptible) × Saar, were evaluated along with parents in two dates of sowing in India for 3 years (2007-2008 to 2009-2010) to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with spot blotch resistance, and to determine the potential association of Lr34 and Lr46 with resistance to this disease. Lr34 was found to constitute the main locus for spot blotch resistance, and explained as much as 55 % of the phenotypic variation in the mean disease data across the six environments. Based on the large effect, the spot blotch resistance at this locus has been given the gene designation Sb1. Two further, minor QTL were detected in the sub-population of RILs not containing Lr34. The first of these was located about 40 cM distal to Lr34 on 7DS, and the other corresponded to Lr46 on 1BL. A major implication for wheat breeding is that Lr34 and Lr46, which are widely used in wheat breeding to improve resistance to rust diseases and powdery mildew, also have a beneficial effect on spot blotch.

  20. Change of growth promotion and disease resistant of wheat seedling by application of biocontrol bacterium Pseudochrobactrum kiredjianiae A4 under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuming; Gao, Han; Li, Hongyan; Qin, Youcai; Tang, Wen; Lu, Jinying; Li, Ming; Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Plant disease control and prevention in microgravity are critical for space plant cultivation. This study investigated the effects of a biocontrol bacterium Pseudochrobactrum kiredjianiae A4 on growth development and antifungal potential of wheat seedlings under simulated microgravity. The growth, antioxidant status and plant immune hormone of both non-infected and infected wheat seedlings were detected before and after inoculation of A4 strains under simulated microgravity condition (μG) and ground condition (1G). Our results showed that bacteria A4 promoted wheat growth by increasing root length and biomass accumulation and meanwhile enhancing fungal disease resistance through improving the antioxidant enzyme activities and plant hormone secretion. Moreover, A4 exhibited a weaker promotion ability on wheat biomass accumulation and disease resistance under μG condition compared to that under 1G. These results not only expand our understanding of the impact of microgravity on plant-microbe interaction, but also provide valuable insights into using plant beneficial microbes for plant cultivation and crop protection in space.

  1. Perceiving “ghost” images: a unique case of visual allesthesia with hemianopsia in mitochondrial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hidetomo Murakami,1 Hiroo Ichikawa,2 Azusa Sugimoto,1 Akinori Futamura,1 Yuki Shimizu,2 Masayuki Sugie,2 Michael W Miller,3 Mitsuru Kawamura11Department of Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, Japan; 3MD/PhD Program, University of Tokyo Postgraduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A 49-year-old man with mitochondrial disease presented with visual allesthesia, a rare and puzzling phenomenon. He was admitted for treatment because of convulsions. After the convulsions ceased, he exhibited left homonymous hemianopsia. Brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a high-intensity area in the right occipital lobe. Both the hemianopsia and the MRI activation in this area disappeared by day 36 of hospitalization. On the morning of day 57, right homonymous hemianopsia emerged in a singular manner. The patient perceived an illusory object (a bottle placed by the bedside in his left visual field, while the real object was in his blind right field. This case of visual allesthesia was ­accompanied by palinopsia, ie, perseveration of the image of the bottle. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed a new, high-intensity area in the left occipital lobe. We believe the visual allesthesia resulted from transfer of cortical information obtained by blindsight between hemispheres as a result of epileptic excitation.Keywords: visual allesthesia, blindsight, palinopsia, mitochondrial disease, epilepsy

  2. In vitro study of novel collagenase (XIAFLEX® on Dupuytren's disease fibroblasts displays unique drug related properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhatullah Syed

    Full Text Available Dupuytren's disease (DD is a benign, fibroproliferative disease of the palmar fascia, with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM deposition and over-production of cytokines and growth factors, resulting in digital fixed flexion contractures limiting hand function and patient quality of life. Surgical fasciectomy is the gold standard treatment but is invasive and has associated morbidity without limiting disease recurrence. Injectable Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH--Xiaflex®--is a novel, nonsurgical option with clinically proven in vivo reduction of DD contractures but with limited in vitro data demonstrating its cellular and molecular effects. The aim of this study was to delineate the effects of CCH on primary fibroblasts isolated from DD and non-DD anatomical sites (using RTCA, LDH, WST-1, FACS, qRT-PCR, ELISA and In-Cell Quantitative Western Blotting to compare the efficacy of varying concentrations of Xiaflex® against a reagent grade Collagenase, Collagenase A. Results demonstrated that DD nodule and cord fibroblasts had greater proliferation than those from fat and skin. Xiaflex® exposure resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular spreading, attachment and proliferation, with cellular recovery after enzyme removal. Unlike Collagenase A, Xiaflex® did not cause apoptosis. Collagen expression patterns were significantly (p<0.05 different in DD fibroblasts across anatomical sites - the highest levels of collagen I and III were detected in DD nodule, with DD cord and fat fibroblasts demonstrating a smaller increase in both collagen expression relative to DD skin. Xiaflex® significantly (p<0.05 down-regulated ECM components, cytokines and growth factors in a dose-dependent manner. An in vitro scratch wound assay model demonstrated that, at low concentrations, Xiaflex® enabled a faster fibroblast reparatory migration into the wound, whereas, at high concentrations, this process was significantly (p<0.05 inhibited

  3. Going Round in Circles with a Multisystemic Disease: A Unique Case of Parasitic Aortitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lobo Antunes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aortitis results from aortic inflammation, frequent causes being infections and rheumatological disorders. The authors report the case of a 33-year-old black male with recent arterial hypertension, who presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice, anorexia, weight loss and diarrhoea. Laboratory work-up was compatible with inflammatory anaemia and obstructive jaundice, while abdominal imaging revealed a dilated biliary tract, no visible gallstones, cephalic pancreatic globosity and aortic thickening. Pancreatic aspirate was negative for malignant cells, bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The jaundice spontaneously subsided and the pancreatic globosity improved over time. Following positive PPD and IGRA, isoniazid was started. However, follow-up investigations revealed a severe bulbar stenosis with intense eosinophilic infiltrate, multiple non-necrotizing granulomas, and thoracic and abdominal aortitis not previously recognized. Immunological profile (ECA, ANCA and IgG4, eggs and parasites in stool samples were negative. The multisystemic disease, with an insidious and migrating behaviour, gastrointestinal and vascular involvement, granulomatous inflammatory response and tissue eosinophilia, raised the suspicion of a parasitic infestation (despite negative screening or vasculitis. After 7 days of empirical treatment with albendazole and ivermectin, the patient passed a specimen of Ascaris lumbricoides in the stool and improved clinically.

  4. Scene construction impairments in Alzheimer's disease - A unique role for the posterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Halena, Stephanie; Kamminga, Jody; Tu, Sicong; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R

    2015-12-01

    Episodic memory dysfunction represents one of the most prominent and characteristic clinical features of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), attributable to the degeneration of medial temporal and posterior parietal regions of the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated marked impairments in the ability to envisage personally relevant events in the future in AD. It remains unclear, however, whether AD patients can imagine fictitious scenes free from temporal constraints, a process that is proposed to rely fundamentally upon the integrity of the hippocampus. The objective of the present study was to investigate the capacity for atemporal scene construction, and its associated neural substrates, in AD. Fourteen AD patients were tested on the scene construction task and their performance was contrasted with 14 age- and education-matched healthy older Control participants. Scene construction performance was strikingly compromised in the AD group, with significant impairments evident for provision of contextual details, spatial coherence, and the overall richness of the imagined experience. Voxel-based morphometry analyses based on structural MRI revealed significant associations between scene construction capacity and atrophy in posterior parietal and lateral temporal brain structures in AD. In contrast, scene construction performance in Controls was related to integrity of frontal, parietal, and medial temporal structures, including the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) emerged as the common region implicated for scene construction performance across participant groups. Our study highlights the importance of regions specialised for spatial and contextual processing for the construction of atemporal scenes. Damage to these regions in AD compromises the ability to construct novel scenes, leading to the recapitulation of content from previously experienced events.

  5. Accelerated Senescence and Enhanced Disease Resistance in Hybrid Chlorosis Lines Derived from Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Nakano; Nobuyuki Mizuno; Yukio Tosa; Kentaro Yoshida; Pyoyun Park; Shigeo Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlyin...

  6. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  7. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  8. Synthetic hexaploids derived from under-exploited tetraploids as a new resource for disease resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD), which is developed from the hybridization between tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28, genome AABB) and Aegilops tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD), is a useful bridging germplasm for the introgression of desirable...

  9. Unique expression of chronic Lyme disease and Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction to doxycycline therapy in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Chad; Nahata, Milap C

    2016-07-20

    I am a 24-year-old male who was diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease after 4 years of multiple, non-specific symptoms. I have written this case as first author with my faculty mentor listed as the coauthor. The objective of this report is to highlight the experience with doxycycline treatment. In 2007, at around age 19 years, I had an acute onset of sore throat, tonsillitis, low-grade fever, stiff upper back and neck muscles, migraines and severely stiff, cracking jaw joints. This led to >24 medical visits, multitudes of tests and examinations, and exploratory surgery over the next 3 years. In 2011, a Lyme-literate medical doctor (LLMD) diagnosed me with chronic Lyme disease. I started taking doxycycline 100 mg by mouth every 12 hours, leading to atypical sequences of events deemed a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction by a LLMD. This case highlights the unique clinical expression of chronic Lyme disease and the Jarisch-Herxheimer response to doxycycline.

  10. Macaques with Rapid Disease Progression and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis Have a Unique Cytokine Profile in Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandle, Marlene S.; Williams, Kenneth C.; MacLean, Andrew G.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of host cytokine response on viral load, disease progression, and neurologic lesions was investigated in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model of AIDS. Cytokine gene expression (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and viral loads were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR in lymph nodes of 5 control animals and 28 animals infected with SIVmac251 at the terminal stages of AIDS. Infected animals showed higher expression of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs compared with controls. Levels of all cytokines were comparable between animals with rapid (survival, 200 days) disease progression. However, among rapid progressors, the eight animals with SIV encephalitis had a unique cytokine profile (increased IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ) that was associated with higher viral loads. These observations provide evidence that host cytokine responses may influence SIV neuropathogenesis independent of disease progression. PMID:11287599

  11. Intestinal health and disease prevention: a story of wheat and oats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Timmer, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades, the prevalence of nutrition-related chronic diseases, such as diabetes type 2, obesity, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and food allergies and intolerances (such as celiac disease), as well as some types of cancer, has been gradually increasing, with a growing impact o

  12. Comparative analysis of oncogenic genes revealed unique evolutionary features of field Marek's disease virus prevalent in recent years in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek's disease (MD is an economically important viral disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV, an oncogenic herpesvirus. This disease was well controlled since the widespread use of commercial vaccines, but field MDVs have shown continuous increasing in virulence and acquired the ability to overcome the immune response induced by vaccines. Nowadays, MD continues to be a serious threat to poultry industry, isolation and characterization of MDVs are essential for monitoring changes of viruses and evaluating the effectiveness of existing vaccines. Results Between 2008 and 2010, 18 field MDV strains were isolated from vaccinated chicken flocks in Sichuan province, China. Three oncogenic genes including Meq, pp38 and vIL-8 genes of the 18 isolates were amplified and sequenced. Homology analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of these three genes exhibit 95.0-98.8%, 99.3-100% and 97.0-98.5% homology respectively with these of other reference strains published in GenBank. Alignment analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that four amino acid mutations in Meq gene and two amino acid mutations in vIL-8 gene displayed perfect regularity in MDVs circulating in China, which could be considered as features of field MDVs prevalent in recent years in China. In addition, one amino acid mutation in pp38 gene can be considered as a feature of virulent MDVs from USA, and three amino acid mutations in Meq gene were identified and unique in very virulent plus (vv+ MDVs. Phylogenetic analysis based on Meq and vIL-8 protein sequences revealed that field MDVs in China evolved independently. Virulence studies showed that CVI988 could provide efficient protection against the field MDVs epidemic recently in China. Conclusions This study and other published data in the GenBank have demonstrated the features of Meq, pp38 and vIL-8 genes of MDVs circulating in recent years in Sichuan, China

  13. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  14. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  15. Endogenous silencing of Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes through in planta-expressed sequences leads to the suppression of rust diseases on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2013-02-01

    Rust fungi are destructive plant pathogens. The draft genomes of several wheat-infecting species have been released and potential pathogenicity genes identified through comparative analyses to fungal pathogens that are amenable to genetic manipulation. Functional gene analysis tools are needed to understand the infection process of these obligate parasites and to confirm whether predicted pathogenicity genes could become targets for disease control. We have modified an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta-induced transient gene silencing (PITGS) assay for use in Triticum spp. (wheat), and used this assay to target predicted wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt) pathogenicity genes, a MAP kinase (PtMAPK1), a cyclophilin (PtCYC1) and calcineurin B (PtCNB), to analyze their roles in disease. Agroinfiltration effectively delivered hairpin silencing constructs in wheat, leading to the generation of fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in infiltrated leaves, and resulting in up to 70% reduction in transcription of the endogenous target genes in superinfected Pt. In vivo silencing caused severe disease suppression, compromising fungal growth and sporulation, as viewed by confocal microscopy and measured by reductions in fungal biomass and emergence of uredinia. Interestingly, using the same gene constructs, suppression of infection by Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis was also achieved. Our results show that A. tumefaciens-mediated PITGS can be used as a reverse-genetics tool to discover gene function in rust fungi. This proof-of-concept study indicates that the targeted fungal transcripts might be important in pathogenesis, and could potentially be used as promising targets for developing RNA interference-based resistance against rust fungi. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated liposomes incorporated with cardiolipin to improve neuronal survival in Alzheimer’s disease treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Lin, Che-Yu; Li, Jay-Shake; Lou, Yung-I

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CRM) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were entrapped in liposomes (LIP) with surface wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to downregulate the phosphorylation of kinases in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapy. Cardiolipin (CL)-conjugated LIP carrying CRM (CRM-CL/LIP) and also carrying NGF (NGF-CL/LIP) were used with AD models of SK-N-MC cells and Wistar rats after an insult with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). We found that CRM-CL/LIP inhibited the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and p-tau protein at serine 202 and prevented neurodegeneration of SK-N-MC cells. In addition, NGF-CL/LIP could enhance the quantities of p-neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 for neuronal rescue. Moreover, WGA-grafted CRM-CL/LIP and WGA-grafted NGF-CL/LIP significantly improved the permeation of CRM and NGF across the blood–brain barrier, reduced Aβ plaque deposition and the malondialdehyde level, and increased the percentage of normal neurons and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of AD rats. Based on the marker expressions and in vivo evidence, current LIP carriers can be promising drug delivery systems to protect nervous tissue against Aβ-induced apoptosis in the brain during the clinical management of AD. PMID:28280340

  17. An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

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    Faizullah Kakar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD. Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6–168.2]. Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply.

  18. An outbreak of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in Western afghanistan associated with exposure to wheat flour contaminated with pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Faizullah; Akbarian, Zarif; Leslie, Toby; Mustafa, Mir Lais; Watson, John; van Egmond, Hans P; Omar, Mohammad Fahim; Mofleh, Jawad

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6-168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply.

  19. Linear relationship between Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) genotypic frequencies and disease severity on wheat roots in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Lionel; Gosme, Marie; Lucas, Philippe; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Sarniguet, Alain

    2007-02-01

    In order to investigate potential links existing between Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) population structure and disease development during polyetic take-all epidemics in sequences of Ggt host cereals, seven epidemics in fields with different cropping histories were monitored during the seasons 2001/2002 (two fields), 2002/2003 (two fields) and 2003/2004 (three fields). Take-all incidence and severity were measured at stem elongation and Ggt populations were characterized. The 73 isolates collected in the two fields in 2001/2002 were distributed into two multilocus genotypes, G1 and G2 according to amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. A monolocus molecular marker amplified by F-12 random amplification polymorphism DNA primer sizing between 1.9 and 2.0 kb that gave strictly the same distinction between the two multilocus genotypes was further applied to measure G1/G2 frequencies among Ggt populations in all fields (266 isolates). The ratios of G1 to G2 differed between fields with different cropping histories. A linear relationship between G2 frequency among Ggt populations and disease severity at stem elongation was measured during the three cropping seasons. When take-all decline was observed, G2 frequencies were low in first wheat crops, highest in short-term sequences and intermediate in longer sequences of consecutive crops of Ggt host cereals. This pattern could be the result of population selection by environmental conditions, in particular by microbial antagonism during the parasitic phase of the fungus. In order to better understand take-all epidemic dynamics, the distinction between these two genotypes could be a basis to develop models that link approaches of quantitative epidemiology and advances in population genetics of Ggt.

  20. Incidence of crown rot disease of wheat caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum as a new soil born fungal species in north west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, H; Ammarellou, A; Jafary, H

    2007-10-15

    Root rot and crown rot is one of the main important fungal diseases on wheat in North West Iran. The disease was studied during 1999-2004 growing seasons in four provinces including Qazvin, Zanjan, East Azarbyjan and Ardabil. Different wheat fields in the areas studied were visited and samples of the plants showing symptoms like chlorosis, withering, whiting of spikes, growth reduction and white heads were collected and transferred to the laboratory. Samples were surface sterilized with sodium hypochlorite and then cultured on common media (PDA) and specific media (PPA and CLA). Totally 155 fungal isolates belonging to five genera were identified and the pathogen most frequently isolated was Fusarium pseudograminearum (formerly known as F. graminearum Group 1). This species normally causes crown rot resulting in severe damage in several locations under dry spring conditions. The disease caused losses from 18-45.5% in the fields where the season and crop rotation allowed the disease to build up. Prolonged moisture stresses coupled with relatively high soil temperature in the fall enhanced early disease development on the roots and sub crown internodes. Environmental conditions and genetic susceptibility of cultivars were the two main factors affecting diseases incidence.

  1. TaLHY, a 1R-MYB Transcription Factor, Plays an Important Role in Disease Resistance against Stripe Rust Fungus and Ear Heading in Wheat.

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    Zijin Zhang

    Full Text Available LHY (late elongated hypocotyl is an important gene that regulates and controls biological rhythms in plants. Additionally, LHY is highly expressed in the SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library-induced stripe rust pathogen (CYR32 in our previous research. To identify the function of the LHY gene in disease resistance against stripe rust, we used RACE-PCR technology to clone TaLHY in the wheat variety Chuannong19. The cDNA of TaLHY is 3085 bp long with an open reading frame of 1947 bp. TaLHY is speculated to encode a 70.3 kDa protein of 648 amino acids , which has one typical plant MYB-DNA binding domain; additionally, phylogenetic tree shows that TaLHY has the highest homology with LHY of Brachypodium distachyon(BdLHY-like. Quantitative fluorescence PCR indicates that TaLHY has higher expression in the leaf, ear and stem of wheat but lower expression in the root. Infestation of CYR32 can result in up-regulated expression of TaLHY, peaking at 72 h. Using VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing technology to disease-resistant wheat in the fourth leaf stage, plants with silenced TaLHY cannot complete their heading stage. Through the compatible interaction with the stripe rust physiological race CYR32, Chuannong 19 loses its immune capability toward the stripe rust pathogen, indicating that TaLHY may regulate and participate in the heading of wheat, as well as the defense responses against stripe rust infection.

  2. Platelet-type von Willebrand disease: new insights into the molecular pathophysiology of a unique platelet defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Maha; Kaur, Harmanpreet; Emsley, Jonas

    2013-09-01

    Compared with coagulation factor defects, little attention is given to defects of platelet function as causes of rare bleeding disorders. Platelet-type von Willebrand disease (PT-VWD) is an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder and is unique among platelet disorders because it is characterized by platelet hyperresponsiveness rather than decreased function. The disease is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the platelet GP1BA gene, which codes for the platelet von Willebrand factor (VWF) receptor, GPIbα. Only five mutations (four missense and one deletion) have so far been reported. Affected patients suffer from mild to moderate mucocutaneous bleeding, low VWF activity compared with antigen, decreased high-molecular-weight VWF multimers, variable degree of thrombocytopenia and typically platelet aggregation in response to low concentrations of ristocetin. All reported PT-VWD missense mutations occur within the R-loop of GPIbα and it was speculated that the introduction of short branched chain mutations such as Val in PT-VWD stabilized the extended β-hairpin. Examination of this theory by surveying all the available GPIbα structures showed that a distinct conformation predominates for the R-loop when GPIbα is not bound to VWF-A1 and this provides the framework of a new hypothesis for the molecular basis of PT-VWD. Worldwide efforts to improve diagnosis of PT-VWD continue, and international systematic studies are required to further our understanding of the phenotype and the influence of the hyperresponsive GPIbα beyond hemostasis.

  3. Gratitude uniquely predicts lower depression in chronic illness populations: A longitudinal study of inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Wood, Alex M

    2017-02-01

    Although gratitude has been identified as a key clinically relevant trait for improving well-being, it is understudied within medical populations. The current study addressed this gap and extended previous and limited cross-sectional research by examining the longitudinal associations of gratitude to depression in 2 chronic illness samples, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two chronic illness samples, arthritis (N = 423) and IBD (N = 427), completed online surveys at Time 1 (T1). One hundred sixty-three people with arthritis and 144 people with IBD completed the 6-month follow-up survey (T2). Depression, gratitude, illness cognitions, perceived stress, social support, and disease-related variables were assessed at T1 and T2. At T2, 57.2% of the arthritis sample and 53.4% of the IBD sample met the cut off scores for significant depression. T1 gratitude was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at T1 and T2 in both samples (rs from -.43 to -.50). Regression analyses revealed that T1 gratitude remained a significant and unique predictor of lower T2 depression after controlling for T1 depression, relevant demographic variables, illness cognitions, changes in illness-relevant variables, and another positive psychological construct, thriving, in both samples. As the first investigation of the longitudinal associations of gratitude to psychological well-being in the context of chronic illness, the current study provides important evidence for the relevance of gratitude for health-related clinical populations. Further intervention-based research is warranted to more fully understand the potential benefits of gratitude for adjustment to chronic illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. 小麦全蚀病菌致病力测定及品种抗病性研究%Virulence of Wheat Take-all Pathogen and Disease Resistance of Different Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 冯彦霞; 杜文珍; 王莹; 陈怀谷

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,the incidence of wheat take-all disease is increasing in Huang-Huai area of China. To determine the virulence of Gaeumannomyces graminis isolates and to provide the scientific basis for screening resistant wheat cultivars, three inoculation and two investigation methods were compared in this study. The results suggested that the method with fungal-colonized agar plugs 2cm below the wheat seeds in combination with the 0-6 disease grade standard was better than the others,which presented appropriate disease severity and less standard error. The virulence of 52 G.graminis isolates collected from Henan,Jiangsu,Anhui and Shandong provinces in 2010 was then tested using the method mentioned above. The virulence was shown to be different significantly among the isolates tested. Finally,69 wheat cultivars were tested for their resistance against G. graminis isolate G1037,which was aggressive during seedling stage. All the wheat cultivars tested were susceptible to G1037 ,and none of them was immune or highly resistant to G. graminis. However,Fanmai 5 and Taikong 6 were moderately resistant against G. graminis.%近年来,小麦全蚀病在我国黄淮麦区的发生呈上升趋势,为了解该病菌的致病力及目前推广品种的抗病性,本研究比较了全蚀病菌致病力的3种接种测定方法和2种病情分级标准,结果表明以蛭石为培养基质、麦种下2cm接种菌丝块和0~6级的分级标准,可比较有效和准确地测定小麦全蚀病菌的致病力.对2010年分离自黄淮麦区河南、江苏、安徽、山东4省10地的52株小麦全蚀病菌进行了致病力测定,结果表明供试菌株的致病力存在明显差异.选取致病性较强的菌株G1037,对69个常用小麦品种进行了苗期抗全蚀病鉴定,结果表明供试小麦品种对全蚀病的抗性水平普遍较低,没有发现免疫和高抗的品种,泛麦5号和太空6号具有较强的抗(耐)性.

  5. Changes in population structure of the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici during continuous wheat cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Lionel; Lucas, Philippe; Dugas, Françoise; Guillerm, Anne-Yvonne; Schoeny, Alexandra; Sarniguet, Alain

    2004-11-01

    A method was developed to assess the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) populations and test the hypothesis of an association between disease level in the field with changes in pathogen populations. A long-term wheat monoculture experiment, established since 1994, generated different take-all epidemics with varying the number of wheat crop successions in the 1999-2000 cropping season. Genetic polymorphism in Ggt populations was investigated over natural, local epidemics. Four populations of 30 isolates were isolated from necrotic wheat roots in a first, third, fourth, and sixth wheat crop in the same year. Each Ggt isolate was characterized with RAPD (Random Amplification Polymorphism DNA) markers and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fingerprinting. Seventeen multilocus genotypes based on the combination of RAPD and AFLP markers were identified among all these populations. The 120 isolates were divided into two main groups, G1 and G2, according to bootstrap values higher than 86%, except for an unique isolate from the third wheat crop. Within each group, populations ranged between 93 and 100% similarity. Both groups included isolates collected from the first, third, fourth or sixth wheat crop. However, G1 group profiles dominated amongst isolates sampled in the first and the sixth wheat crops, whereas G2 group profiles largely dominated amongst isolates collected from the third and fourth wheat crops. Aggressiveness of group G2 (38%) was significantly greater than that of G1 (29.5%). These results suggest that changes in Ggt population structure occur during continuous wheat cropping. The distinction of two Ggt groups provides a simple basis for further spatio-temporal analysis of Ggt population during polyetic take-all decline.

  6. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

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    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    to facilitate gene flow between wheat and related species. Since the environment at the center of origin of wheat in Southern Asia is quite different from subtropical environments, Brazilian breeding programs overcome more challenges to adapt wheat crop to biotic and abiotic stresses than some other countries. The germplasm bank of Embrapa Trigo has about 1000 registered entries of Triticum relatives, Aegilops, Secale and Agropyron species supplied from several germplasm banks distributed over the world which were multiplied and/or selected for naturally occurring or artificially inoculated fungal diseases. Since Aegilops squarrosa L. entries showed very good performance, the genetic variability observed in this species was firstly exploited. It is reported here the strategy used for transferring useful genes from Ae. squarrosa (DD, 2n = 14: crossing with tetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 28, rescue and in vitro culture of immature embryos for regeneration of the trihaploid (ABD, 2n = 21 hybrid, and colchicine treatment for genome duplication resulting in the artificial synthesis of hexaploid wheat lines (AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results of 10,739 artificial pollinations involving 28 cross combinations amongst eight T. durum L., T. dicoccum and T. cartlicum tetraploid entries used as female parents and ten selected Ae. squarrosa sources of resistance as male parents are presented here. Immature embryos from 18 cross combinations were recovered and cultured in vitro. Green plantlets from 13 combinations were regenerated. Fertile amphiploids were recovered only from crosses among entries of tetraploid T. durum and diploid Ae. squarrosa. They originated 11 fertile synthetic amphiploid lines from seven different combinations. Useful stem and leaf rust as well as powdery mildew resistance for future use in breeding programs were obtained.

  7. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  8. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

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    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin. The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  9. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  10. Identification of key uric acid synthesis pathway in a unique mutant silkworm Bombyx mori model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Tabunoki

    Full Text Available Plasma uric acid (UA levels decrease following clinical progression and stage development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying decreases in plasma UA levels remain unclear, and the potential to apply mutagenesis to a PD model has not previously been discovered. We identified a unique mutant of the silkworm Bombyx mori (B.mori op. Initially, we investigated the causality of the phenotypic "op" by microarray analysis using our constructed KAIKO functional annotation pipeline. Consequently, we found a novel UA synthesis-modulating pathway, from DJ-1 to xanthine oxidase, and established methods for large-scale analysis of gene expression in B. mori. We found that the mRNA levels of genes in this pathway were significantly lower in B. mori op mutants, indicating that downstream events in the signal transduction cascade might be prevented. Additionally, levels of B.mori tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and DJ-1 mRNA were significantly lower in the brain of B. mori op mutants. UA content was significantly lower in the B. mori op mutant tissues and hemolymph. The possibility that the B. mori op mutant might be due to loss of DJ-1 function was supported by the observed vulnerability to oxidative stress. These results suggest that UA synthesis, transport, elimination and accumulation are decreased by environmental oxidative stress in the B. mori op mutant. In the case of B. mori op mutants, the relatively low availability of UA appears to be due both to the oxidation of DJ-1 and to its expenditure to mitigate the effects of environmental oxidative stress. Our findings are expected to provide information needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of decreased plasma UA levels in the clinical stage progression of PD.

  11. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  12. Immunohistochemical detection of a unique protein within cells of snakes having inclusion body disease, a world-wide disease seen in members of the families Boidae and Pythonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available Inclusion body disease (IBD is a worldwide disease in captive boa constrictors (boa constrictor and occasionally in other snakes of the families Boidae and Pythonidae. The exact causative agent(s and pathogenesis are not yet fully understood. Currently, diagnosis of IBD is based on the light microscopic identification of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in hematoxylin and eosin stained tissues or blood smears. An antigenically unique 68 KDa protein was identified within the IBD inclusion bodies, called IBD protein. A validated immuno-based ante-mortem diagnostic test is needed for screening snakes that are at risk of having IBD. In this study, despite difficulties in solubilizing semi-purified inclusion bodies, utilizing hybridoma technology a mouse anti-IBD protein monoclonal antibody (MAB was produced. The antigenic specificity of the antibody was confirmed and validated by western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical staining. Paraffin embedded tissues of IBD positive and negative boa constrictors (n=94 collected from 1990 to 2011 were tested with immunohistochemical staining. In boa constrictors, the anti-IBDP MAB had a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 100% in detecting IBD. The antibody also cross-reacted with IBD inclusion bodies in carpet pythons (Morelia spilota and a ball python (python regius. This validated antibody can serve as a tool for the development of ante-mortem immunodiagnostic tests for IBD.

  13. Immunohistochemical Detection of a Unique Protein within Cells of Snakes Having Inclusion Body Disease, a World-Wide Disease Seen in Members of the Families Boidae and Pythonidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Wen; Fu, Ann; Wozniak, Edward; Chow, Marjorie; Duke, Diane G.; Green, Linda; Kelley, Karen; Hernandez, Jorge A.; Jacobson, Elliott R.

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion body disease (IBD) is a worldwide disease in captive boa constrictors (boa constrictor) and occasionally in other snakes of the families Boidae and Pythonidae. The exact causative agent(s) and pathogenesis are not yet fully understood. Currently, diagnosis of IBD is based on the light microscopic identification of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in hematoxylin and eosin stained tissues or blood smears. An antigenically unique 68 KDa protein was identified within the IBD inclusion bodies, called IBD protein. A validated immuno-based ante-mortem diagnostic test is needed for screening snakes that are at risk of having IBD. In this study, despite difficulties in solubilizing semi-purified inclusion bodies, utilizing hybridoma technology a mouse anti-IBD protein monoclonal antibody (MAB) was produced. The antigenic specificity of the antibody was confirmed and validated by western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical staining. Paraffin embedded tissues of IBD positive and negative boa constrictors (n=94) collected from 1990 to 2011 were tested with immunohistochemical staining. In boa constrictors, the anti-IBDP MAB had a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 100% in detecting IBD. The antibody also cross-reacted with IBD inclusion bodies in carpet pythons (Morelia spilota) and a ball python (python regius). This validated antibody can serve as a tool for the development of ante-mortem immunodiagnostic tests for IBD. PMID:24340066

  14. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu

    2012-01-01

    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  15. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to eyespot disease (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fine-mapping of Pch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine D; Rodemann, Bernd; Ling, Jie; Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Plieske, Jörg; Polley, Andreas; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Zschäckel, Thomas; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2017-03-01

    Genotypes with recombination events in the Triticum ventricosum introgression on chromosome 7D allowed to fine-map resistance gene Pch1, the main source of eyespot resistance in European winter wheat cultivars. Eyespot (also called Strawbreaker) is a common and serious fungal disease of winter wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis (former name Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for eyespot was performed with 732 microsatellite markers (SSR) and 7761 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90 K iSELECT wheat array using a panel of 168 European winter wheat varieties as well as three spring wheat varieties and phenotypic evaluation of eyespot in field tests in three environments. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 1.20 (most resistant) to 5.73 (most susceptible) with an average value of 4.24 and a heritability of H (2) = 0.91. A total of 108 SSR and 235 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified by considering associations with a -log10 (P value) ≥3.0. Significant MTAs for eyespot-score BLUEs were found on chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 5A, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7D for the SSR markers and chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B and 7D for the SNP markers. For 18 varieties (10.5%), a highly resistant phenotype was detected that was linked to the presence of the resistance gene Pch1 on chromosome 7D. The identification of genotypes with recombination events in the introgressed genomic segment from Triticum ventricosum harboring the Pch1 resistance gene on chromosome 7DL allowed the fine-mapping of this gene using additional SNP markers and a potential candidate gene Traes_7DL_973A33763 coding for a CC-NBS-LRR class protein was identified.

  16. The hijacking of a receptor kinase-driven pathway by a wheat fungal pathogen leads to disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotrophic pathogens live and feed on dying tissue, but their interactions with plants are not well understood compared to biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the positional cloning of the wheat gene, Snn1, a member of the wall-associated kinase class of receptors, which are ...

  17. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  18. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  19. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Lucky K; Cowger, Christina; Gross, Kevin; Ojiambo, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR) and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF), in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors) collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early assessment of

  20. Targeting of prolamins by RNAi in bread wheat: effectiveness of seven silencing-fragment combinations for obtaining lines devoid of coeliac disease epitopes from highly immunogenic gliadins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Francisco; Iehisa, Julio C M; Giménez, María J; García-Molina, María D; Ozuna, Carmen V; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Gil-Humanes, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Gluten proteins are responsible for the viscoelastic properties of wheat flour but also for triggering pathologies in susceptible individuals, of which coeliac disease (CD) and noncoeliac gluten sensitivity may affect up to 8% of the population. The only effective treatment for affected persons is a strict gluten-free diet. Here, we report the effectiveness of seven plasmid combinations, encompassing RNAi fragments from α-, γ-, ω-gliadins, and LMW glutenin subunits, for silencing the expression of different prolamin fractions. Silencing patterns of transgenic lines were analysed by gel electrophoresis, RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), whereas gluten immunogenicity was assayed by an anti-gliadin 33-mer monoclonal antibody (moAb). Plasmid combinations 1 and 2 downregulated only γ- and α-gliadins, respectively. Four plasmid combinations were highly effective in the silencing of ω-gliadins and γ-gliadins, and three of these also silenced α-gliadins. HMW glutenins were upregulated in all but one plasmid combination, while LMW glutenins were downregulated in three plasmid combinations. Total protein and starch contents were unaffected regardless of the plasmid combination used. Six plasmid combinations provided strong reduction in the gluten content as measured by moAb and for two combinations, this reduction was higher than 90% in comparison with the wild type. CD epitope analysis in peptides identified in LC-MS/MS showed that lines from three plasmid combinations were totally devoid of CD epitopes from the highly immunogenic α- and ω-gliadins. Our findings raise the prospect of breeding wheat species with low levels of harmful gluten, and of achieving the important goal of developing nontoxic wheat cultivars.

  1. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

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    Bosch Dirk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  2. Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by fusarium head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Viera MACHADO

    Full Text Available Abstract Fusarium head blight is an important disease occurring in wheat, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In addition to direct damage to crops, reduced quality and yield losses, the infected grains can accumulate mycotoxins (toxic metabolites originating from prior fungal growth, especially deoxynivalenol (DON. Wheat crops harvested in 2014/2015 in southern Brazil were affected by high levels of Fusarium head blight. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the mycotoxicological quality of Brazilian wheat grains and wheat products (wheat flour and wheat bran for DON. DON contamination was evaluated in 1,504 wheat and wheat product samples produced in Brazil during 2014. It was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph fitted to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS / MS. The results showed that 1,000 (66.5% out of the total samples tested were positive for DON. The mean level of sample contamination was 1047 µg.kg-1, but only 242 samples (16.1% had contamination levels above the maximum permissible levels (MPL - the maximum content allowed by current Brazilian regulation. As of 2017, MPL will be stricter. Thus, research should be conducted on DON contamination of wheat and wheat products, since wheat is a raw material widely used in the food industry, and DON can cause serious harm to public health.

  3. Wheat induced urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Monica

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is widely consumed all over India in various forms - flour, daliya, maida, suji and wheat bran. Very few cases of wheat induced urticaria have been reported. This may be due to unusual features of wheat related hypersensitivity. A 35 year old female presented to us with history of chronic urticaria and angioedema. History revealed correlation between wheat intake and urticaria episodes. Prick testing was done with wheat antigen in the standard series and derivatives of raw wheat. Normal saline and histamine were used as controls. Prick testing was positive. Oral challenge induced urticaria within half an hour. This report discusses clinical features of wheat related hypersensitivity.

  4. Chest Wall Hydatidosis as the Unique Location of the Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophoros N Foroulis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The chest wall is a rare location of secondary hydatidosis, but secondary hydatidosis may occur from the rupture of a lung cyst, from a liver cyst invading the diaphragm into the pleural cavity, following previous thoracic surgery for hydatidosis, or by hematogenous spread. This report describes a case of chest wall hydatidosis, which was the primary disease site in the patient, who had no previous history or current disease (hydatidosis at other sites. The cyst invaded and partially destroyed the 9th and 10th ribs and the 10th thoracic vertebra, and protruded outside the pleural cavity through the 9th intercostal space. Preoperative albendazole administration for 10 days, surgical resection of the disease through a posterolateral thoracotomy incision, and postoperative albendazole treatment resulted in a cure with no evidence of local recurrence or disease at other sites in four years of follow-up.

  5. Adjuvants for spraying of fungicides in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The foliar diseases and spike can markedly reduce the yield of wheat. Despite prevailing chemical control in the management of disease, studies with adjuvants to improve the performance of fungicides are still incipient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding adjuvants to chemical fungicides to control leaf diseases and spike, as well as on the yield of wheat crop. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 05 treatments: control (no fungicide application i...

  6. SnTox3 acts in effector triggered susceptibility to induce disease on wheat carrying the Snn3 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The necrotrophic fungus Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple proteinaceous host-selective toxins (HSTs which act in effector triggered susceptibility. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of the SnTox3-encoding gene, designated SnTox3, as well as the initial characterization of the SnTox3 protein. SnTox3 is a 693 bp intron-free gene with little obvious homology to other known genes. The predicted immature SnTox3 protein is 25.8 kDa in size. A 20 amino acid signal sequence as well as a possible pro sequence are predicted. Six cysteine residues are predicted to form disulfide bonds and are shown to be important for SnTox3 activity. Using heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris and transformation into an avirulent S. nodorum isolate, we show that SnTox3 encodes the SnTox3 protein and that SnTox3 interacts with the wheat susceptibility gene Snn3. In addition, the avirulent S. nodorum isolate transformed with SnTox3 was virulent on host lines expressing the Snn3 gene. SnTox3-disrupted mutants were deficient in the production of SnTox3 and avirulent on the Snn3 differential wheat line BG220. An analysis of genetic diversity revealed that SnTox3 is present in 60.1% of a worldwide collection of 923 isolates and occurs as eleven nucleotide haplotypes resulting in four amino acid haplotypes. The cloning of SnTox3 provides a fundamental tool for the investigation of the S. nodorum-wheat interaction, as well as vital information for the general characterization of necrotroph-plant interactions.

  7. Interleukin-17A: a unique pathway in immune-mediated diseases: psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Bruce W; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Reich, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence points to the importance of the cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in the pathogenesis of several immunoinflammatory diseases including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Although a principal effector of T helper type 17 cells, IL-17A is produced by many other cell types including CD8+ T cells and γδ T cells, and is found at high levels associated with mast cells and neutrophils at sites of skin and joint disease in humans. IL-17A up-regulates expression of numerous inflammation-related genes in target cells such as keratinocytes and fibroblasts, leading to increased production of chemokines, cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and other mediators that contribute to clinical disease features. Importantly, IL-17A must be considered within the context of the local microenvironment, because it acts synergistically or additively with other pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor. Several direct IL-17A inhibitors have shown promising activity in proof of concept and phase 2 clinical studies, thereby providing confirmation of experimental data supporting IL-17A in disease pathogenesis, although levels of response are not predicted by pre-clinical findings. IL-17A inhibitors produced rapid down-regulation of the psoriasis gene signature and high clinical response rates in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, consistent with an important role for IL-17A in psoriasis pathogenesis. Clinical response rates with IL-17A inhibitors in psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, however, were improved to a lesser degree compared with placebo, suggesting that IL-17A is either important in a subset of patients or plays a relatively minor role in inflammatory joint disease. Ongoing phase 3 clinical trials should provide further information on the role of IL-17A in these diseases. PMID:23819583

  8. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  9. Optimal fungicide application timings for disease control are also an effective anti-resistance strategy: a case study for Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycosphaerella graminicola) on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, F; van den Bosch, F; Paveley, N D

    2013-12-01

    Strategies to slow fungicide resistance evolution often advocate early "prophylactic" fungicide application and avoidance of "curative" treatments where possible. There is little evidence to support such guidance. Fungicide applications are usually timed to maximize the efficiency of disease control during the yield-forming period. This article reports mathematical modeling to explore whether earlier timings might be more beneficial for fungicide resistance management compared with the timings that are optimal for efficacy. There are two key timings for fungicide treatment of winter wheat in the United Kingdom: full emergence of leaf three (counting down the canopy) and full emergence of the flag leaf (leaf 1). These timings (referred to as T1 and T2, respectively) maximize disease control on the upper leaves of the crop canopy that are crucial to yield. A differential equation model was developed to track the dynamics of leaf emergence and senescence, epidemic growth, fungicide efficacy, and selection for a resistant strain. The model represented Zymoseptoria tritici on wheat treated twice at varying spray timings. At all fungicide doses tested, moving one or both of the two sprays earlier than the normal T1 and T2 timings reduced selection but also reduced efficacy. Despite these opposing effects, at a fungicide dose just sufficient to obtain effective control, the T1 and T2 timings optimized fungicide effective life (the number of years that effective control can be maintained). At a higher dose, earlier spray timings maximized effective life but caused some reduction in efficacy, whereas the T1 and T2 timings maximized efficacy but resulted in an effective life 1 year shorter than the maximum achievable.

  10. The Interferon-signature of Sjögren’s Syndrome: How Unique Biomarkers Can Identify Underlying Inflammatory and Immunopathological Mechanisms of Specific Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong eNguyen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses direct the nature and specificity of downstream adaptive responses in autoimmune diseases. One of the strongest markers of innate immunity is the up-regulated expression of interferon (IFN and IFN-responsive/stimulated genes (IRGs/ISGs. While multiple IRGs are induced during the innate phase of host responses, transcriptome data suggest unique IRG-signatures for different diseases. Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS is characterized by chronic immune attacks against exocrine glands leading to exocrine dysfunction, plus strong up-regulated expressions of IFN IRG transcripts. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses indicate that differentially-expressed IRGs are restricted during disease development and therefore define underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Here we review the innate immune-associated IFN-signature of SjS and show how differential gene expressions of IRG/ISG sets interact molecularly and biologically to identify critical details of SjS etiopathogenesis.

  11. RNA-Seq analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells reveals unique transcriptional signatures associated with disease progression in dengue patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arup; Shukla, Shweta; Pandey, Abhay Deep; Goswami, Saptamita; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai; Das, Shukla; Malhotra, Arjun; Agarwal, Amitesh; Adhikari, Srima; Rahman, Mehebubar; Chatterjee, Shatakshee; Bhattacharya, Nemai; Basu, Nandita; Pandey, Priyanka; Sood, Vikas; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2017-08-01

    Patients infected with Dengue virus usually present a mild, self-limiting febrile dengue infection (DI) that occasionally leads to a potentially lethal complication, called the severe dengue (DS). The ability to identify the prognostic markers of DS could allow an improved disease intervention and management. To identify the transcriptional signatures associated with the dengue disease progression, we carried out the high-throughput sequencing of the RNA isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the dengue patients of varying severity and compared with that in the patients with other febrile illnesses (OFIs) or the healthy controls. The transcriptional signatures that discriminated the DS patients from OFI and DI patients were broadly related to the pathways involving glycine, serine, and threonine metabolisms, extracellular matrix organization, ubiquitination, and cytokines and inflammatory response. Several upregulated genes in the inflammatory process (MPO, DEFA4, ELANE, AUZ1, CTSG, OLFM4, SLC16A14, and CRISP3) that were associated with the dengue disease progression are known to facilitate leukocyte-mediated migration, and neutrophil activation and degranulation process. High activity of MPO and ELANE in the plasma samples of the follow-up and recovered dengue patients, as well as and the presence of a larger amount of cell-free dsDNA in the DS patients, suggested an association of neutrophil-mediated immunity with dengue disease progression. Careful monitoring of some of these gene transcripts, and control of the activity of proteins encoded by them, may have a great translational significance for the prognosis and management of the dengue patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome of Rhodnius prolixus, an insect vector of Chagas disease, reveals unique adaptations to hematophagy and parasite infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Rafael D.; Vionette-Amaral, Raquel J.; Lowenberger, Carl; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Monteiro, Fernando A.; Minx, Patrick; Spieth, John; Carvalho, A. Bernardo; Panzera, Francisco; Lawson, Daniel; Torres, André Q.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Amaral, Laurence R.; Araujo, Helena M.; Aravind, L.; Atella, Georgia C.; Azambuja, Patricia; Berni, Mateus; Bittencourt-Cunha, Paula R.; Braz, Gloria R. C.; Calderón-Fernández, Gustavo; Carareto, Claudia M. A.; Christensen, Mikkel B.; Costa, Igor R.; Costa, Samara G.; Dansa, Marilvia; Daumas-Filho, Carlos R. O.; De-Paula, Iron F.; Dias, Felipe A.; Dimopoulos, George; Emrich, Scott J.; Esponda-Behrens, Natalia; Fampa, Patricia; Fernandez-Medina, Rita D.; da Fonseca, Rodrigo N.; Fontenele, Marcio; Fronick, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Garcia, Eloi S.; Genta, Fernando A.; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria I.; Gomes, Bruno; Gondim, Katia C.; Granzotto, Adriana; Guarneri, Alessandra A.; Guigó, Roderic; Harry, Myriam; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Jablonka, Willy; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Juárez, M. Patricia; Koerich, Leonardo B.; Lange, Angela B.; Latorre-Estivalis, José Manuel; Lavore, Andrés; Lawrence, Gena G.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Lopes, Raphael R.; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.; Lugon, Magda D.; Marcet, Paula L.; Mariotti, Marco; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Megy, Karine; Missirlis, Fanis; Mota, Theo; Noriega, Fernando G.; Nouzova, Marcela; Nunes, Rodrigo D.; Oliveira, Raquel L. L.; Oliveira-Silveira, Gilbert; Ons, Sheila; Orchard, Ian; Pagola, Lucia; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Pascual, Agustina; Pavan, Marcio G.; Pedrini, Nicolás; Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Pereira, Marcos H.; Pike, Andrew; Polycarpo, Carla; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Robertson, Hugh M.; Salerno, Ana Paula; Salmon, Didier; Santesmasses, Didac; Schama, Renata; Seabra-Junior, Eloy S.; Silva-Cardoso, Livia; Silva-Neto, Mario A. C.; Souza-Gomes, Matheus; Sterkel, Marcos; Taracena, Mabel L.; Tojo, Marta; Tu, Zhijian Jake; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Venancio, Thiago M.; Walter-Nuno, Ana Beatriz; Wilson, Derek; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Huebner, Erwin; Dotson, Ellen M.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhodnius prolixus not only has served as a model organism for the study of insect physiology, but also is a major vector of Chagas disease, an illness that affects approximately seven million people worldwide. We sequenced the genome of R. prolixus, generated assembled sequences covering 95% of the genome (∼702 Mb), including 15,456 putative protein-coding genes, and completed comprehensive genomic analyses of this obligate blood-feeding insect. Although immune-deficiency (IMD)-mediated immune responses were observed, R. prolixus putatively lacks key components of the IMD pathway, suggesting a reorganization of the canonical immune signaling network. Although both Toll and IMD effectors controlled intestinal microbiota, neither affected Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, implying the existence of evasion or tolerance mechanisms. R. prolixus has experienced an extensive loss of selenoprotein genes, with its repertoire reduced to only two proteins, one of which is a selenocysteine-based glutathione peroxidase, the first found in insects. The genome contained actively transcribed, horizontally transferred genes from Wolbachia sp., which showed evidence of codon use evolution toward the insect use pattern. Comparative protein analyses revealed many lineage-specific expansions and putative gene absences in R. prolixus, including tandem expansions of genes related to chemoreception, feeding, and digestion that possibly contributed to the evolution of a blood-feeding lifestyle. The genome assembly and these associated analyses provide critical information on the physiology and evolution of this important vector species and should be instrumental for the development of innovative disease control methods. PMID:26627243

  13. Systemic mastocytosis: progressive evolution of an occult disease into fatal mast cell leukemia: unique findings on an unusual hematological neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, T; Sander, B; Nilsson, G; Palmblad, J; Sotlar, K; Horny, H-P; Hägglund, H

    2012-12-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) may be associated with a clonal hematopoietic non-mast cell-lineage disease (AHNMD). SM and AHNMD even may be clonally related. This report contributes to a better understanding of the different morphological aspects of SM by demonstrating that various AHNMDs can be detected in one patient during the course of disease. Routinely processed biopsy specimens of bone marrow and spleen removed from a 63-year-old man were investigated including a broad panel of immunohistochemical stainings. KIT codon 816 mutation analysis was carried out by melting point analysis of nested PCR products amplified from DNA of pooled microdissected mast cells. The histomorphological features of the initial bone marrow showed diffuse infiltration by hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Occult SM was only detected retrospectively by demonstration of a slight diffuse increase in loosely scattered, spindle-shaped mast cells carrying the activating point mutation KIT ( D816V ). In the second bone marrow, core biopsy removed about two years later HCL had been completely eradicated, while a diagnosis of SM-AHNMD with multifocal compact mast cell infiltrates associated with a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and significant increase in eosinophilic granulocytes was established. The third and last bone marrow biopsy specimen lacked the features of both MPN and HCL but showed progression into a secondary mast cell leukemia (MCL) with a focal sarcomatous component. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a case of SM-AHNMD with coexisting hematological neoplasms of lymphatic and myeloid origin initially presenting as occult disease and terminating as secondary MCL.

  14. Macaques with Rapid Disease Progression and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis Have a Unique Cytokine Profile in Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The influence of host cytokine response on viral load, disease progression, and neurologic lesions was investigated in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model of AIDS. Cytokine gene expression (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) and viral loads were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR in lymph nodes of 5 control animals and 28 animals infected with SIVmac251 at the terminal st...

  15. Nutritional and food protection against epidemic emerging neuropathy. Epidemiological findings in the unique disease-free urban area of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, J; Verdura Barrios, T; Chassagne, M; Pérez Cristiá, R; Arnaud, J; Fleites Mestre, P; Montoya, M E; Favier, A

    2001-09-01

    A survey was conducted through the SECUBA (SEguridad alimentaria en CUba y Buena Alimentación) research program in Cuban healthy smokers living in Guantánamo and in Havana. The aim of the survey was to investigate biological and nutritional factors connected with the occurrence of zero epidemic neuropathy (EN) observed in Guantánamo urban area since the disease emerged in Cuba. Blood riboflavin status and carotenoid and selenium concentrations were higher in Guantánamo than in Havana smokers. Food dietary quantities of plantain banana, pepper (Capsicum spp.), bovine meat and milk products were higher in Guantánamo. Inversely, foods rich in cholesterol, especially eggs, were more consumed in Havana. Through riboflavin, carotenoid and selenium contents and specific antioxidants substances (indoleamines, capsaicin), the foods more consumed in Guantánamo could be considered as EN protective factors. Disease protective effects could be exerted via enhancement of defence mechanisms against free radical damage and related mechanisms focused on redox recycling of glutathione and local protection from carotenoids. Finally, the results of the present study should help Cuba, through a better EN control, to improve long-term food safety and define healthier dietary habits.

  16. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  17. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Simple Resistance Locus in a Crop–Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C.; Gill, Bikram

    2009-01-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were ide...

  18. Unique gene expression and MR T2 relaxometry patterns define chronic murine dextran sodium sulphate colitis as a model for connective tissue changes in human Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Breynaert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total. Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T 2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn's colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn's disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of

  19. Deciphering the complexities of the wheat flour proteome using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis, three proteases and tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurkman William J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, in part because of the unique end-use qualities conferred by the abundant glutamine- and proline-rich gluten proteins. Many wheat flour proteins also present dietary problems for consumers with celiac disease or wheat allergies. Despite the importance of these proteins it has been particularly challenging to use MS/MS to distinguish the many proteins in a flour sample and relate them to gene sequences. Results Grain from the extensively characterized spring wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum 'Butte 86' was milled to white flour from which proteins were extracted, then separated and quantified by 2-DE. Protein spots were identified by separate digestions with three proteases, followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides. The spectra were used to interrogate an improved protein sequence database and results were integrated using the Scaffold program. Inclusion of cultivar specific sequences in the database greatly improved the results, and 233 spots were identified, accounting for 93.1% of normalized spot volume. Identified proteins were assigned to 157 wheat sequences, many for proteins unique to wheat and nearly 40% from Butte 86. Alpha-gliadins accounted for 20.4% of flour protein, low molecular weight glutenin subunits 18.0%, high molecular weight glutenin subunits 17.1%, gamma-gliadins 12.2%, omega-gliadins 10.5%, amylase/protease inhibitors 4.1%, triticins 1.6%, serpins 1.6%, purinins 0.9%, farinins 0.8%, beta-amylase 0.5%, globulins 0.4%, other enzymes and factors 1.9%, and all other 3%. Conclusions This is the first successful effort to identify the majority of abundant flour proteins for a single wheat cultivar, relate them to individual gene sequences and estimate their relative levels. Many genes for wheat flour proteins are not expressed, so this study represents further progress in describing the expressed wheat genome. Use of cultivar

  20. Effects of open-top chamber fumigations with ozone on three fungal leaf diseases of wheat and the mycoflora of the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tiedemann, A; Weigel, H J; Jäger, H J

    1991-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Turbo) was exposed in open-top chambers to six different ozone levels (8-h daily means from 12.4 to 122 microg m(-3)), to non-filtered air and to chamberless field conditions for 31 days from seedling stage through ear emergence. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f.sp. tritici Marchal) which developed during the exposure period was significantly enhanced from 0.3/0.6% (two chamber replicates), 1.2/2.1%, 0.9/2.2% in charcoal-filtered air (CF) to 1.5/1.6%, 3.7/4.3%, 4.4/4.6% at the highest level of ozone, on the flag leaf, second and third leaf position, respectively. Post-exposure inoculation with Septoria nodorum Berk. led to increases of disease severity on the flag leaf from 40.9/43.6% in CF to 66.3/70.6% at the highest ozone concentration and on the ears from 15.7/16.5% to 26.3/26.6%. In the same comparison, severity of spot blotch following inoculation with Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoem. (syn. Helminthosporium sativum Pamm., King et Bakke) was increased on the flag leaf from 3.6/8.9% to 12.3/23.4%. The three diseases examined correlated significantly with the ozone treatments in fumigated chambers. Disease severity was enhanced even on undamaged plant tissue (flag leaves). Infections of the two facultative pathogens on lower leaf positions started only in part from visible ozone lesions, mildew did not start from such lesions. No significant effects of ozone in the chambers on the saprobial colonization of the phyllosphere were detected, whereas there were marked differences in this respect between plants from the field and the chambers. At the highest ozone treatment, contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoids on the second leaf position declined significantly, which was associated with symptoms of premature senescence. Senescing effects of ozone are therefore assumed to be one major factor in predisposing wheat for necrotrophic leaf pathogens. Surprisingly, injurious and predisposing effects of ozone were

  1. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  2. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Caretto, Sofia; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-08-28

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  3. In vitro Antagonistic Mechanisms of Trichoderma spp. and Talaromyces flavus to Control Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici the Causal Agent of Wheat Take-all Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddighe Mohammadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici has recently been detected in different regions of Iran. With respect to biocontrol effect of Trichoderma spp. on many pathogenic fungi, seven isolates of Trichoderma and four isolates of Talaromyces were in vitro evaluated in terms of their biological control against the disease causal agent. In dual culture test the five isolates showed efficient competition for colonization against pathogenic fungus and the highest percentages of inhibition belonging to Talaromyces flavus 60 and Talaromyces flavus 136 were 59.52 and 57.61%, respectively. Microscopic investigations showed that in regions where antagonistic isolates and Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici coincide, hyphal contact, penetration and fragmentation of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici were observed. Investigating the effect of volatile and non-volatile compounds at 10 ml concentration showed that the highest inhibition percentage on mycelium growth of the pathogen caused by T. harzianum (44.76% and T. longibrachiatum (52.38% respectively.

  4. Genomic and metabolic traits endow Bacillus velezensis CC09 with a potential biocontrol agent in control of wheat powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xun-Chao; Liu, Chang-Hong; Wang, Bao-Tong; Xue, Ya-Rong

    2017-03-01

    Bacillus velezensis CC09, which was isolated from healthy leaves of Cinnamomum camphora and previously identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09, shows great potential as a new biocontrol agent, in control of many phytopathogenic diseases. To extend our understanding of the potential antifungal capacities, we did a whole genome analysis of strain CC09. Result shows that strain CC09 has a relatively large genome size (4.17Mb) with an average GC content of 46.1%, and 4021 predicted genes. Thirteen secondary metabolites encoding clusters have been identified within the genome of B. velezensis CC09 using genome mining technique. Data of comparative genomic analysis indicated that 3 of the clusters are conserved by all strains of B. velezensis, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis 168, 9 by B. velezensis and B. amyloliquefaciens, and 2 by all strains of B. velezensis. Another 2 clusters encoding NRPS (Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases) and NRPS-TransATPKS (NRPS and trans-Acyl Transferase Polyketide Synthetases) respectively are observed only in 15 B. velezensis strains, which might lead to the synthesis of novel bioactive compounds and could be explored as antimicrobial agents in the future. These clusters endow B. velezensis CC09 with strong and broad antimicrobial activities, for example, in control of wheat powdery mildew disease. Moreover, our data further confirmed the taxonomy of strain CC09 is a member of B. velezensis rather than a strain of B. amyloliquefaciens based on core genome sequence analysis using phylogenomic approach.

  5. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  6. Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L. H.; Osmeloski, J. F.; Wettlaufer, S. H.; Galston, A. W.

    1987-01-01

    In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

  7. Protection of wheat against leaf and stem rust and powdery mildew diseases by inhibition of polyamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, L H; Osmeloski, J F; Wettlaufer, S H; Galston, A W

    1987-01-01

    In higher plants, polyamines arise from arginine by one of two pathways: via ornithine and ornithine decarboxylase or via agmatine and arginine decarboxylase but in fungi, only the ornithine decarboxylase pathway is present. Since polyamines are required for normal growth of microorganisms and plants and since the ornithine pathway can be irreversibly blocked by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) which has no effect on arginine decarboxylase, fungal infection of green plants might be controlled by the site-directed use of such a specific metabolic inhibitor. DFMO at relatively low concentrations provided effective control of the three biotrophic fungal pathogens studied, Puccinia recondita (leaf rust), P. graminis f. sp. tritici (stem rust), and Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Effective control of infection by leaf or stem rust fungi was obtained with sprays of DFMO that ranged from about 0.01 to 0.20 mM in experiments where the inhibitor was applied after spore inoculation. The powdery mildew fungus was somewhat more tolerant of DFMO, but good control of the pathogen was obtained at less than 1.0 mM. In general, application of DFMO after spore inoculation was more effective than application before inoculation. Less control was obtained following treatment with alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) but the relatively high degree of control obtained raises the possibility of a DFMA to DFMO conversion by arginase.

  8. Biological control of take-all of wheat by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take-all disease of wheat caused by the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) is one of the most important root diseases of wheat worldwide. In order to find biocontrol agents, bacteria were isolated from wheat at different stages of development in Hebei and Jiangsu provinces i...

  9. The preferred substrates for transglutaminase 2 in a complex wheat gluten digest are Peptide fragments harboring celiac disease T-cell epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Dørum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2. In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. METHODS: A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. RESULTS: We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. CONCLUSION: TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease.

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Impact of HIV on HCV Immune Responses and Its Association with Liver Disease Progression in a Unique Plasma Donor Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa, Ushani S.; Lawrence, Tessa M.; Peng, Yan-Chun; Liu, Jinghua; Xu, Keyi; Hu, Ke; Qin, Ling; Liu, Ning; Sun, Huanqin; Yan, Hui-Ping; Repapi, Emmanouela; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Thimme, Robert; McKeating, Jane A.; Dong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-1 infected patients. Our understanding of the impact of HIV infection on HCV specific immune responses and liver disease outcome is limited by the heterogeneous study populations with genetically diverse infecting viruses, varying duration of infection and anti-viral treatment. Methods Viral-specific immune responses in a cohort of 151 HCV mono- and HIV co-infected former plasma donors infected with a narrow source of virus were studied. HCV and HIV specific T cell responses were correlated with clinical data. Results HIV-1 accelerated liver disease progression and decreased HCV specific T cell immunity. The magnitude of HCV specific T cell responses inversely correlated with lower HCV RNA load and reduced liver injury as assessed by non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis. HIV co-infection reduced the frequency of HCV specific CD4+ T cells with no detectable effect on CD8+ T cells or neutralizing antibody levels. Conclusion Our study highlights the impact of HIV co-infection on HCV specific CD4+ T cell responses in a unique cohort of patients for both HCV and HIV and suggests a crucial role for these cells in controlling chronic HCV replication and liver disease progression. PMID:27455208

  11. Wheat PR-1 proteins are targeted by necrotrophic pathogen effector proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Susan; Williams, Simon J; Winterberg, Britta; Kobe, Bostjan; Solomon, Peter S

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have identified that proteinaceous effectors secreted by Parastagonospora nodorum are required to cause disease on wheat. These effectors interact in a gene-for-gene manner with host-dominant susceptibilty loci, resulting in disease. However, whilst the requirement of these effectors for infection is clear, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. A yeast-two-hybrid library approach was used to search for wheat proteins that interacted with the necrotrophic effector SnTox3. Using this strategy we indentified an interaction between SnTox3 and the wheat pathogenicity-related protein TaPR-1-1, and confirmed it by in-planta co-immunprecipitation. PR-1 proteins represent a large family (23 in wheat) of proteins that are upregulated early in the defence response; however, their function remains ellusive. Interestingly, the P. nodorum effector SnToxA has recently been shown to interact specifically with TaPR-1-5. Our analysis of the SnTox3-TaPR-1 interaction demonstrated that SnTox3 can interact with a broader range of TaPR-1 proteins. Based on these data we utilised homology modeling to predict, and validate, regions on TaPR-1 proteins that are likely to be involved in the SnTox3 interaction. Precipitating from this work, we identified that a PR-1-derived defence signalling peptide from the C-terminus of TaPR-1-1, known as CAPE1, enhanced the infection of wheat by P. nodorum in an SnTox3-dependent manner, but played no role in ToxA-mediated disease. Collectively, our data suggest that P. nodorum has evolved unique effectors that target a common host-protein involved in host defence, albeit with different mechanisms and potentially outcomes.

  12. 低聚糖对小麦几种主要病害抗性的诱导作用%Studies on the Induced Resistance of Oligosaccharides to Several Important Wheat Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小曼; 王阳; 王保通; 彭少鹏

    2012-01-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the induced resistance of oligosaccharides extracted from the earth-hump to invasion of wheat take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis, wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and wheat powdery mildew caused by Blumeria gra- minis. The wheat seeds or seedlings treated with different concentration Of oligosaccharides to study the induced resistance to three diseases. The results showed that the oligosaccharide extracts from earth-hump could induce the resistance of wheat to B. graminis,G, graminis and P. striiformis,and the most effect was observed to P. striiformis. The most appropriate concentration of the oligosac- charide to control wheat stripe rust was 2 mg mL-1 ,the control effect was more than 70 ,and the induced effect could transmit to the untreated leaves. The induced effect of the oligosaccharide to B. graminis and (5. graminis was lower than that to P. striiformis,the best concentration was 5 mg mL 1 , and the effect was much lower when the concentration of the oligosaccharide decreased. The re- sult of field experiment showed that the oligosaccharide extracts could control the wheat stripe rust with a good effect of more than 60%.%为探讨低聚糖对小麦白粉病、全蚀病和条锈病抗性的诱导作用,用不同浓度的低聚糖处理接种该三种病原菌的小麦幼苗,观察和分析三种病害的发生状况。结果表明,低聚糖处理能够诱导小麦对白粉病、全蚀病和条锈病产生抗性,对小麦条锈病诱抗作用优于白粉病和全蚀病。低聚糖对小麦条锈病的防治效果以2mg.mL-1处理最佳,对白粉病和全蚀病以5mg.mL-1最佳。大田试验结果也表明,低聚糖对小麦条锈病有很好的防治作用。

  13. Molecular Characteristics of New Wheat Starch and Its Digestion Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-kai; HUA Ze-tian; YANG Yan; ZHENG Pai-yun; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Xiao-shan

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of starch molecular characteristics on the gel structure, which subsequently inlfuence the gel digestion behaviours, three wheat starches, control (conventional wheat starch), two new wheat cultivars with different genetic backgrounds (by knocking out SBE IIb and SBE IIa, respectively) were used in this study. In comparison with control, slight differences in the morphology of the starch granules of new wheat 1 were observed, whereas the starch granules of new wheat 2 had irregular shapes both for A-type granules and B-type granules. Starch molecular weight size was determined by SE-HPLC, and the results indicate that there was a subtle increase in the amylose content in the starch of new wheat 1 compared to that of control. The starch of new wheat 2 had the highest amylose content, and the molecular weight (MW) of its amylopectin was the lowest among the three starches. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate starch gel structure and the results suggest that the molecules of starch gel from new wheat 2 are more likely to re-associate to form an organized conformation. The digestion behaviours of the three starch gels were measured using a mixture of pancreatinα-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The results indicated that the starch gels of control and new wheat 1 had very high digestibility of 91.7 and 91.9%, respectively, whereas the digestibility of wheat 2 starch gel was only 36.2%. In comparison with the digestion curve patterns of control and new wheat 1 starch gels, the new wheat 2 exhibited a much lower initial velocity. These results indicated that the molecules in the starch of new wheat 2 are more readily to re-associate to form an organized structure during gel formation because of its unique molecular characteristics.

  14. Candidate inflammatory biomarkers display unique relationships with alpha-synuclein and correlate with measures of disease severity in subjects with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Lori N; Kannarkat, George T; Barnum, Christopher J; Chang, Jianjun; Chung, Jaegwon; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Taylor, Peggy; Mollenhauer, Brit; Schlossmacher, Michael G; Ereshefsky, Larry; Yen, Mark; Kopil, Catherine; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Hertzberg, Vicki S; Tansey, Malú G

    2017-08-18

    Efforts to identify fluid biomarkers of Parkinson's disease (PD) have intensified in the last decade. As the role of inflammation in PD pathophysiology becomes increasingly recognized, investigators aim to define inflammatory signatures to help elucidate underlying mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and aid in identification of patients with inflammatory endophenotypes that could benefit from immunomodulatory interventions. However, discordant results in the literature and a lack of information regarding the stability of inflammatory factors over a 24-h period have hampered progress. Here, we measured inflammatory proteins in serum and CSF of a small cohort of PD (n = 12) and age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 6) at 11 time points across 24 h to (1) identify potential diurnal variation, (2) reveal differences in PD vs HC, and (3) to correlate with CSF levels of amyloid β (Aβ) and α-synuclein in an effort to generate data-driven hypotheses regarding candidate biomarkers of PD. Despite significant variability in other factors, a repeated measures two-way analysis of variance by time and disease state for each analyte revealed that serum IFNγ, TNF, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were stable across 24 h and different between HC and PD. Regression analysis revealed that C-reactive protein (CRP) was the only factor with a strong linear relationship between CSF and serum. PD and HC subjects showed significantly different relationships between CSF Aβ proteins and α-synuclein and specific inflammatory factors, and CSF IFNγ and serum IL-8 positively correlated with clinical measures of PD. Finally, linear discriminant analysis revealed that serum TNF and CSF α-synuclein discriminated between PD and HC with a minimum of 82% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our findings identify a panel of inflammatory factors in serum and CSF that can be reliably measured, distinguish between PD and HC, and monitor inflammation as disease

  15. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread ma

  16. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread

  17. Disruption of long-range gene regulation in human genetic disease: a kaleidoscope of general principles, diverse mechanisms and unique phenotypic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shipra; Kleinjan, Dirk A

    2014-07-01

    The precise control of gene expression programs is crucial for the establishment of the diverse gene activity patterns required for the correct development, patterning and differentiation of the myriad of cell types within an organism. The crucial importance of non-coding regions of the genome in the control of gene regulation is well established and depends on a diverse group of sequence fragments called cis-regulatory elements that reside in these regions. Advances in novel genome-wide techniques have greatly increased the ability to identify potential regulatory elements. In contrast, their functional characterisation and the determination of their diverse modes of action remain a major bottleneck. Greater knowledge of gene expression control is of major importance for human health as disruption of gene regulation has become recognised as a significant cause of human disease. Appreciation of the role of cis-regulatory polymorphism in natural variation and susceptibility to common disease is also growing. While novel techniques such as GWAS and NGS provide the ability to collect large genomic datasets, the challenge for the twenty-first century will be to extract the relevant sequences and how to investigate the functional consequences of disease-associated changes. Here, we review how studies of transcriptional control at selected paradigm disease gene loci have revealed general principles of cis-regulatory logic and regulatory genome organisation, yet also demonstrate how the variety of mechanisms can combine to result in unique phenotypic outcomes. Integration of these principles with the emerging wealth of genome-wide data will provide enhanced insight into the workings of our regulatory genome.

  18. Improved Quantitation of Gluten in Wheat Starch for Celiac Disease Patients by Gel-Permeation High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection (GP-HPLC-FLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, Katharina Anne; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter

    2016-10-12

    Purified wheat starch (WSt) is commonly used in gluten-free products for celiac disease (CD) patients. It is mostly well-tolerated, but doubts about its safety for CD patients persist. One reason may be that most ELISA kits primarily recognize the alcohol-soluble gliadin fraction of gluten, but insufficiently target the alcohol-insoluble glutenin fraction. To address this problem, a new sensitive method based on the sequential extraction of gliadins, glutenins, and gluten from WSt followed by gel-permeation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (GP-HPLC-FLD) was developed. It revealed that considerable amounts of glutenins were present in most WSt. The gluten contents quantitated by GP-HPLC-FLD as sum of gliadins and glutenins were higher than those by R5 ELISA (gluten as gliadin content multiplied by a factor of 2) in 19 out of 26 WSt. Despite its limited selectivity, GP-HPLC-FLD may be applied as confirmatory method to ELISA to quantitate gluten in WSt.

  19. Control químico de las enfermedades: una alternativa para la producción de trigo de temporal en Tlaxcala Chemical control of diseases: an alternative for rainfall wheat production in Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Eduardo Villaseñor Mir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de valorar la conveniencia de aplicar fungicida para mejorar la productividad del trigo harinero y cristalino cuando incide la roya amarilla y el complejo de enfermedades foliares bajo condiciones de temporal, se establecieron en tres localidades del estado de Tlaxcala las variedades Gema C2004 y Tlaxcala F2000. Las variables analizadas fueron días a floración y a madurez, altura de planta, rendimiento de grano, incidencia de roya amarilla en el follaje y en la espiga e incidencia y severidad de enfermedades foliares. En las tres localidades la variedad de trigo harinero Tlaxcala F2000 superó en rendimiento de grano a la variedad de trigo cristalino Gema C2004 de 9% hasta 46%. Las enfermedades en su conjunto causaron mermas en el rendimiento hasta 26%. Sportak® fue el fungicida que se asoció con el mejor control de las enfermedades, lo cual se reflejó en una mayor productividad de grano con incrementos promedios 26.5 y 29.4%, cuando incidió roya amarilla y enfermedades foliares, respectivamente. Los resultados indican que es conveniente la aplicación de fungicida para reducir mermas en la producción de trigo de temporal.With the aim to evaluate convenience of applying fungicide to improve productivity of flour wheat and white wheat when there is incidence of yellow rust and complex of foliar diseases under rainfall conditions, varieties Gema C2004 and Tlaxcala F2000 were settled in three localities from state of Tlaxcala. Analyzed variables were days to flowering and to maturity, plant height, grain yield, incidence of yellow rust in foliage and in ear and incidence and severity of foliar diseases. In the three localities the flour wheat Tlaxcala F2000 variety overcame from 9% to 40% in grain yield to white wheat Gema C2004 variety. The diseases together caused decrease in yield up to 26%. Sportak® was the fungicide associated with better disease control, which was seen in greater grain yield with average increases of

  20. Detecting benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by line-scan macro-scale Raman chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Gonzalez, Maria; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-05-01

    Excessive use of benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a bleaching agent) in wheat flour can destroy flour nutrients and cause diseases to consumers. A macro-scale Raman chemical imaging method was developed for direct detection of BPO mixed in the wheat flour. A 785 nm line laser was used in a line-scan Hyperspectral Raman imaging system. Raman images were collected from wheat flour mixed with BPO at eight concentrations (w/w) from 50 to 6,400 ppm. A sample holder (150×100×2 mm3) was used to present a thin layer (2 mm thick) of the powdered sample for image acquisition. A baseline correction method was used to correct the fluctuating fluorescence signals from the wheat flour. To isolate BPO particles from the flour background, a simple thresholding method was applied to the single-band fluorescence-free images at a unique Raman peak wavenumber (i.e., 1001 cm-1) preselected for the BPO detection. Chemical images were created to detect and map the BPO particles. Limit of detection for the BPO was estimated in the order of 50 ppm, which is on the same level with regulatory standards.

  1. An Overview of Global Wheat Market Fundamentals in an Era of Climate Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Enghiad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a key global commodity in terms of acreage and tradeable value and as a staple in household diets. Many factors affect wheat prices including climate, yields, oil prices, lagged prices, and imports. In addition to gradually and consistently increasing global wheat demand, these market drivers are posited to impact world prices and, ultimately, food security. To investigate how these factors differentially influence wheat markets, an extensive survey of literature regarding wheat market fundamentals was conducted, as well as a trend analysis using a uniquely compiled data set specific to significant wheat-producing areas. Previous studies show that imports, climate, oil prices, and past prices, among other factors, have a significant relationship with changes in the world wheat price. This study compiles and compares these same key variables from five major wheat export countries/regions for the time frame from 1980 to 2013.

  2. Allelopathy of decomposed maize straw products on three soil-born diseases of wheat and the analysis by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yong-zhi; ZHEN Wen-chao; LI Hai-yan

    2015-01-01

    In northern China, the soil-born diseases of wheat have been getting more and more serious under a new farming system that returns maize straw to the ifeld. In order to investigate the alelopathy of the decomposed maize straw products on three soil-born diseases of wheat, culture dish and pot experiments were conducted and the compounds in the products were identiifed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Culture dish experiments showed that the mycelial growth, sclerotia formation amount and total weight ofRhizoctonia cerealiswere promoted at concentrations of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 g mL–1 and inhibited at concentration of 0.48 g mL–1 of the decomposed products. No signiifcant effects were found of the product concentrations on average weight of the sclerotia. Mycelial growth ofGaeumannomyces graminis was promoted at almost al concentrations except the highest one. Mycelial growth and spore germination ofBipolaris sorokiniana were signiifcantly inhibited by al concentrations of the decomposed products, with enhanced inhibition effects along with the increased concentrations. The length, number and dry weight of roots together with the root superoxide dismutase activity were promoted by the lowest concentration (0.03 g mL–1), with a synthetic effect index of 0.012, and inhibited by other concentrations. The ion leakage of roots was increased and the root peroxidase activity of roots was lowered by al the treatments. Pot experiments revealed that occurrence of the sharp eyespot was reduced by 0.03 and 0.06 g mL–1 of decomposed products after irrigation. However, the incidence rates and disease indexes were signiifcantly increased by 0.12, 0.24 and 0.48 g mL–1 of decomposed products. The results indicated that incidence rates and disease indexes of the take-al were signiifcantly promoted after being irrigated with the decomposed products, while occurrences of the common rot didn’t change, signiifcantly. GC-MS results showed that the compounds of

  3. 兼抗全蚀病和白粉病小麦新种质的创制与鉴定%Development and Characterization of Wheat Lines with Resistance to Take-All and Powdery Mildew Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝秀亮; 李钊; 杜丽璞; 徐惠君; 杨丽华; 庄洪涛; 马翎健; 张增艳

    2012-01-01

    "Take-all", primarily caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. Tritici (Ggt), and powdery mildew, mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. Sp. Tritici (Bgt), are important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. The wheat cultivar Yangmai 18 carrying a powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, shows broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We have isolated a lipid transfer protein gene TaLTPS from wheat. To study the role of TaLTP5 in wheat defense responses to the major pathogens of take-all, we introduced this gene into Yangmai 18 via bombarding the particle containing the TaLTPS expressing vector pA25-TaLTP5. The TaLTPS transgenic wheat plants from T0 to T3 generations were subjected to PCR, Southern blot, RT-PCR, and Q-RT-PCR analyses. We also evaluated the disease resistances of the TaLTPS transgenic plants against inoculating Ggt and Bgt. The PCR and Southern blotting results showed that the alien TaLTP5 was transferred and integrated into the genomes of three transgenic wheat lines, and inherited stably in the transgenic wheat lines. The RT-PCR and Q-RT-PCR results indicated that the introduced TaLTPS was over-expressed in transgenic wheat lines, which showed significantly-enhanced resistance to take-all, suggesting that TaLTPS gene is involved in the defense response to Ggt infection. In addition, the resistance of transgenic lines to powdery mildew was not influenced by the introduced gene TaLTPS. Thus, TaLTPS transgenic wheat Yangmai 18 exhibits resistance to both "Take-all" and powdery mildew.%TaLTP5是从小麦中分离到的一个脂质转移蛋白编码基因.利用基因枪介导法将TaLTP5表达载体pA25-TaLTP5转入抗白粉病的小麦品种扬麦18(含抗白粉病基因Pm21)中,旨在选育兼抗全蚀病和白粉病的小麦新种质.对转基因小麦T0~T3代植株中引入的TaLTP5基因进行分子检测和抗病性鉴定.PCR检测、Southern杂交分析结果表明,外源TaLTP5基因已转入、整合到3个转基因小麦株系

  4. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  5. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  6. Occurrence, damage and pathogen identification of wheat root lesion nematode disease in Henan Province%河南省小麦根腐线虫病的发生危害及病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振跃; 施艳; 李广帅; 崔娟; 杜娟; 李洪连

    2012-01-01

    为明确河南省小麦根腐线虫病的发生危害情况及其病原线虫种类,对14个县(市)45个采样点小麦根腐线虫进行了分离调查,分别通过人工接种测定其致病性和杀线剂处理研究其危害性,并采用形态学和分子生物学方法鉴定其病原。结果显示:小麦根腐线虫在河南省的分布具有一定的区域性,中北部的10个县(市)34个沙质土壤采样点均分离出小麦根腐线虫,而在南部土壤粘重地区的小麦根内和土壤中均没有分离出根腐线虫;15%涕灭威颗粒剂处理土壤后小麦的穗粒数、千粒重和单位面积产量较对照明显上升,产量增加13.6%;该线虫能够侵染小麦,并明显抑制小麦生长;河南省小麦根腐线虫以敏捷短体线虫Pratylenchus agilis为主。%In the present study, 45 sampling points from 14 counties were investigated in order to deter- mine the occurrence and pathogen of root rot of wheat in Henan Province. The pathogenicity, damage and pathogen of the disease were studied using artificial inoculation, nematocide treatment, morphological and molecular biological identifications, respectively. The results showed that wheat root rot nematode distri- bution in Henan Province is region-dependent. The pathogen was successfully isolated from 34 sampling spots of 10 counties, located at north-central region of Henan with sandy soil. In contrast, none of patho- gen was isolated from both wheat roots and soil in southern area of Henan with sticky heavy soil. After al- dicarb treatment, the grain number per spike, thousand kernel weight and yield of wheat were significantly increased compared to untreated control. The pathogenicity assay of isolated nematodes found that the nematode can infect wheat and inhibit plant growth significantly. Pratylenchus agilis was the major patho- gen of wheat root rot nematode in Henan Province.

  7. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  8. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  9. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  10. Food processing and breeding strategies for coeliac-safe and healthy wheat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouanin, Aurélie; Gilissen, Luud J.W.J.; Boyd, Lesley A.; Cockram, James; Leigh, Fiona J.; Wallington, Emma J.; Broeck, van den Hetty C.; Meer, van der Ingrid M.; Schaart, Jan G.; Visser, Richard G.F.; Smulders, Rene

    2017-01-01

    A strict gluten-free diet is currently the only treatment for the 1-2% of the world population who suffer from coeliac disease (CD). However, due to the presence of wheat and wheat derivatives in many food products, avoiding gluten consumption is difficult. Gluten-free products, made without wheat,

  11. Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and the novel highly virulent race of TTKSK and its lineage are threatening wheat production worldwide. The objective of the study was to identify new sources of resistance in wheat-alien introgre...

  12. New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.; Faris, J.D.; Friesen, T.L.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Robert, O.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global

  13. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked...

  14. High Throughput ELISAs to Measure a Unique Glycan on Transferrin in Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Possible Extension toward Alzheimer's Disease Biomarker Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiro Shirotani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have established high-throughput lectin-antibody ELISAs to measure different glycans on transferrin (Tf in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF using lectins and an anti-transferrin antibody (TfAb. Lectin blot and precipitation analysis of CSF revealed that PVL (Psathyrella velutina lectin bound an unique N-acetylglucosamine-terminated N-glycans on “CSF-type” Tf whereas SSA (Sambucus sieboldiana agglutinin bound α2,6-N-acetylneuraminic acid-terminated N-glycans on “serum-type” Tf. PVL-TfAb ELISA of 0.5 μL CSF samples detected “CSF-type” Tf but not “serum-type” Tf whereas SSA-TfAb ELISA detected “serum-type” Tf but not “CSF-type” Tf, demonstrating the specificity of the lectin-TfAb ELISAs. In idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH, a senile dementia associated with ventriculomegaly, amounts of the SSA-reactive Tf were significantly higher than in non-iNPH patients, indicating that Tf glycan analysis by the high-throughput lectin-TfAb ELISAs could become practical diagnostic tools for iNPH. The lectin-antibody ELISAs of CSF proteins might be useful for diagnosis of the other neurological diseases.

  15. H4N8 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from shorebirds contains a unique PB1 gene and causes severe respiratory disease in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Vuong N.; Ogawa, Haruko; Xininigen; Karibe, Kazuji; Matsuo, Kengo; Awad, Sanaa S. A.; Minoungou, Germaine L.; Yoden, Satoshi; Haneda, Hiroaki; Ngo, Lai H.; Tamaki, Shio; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Saito, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yukiko; Runstadler, Jonathan; Huettman, Falk; Happ, George M.; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2011-01-01

    H4N8 subtype avian influenza viruses were isolated from shorebirds in eastern Hokkaido. All the isolates shared >99.7% nucleotide homology, and all the viral genes except for PB1 were highly related to those of A/red-necked stint/Australia/1/04. Thus, the isolates were regarded as PB1 reassortants. The most similar PB1 gene was identified in A/mallard/New Zealand/1615-17/04 (H4N6) with nucleotide homology of 90.9%. BALB/c mice intranasally inoculated with the H4N8 isolates developed severe respiratory disease, which eventually led to death in some mice. Virus was isolated from the lungs, and viral antigen was detected in the lungs with pneumonia. Other H4 subtype viruses tested did not cause any symptoms in mice, although these viruses were also isolated from the lungs. The PB2 gene of the H4N8 isolates contains K482R, but not the E627K or D701N substitutions. The PB1-F2 gene of the isolates consists of a 101-amino acid unique sequence, but lacks the N66S mutation. PMID:22192630

  16. Efficacy and mapping of resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is the most important food and feed crop, contributing about 19% of the required human dietary energy. The annual growth rate of the global cereal production -including wheat- is below one per cent. This is due to biotic and biotic constraints – including diseases – such that produ

  17. 内蒙古巴盟小麦根病种类、数量及分布%The Type,Proportion and Distribution of Wheat Root Disease in Bayenaoer Meng,Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春梅; 张建平; 徐利敏; 白全江; 张庆平; 赵存虎; 孔庆全; 齐凤鸣

    2001-01-01

    1997~1999年,通过巴盟5个旗(县)、20个乡、社的调查和1 601份采集标样的室内病原菌分离、鉴定,结果表明:巴盟地区小麦根病的主要病原菌为全蚀病菌,其分离频率最高为59.4%;次要病原菌有黄色镰刀菌,禾谷镰刀菌,麦根腐德氏霉,丝核菌,交链孢菌等7种病原菌.全蚀病在5个旗(县)均有不同程度的分布、发生数量约占根病的80%~90%.%The 1601 samples of wheat root disease from 20 villages of 5 counties,Bameng in Inner Mongolia were collected and wheat root disease in the field of these counties was visually investigated during the years of 1997-1999.The results of pathogenic culture,isolation and determination indicated that the pathogenic fungus species of the wheat root disease were Gaeumannomyces graminis var.tritici,Fusarium culmorum,F.graminearum,Drechslera sorokiniana,Rhizoctonia sp.and Alternaria sp.The results of investigation showed that Take-all caused by Gaeumon-nomyces graminis var.tritici distributed over all 5 Counties.The proportion of Take-all to all root disease was 80%-90%.

  18. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  19. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  20. Biological control of take-all by phenazine-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from Chinese wheat fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take-all disease of wheat caused by the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is one of the most important root diseases of wheat worldwide. Bacteria were isolated from winter wheat from irrigated and rainfed fields in Hebei and Jiangsu provinces in China, respectively. Samples from ...

  1. Association analysis of SP-SNPs and Avr genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the pathogenic fungi on wheat, caused stripe rust disease which is a great threat for wheat production all over the world. Intensive efforts have been made to study genetics of wheat resistance to this disease, but few on avirulence of the pathogen...

  2. Retroviral sequence located in border region of short unique region and short terminal repeat of Md5 strain of Marek's disease virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, D; Ito, M; Cho, K O; Kon, Y; Morimura, T; Hayashi, M; Kuwabara, M

    1998-02-01

    A 246-base pair (bp) retroviral sequence, which was homologous to a long terminal repeat of avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV), was detected and cloned from Md5 strain (Md5) of Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1) by representational difference analysis (RDA). The retroviral sequence was thought to be located in the border region of short unique region (U(s) and short terminal repeat (TRs), but did not exist in the border region of U(s) and the inverted short repeat (IRs) of the Md5 genome. A cloned fragment of the US/TRs border region of the Md5 genome showed a construction of U-E'-R-U'-E-TRs with the regions designated as follows: E, expanded TRs reported by Jones et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 3855, 1993]; E', a partial copy of the expanded TRs; R, the retroviral sequence detected in Md5 genome; U, TRs-end sequence of U(s); U', a partial copy of TRs-end sequence of U(s). The sequence unit indicated as E'-R-U' was thought to be heterogeneously repeated in the Md5 genome. Since this retroviral sequence reportedly did not exist in the original stock of Md5, the retroviral sequence is thought to be inserted in the Md5 genome without experimental co-infection of avian cells with retrovirus and MDV1. These results suggest that RDA could be useful for the detection of retroviral sequences in the herpesvirus genome.

  3. SCID mouse model of psoriasis: A unique tool for drug development of autoreactive T-cell and TH-17 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raychaudhuri Smriti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In both skin and synovial tissues of psoriatic arthritis (PsA patients, there are prominent lymphocytic infiltrates localized to the dermal papillae in the skin and the sublining layer stroma in the joint. T-cells, with a predominance of CD4+ lymphocytes, are the most significant lymphocytes in the tissues; in contrast, this ratio is reversed in the epidermis, synovial fluid compartment, and at the enthesis, where CD8+ T-cells are more common. This differential tropism of CD8+ T-cell suggests that the CD8+ T-cells may be driving the immune response in the joint and skin. This is supported by an association with MHC class I. The cytokine network in the psoriatic skin and synovium is dominated by monocyte and T-cell-derived cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. In PsA synovium, higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 have been detected than in psoriatic skin. An analysis of T-cell receptor beta-chain variable (TCRβV gene repertoires revealed common expansions in both skin and synovial inflammatory sites, suggesting an important role for cognate T-cell responses in the pathogenesis of PsA and that the inciting antigen may be identical or homologous between the afflicted skin and synovium. Traditionally, T-cells have been classified as T helper 1 (Th1 or Th2 cells by production of defining cytokines, IFN- γ and IL-4, respectively. Recently, a new type of T-cell, Th17, has been linked to autoimmune inflammation. T-helper 17 (Th17 cells are a unique effector CD4+ T-cell subset characterized by the production of interleukin (IL-17. Murine diseases that were previously considered to be pure Th1-mediated responses have been shown to contain mixed populations of Th1 and Th17 cells. Also, in humans, a critical immunoregulatory role of Th-17 cells in infectious and autoimmune diseases has been identified. It has been postulated that IL-17 may be important in psoriasis. Our initial observations demonstrate that IL-17 and its receptor system

  4. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  5. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Yang, Huizhen; Zhan, Haixian; Qiao, Linyi; Guo, Huijuan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-07-28

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  6. Microorganisms and mechanisms that contribute to Rhizoctonia disease suppression on wheat%小麦丝核菌病害抑制作用的相关微生物及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen John BARNETT

    2005-01-01

    由Rhizoctonia solani引起的小麦丝核菌根腐病是世界范围内小麦的主要病害之一.保留作物残体的精耕栽培制度可使土壤变为对病害有抑制作用的抑病土.研究了南澳大利亚埃文抑病土壤中与抑制作用相关的生物体.分离到许多在苗期抑制病害的细菌 (Pantoea agglomerans, Exiguobacterium acetylicum, 微杆菌以及Streptomyces),木霉菌和食真菌线虫.研究结果表明,埃文抑病土的抑病作用与多种生物有关,其作用机理也多种多样.%Rhizoctonia root rot caused by Rhizoctoniasolani is a major disease of wheat worldwide. Under intensive cropping with retention of crop residue management regimes, soils can become suppressive to Rhizoctonia root rot. The organisms that contribute to suppression were investigated in a disease suppressive soil at Avon in South Australia. A diverse range of organisms including bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans, Exiguobacterium acetylicum,Microbacteria and Streptomyces),Trichoderma fungi and fungal feeding nematodes were isolated and shown to suppress Rhizoctonia root rot in wheat seedling bioassays. It is concluded that multiple different organisms contribute to disease suppression at Avon through different mechanisms.

  7. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  8. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Nygren

    Full Text Available We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp. and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp. and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV. The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i continuous reduction in growth over time, ii weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in

  9. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  10. MEASUREMENT OF WHEAT DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯跟胜; 党金春; 等

    1995-01-01

    A method used for on line determining the change of wheat density with a automatic watering machine in a lqarge flour mill has been studied.The results show that the higher distinguishing ability is obtained when using 241Am as a γ-ray source for measuring the wheat density than using 137Cs.

  11. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Östman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS. Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%.Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW, EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la, and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW. All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C. A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects.The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001. Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001 compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI (r= − 0.571, p<0.001.This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response.

  12. Wheat Allergy and Intolerence; Recent Updates and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Batool, Rizwana; Aziz, Mahwash; Ahmed, Waqas

    2016-01-01

    The current review paper highlights the complicacies associated with communities relying on wheat as their dietary staple. Although, wheat is an important source of nutrients but is also linked with allergenic responses in genetically susceptible subjects. The wheat proteins especially α-amylase inhibitors, ω-5 gliadins, prolamins, nonprolamin, glucoprotein, and profilins are of significance importance. The allergenic responses are further categorized into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Conjugation and degranulation of the IgEs with the allergens results in release of several mediators. In contrary, non-IgE-mediated wheat allergy depends on immune complexes formed by food and food antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. As results, different diseases tend to occur on the completion of these reactions, i.e., celiac disease, baker's asthma, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. This instant paper highlighted the concept of food allergy with special reference to wheat. The models are developed that are included in this paper showing the wheat allergen, their possible routes, impact on human health, and indeed possible remedies. The paper would provide the basic information for the researchers, common man, and allied stakeholders to cater the issue in details. However, the issue needs the attention of the researchers as there is a need to clarify the issues of wheat allergy and wheat intolerance.

  13. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  14. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  15. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  16. Fusarium head blight resistance loci in a stratified population of wheat landraces and varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if Chinese and Japanese wheat landraces and varieties have unique sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, an association mapping panel of 195 wheat accessions including both commercial varieties and landraces was genotyped with 364 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) and ...

  17. Development and Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Novel Wheat-Leymus mollis Lm#7Ns (7D Disomic Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Yang

    Full Text Available Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm possesses novel and important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-L. mollis introgression lines is of great significance for wheat disease resistance breeding. M11003-3-1-15-8, a novel disomic substitution line of common wheat cv. 7182 -L. mollis, developed and selected from the BC1F5 progeny between wheat cv. 7182 and octoploid Tritileymus M47 (2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs, was characterized by morphological and cytogenetic identification, analysis of functional molecular markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and disease resistance evaluation. Cytological observations suggested that M11003-3-1-15-8 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. The GISH investigations showed that line contained 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of L. mollis chromosomes. EST-STS multiple loci markers and PLUG (PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene markers confirmed that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes belonged to homoeologous group 7, it was designated as Lm#7Ns. While nulli-tetrasomic and sequential FISH-GISH analysis using the oligonucleotide Oligo-pSc119.2 and Oligo-pTa535 as probes revealed that the wheat 7D chromosomes were absent in M11003-3-1-15-8. Therefore, it was deduced that M11003-3-1-15-8 was a wheat-L. mollis Lm#7Ns (7D disomic substitution line. Field disease resistance demonstrated that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes Lm#7Ns were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult stage. Moreover, M11003-3-1-15-8 had a superior numbers of florets. The novel disomic substitution line M11003-3-1-15-8, could be exploited as an important genetic material in wheat resistance breeding programs and genetic resources.

  18. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  19. Acantholytic variant of bowen′s disease with micro-invasive squamous cell carcinoma: A case report of a unique variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthilatha Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bowen′s disease is generally regarded as premalignant dermatoses. The disease affects both skin and the mucosa and has the potential to progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. There are descriptions of several histological variants of Bowen′s disease like psoriasiform, atrophic, pagetoid, etc. Acantholysis of anaplastic keratinocytes with bullae/cleft formation is described in premalignant condition like actinic keratosis and adenoid variant of squamous cell carcinoma, but there is lack of report describing this phenomena in Bowen′s disease. We present a case of unusual acantholytic variant of Bowen′s disease with focus of micro-invasive carcinoma.

  20. Wheat protection against powdery mildew by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi : mechanisms and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Ghalia

    2015-01-01

    The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could be an innovative alternative to chemicals against fungal plant diseases. Our work aimed at studying the possible protective effect of arbuscular mycorrhization in the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), a biotrophic fungi responsible of wheat powdery mildew, a disease affecting the aerial plant organs. Wheat mycorrhizal inoculation by Funneliformis mosseae (Fm), under controlled and optimized co...

  1. Do we need to worry about eating wheat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, P R; Hey, S J

    2016-03-01

    Wheat is a staple food throughout the temperate world and an important source of nutrients for many millions of people. However, the last few years have seen increasing concerns about adverse effects of wheat on health, particularly in North America and Europe, with the increasing adoption of wheat-free or gluten-free diets. This relates to two concerns: that wheat products are disproportionally responsible for increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes and that wheat gluten proteins cause a range of adverse reactions, including allergies, coeliac disease and 'non-coeliac gluten sensitivity'. The first concern has been refuted in previous publications, and we therefore focus on the second here. Current evidence indicates that allergy to ingested wheat and coeliac disease (and related intolerances) each occur in up to 1% of the population. The extent to which their prevalence has increased is difficult to quantify due to improved diagnosis and increased awareness. However, neither appears to be increasing disproportionally when compared with other immunologically mediated adverse reactions to food. Other adverse reactions to wheat are more difficult to define as their mechanisms are not understood and they are therefore difficult to diagnose. In particular, 'non-coeliac wheat sensitivity' has been reported to occur in 6% or more of the population in the US. However, the application of more rigorous diagnostic criteria is likely to give substantially lower estimates of prevalence. It is therefore unlikely that the health of more than a small proportion of the population will be improved by eliminating wheat or gluten from the diet. In fact, the opposite may occur as wheat is an important source of protein, B vitamins, minerals and bioactive components.

  2. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  3. Complete Genome Sequences of the Endophytic Streptomyces Strains EN16, EN23, and EN27, Isolated from Wheat Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ricardo; Adetutu, Eric; Tobe, Shanan S.; Mallya, Sandeep; Paul, Bobby; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of three endophytic Streptomyces species were compared. Strains EN16, EN23, and EN27 were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of wheat plants from South Australia. In field trials, these strains are effective in suppressing fungal root diseases of wheat when added as spore coatings to wheat seed. PMID:27932645

  4. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China--An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply.

  5. Doenças foliares e o controle por fungicidas na produtividade e qualidade de grãos de trigo Foliar diseases and control by fungicides on yield and quality of wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Navarini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi estruturado no intuito de determinar os fatores, do ponto de vista do manejo químico de doenças foliares, necessários para obtenção de trigo com qualidade de panificação. O experimento em blocos ao acaso com seis repetições buscou esclarecer a interação entre doze cultivares e sete programas de aplicação de fungicidas e suas implicações na produtividade e qualidade de grãos de trigo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os efeitos proporcionados pelos fungicidas, no controle de doenças, e seus efeitos diretos na fisiologia de plantas de trigo, foram fatores determinantes para obtenção de trigo com alta qualidade. Mostrando, também que as doenças comprometem a remobilização do nitrogênio das folhas para os grãos. Ficaram evidentes as diferenças entre estrobilurinas e triazóis no controle de manchas foliares e de ferrugem da folha, onde os fungicidas triazóis foram mais eficientes no controle do complexo de manchas foliares, quando comparados as estrobilurinas. Porém, o controle efetivo da ferrugem da folha do trigo foi proporcionado pelas estrobilurinas. Os estádios fenológicos do elongamento e emissão de espigas são momentos críticos para o controle químico de manchas foliares em condições de monocultura. E a aplicação de fungicidas após o florescimento é imprescindível para o adequado manejo da ferrugem da folha.The study was structured to determine the necessary factors, from the point of view of chemical control of foliar diseases, to obtain high quality wheat for bread production. The experiment in randomized blocks with six replicates tried to clarify the interaction between twelve cultivars and seven fungicide application programs, as well as its implications in the yield and quality of wheat grains. The results showed that the effects provided by fungicides in disease control, and their direct effects on the physiology of wheat plants, were decisive factors for obtaining high

  6. Alien Introgression in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár-Láng, M.; Ceoloni, C; Doležel, J

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the latest advancements in the field of alien introgression in wheat. The discovery and wide application of molecular genetic techniques including molecular markers, in situ hybridization, and genomics has led to a surge in interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in recent decades. The work begins with the taxonomy of cereals, especially of those species which are potential gene sources for wheat improvement. The text then goes on to cover.

  7. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  8. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  9. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  10. Effect of bacterial polysaccharides on the growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and wheat roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasík, J; Stanĕk, M; Vancura, V; Wurst, M

    1979-01-01

    Agrobacterium sp. and related species which in the soil and in the rhizosphere of wheat accompany the fungus Gaemannomyces graminis var. tritici and cause take-all of the wheat roots produced polysaccharides in pure cultures (glucans, mannoglucans and galactomannoglucans). These polysaccharides were utilized better by the mycelium of G. graminis than glucose and polysaccharides of plant origin that occurred on the surface of wheat roots (the so-called mucigel). At lower concentrations these bacterial polysaccharides stimulated growth of wheat roots, higher concentrations (more than 0.1%) were inhibitory. Bacteria inoculated on the surface of wheat first inhibited and then stimulated the development of the plants and their growth. Changes in the growth rate of wheat, the rhizosphere of which was colonized by bacteria simultaneously with the fungus G. graminis and also some changes in the course of the disease of wheat roots caused by the fungus can be explained by the inhibitory or stimulatory effect of polysaccharides of accompanying bacteria.

  11. Wheat Rust Information Resources - Integrated tools and data for improved decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodson, David; Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    Wheat rusts present an ever-changing global threat to the worlds wheat crop. Emergence of virulent new races in one region has implications for other regions, due to wind-borne or human-borne movements. Therefore informed decision making regarding control and mitigation of wheat rusts requires...... an integrated set of datasets on both pathogen and host at the global scale. The Global Cereal Rust Monitoring System (GCRMS), created under the Durable Rust resistance in Wheat (DRRW) project, represents a unique and increasingly comprehensive resource of rust information. A suite of tools are now available....... Integration of the CIMMYT Wheat Atlas and the Genetic Resources Information System (GRIS) databases provides a rich resource on wheat cultivars and their resistance to important rust races. Data access is facilitated via dedicated web portals such as Rust Tracker (www.rusttracker.org) and the Global Rust...

  12. Wheat Production and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgilany Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor

  13. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  14. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jigang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. that reduces both grain yield and quality. Results A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Conclusions Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum.

  15. Conventional, integrated and organic winter wheat production in The Netherlands in the period 1993-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Brink, van den W.J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to assess possible changes in occurrences of pests and diseases in winter wheat as a result of differences in farm management, a monitoring study was carried out between 1993 and 1997 in The Netherlands to assess pest and disease incidence in winter wheat produced by conventional, integrate

  16. Multiple minor QTLs are responsible for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landrace Haiyanzhong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastatingve disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resi...

  17. Inverse gene-for-gene interactions contribute additively to tan spot susceptibility in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan spot of wheat, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is an important disease in almost all wheat-growing areas of the world. The disease system is known to involve at least three fungal-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) that interact with corresponding host sensitivity (S) genes in an inv...

  18. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2015 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2015 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Sprin...

  19. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  20. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  1. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  2. Unique expression of 35 KDa protein in serum and cystic fluid of women with malignant ovarian cysts substantiates its role in disease progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulfam Ahmad; Muhammad Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The present study was undertaken as a part of a continuing search for proteomic based approaches for the diagnosis of ovarian cancers. Methods:The study comprised four groups of women with: i): malignant ovarian cysts, ii) benign ovarian cysts, iii): breast cancer (positive controls) and, iv) healthy females (negative controls). Serum and cystic fluids were processed for gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Serum and cystic follicular fluid estradiol and testosterone concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results:Proteomics analysis revealed the presence of a uniquely expressed protein with MW of 35 kDa in the serum and cystic fluid of patients with malignant ovarian cysts. On the other hand a protein of 100 kDa was not expressed in malignant ovarian patients whereas it was differentially expressed in the cystic fluid and serum of other three groups. Although mean values of estradiol levels were discernibly higher in patients with benign ovarian cysts as compared to those with malignant ovarian cysts and of positive and negative controls, difference was not significant. Mean concentrations of estradiol were significantly higher in cystic fluid aspirated from benign cysts as compared to that from malignant cysts. Conclusions:Taken together these data indicate a uniquely expressed protein of 35 kDa in patients with malignant ovarian cysts that may serve as a specific protein biomarker for the differential diagnosis of the ovarian cancer. However, a much larger sample of subjects is required to validate and confirm these findings.

  3. Control Efficacy and Antifungal Mechanism of Bacillus Cereus Strain JK14 against Wheat Take-all Disease%蜡样芽孢杆菌JK14 对小麦全蚀病的防治及其抑病机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩艳霞; 胡斌杰; 王宫南

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]Study on control efficacy and inhibitory effect d Bacillus cereus strain JK14,against wheat take-all disease,investigating its antifungal mechanism.[Method]B.cereus JK14 was isolated from soil in the rhizosphere of wheat,inhibitory effects of whose nutrient solution form against Gaeumannomyces graminis var tritici stroins 9862 and 9812 were measured in laboratory and then for its antifungal mechanism.The strain JK14* with rifampicin and wheat take-all disease resistance was screened by increasing concentration of the two substrates,and colonization of JK14* was studied.[Result]In pot experiment,the control effects of JK14* against 9862 and 9812 are 63% and 59%,respectively,which are higher than that of chemical fungicides,with 55% and 51%,respectively.JK14* could deform mycelium and causes degradation of cell wall.And there are also dynamic change of JK14* in root system.JK14* on seed could extend to root along with seed germination and rooting,but per unit tissue mycelium number decreased gradually.[Conclusion]The results indicate some control efficacy of B.cereus strain JK14 against wheat take-all disease.

  4. The effect of treating wheat with Ethrel in conjunction with some fungicides on the susceptibility to fungal diseases and on the root zone mycoflora of this plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Michniewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cv. Grana grown under field conditions, in the early phase of the first node formation, was sprayed with Ethrel (0.35 ml/m2 and with the fungicides: Sportak 45 EC (0.1 ml/m2 and Bayleton Triple (0.2 g/m2 - separately and in conjunction with Ethrel. It was found that Ethrel reduced the plant's susceptibility to infection by Cercosporella herpotrichoides and by species of the genus Fusarium. The fungicides were more active and also reduced the susceptibility to infection by Erysiphe graminis and Puccinia triticina. The fungistatic effect of Ethrel and Sportak was synergistic only in the case of Cercosporella herpotrichoides. Other interactions between Ethrel and fungicides were not found. Ethrel and fungicides only slightly affected the mycoflora of the root but they completely eliminated the fungi of the genus Mucor from the rhizosphere and reduced the participation of isolates of the genus Alternaria and Cladosporium in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of wheat. The fungicides were more active than Ethrel. An interaction between Ethrel and fungicides in the reduction of fungi of the genus Fusarium in the rhizosphere was shown.

  5. Analyses of critical target cell responses during preclinical phases of evolving chronic radiation-induced myeloproliferative disease-exploitation of a unique canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.; Frazier, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This document briefly summarizes and highlights ongoing studies on the cellular and molecular processes involved in the induction and progression of myeloid leukemia in dogs chronically exposed to low daily doses of wholebody gamma irradiation. Under such conditions, select groups of dogs exhibit extremely high frequencies of myeloproliferative disease (MPD) (i.e., /congruent/50%) of which myeloid leukemia is most prominent. 2 figs.

  6. Genome-wide association studies reveal similar genetic architecture with shared and unique QTL for Bacterial Cold Water Disease resistance in two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant mortality and economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. In previous studies, we identified moderate-large effect QTL for BCWD resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the recent availability of a 57K SNP array and a genome phys...

  7. Horizontal transmission of Marek’s disease virus requires both the unique-long (UL) 13 protein kinase (UL13) and the UL44 glycoprotein C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an Alphaherpesvirus, causes a general malaise in chickens that is mostly characterized by the development of lymphoblastoid tumors in multiple organs. The use of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for cloning and manipulation of the MDV genome has facilitated chara...

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Unique Fusarium sp. nov. ex Mangifera indica L. Causing Mango Malformation Disease in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we characterized fusaria that were associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México. From 2002 to 2009, 141 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically diverse states. Initially, isolates ...

  9. Analyses of critical target cell responses during preclinical phases of evolving chronic radiation-induced myeloproliferative disease-exploitation of a unique canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.; Frazier, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This document briefly summarizes and highlights ongoing studies on the cellular and molecular processes involved in the induction and progression of myeloid leukemia in dogs chronically exposed to low daily doses of wholebody gamma irradiation. Under such conditions, select groups of dogs exhibit extremely high frequencies of myeloproliferative disease (MPD) (i.e., /congruent/50%) of which myeloid leukemia is most prominent. 2 figs.

  10. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.

  11. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  12. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Nidhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability.

  13. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...... growth and yield of durum wheat in the major Italian supply basins (Basilicata, Capitanata, Marche, Tuscany). The model was validated and evaluated for three years (1995–1997) at 11 experimental fields and then used in operational mode for eleven years (1999–2009), showing an excellent/good accuracy...

  14. Nutraceutical and functional scenario of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

    2013-01-01

    In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article.

  15. A case-control study of community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia and melioidosis pneumonia in northeast Thailand: an emerging fatal disease with unique clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patamatamkul, Samadhi; Klungboonkrong, Voravan; Praisarnti, Pakawas; Jirakiat, Kittitouch

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the emerging cause of severe and often fatal gram-negative, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP-AB) in Thailand. Due to its rarity, its specific clinical features are ill defined. In this retrospective study, we compared the demographic data, risk factors, clinical characteristics, radiographic pattern, and microbiological data between CAP-AB and Burkholderia pseudomallei CAP (CAP-BP) to identify the clinical features and risk factors of CAP-AB. CAP-AB was associated with a more productive cough and a shorter duration of symptoms, while CAP-BP was associated with more musculoskeletal symptoms. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were significantly lower in the CAP-AB group. Gram staining of the sputum revealed a significantly higher amount of bacteria in the CAP-AB group. Lobar infiltration and unilateral right lung involvement were the most common radiographic patterns in the CAP-AB group. CAP-AB is associated with severe pneumonia and has unique clinical features that distinguish it from CAP-BP.

  16. A systematic review of barriers to optimal outpatient specialist services for individuals with prevalent chronic diseases: what are the unique and common barriers experienced by patients in high income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie

    2015-06-09

    Health utilization and need assessment data suggest there is considerable variation in access to outpatient specialist care. However, it is unclear if the types of barriers experienced are specific to chronic disease groups or experienced universally. This systematic review provides a detailed summary of common and unique barriers experienced by chronic disease groups when accessing and receiving care, and a synthesized list of possible health service initiatives to improve equitable delivery of optimal care in high-income countries. Quantitative articles describing barriers to specialist outpatient services were retrieved from CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PyscINFO. To be eligible for review, studies: were published from 2002 to May 2014; included samples with cancer, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arthritis, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic pulmonary disorder (COPD) or depression; and, were conducted in high-income countries. Using a previously validated model of access (Penchansky and Thomas' model of fit), barriers were grouped according to five overarching domains and defined in more detail using 33 medical subject headings. Results from reviewed articles, including the scope and frequency of reported barriers, are conceptualized using thematic analysis and framed as possible health service initiatives. A total of 3181 unique records were screened for eligibility, of which 74 studies were included in final analysis. The largest proportion of studies reported acceptability barriers (75.7 %), of which demographic disparities (44.6 %) were reported across all diseases. Other frequently reported barriers included inadequate need assessment (25.7 %), information provision (32.4 %), or health communication (20 %). Unique barriers were identified for oncology, mental health, and COPD samples. Based on the scope, frequency and measurement of reported barriers, eight key themes with associated implications for health services are presented. Examples

  17. Wheat allergens associated with Baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, G; Quirce, S; Diaz-Perales, A

    2011-01-01

    Baker's asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease caused mainly by inhalation of cereal flour, particularly wheat flour. This review deals with the current diagnosis and immunomodulatory treatments, as well as the role of wheat allergens as molecular tools to enhance management and knowledge of this disease. The review also discusses the current status of several salt-soluble proteins (albumins and globulins)--cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, peroxidase, thioredoxin, nonspecific lipid transfer protein, serine proteinase inhibitor, and thaumatin-like protein-as well as salt-insoluble storage proteins (prolamins, namely, gliadins and glutenins) as allergens associated with baker's asthma. Finally, current limitations to using these proteins as molecular tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy are highlighted.

  18. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities to certain foods, and ... protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten ...

  19. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  20. Fungicide effects on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  2. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN CULTURES: COMMON WHEAT, EINKORN AND SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryana Yonkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years in Bulgaria there is an increasing interest in organic production of healthy cereals einkorn and spelt. Typical for them is that they are unpretentious to the soil, resistant to major diseases and pests occurring in cereals. Einkorn and spelt are considered the most ancient types of wheat today and now they are perceived as healthy food. They are distinguished from ordinary wheat in the following parameters: higher percentage of protein; greater amount of fiber, minerals and vitamins /twice higher contents of Vitamin A; vitamins B; calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and others/; they do not contain cholesterol. They outmach the common wheat in the content of selenium and antioxidants, the amount of gluten is minimized. It does not cause allergic reactions in people suffering from celiac disease /in which the specific protein is not digested, in this case - gluten/. The reason for this property is the content of only 14 chromosomes as opposed to 28 in the common wheat and 42 in the modern types of wheat, which makes it easy to assimilate. Because of the hard shell flakes the grain of einkorn does not absorb harmful substances from soil /eg heavy metals/ which is a problem in modern wheat varieties. This article examines the energy and nutritional qualities of those cereals and the possibility einkorn and spelled to be an alternative in agricultural production - both in crop and animal husbandry.

  3. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus detected in Pico, Azores, Portugal, revealed a unique endemic strain with more than 17 years of independent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Pedro J; Lopes, Ana M; Magalhães, Maria J; Pinheiro, Ana; Gonçalves, David; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-07-14

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by a calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), which is responsible for high mortality in domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). RHDV strains were sequenced from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) collected in the Azorean island of Pico, Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Pico RHDV strains diverge from all of the others described so far, but cluster with the genogroups 1-5 (G1-G5). The genetic distance between the Pico RHDV sequences and each G1, G2 and G3-G5 genogroup (~0.08) is compatible with an RHDV introduction at least 17 years ago. Our results show that in Pico, RHDV is the outcome of an independent evolution from the original RHDV strain that appeared in its European rabbit population. These are the first sequences of RHDV obtained in the subspecies O. c. algirus, outside of its original region, the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we discuss the risk of rabbit translocations from the Azores to the Iberian Peninsula, where the rabbit wild populations are suffering high mortalities.

  4. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Detected in Pico, Azores, Portugal, Revealed a Unique Endemic Strain with More Than 17 Years of Independent Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Esteves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is caused by a calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, which is responsible for high mortality in domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. RHDV strains were sequenced from wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus collected in the Azorean island of Pico, Portugal. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Pico RHDV strains diverge from all of the others described so far, but cluster with the genogroups 1–5 (G1–G5. The genetic distance between the Pico RHDV sequences and each G1, G2 and G3–G5 genogroup (~0.08 is compatible with an RHDV introduction at least 17 years ago. Our results show that in Pico, RHDV is the outcome of an independent evolution from the original RHDV strain that appeared in its European rabbit population. These are the first sequences of RHDV obtained in the subspecies O. c. algirus, outside of its original region, the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, we discuss the risk of rabbit translocations from the Azores to the Iberian Peninsula, where the rabbit wild populations are suffering high mortalities.

  5. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  6. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  7. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  8. Patterns of Healthcare Utilization Among Veterans Infected With Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Coinfected With HIV/HCV: Unique Burdens of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrak, Shereen; Park, Lawrence P.; Woods, Christopher; Muir, Andrew; Hicks, Charles; Naggie, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and the primary cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of comorbidities. However, healthcare utilization (HCU) patterns among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are poorly understood. This study compared the rates of HCU and reasons for hospital admission among HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans. Methods. Hepatitis C virus- and HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans in care with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) from 1998 to 2009 (n = 335 371, n = 28 179, n = 13 471, respectively) were identified by HIV- and HCV-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from the clinical case registry. We assessed rates of HCU using emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalization and primary diagnoses associated with hospitalization. Independent risk factors associated with hospitalization were also examined. Results. Rates of outpatient and ED visits increased over the 11-year study period for all groups, with inpatient admission rates remaining stable. The HCU rates were consistently higher for the coinfected than other cohorts. The primary reason for hospital admission for all groups was psychiatric disease/substance use, accounting for 44% of all admissions. Nadir CD4 500 cells/mm3. Conclusions. As the current population of HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans age, they will continue to place a substantial and increasing demand on the US healthcare system, particularly in their utilization of ED and outpatient services. These data suggest the need for an ongoing investment in mental health and primary care within the VA healthcare system. PMID:27704025

  9. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  10. Elements of Integration in Winter Wheat Protection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecylia Jańczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Poland winter wheat is grown on the area of 1.600.000 ha. Most of the plant protection treatments are being done without thorough analysis of real threats from pests and diseases. The aim of the research is to develop the optimal program of wheat protection against pests and diseases based on integration of various methods of plant protection. Two programs: conventional and integrated were compared. In integrated program the eventual needs and terms of treatments were estimated on the basis of detailed observations of plant infection, pest appearance, their natural enemies and thorough analysis of weather conditions and forecasts. The role of disease resistant wheat varietes and nitrogen fertilizers was also analysed. The research took into account beneficial entomofauna and its influence on pest numbers as well as influence of chemicals used in agriculture on their species. As the result the selective pesticides, safe to beneficial organisms, were selected. The quantity and quality of winter wheat yield was analysed, including protein and gluten contents. The economic effectiveness of various programs of wheat protection against pests and diseases was assessed. The results of research are important both in practical and scientific sense.

  11. Identification of novel powdery mildew resistance sources in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a globally dominating disease of wheat with a high occurrence frequency, and genetic resistance plays an important role in managing this devastating disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate leaf rust resistance and the underlying genes of breeding lines in the USA, a...

  12. Assessment of adaptive evolution between wheat and rice as deduced from full-length common wheat cDNA sequence data and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashizaki Yoshihide

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is an allopolyploid plant that harbors a huge, complex genome. Therefore, accumulation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs for wheat is becoming particularly important for functional genomics and molecular breeding. We prepared a comprehensive collection of ESTs from the various tissues that develop during the wheat life cycle and from tissues subjected to stress. We also examined their expression profiles in silico. As full-length cDNAs are indispensable to certify the collected ESTs and annotate the genes in the wheat genome, we performed a systematic survey and sequencing of the full-length cDNA clones. This sequence information is a valuable genetic resource for functional genomics and will enable carrying out comparative genomics in cereals. Results As part of the functional genomics and development of genomic wheat resources, we have generated a collection of full-length cDNAs from common wheat. By grouping the ESTs of recombinant clones randomly selected from the full-length cDNA library, we were able to sequence 6,162 independent clones with high accuracy. About 10% of the clones were wheat-unique genes, without any counterparts within the DNA database. Wheat clones that showed high homology to those of rice were selected in order to investigate their expression patterns in various tissues throughout the wheat life cycle and in response to abiotic-stress treatments. To assess the variability of genes that have evolved differently in wheat and rice, we calculated the substitution rate (Ka/Ks of the counterparts in wheat and rice. Genes that were preferentially expressed in certain tissues or treatments had higher Ka/Ks values than those in other tissues and treatments, which suggests that the genes with the higher variability expressed in these tissues is under adaptive selection. Conclusion We have generated a high-quality full-length cDNA resource for common wheat, which is essential for continuation of the

  13. MicroRNA (miRNA) Signaling in the Human CNS in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Novel and Unique Pathological Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuhai; Pogue, Aileen I; Lukiw, Walter J

    2015-12-17

    Of the approximately ~2.65 × 10³ mature microRNAs (miRNAs) so far identified in Homo sapiens, only a surprisingly small but select subset-about 35-40-are highly abundant in the human central nervous system (CNS). This fact alone underscores the extremely high selection pressure for the human CNS to utilize only specific ribonucleotide sequences contained within these single-stranded non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) for productive miRNA-mRNA interactions and the down-regulation of gene expression. In this article we will: (i) consolidate some of our still evolving ideas concerning the role of miRNAs in the CNS in normal aging and in health, and in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related forms of chronic neurodegeneration; and (ii) highlight certain aspects of the most current work in this research field, with particular emphasis on the findings from our lab of a small pathogenic family of six inducible, pro-inflammatory, NF-κB-regulated miRNAs including miRNA-7, miRNA-9, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125b, miRNA-146a and miRNA-155. This group of six CNS-abundant miRNAs significantly up-regulated in sporadic AD are emerging as what appear to be key mechanistic contributors to the sporadic AD process and can explain much of the neuropathology of this common, age-related inflammatory neurodegeneration of the human CNS.

  14. Transcript profiling of the phytotoxic response of wheat to the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Doohan, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin commonly produced by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum during infection of cereal plants, such as wheat and barley. This toxin is a fungal virulence factor that facilitates the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Wheat cultivar (cv...

  15. Induction of wheat defense related genes in response to Puccinia striiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. To isolate defense-related genes against the pathogen, a suppression subtractive hybridization library was constructed for an incompatible interaction. From the library, 652 se...

  16. Identification of QTL for adult plant resistance to stripe rust in Chinese wheat landrace Caoxuan 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow (or stripe) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important wheat disease worldwide. The development of wheat cultivars with adult plant resistance (APR) has been given increasing emphasis in recent years because of the reputed durability of APR compared to all-stag...

  17. Genomics-based marker discovery and diagnostic assay development for wheat blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat blast has emerged as a major threat to wheat production in South America. While originally restricted to Brazil the disease has since been observed in the neighboring countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay and there is growing concern that the pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum patho...

  18. Wheat allergen exposure and the prevalence of work-related sensitization and allergy in bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Meijster, T.; Meijer, E.; Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Occupational airway diseases are common among bakers. The present study describes the association between exposure to wheat allergen levels and sensitization to wheat allergens, work-related upper and lower respiratory symptoms and asthma in bakery workers. Methods: As part of a Health S

  19. Community composition of target vs. non-target fungi in fungicide treated wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    disease in wheat and within the last decade, new aggressive strains of yellow rust has caused severe epidemics that lead to substantial yield losses. This study explored the community composition of target versus non-target fungi in yellow rust infected wheat as affected by treatment timing and dose...

  20. Toward the molecular cloning of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn2 in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septoria nodorum blotch is a disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. In the wheat-P. nodorum pathosystem, recognition of pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) by dominant host genes leads to host cell death, which allows the pathogen to gain nutrients an...

  1. Unique Gene Expression and MR T2 Relaxometry Patterns Define Chronic Murine Dextran Sodium Sulphate Colitis as a Model for Connective Tissue Changes in Human Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breynaert, Christine; Dresselaers, Tom; Perrier, Clémentine; Arijs, Ingrid; Cremer, Jonathan; Van Lommel, Leentje; Van Steen, Kristel; Ferrante, Marc; Schuit, Frans; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Himmelreich, Uwe; Ceuppens, Jan L.; Geboes, Karel; Van Assche, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total). Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. Results Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn’s colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. Conclusions Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn’s disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of inflammation and fibrosis

  2. Expansion of a unique region in the Marek's disease virus genome occurs concomitantly with attenuation but is not sufficient to cause attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R F; Reddy, S M; Lupiani, B

    2004-01-01

    Pathogenic Marek's disease viruses (MDVs) have two head-to-tail copies of a 132-bp repeat. As MDV is serially passaged in cell culture, the virus becomes attenuated and the number of copies of the 132-bp repeat increases from 2 to often more than 20 copies. To determine the role of the repeats in attenuation, we used five overlapping cosmid clones that spanned the MDV genome to reconstitute infectious virus (rMd5). By mutating the appropriate cosmids, we generated clones of infectious MDVs that contained zero copies of the 132-bp repeats, rMd5(Delta132); nine copies of the 132-bp repeats, rMd5(9-132); and nine copies of the 132-bp repeats inserted in the reverse orientation, rMd5(rev9-132). After two passages in cell culture, wild-type Md5, rMd5, and rMd5(Delta132) were stable. However, rMd5(9-132) and rMd5(rev9-132) contained a population of viruses that contained from 3 to over 20 copies of the repeats. A major 1.8-kb mRNA, containing two copies of the 132-bp repeat, was present in wild-type Md5 and rMd5 but was not present in rMd5(Delta132), rMd5(9-132), rMd5(rev9-132), or an attenuated MDV. Instead, the RNAs transcribed from the 132-bp repeat region in rMd5(9-132) and rMd5(rev9-132) closely resembled the pattern of RNAs transcribed in attenuated MDVs. When inoculated into susceptible day-old chicks, all viruses produced various lesions. Thus, expansion of the number of copies of 132-bp repeats, which accompanies attenuation, is not sufficient in itself to attenuate pathogenic MDVs.

  3. MicroRNA (miRNA Signaling in the Human CNS in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (AD-Novel and Unique Pathological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately ~2.65 × 103 mature microRNAs (miRNAs so far identified in Homo sapiens, only a surprisingly small but select subset—about 35–40—are highly abundant in the human central nervous system (CNS. This fact alone underscores the extremely high selection pressure for the human CNS to utilize only specific ribonucleotide sequences contained within these single-stranded non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs for productive miRNA–mRNA interactions and the down-regulation of gene expression. In this article we will: (i consolidate some of our still evolving ideas concerning the role of miRNAs in the CNS in normal aging and in health, and in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related forms of chronic neurodegeneration; and (ii highlight certain aspects of the most current work in this research field, with particular emphasis on the findings from our lab of a small pathogenic family of six inducible, pro-inflammatory, NF-κB-regulated miRNAs including miRNA-7, miRNA-9, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125b, miRNA-146a and miRNA-155. This group of six CNS-abundant miRNAs significantly up-regulated in sporadic AD are emerging as what appear to be key mechanistic contributors to the sporadic AD process and can explain much of the neuropathology of this common, age-related inflammatory neurodegeneration of the human CNS.

  4. Identification of molecular marker and aggressiveness for different groups of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates causing spot blotch disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, S K; Sweta; Prasad, L C; Sharma, S; Kumar, S; Prasad, R; Pandey, S P; Chand, R; Joshi, A K

    2007-08-01

    One hundred fifty-five isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana of wheat were studied for their morphopathological characterization. These isolates were grouped in five categories--black, brown/dull black, gray cottony growth, dull white/greenish black, and white--on the basis of their growth pattern. The frequency of the black suppressed type was maximum (45.63%), whereas the white isolate displayed lowest frequency (6.96%) in the natural population. Twenty RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) primers were used to observe the variability among the identified groups of B. sorokininana. From each group, eight random isolates were investigated. A total of 143 bands were amplified, out of which 107 (74.83%) were polymorphic and 36 (25.17%) were monomorphic. On an average, the total numbers of bands generated per primer were 7.15, of which 5.35 and 1.80 were polymorphic and monomorphic, respectively. Dendrograms based on molecular polymorphism unveiled a considerable amount of diversity among the isolates. Specific DNA bands were identified for selected isolates. The distinct markers appeared to be potential enough to be employed as genetic fingerprints for future strain identification and classification. The study indicated that the RAPD primers provide an easy, rapid, and simple technique for the preliminary assessment of genetic diversity among the fungal isolates.

  5. Gluten and wheat intolerance today: are modern wheat strains involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease is a food-induced enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a less known syndrome whose prevalence is under-estimated. The last decades have seen changes in the clinical presentation of both diseases. One possible explanation is that changes in the gluten-rich cereals themselves were the principal causes. Celiac-triggering gluten proteins are indeed expressed to higher levels in modern cereals while non-triggering proteins are expressed less. Sophisticated hybridization techniques have been used to produce new strains of modern wheat, the most high-yielding of which have since made their way into human foods in the absence of animal or human safety testing. The dramatic changes in the clinical presentation of celiac disease and NCGS have taken place when new cereal hybrids were introduced into human foods. This is a critical medical and environmental issue which needs to be investigated by appropriate studies.

  6. Wheat-related disorders reviewed: making a grain of sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni Beery, Renée M; Birk, John W

    2015-06-01

    Wheat-related disorders have become a growing area of clinical and scientific interest and can be categorized broadly as: autoimmune-mediated; allergic; and non-autoimmune/non-allergic conditions. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) present on this spectrum as disorders associated with adverse gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations following exposure to gluten and/or other wheat-related constituents. NCGS/NCWS is increasingly considered in patients with unexplained symptoms after the exclusions of celiac disease and wheat allergy. As objective diagnostic data and specific biomarkers are lacking, response to a gluten-free/wheat-free diet can confirm the presence of NCGS/NCWS. An association with irritable bowel syndrome has been detected, and the effects of other food components, such as fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, may contribute. Our organization and synthesis of extant knowledge pertaining to wheat-related disorders may advance current practice and research efforts toward an improved understanding of NCGS/NCWS as an evolving clinical entity.

  7. EFFECT OF PLANTITNG PATTERN OF WINTER WHEAT ON AGRODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Моskalets Т. Z.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the introductions of cultivars and lines of wheat soft winter wheat that are adaptive to specific physical and climatic conditions ecotopes regards forest-steppe and Polissia ecotypes by ecological and biological characteristics. We also determined their influence on formation of the diversity and productivity of agricultural ecosystems. It was established that mosaic planting pattern of winter wheat allows to get a high yield (up to 9 t/ha and of strong and superstrong wheat (Ariivka, L 4696/96, KC-5, KC-7, KC-14, KC-22, Yuvivata 60, etc. in comparison to monocultivar technology. Some genotypes, namely Yuvivata 60, Ariiivka KC-22, KC-7 have moderate and high resistance towards complex diseases. The mosaic planting pattern of cultivars is the important factor of increasing the diversity and strengthening the links in agricultural ecosystems. Based on the long-term ecological research of genetic forms of winter soft wheat in different ecotopes and comparing them by major agronomic features with cultivar-standards we selected some promising cultivars and lines. We suggested the semi dwarf, medium-grown productive, and high adaptive genotypes of wheat soft winter, like Prydesnianska, Ariiivka, Nosshpa 100, КС-5, КС-7, КС-14, КС-21, КС-22, Yuvivata 60, Zoriana Nosivska, КС-16, КС-17, Л9646/96.

  8. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN MYCORRHIZAL WHEAT PROTECTION AGAINST POWDERY MILDEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj; Reignault, Ph

    2014-01-01

    In France, the Ecophyto 2018 national action plan will set out to reduce the use of pesticides by 50% by 2018, if possible. To achieve this goal, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi could be a potential alternative method allowing the control of crop diseases. The inoculation by AM fungi has been demonstrated to protect plants against soil-borne pathogens, but little is known about their effectiveness against aerial pathogens, such as the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) causing wheat (Triticum aestivum) powdery mildew. In the present study, wheat plants were grown in pots, under controlled conditions. Using various phosphorus (P) concentrations, the effectiveness of three AM inocula (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm)) and Solrize, a mixture of Ri and Fm) in Orvantis wheat cultivar, were tested. After 42 days of culture, mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were infected by Bgt. A satisfactory mycorrhizal rate was obtained with the phosphorus concentration P/5 (P corresponding to the dose used in wheat fields in = 62 mg/L). Our work shows, for the first time, (i) a protective effect of AM inoculation against wheat powdery mildew, reaching up to 73% with Fm inocula, and (ii) its ability to induce a systemic resistance in wheat. Thereafter, we investigated mechanisms involved in this protection. Control plants, M plants, infected plants by Bgt, and M-infected plants were compared at: (i) cytological level, our results revealed that papillae and whole-fluorescent cells presence was induced, conversely fungal haustorium formation in epidermal cells was reduced within M plants leaves (ii) enzymatic level-by assessing defense enzyme activities (lipoxygenase, peroxidase) known as defense markers were measured 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after infection (hai). The importance of these activities in the defense pathways induced in wheat by AM fungi will be discussed.

  9. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... II (PSII), which is a fundamental process in photosynthesis. The first study was conducted to identify cultivars differing in Fv/Fm as a measure of heat tolerance during reproductive phase. The proportion of the total variation in cultivar Fv/Fm that was due to the genotypic difference was termed...... among cultivars due to heat stress as the GD of most of them remained similar in control and stress. The second study investigated if it was possible to use detached leaves to screen for heat tolerance instead of intact plants. The previously selected 41 cultivars, known to differ in v/Fm, were used...

  10. Wheat Landrace Genome Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Luzie U; West, Claire; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Collier, Sarah; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Yang, Cai-Yun; King, Julie; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Edwards, Keith J; Griffiths, Simon

    2017-02-17

    Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focussing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating bi-parental populations were developed mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity (WINGEN et al. 2014). A modern spring elite variety, 'Paragon,' was used as common reference parent. Genetic maps were constructed following identical rules to make them comparable. In total, 1,611 linkage groups were identified, based on recombination from an estimated 126,300 crossover events over the whole NAM panel. A consensus map, named landrace consensus map (LRC) was constructed and contained 2,498 genetic loci. These newly developed genetics tools were used to investigate the rules underlying genome fluidity or rigidity, e.g. by comparing at marker distances and marker orders. In general, marker order was highly correlated, which provides support for strong synteny between bread wheat accessions. However, many exceptional cases of incongruent linkage groups and increased marker distances were also found. Segregation distortion was detected for many markers, sometimes as hot-spots present in different populations. Furthermore, evidence for translocations in at least 36 of the maps was found. These translocations fell, in general, into many different translocation classes, but a few translocation classes were found in several accessions, the most frequent one being the well known T5B:7B translocation. Loci involved in recombination rate, which is an interesting trait for plant breeding, were identified by QTL analyses using the

  11. Factors impacting the activity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens against take-all of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is an important soilborne disease of wheat worldwide. Pseudomonas fluorescens producing the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) are biocontrol agents of take-all and provide natural suppression of the disease during wheat monocul...

  12. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relati...

  13. Finished Genome of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Dispensome Structure, Chromosome Plasticity, and Stealth Pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; M'Barek, Ben S.; Dhillon, B.; Wittenberg, A.H.J.; Crane, C.F.; Hane, J.K.; Foster, A.J.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Grimwood, J.; Aerts, A.; Antoniw, J.; Bailey, A.; Bluhm, B.; Bowler, J.; Bristow, J.; Burgt, van der A.; Canto-Canché, B.; Churchill, A.C.L.; Conde-Ferràez, L.; Cools, H.J.; Coutinho, P.M.; Csukai, M.; Dehal, P.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Donzelli, B.; Geest, van de H.C.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Henrissat, B.; Kilian, A.; Kobayashi, A.K.; Koopmann, E.; Kourmpetis, Y.; Kuzniar, A.; Lindquist, E.; Lombard, V.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Martins, N.; Mehrabi, A.; Nap, J.P.H.; Ponomarenko, A.; Rudd, J.J.; Salamov, A.; Schmutz, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Shapiro, H.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Torriani, S.F.F.; Tu, H.; Vries, de R.P.; Waalwijk, C.; Ware, S.B.; Wiebenga, A.; Zwiers, L.H.; Oliver, R.P.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici) causes septoria tritici blotch, a disease that greatly reduces the yield and quality of wheat. This disease is economically important in most wheat-growing areas worldwide and threatens global food production. C

  14. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  15. The Study Of Clinical And Laboratory Finding In Wheat Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhoodi. A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is affecting 6-8 percent of infants. Wheat is major source of carbohydrate and protein in the people's nutrition in all worlds and also account for one of six main food allergens in children. The goal of this study is diagnosis of wheat allergic patients and description of its importance for better recognition of this disease."nMaterials and Methods: Among children with different symptoms of allergy (dermatologic - Gastro intestinal and respiratory symptoms referred to Immunology and allergy Department of Markaz Tebbi Kodakan, during one year, 35 cases was suspected to have wheat allergy. Skin prick test and IgE specific with wheat for all of them and open food challenge test with wheat for 11 patients without history of anaphylaxy were done. The criteria for diagnosis was based on a convincing history of anaphylaxis after ingestion of wheat or the positive result in food challenge with wheat in addition to positive skin prick test ( SPT or specific IgE ( Eliza with wheat."nResults: In 35 suspected cases to wheat allergy, SPT in 85/1 percent, specific IgE in 90/3 percent were positive. Food challenge test were done in 11 cases and was positive in 27/2 percent of patients. 24 patients were definitely diagnosed as wheat allergic ones. Anaphylaxis was the predominant clinical feature, accounted for 87 percent of acute symptoms which were repeated for two or more episode in 91 percent of the cases with anaphylaxis. In 50 percent of patients chronic symptoms like asthma and atopic dermatitis were also observed."nConclusion: The mean age of symptom was compatible with time of onset of complementary foods. Therefore, were proposed exclusive breastfeeding without maternal avoidance and not to be introducing wheat in infant regimen until 12 mouth of age. Anaphylaxis was occurred, repeatedly in these patients which demonstrate, in one part, severity of the reactions in our patients and in other part the probable existence of more cases

  16. An Epidemiological Analysis of the Role of Disease-Induced Root Growth in the Differential Response of Two Cultivars of Winter Wheat to Infection by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D J; Kleczkowski, A; Gilligan, C A

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiological modeling combined with parameter estimation of experimental data was used to examine differences in the contribution of disease-induced root production to the spread of take-all on plants of two representative yet contrasting cultivars of winter wheat, Ghengis and Savannah. A mechanistic model, including terms for primary infection, secondary infection, inoculum decay, and intrinsic and disease-induced root growth, was fitted to data describing changes in the numbers of infected and susceptible roots over time at a low or high density of inoculum. Disease progress curves were characterized by consecutive phases of primary and secondary infection. No differences in root growth were detected between cultivars in the absence of disease and root production continued for the duration of the experiment. However, significant differences in disease-induced root production were detected between Savannah and Genghis. In the presence of disease, root production for both cultivars was characterized by stimulation when few roots were infected and inhibition when many roots were infected. At low inoculum density, the transition from stimulation to inhibition occurred when an average of 5.0 and 9.0 roots were infected for Genghis and Savannah, respectively. At high inoculum density, the transition from stimulation to inhibition occurred when an average of 4.5 and 6.7 roots were infected for Genghis and Savannah, respectively. Differences in the rates of primary and secondary infection between Savannah and Genghis also were detected. At a low inoculum density, Genghis was marginally more resistant to secondary infection whereas, at a high density of inoculum, Savannah was marginally more resistant to primary infection. The combined effects of differences in disease-induced root growth and differences in the rates of primary and secondary infection meant that the period of stimulated root production was extended by 7 and 15 days for Savannah at a low and

  17. Resistance to brown leaf rust of hybrids between wheat and amphiploids wheat-thinopyrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lvovivh SECHNYAK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The resistance to a brown leaf rust in 56 chromosomal partial аmphiploids (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp. Z.-W. Liu and R.-C. Wang, РА 2 (Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum intermedium (Host Barkworth and D.R. Devey, H79/9-9 (Triticum aestivum L. × Elymus sp., Triticum aestivum L. cvs. Albatross odesskiy, Fantaziya odesskaya, Zhatva Altaya and their hybrids, F2-F4 were studied at artificial infection in field infectious nursery in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The investigated varieties of wheat have shown a high susceptibility to pathogen. Amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 also are susceptible to pathogen, but in a lesser degree, than the wheat. Good resistance was shown only by amphiploid Н79/9-9, but its hybrid with wheat Albatross Odessa appeared is susceptible to pathogen. The hybrids with amphiploids РА 1 and РА 2 have shown a various degree of resistance to brown leaf rust. Hybrid Zhatva Altaya × РА 2 within three years stably showed 8 point resistance to disease. The reasonsfor different resistance of amphiploids and its hybrids with wheat are discussed.

  18. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  19. Comparative Analysis Highlights Variable Genome Content of Wheat Rusts and Divergence of the Mating Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Cuomo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three members of the Puccinia genus, Puccinia triticina (Pt, P. striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst, and P. graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt, cause the most common and often most significant foliar diseases of wheat. While similar in biology and life cycle, each species is uniquely adapted and specialized. The genomes of Pt and Pst were sequenced and compared to that of Pgt to identify common and distinguishing gene content, to determine gene variation among wheat rust pathogens, other rust fungi, and basidiomycetes, and to identify genes of significance for infection. Pt had the largest genome of the three, estimated at 135 Mb with expansion due to mobile elements and repeats encompassing 50.9% of contig bases; in comparison, repeats occupy 31.5% for Pst and 36.5% for Pgt. We find all three genomes are highly heterozygous, with Pst [5.97 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs/kb] nearly twice the level detected in Pt (2.57 SNPs/kb and that previously reported for Pgt. Of 1358 predicted effectors in Pt, 784 were found expressed across diverse life cycle stages including the sexual stage. Comparison to related fungi highlighted the expansion of gene families involved in transcriptional regulation and nucleotide binding, protein modification, and carbohydrate degradation enzymes. Two allelic homeodomain pairs, HD1 and HD2, were identified in each dikaryotic Puccinia species along with three pheromone receptor (STE3 mating-type genes, two of which are likely representing allelic specificities. The HD proteins were active in a heterologous Ustilago maydis mating assay and host-induced gene silencing (HIGS of the HD and STE3 alleles reduced wheat host infection.

  20. 77 FR 21685 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... believe that the blending of wheat would facilitate the marketing of wheat, as a buyer may purchase Mixed... marketing of wheat. DATES: Comments must be received on or before June 11, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit... (SWH) wheat, Unclassed wheat, and Mixed wheat. Wheat is consumed primarily as a human food but is also...

  1. Mycetoma: a unique neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Eduard E; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Welsh, Oliverio; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Goodfellow, Michael; Fahal, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Mycetoma can be caused by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma) and typically affects poor communities in remote areas. It is an infection of subcutaneous tissues resulting in mass and sinus formation and a discharge that contains grains. The lesion is usually on the foot but all parts of the body can be affected. The causative microorganisms probably enter the body by a thorn prick or other lesions of the skin. Mycetoma has a worldwide distribution but is restricted to specific climate zones. Microbiological diagnosis and characterisation of the exact organism causing mycetoma is difficult; no reliable serological test exists but molecular techniques to identify relevant antigens have shown promise. Actinomycetoma is treated with courses of antibiotics, which usually include co-trimoxazole and amikacin. Eumycetoma has no acceptable treatment at present; antifungals such as ketoconazole and itraconazole have been used but are unable to eradicate the fungus, need to be given for long periods, and are expensive. Amputations and recurrences in patients with eumycetoma are common. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of a potato antimicrobial peptide SN1 increases resistance to take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Qi, Lin; Wang, Jingfen; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Wang, Aiyun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-08-01

    Take-all, caused by soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is a devastating root disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Breeding resistant wheat cultivars is the most promising and reliable approach to protect wheat from take-all. Currently, no resistant wheat germplasm is available to breed cultivars using traditional methods. In this study, gene transformation was carried out using Snakin-1 (SN1) gene isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) because the peptide shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro. Purified SN1 peptide also inhibits in vitro the growth of Ggt mycelia. By bombardment-mediated method, the gene SN1 was transformed into Chinese wheat cultivar Yangmai 18 to generate SN1 transgenic wheat lines, which were used to assess the effectiveness of the SN1 peptide in protecting wheat from Ggt. Genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the alien gene SN1 was integrated into the genomes of five transgenic wheat lines and heritable from T₀ to T₄ progeny. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the introduced SN1 gene was transcribed and highly expressed in the five transgenic wheat lines. Following challenging with Ggt, disease test results showed that compared to segregants lacking the transgene and untransformed wheat plants, these five transgenic wheat lines expressing SN1 displayed significantly enhanced resistance to take-all. These results suggest that SN1 may be a potentially transgenic tool for improving the take-all resistance of wheat.

  3. Geographic differentiation of Pseudomonas brassicacearum populations and bio-control of take-all disease of wheat and Pythium root rot of canola%Pseudomonas brassicacearum的数量分布差异及生物防治小麦全蚀病和油菜根腐病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. R. HARVEY; R. A. WARREN; W. ACHOUAK; M. H. RYDER

    2005-01-01

    Strains representing populations of Pseudomonas brassicacearum from two contrasting South Australian wheat field soils were characterised by 3 PCR-based genotyping techniques and 3 phenotypic traits. Populations were highly diverse and significant levels of genotypic and bacterial-haplotype differentiation (GST and X2) were observed between the two geographical and two root-zone (i.e. rhizoplane and rhizosphere) populations(P<0.05).Three quarters of all strains had unique haplotypes and greater than 90% of these were specific to their population of origin. The average haplotype similarity among all strains was low (22%) and cluster analysis provided no evidence of relatedness on geographical origin or position in the root zone. These analyses indicate restrictions to inter-population gene flow and suggest that differentiation was due to random genetic drift and rhizoplane-based genotypic selection associated with the contrasting soils. One third of all strains tested positive for the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthesis gene(PhlD) and formed a related group (60% similarity).Four PhlD-positive strains(two wild types and their phenotypic variants) gave significant (P<0.05) bio-control of wheat take-all disease and Pythium damping-off of canola,indicating potential to control root disease complexes caused by these pathogens.%通过3种PCR技术测定基因特征和测定3种生化特征,对来自南澳洲两块对比小麦田土壤中的Pseudomonas brassicacearum种群的菌株进行了分析研究.结果显示,两种不同土壤和两种不同根部区域(根表和根际),该种群具有高度多样性,其基因型和基因组也具有显著差异(P<0.05).所分离到的菌株中,四分之三具有独特的基因组,90%以上的基因组是其原种群所独具有的.所有菌株的基因组的平均同源性比较低(22%),聚类分析不能证明来自不同小麦田和不同根部区域的菌株具有亲缘性.聚类分析显示,种群内的基因流动是受

  4. Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction To Detect the Take-All Fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis, in Infected Wheat Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Schesser, Kurt; Luder, Andreas; Henson, Joan M.

    1991-01-01

    Gaeumannomyces graminis, the causative agent of take-all disease of wheat, barley, and oats, was detected in infected wheat seedlings by using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify Gaeumannomyces-specific DNA fragments. Nested primers and two rounds of amplification were used to amplify two fragments, approximately 287 and 188 bp in size, from G. graminis-infected wheat seedlings. The use of nested primers greatly decreased the number of nonspecific amplification products. Polymerase chain...

  5. Path Through the Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  6. Control of wheat diseases using phosphites and acibenzolar-s-methyl alone or associated with piraclostrobina + epoxiconazoleControle de doenças do trigo com fosfitos e acibenzolar-s-metil isoladamente ou associados a piraclostrobina + epoxiconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavio Correa Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different sources of phosphite to control leaf rust, powdery mildew, yellow and brown spot in the wheat crop in Palmeira, Paraná state, Brazil. The treatments were: four commercial sources of phosphites (A, B, C and D, applied at 1500 mL ha-1, (applied in rate of active product acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM at 500 mL ha-1 (isolad or association, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole (fungicide at 400 mL ha-1 and phosphite A with pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole (at 300 mL ha-1, phosphite A with pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole (400 mL ha-1, acibenzolar-S-methyl with pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole (400 mL ha-1 and control (water, . The experimental design adopted was complete randomized blocks with four replications. Regarding diseases, evaluations were done on the determination of severity and the calculation of the area below the curve of the disease progress in the flag leaf and entire plant. Leaf area index, thousand seeds weight, hectoliter weight and yield were also evaluated. Phosphite, independently source, did not act on leaf rust, powdery mildew, yellow and brown spot. The resistance inducer acibenzolar-S-methyl either isolated or associated to other fungicides affected leaf rust and powdery mildew of the wheat. Only phosphites associated to the fungicide controlled diseases, however there was no additional increase in yield whether compared to the control promoted by the fungicide.Foi realizado um experimento no município de Palmeira-PR, visando avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes de fosfitos no controle da ferrugem da folha, do oídio e das manchas amarela e marrom na cultura do trigo. Os tratamentos foram: quatro fontes comerciais de fosfitos (A, B, C e D aplicados na dose de 1500 mL ha-1 (dose de produto ativo isolado ou associado aos demais produtos, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM na dose de 500 mL ha-1 (isolado ou associado, piraclostrobina + epoxiconazole (fungicida na dose de 500 mL ha-1

  7. Mapping Wheat Stem Rust Resistance Genes in 'Kingbird'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici has historically been one of the most important diseases of wheat. Although losses have been much reduced in the last fifty years, new highly virulent races of the pathogen have recently emerged in East Africa. These new races are virul...

  8. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  9. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHEAT TAKE-ALL DISEASE: I - CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA FROM DIVERSE SOILS TOWARD GAEUMANNOMYCES GRAMINIS VAR. TRITICI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take-all is a world-wide disease of cereal crops that varies in severity depending on numerous ecological factors including soil nutrient contents and microbial composition. Microbial interactions with the take-all pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), have not been fully explained. ...

  10. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nezhadahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops’ production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants’ vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea, responsive to abscisic acid (Rab, rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  11. Antifungal activity of a virally encoded gene in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M; Kräuter, R; Schachermayr, G; Potrykus, I; Sautter, C

    2000-04-01

    The cDNA encoding the antifungal protein KP4 from Ustilago maydis-infecting virus was inserted behind the ubiquitin promoter of maize and genetically transferred to wheat varieties particularly susceptible to stinking smut (Tilletia tritici) disease. The transgene was integrated and inherited over several generations. Of seven transgenic lines, three showed antifungal activity against U. maydis. The antifungal activity correlated with the presence of the KP4 transgene. KP4-transgenic, soil-grown wheat plants exhibit increased endogenous resistance against stinking smut.

  12. Proteoglycan-based diversification of disease outcome in head and neck cancer patients identifies NG2/CSPG4 and syndecan-2 as unique relapse and overall survival predicting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnedi, Anna; Rossi, Silvia; Bertani, Nicoletta; Gulli, Mariolina; Silini, Enrico Maria; Mucignat, Maria Teresa; Poli, Tito; Sesenna, Enrico; Lanfranco, Davide; Montebugnoli, Lucio; Leonardi, Elisa; Marchetti, Claudio; Cocchi, Renato; Ambrosini-Spaltro, Andrea; Foschini, Maria Pia; Perris, Roberto

    2015-05-03

    Tumour relapse is recognized to be the prime fatal burden in patients affected by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but no discrete molecular trait has yet been identified to make reliable early predictions of tumour recurrence. Expression of cell surface proteoglycans (PGs) is frequently altered in carcinomas and several of them are gradually emerging as key prognostic factors. A PG expression analysis at both mRNA and protein level, was pursued on primary lesions derived from 173 HNSCC patients from whom full clinical history and 2 years post-surgical follow-up was accessible. Gene and protein expression data were correlated with clinical traits and previously proposed tumour relapse markers to stratify high-risk patient subgroups. HNSCC lesions were indeed found to exhibit a widely aberrant PG expression pattern characterized by a variable expression of all PGs and a characteristic de novo transcription/translation of GPC2, GPC5 and NG2/CSPG4 respectively in 36%, 72% and 71% on 119 cases. Importantly, expression of NG2/CSPG4, on neoplastic cells and in the intralesional stroma (Hazard Ratio [HR], 6.76, p = 0.017) was strongly associated with loco-regional relapse, whereas stromal enrichment of SDC2 (HR, 7.652, p = 0.007) was independently tied to lymphnodal infiltration and disease-related death. Conversely, down-regulated SDC1 transcript (HR, 0.232, p = 0.013) uniquely correlated with formation of distant metastases. Altered expression of PGs significantly correlated with the above disease outcomes when either considered alone or in association with well-established predictors of poor prognosis (i.e. T classification, previous occurrence of precancerous lesions and lymphnodal metastasis). Combined alteration of all three PGs was found to be a reliable predictor of shorter survival. An unprecedented PG-based prognostic portrait is unveiled that incisively diversifies disease course in HNSCC patients beyond the currently known clinical and molecular

  13. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  14. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  15. Hairpin RNA derived from viral NIa gene confers immunity to wheat streak mosaic virus infection in transgenic wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Ayala-Navarrete, Ligia; Millar, Anthony A; Larkin, Philip J

    2010-09-01

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by Wheat curl mite, has been of great economic importance in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Recently, the virus has been identified in Australia, where it has spread quickly to all major wheat growing areas. The difficulties in finding adequate natural resistance in wheat prompted us to develop transgenic resistance based on RNA interference (RNAi). An RNAi construct was designed to target the nuclear inclusion protein 'a' (NIa) gene of WSMV. Wheat was stably cotransformed with two plasmids: pStargate-NIa expressing hairpin RNA (hpRNA) including WSMV sequence and pCMneoSTLS2 with the nptII selectable marker. When T(1) progeny were assayed against WSMV, ten of sixteen families showed complete resistance in transgenic segregants. The resistance was classified as immunity by four criteria: no disease symptoms were produced; ELISA readings were as in uninoculated plants; viral sequences could not be detected by RT-PCR from leaf extracts; and leaf extracts failed to give infections in susceptible plants when used in test-inoculation experiments. Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated hpRNA transgene integrated into the wheat genome. Moreover, accumulation of small RNAs derived from the hpRNA transgene sequence positively correlated with immunity. We also showed that the selectable marker gene nptII segregated independently of the hpRNA transgene in some transgenics, and therefore demonstrated that it is possible using these techniques, to produce marker-free WSMV immune transgenic plants. This is the first report of immunity in wheat to WSMV using a spliceable intron hpRNA strategy.

  16. Anthocyanins in Wheat Seed – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havrlentová Michaela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the micronutrients in food has become an important field of the Second Green Revolution. In recent years, minor bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, pigments and carotenoids, have attracted more and more interest from both researchers and food manufactures as health-promoting and disease-preventing effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. One of plant pigments, wheat anthocyanins as plant phenolics are increasingly attractive as natural compounds positively affecting consumer´s health and condition moreover wheat is staple food source consumed usually daily. For a purple, blue, or red colour of wheat seed are responsible glycosylated cyanidins, delphinidins, malvinidins, pelargonidins, petunidins, and peonidins located in aleurone layer or pericarp, respectively. Other than white seed colour is not natural for common hexaploid wheat but this trait can be introduced from donors by aimed breeding programs. The way of wheat anthocyanins to provide positive effects for consumer´s physiology is limited due to their specific occurrence in seed parts usually removed during grain milling practice and lower stability during processing to foods

  17. Characterisation and analysis of the Aegilops sharonensis transcriptome, a wild relative of wheat in the Sitopsis section.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Bouyioukos

    Full Text Available Aegilops sharonensis Eig (Sharon goatgrass is a wild diploid relative of wheat within the Sitopsis section of Aegilops. This species represents an untapped reservoir of genetic diversity for traits of agronomic importance, especially as a source of novel disease resistance. To gain a foothold in this genetic resource, we sequenced the cDNA from leaf tissue of two geographically distinct Ae. sharonensis accessions (1644 and 2232 using the 454 Life Sciences platform. We compared the results of two different assembly programs using different parameter sets to generate 13 distinct assemblies in an attempt to maximize representation of the gene space in de novo transcriptome assembly. The most sensitive assembly (71,029 contigs; N50 674 nts retrieved 18,684 unique best reciprocal BLAST hits (BRBH against six previously characterised grass proteomes while the most specific assembly (30,609 contigs; N50 815 nts retrieved 15,687 BRBH. We combined these two assemblies into a set of 62,243 non-redundant sequences and identified 139 belonging to plant disease resistance genes of the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat class. Based on the non-redundant sequences, we predicted 37,743 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, equivalent to one per 1,142 bp. We estimated the level of heterozygosity as 1.6% in accession 1644 and 30.1% in 2232. The Ae. sharonensis leaf transcriptome provides a rich source of sequence and SNPs for this wild wheat relative. These sequences can be used with existing monocot genome sequences and EST sequence collections (e.g. barley, Brachypodium, wheat, rice, maize and Sorghum to assist with genetic and physical mapping and candidate gene identification in Ae. sharonensis. These resources provide an initial framework to further build on and characterise the genetic and genomic structure of Ae. sharonensis.

  18. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  19. The Empidemiology of Wheat Rosette Stunt in Hulunbeir District of Inner—Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangMinghou; LuJun; 等

    1995-01-01

    The virus disease threatening wheat production in Hulunbeir District of Inner-Mongolia was identified as NCMV(Northern Cereal Mosaic Virus)or WRSV(Wheat Rosette Stunt Virus)by test of host range,transmission,virus particle and serology.The main vector for spreading the virus is planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus(Fallen),Which overwinters in the stubbles of wheat underground.The overwintered viruliferous nymphs emerged in late Pril is responsible for the early infection of the disease.Agropyron repens,an important perennial weed in cultivated regions,is also an important wild host of the virus and its vector.Severe loss is induced when wheat is infected before 3-leaf stage.The disease incidence could be predicted by a model with the population and viruliferous rate of overwintered vectors as independent variables.

  20. Genes for resistance to stripe rust on chromosome 2B and their application in wheat breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peigao Luo; Xueyun Hu; Huaiyu Zhang; Zhenglong Ren

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp.tritici,is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide.Growing resistant cultivars is the most economic and environmental friendly way to control the disease.There are many resistance genes to stripe rust located on wheat chromosome 2B.Here,we propose a strategy to construct the recombinant wheat chromosome 2B with multiple resistances to stripe rust by making crosses between wheat lines or cultivars carrying Yr genes and using marker-assisted selection,based on the reported information about resistance spectrum,chromosomal location,and linked markers of the genes.Pyramiding the resistance genes on 2B would afford a valuable strategy to control the disease by cultivating varieties with durable resistance.The possibility,efficiency,and prospect of the suggested strategy are reviewed in the paper.

  1. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  2. Resposta de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. ao controle químico das principais doenças fúngicas da cultura Response of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. to the chemical control of fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito de Camargo Barros

    2006-09-01

    fungicida, embora as duas últimas tenham apresentado os menores índices de severidade das doenças, indicando que não só a resistência, mas fatores como o ciclo e características de produtividade intrínsecas a cada cultivar podem ser importantes na resposta ao controle químico.Leaf rust, leaf spot or brown spot and powdery mildew, caused by Puccinia recondita tritici, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Blumeria graminis tritici, respectively, are wheat diseases that may severely decrease crop yield. Several practices are recommended for the control of these diseases such as cultivar resistance, planting at a suitable time, and chemical control, without which the crop frequently becomes uneconomical. The objective of the present work was to evaluate, under field conditions, the response of six wheat cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 289, IAC 350, IAC 362, IAC 364 and IAC 370, in four experiments, carried out from 2000 to 2003 at Capão Bonito, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiments were set out in a randomized block design with four replications, and analyzed as a 2 x 6 factorial, being fungicide treatment (with and without the factor 1 and cultivar the factor 2. Severity of the diseases was graded in a scale that ranged from 0 to 9, (0 = without symptoms and 9 > 60% of the foliar area affected by disease. Grain yield and the thousand kernel weight (TKW were also assessed in each experiment. Powdery mildew was only observed in 2000, but leaf rust was detected in all years in high severity indexes (30 to 60% of leaf area affected by the disease. Leaf spot, detected in the last three years, from 2001 to 2003, showed the highest severity indexes in the rainiest year, 2001 (up to 60 % of the leaf affected by the disease. In all years the fungicides were efficient to control the diseases in all experiments and resulted in higher TKW and in grain yield increases. The cultivars with the longest crop cycles, IAC 370, IAC 289 and IAC 350, had the highest responses in yield to the chemical

  3. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Shewry, Peter R.

    2012-06-01

    Predictions of a 40-140% increase in wheat yield by 2050, reported in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, are based on a simplistic approach that ignores key factors affecting yields and hence are seriously misleading.

  4. Major gene for field stem rust resistance co-locates with resistance gene Sr12 in "Thatcher" wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pgt), is a damaging disease of wheat that can be controlled by utilizing effecting stem rust resistance genes. "Thatcher" wheat carries complex resistance to stem rust that is enhanced in the presence of the resistance gene Lr34. The purpose of this study was ...

  5. Identification and functional characterization of putative (a)virulence factors in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzadi Gohari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous (previously known as Mycosphaerella graminicola) is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), which is a devastating foliar wheat disease worldwide. It is responsible for significant yield losses occurring annually in all major wheat-growi

  6. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  7. Microencapsulation of wheat germ oil

    OpenAIRE

    Yazicioglu, Basak; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum

    2014-01-01

    Wheat germ oil (WGO) is beneficial for health since it is a rich source of omega-3, omega-6 and tocopherol. However, as it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is prone to oxidation. The aim of this study was to encapsulate wheat germ oil and determine the effects of core to coating ratio, coating materials ratio and ultrasonication time on particle size distribution of emulsions and encapsulation efficiency (EE) and surface morphology of capsules. Maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein conce...

  8. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  9. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  10. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  11. 药剂拌种对小麦出苗及病虫防控效果的影响%Effect of Seed Dressing Agents on Wheat Seedling Emergence and Pests and Diseases Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝苏; 汤永禄; 吴春; 马孝玲; 刘学安; 莫太相

    2011-01-01

    Form 2010 to 2011, the effect of seed dressing agents on wheat seedling emergence and pests and diseases control was studied under pot and field condition respectively. The results showed that seed dressing with isofenphos-methyl·triadimefon or raxil would cause seedling emergence time delaying and emergence rate and growth rate decreasing. With the dressing concentration of isofenphos-methyl ? Triadimefon increasing, the inhibition effect to seedling emergence would enhanced. Mixing dressing with isofenphos-methyl ? Triadimefon and raxil had more inhibition effect on seedling emergence than only one agent. Dressing with isofenphos-methyl ? Triadimefon would decrease death seedling rate bitten by pests significantly. The control efficiency of raxil to powdery mildew appearing in filling stage was not good. Choosing appropriate agents according to regional characters and adopting right dressing methods could increase seedling emergence quality and control efficiency to pests and diseases.%2010 -2011年,分别在田同和盆栽条件下研究了甲柳·三唑酮和立克秀拌种对小麦出苗和病虫害防控效果的影响.结果表明,两种药剂拌种均会导致小麦出苗廷迟、出苗率和生长速率下降.甲柳·三唑酮拌种浓度增大,对出苗抑制作用增强;立克秀拌种浓度增大,出苗受抑制变化不明显.2种药剂混合拌种对出苗的抑制作用大于单药剂拌种.甲柳·三唑酮拌种可以显著降低虫咬死株率,立克秀拌种对小麦生育后期白粉病的防控效果不佳.根据区域特点选择适宜的拌种剂,同时采用正确方法拌种对于小麦正常出苗和提高病虫防控效果具有重要意义.

  12. Immunofluorescent determination of wheat protein in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In food industry nowadays, there are various plant-origin protein additives which are meant for production of meat products. Among the most frequent additives of this type there are different kinds of flour, starch, fiber, and plant-origin proteins. Their usage at present is limited by the existing legislation not to prevent consumer deception but also for reasons of possible influence on consumer health. Therefore, this problem is paid a lot of attention not only in the Czech Republic but also all over the world. The main risk is seen in the impossibility to choose a suitable foodstuff for an individual prone to allergic reactions. Potential allergens are also often plant-origin raw materials which are added into foodstuffs for their technological qualities and low price. Wheat is widely cultivated cereal as well as an important source of proteins. After ingestion or inhalation, wheat proteins may cause adverse reactions. These adverse effects include a wide range of disorders which are dependent on the method of contact with wheat protein. These adverse effects can then take the form of various clinical manifestations, such as celiac disease, T-cell mediated inflammatory bowel disease, dermatitis, skin rash, breathing difficulties, allergy to pollen or to wheat flour or food allergy to foodstuffs containing gluten. The only possible protection against adverse immune reactions for those with food allergies is strictly excluding the allergen from their diet. Although the number of studies dealing with the reduction or loss of allergenicity is increasing, yet these practices are not common. Most of the population suffering from food allergies is thus still dependent on strict exclusion of foodstuffs causing adverse allergic reactions from their diet. In order to avoid misleading consumers and also to protect allergic consumers, analytical methods applicable to all types of foodstuffs have been developed. Unfortunately, detection of allergens in

  13. Non-celiac wheat sensitivity: separating the wheat from the chat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David S; Aziz, Imran

    2012-12-01

    Historically, it has been reported that patients with undetected celiac disease (CD) may present with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) type symptoms. This has led to the recommendation by the American College of Gastroenterology Task force that patients presenting with diarrhea predominant IBS type symptoms should be serologically tested for CD. Concurrently speculative media data suggest that the US general public have increased their uptake of a gluten-free diet (GFD) far in excess of the known prevalence of CD. This may suggest that individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms are deriving benefit from a GFD even if they do not have CD. This has led to the scientific community considering the evidence for an emerging concept of non-celiac wheat sensitivity. There is a significant disparity in our views about what this phenomenon may be. There is also confusion about the nomenclature for this entity and indeed whether patients are suffering due to symptoms related to gluten or perhaps other components of wheat, for example fructans. In this month's edition of the American Journal of Gastroenterology, we see evidence to support the clinical concept of wheat sensitivity or intolerance. Irrespective of the nomenclature Carroccio provides a clinically applicable approach that may be adopted internationally by clinicians. This offers a new option in our armamentarium when seeing patients with IBS type symptoms.

  14. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  15. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of a wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm3 from Thinopyrum intermedium to wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Guorong; Liu, Wenxuan; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the production of a wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium recombinant stock conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus. Wheat streak mosaic caused by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. To date, only three genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and two, Wsm1 and Wsm3, were derived from the distantly related wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium. Wsm3 is only available in the form of a compensating wheat-Th. intermedium whole-arm Robertsonian translocation T7BS·7S#3L. Whole-arm alien transfers usually suffer from linkage drag, which prevents their use in cultivar improvement. Here, we report ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination to shorten the Th. intermedium segment and recover a recombinant chromosome consisting of the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B, part of the long arm of 7B, and the distal 43% of the long arm derived from the Th. intermedium chromosome arm 7S#3L. The recombinant chromosome T7BS·7BL-7S#3L confers resistance to WSMV at 18 and 24 °C and also confers resistance to Triticum mosaic virus, but only at 18 °C. Wsm3 is the only gene conferring resistance to WSMV at a high temperature level of 24 °C. We also developed a user-friendly molecular marker that will allow to monitor the transfer of Wsm3 in breeding programs. Wsm3 is presently being transferred to adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and can be used directly in wheat improvement.

  16. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1413 RIN 0560-AH72 Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program AGENCY: Farm... specific requirements for the Durum Wheat Quality Program (DWQP) authorized by the Food, Conservation, and... through 2012 to partially compensate producers for the cost of fungicides applied to durum wheat to...

  17. The Lr46 gene conditions partial adult-plant resistance to yellow rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew in Thatcher wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease resistance is a critical goal for many wheat improvement programs. Wheat cultivars are often attacked by multiple diseases, including the rusts and powdery mildew. F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Thatcher*3/CI13227 that had been previously characterized as having...

  18. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited - tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W.; Leigh, Fiona J; Lister, Diane L.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure...

  19. Breaking wheat yield barriers requires integrated efforts in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Rauf; Maria Zaharieva; Marilyn L Warburton; ZHANG Ping-zhi; Abdullah M AL-Sadi; Farghama Khalil; Marcin Kozak; Sultan A Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Most yield progress obtained through the so cal ed“Green Revolution”, particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are dififcult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is con-sequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and asso-ciation mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer’s ifelds, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAND RACES OF THE SPRING SOFT WHEAT GROWN IN THE ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr KONVALINA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic farmers have become more interested in the marginally grown (neglected cultivars, as spring forms of the hulled wheat varieties (eincorn, emmer wheat, spelta wheat or intermediate forms of the soft wheat. 173 land races from the gene bank at the RI in Praha-Ruzyně were grown on the organic certified parcel and evaluated in 2008. The trial aimed to evaluate the conditions of the competitiveness to weeds, tolerance to diseases, assimilation of the sun shine and establishment of the yield. The results show that all the evaluated material inclines to the competitiveness to weeds. This ability is, nevertheless, reduced because of the inclination to the lodging (all the cultivars have long weak stalks. Eincorn and emmer wheat are resistant to mildew and brown rust, spelta wheat is less resistant cultivar and the intermediate cultivars incline to disease attack very much. Eincorn and emmer wheat have short and dense spikes, spelta wheat has long and sparse spikes. Perspective materials have been found in the study and trials. We are going to focus on a possible increase of the resistance to lodging, choice of the resistant cultivars to funga diseases and increase of the spike productivity.

  1. Generation of transgenic wheat resistant to wheat yel-low mosaic virus and identifi-cation of gene silence induced by virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The plasmid containing the promoter Act1, the coat protein (cp) gene of wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) and the selectable bar gene, was delivered via particle bombardment, directly into immature embryos of a wheat cultivars. PCR and PCR-RFLP were employed to screen the existence of the cp gene in T0 and T1 generations. Seeds from the positive T1 plants were sowed in fields heavily contaminated with WYMV to detect their resistance. In field trial of virus infection, one of the transgenic wheat lines, P8-T2, exhibited highly disease-resistance. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of cp gene in the resistant transgenic line was reduced greatly compared to those susceptible to WYMV infection. This provided evidence to presume that the resistance obtained by the transgenic wheat line was stimulated by the mechanism of the virus induced gene silencing.

  2. The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin de Punder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most consumed cereal grains worldwide and makes up a substantial part of the human diet. Although government-supported dietary guidelines in Europe and the U.S.A advise individuals to eat adequate amounts of (whole grain products per day, cereal grains contain “anti-nutrients,” such as wheat gluten and wheat lectin, that in humans can elicit dysfunction and disease. In this review we discuss evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response.

  3. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Sorghum, Millet, and Whole Wheat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease, or about 1 in 133 individuals. People who have this disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Nutrient profiles were lacking in the USDA Nat...

  4. Models for predicting potential yield loss of wheat caused by stripe rust in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Poudyal, D; Chen, X M

    2011-05-01

    Climatic variation in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) affects epidemics of wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Previous models only estimated disease severity at the flowering stage, which may not predict the actual yield loss. To identify weather factors correlated to stripe rust epidemics and develop models for predicting potential yield loss, correlation and regression analyses were conducted using weather parameters and historical yield loss data from 1993 to 2007 for winter wheat and 1995 to 2007 for spring wheat. Among 1,376 weather variables, 54 were correlated to yield loss of winter wheat and 18 to yield loss of spring wheat. Among the seasons, winter temperature variables were more highly correlated to wheat yield loss than the other seasons. The sum of daily temperatures and accumulated negative degree days of February were more highly correlated to winter wheat yield loss than the other monthly winter variables. In addition, the number of winter rainfall days was found correlated with yield loss. Six yield loss models were selected for each of winter and spring wheats based on their better correlation coefficients, time of weather data availability during the crop season, and better performance in validation tests. Compared with previous models, the new system of using a series of the selected models has advantages that should make it more suitable for forecasting and managing stripe rust in the major wheat growing areas in the U.S. PNW, where the weather conditions have become more favorable to stripe rust.

  5. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  6. Heterosis and Combining Ability for Major Yield Traits of a New Wheat Germplasm Shannong 0095 Derived from Thinopyrum intermedium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yin-guang; WANG Sen; WANG Xiu-qin; WANG Yu-hai; LI Xing-feng; WANG Lin; WANG Hong-gang

    2009-01-01

    The wheatgrass,Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey,shows many beneficial characteristics,such as big spikes and high resistance to many diseases.To transfer the benefi.cial genes of this species,many wheat Thinopyrum intermedium alien chromosome lines were developed.Of them,Shannong 0095 (SN0095),a disomic substitution,has long spikes and flag-leaves,and thus may be an important genetic resource for wheat yield improvement.In order to realize its heterosis and combining ability on major yield traits,a 7 × 7 complete diallel design was made according to Griffing's Method-I.The results showed that heterosis for spike length (SPL),flag-leaf area (FLA),number of spikes per plant (NSP),number of spikelets per spike (NSL),kernels per spike (KPS),1 000-kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield per plant (GYP) existed in all the crosses by SN0095,but heterobeitiosis occurred only for KPS,TKW,and GYP.The relative mid-parent heterosis (RMH) and relative high-parent heterosis (RHH) for GYP,which valued as high as 35.32and 29.92% respectively,were the highest among all the traits mearsured.Though additive and non-additive gene effects and cytoplasmic effects (or cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction effects) were found in governing all the traits measured above,additive gene action played a predominant role.The results also showed that SN0095 was the best-general combiner for SPL and FLA,and high-general combiner for NSP amongst all the parents.Estimates of specific combining ability (SCA) showed that SN0095 could also make high-SCA combinations for GYP,such as SN0095 × Jimai 19 (JM19).SN0095 could be a unique and important parent in hybrid wheat breeding programs.

  7. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  8. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  9. The value of wheat landraces (Editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether man was domesticated by wheat, or wheat was domesticated by man is but two faces of the same coin; both incidents marked a turning point in human history and led to the emergence of human civilization in the Fertile Crescent of the Old World. The complex history of wheat domestication from i...

  10. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  11. SNP Discovery for mapping alien introgressions in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring alien introgressions in crop plants is difficult due to the lack of genetic and molecular mapping information on the wild crop relatives. The tertiary gene pool of wheat is a very important source of genetic variability for wheat improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. By exploring the 5Mg short arm (5MgS) of Aegilops geniculata, we can apply chromosome genomics for the discovery of SNP markers and their use for monitoring alien introgressions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Results The short arm of chromosome 5Mg of Ae. geniculata Roth (syn. Ae. ovata L.; 2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) was flow-sorted from a wheat line in which it is maintained as a telocentric chromosome. DNA of the sorted arm was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 with ~45x coverage. The sequence data was used for SNP discovery against wheat homoeologous group-5 assemblies. A total of 2,178 unique, 5MgS-specific SNPs were discovered. Randomly selected samples of 59 5MgS-specific SNPs were tested (44 by KASPar assay and 15 by Sanger sequencing) and 84% were validated. Of the selected SNPs, 97% mapped to a chromosome 5Mg addition to wheat (the source of t5MgS), and 94% to 5Mg introgressed from a different accession of Ae. geniculata substituting for chromosome 5D of wheat. The validated SNPs also identified chromosome segments of 5MgS origin in a set of T5D-5Mg translocation lines; eight SNPs (25%) mapped to TA5601 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.75)] and three (8%) to TA5602 [T5DL · 5DS-5MgS (0.95)]. SNPs (gsnp_5ms83 and gsnp_5ms94), tagging chromosome T5DL · 5DS-5MgS(0.95) with the smallest introgression carrying resistance to leaf rust (Lr57) and stripe rust (Yr40), were validated in two released germplasm lines with Lr57 and Yr40 genes. Conclusion This approach should be widely applicable for the identification of species/genome-specific SNPs. The development of a large number of SNP markers will facilitate the precise introgression and

  12. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  13. Characterization of a new wheat-Aegilops biuncialis addition line conferring quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J P; Yao, C H; Yang, E N; Yin, M Q; Liu, C; Ren, Z L

    2014-01-28

    In this study, a new disomic addition line, 12-5-2, with 44 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. 12-5-2 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and C-banding revealed that 12-5-2 was a 1U(b) disomic addition line (ADL1U(b)). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-2 presented all high molecular weight glutenin subunits (7 + 8 and 2 + 12) of CN19 and 2 new subunits that were designated Ux and Uy. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness of 12-5-2 were significantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1U(b)-specific polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1041, TNAC1071, TNAC1-01, and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new ADL1U(b) 12-5-2 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end-product quality and resistance to disease.

  14. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  15. EFFICACY AND MODES OF ACTION OF RESISTANCE INDUCERS ON TWO WHEAT SPECIES AGAINST MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Ors, M; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2014-01-01

    Plant resistance inducers could be an alternative to conventional fungicides to control in a more durable and environmentally friendly manner fungal pathogens. Here, we tested the protection efficacy and the modes of action of four resistance inducers (R1, R2, R3 and R4) against the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, Mycosphaerella graminicola, the most frequently occurring pathogen on wheat crops worldwide. The four inducers were tested on two wheat cultivars, Premio (a French bread wheat cultivar) and Karim (a Tunisian durum wheat cultivar), each inoculated with a bread-wheat or a durum-wheat adapted isolate; respectively. All inducers exhibited in the greenhouse a significant protection level on both cultivars regarding disease symptoms (necrosis and chlorosis) and sporulation (pycnidium density). The most efficient inducer was R3 which showed 84% symptom reduction, while the less efficient one was R2 with only a 39% reduction. None of the studied inducers showed direct biocide effect against the fungus, except R4 which displayed a significant in planta inhibition of spore germination. Further investigations revealed that all inducers elicited the plant defence enzymes peroxidase and lipoxygenase, but the activity levels varied depending on the considered inducer. In addition, the effect of resistance inducers on the infection process and the fungal cell-wall degrading enzymes xylanases and glucanases was also investigated. Our study allowed us to find out four efficient resistance inducers on wheat against M. graminicola and to establish data about the modes of action of these inducers.

  16. Development of a wireless computer vision instrument to detect biotic stress in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Joaquin J; O'Shaughnessy, Susan A; Evett, Steven R; Rush, Charles M

    2014-09-23

    Knowledge of crop abiotic and biotic stress is important for optimal irrigation management. While spectral reflectance and infrared thermometry provide a means to quantify crop stress remotely, these measurements can be cumbersome. Computer vision offers an inexpensive way to remotely detect crop stress independent of vegetation cover. This paper presents a technique using computer vision to detect disease stress in wheat. Digital images of differentially stressed wheat were segmented into soil and vegetation pixels using expectation maximization (EM). In the first season, the algorithm to segment vegetation from soil and distinguish between healthy and stressed wheat was developed and tested using digital images taken in the field and later processed on a desktop computer. In the second season, a wireless camera with near real-time computer vision capabilities was tested in conjunction with the conventional camera and desktop computer. For wheat irrigated at different levels and inoculated with wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vegetation hue determined by the EM algorithm showed significant effects from irrigation level and infection. Unstressed wheat had a higher hue (118.32) than stressed wheat (111.34). In the second season, the hue and cover measured by the wireless computer vision sensor showed significant effects from infection (p = 0.0014), as did the conventional camera (p computer vision system in this study is a viable option for determining biotic crop stress in irrigation scheduling. Such a low-cost system could be suitable for use in the field in automated irrigation scheduling applications.

  17. Genetic variation of wheat streak mosaic virus in the United States Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Megan D; Murray, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), the cause of wheat streak mosaic, is a widespread and damaging pathogen of wheat. WSMV is not a chronic problem of annual wheat in the United States Pacific Northwest but could negatively affect the establishment of perennial wheat, which is being developed as an alternative to annual wheat to prevent soil erosion. Fifty local isolates of WSMV were collected from 2008 to 2010 near Lewiston, ID, Pullman, WA, and the United States Department of Agriculture Central Ferry Research Station, near Pomeroy, WA to determine the amount of genetic variation present in the region. The coat protein gene from each isolate was sequenced and the data subjected to four different methods of phylogenetic analyses. Two well-supported clades of WSMV were identified. Isolates in clade I share sequence similarity with isolates from Central Europe; this is the first report of isolates from Central Europe being reported in the United States. Isolates in clade II are similar to isolates originating from Australia, Argentina, and the American Pacific Northwest. Nine isolates showed evidence of recombination and the same two well-supported clades were observed when recombinant isolates were omitted from the analysis. More polymorphic sites, parsimony informative sites, and increased diversity were observed in clade II than clade I, suggesting more recent establishment of the virus in the latter. The observed diversity within both clades could make breeding for durable disease resistance in perennial wheat difficult if there is a differential response of WSMV resistance genes to isolates from different clades.

  18. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  19. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  20. Effect of prothioconazole-based fungicides on Fusarium head blight, grain yield and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of triazole-based treatments on Fusarium head blight (FHB, grain yields and the accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON in harvested wheat kernels was evaluated by means of twenty multi-site field experiments performed during five consecutive growing seasons (from 2004‒2005 to 2008‒2009 in Italy. Fungicide treatments were carried out on different cultivars of common wheat (cv. Serio, Blasco, Genio and Savio and durum wheat (cv. Orobel, Saragolla, San Carlo, Levante, Duilio, Karur and Derrik after artificial inoculation with a mixture of toxigenic Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum strains. The application of fungicides containing prothioconazole (Proline® or Prosaro® at the beginning of anthesis (BBCH 61 resulted in a consistent reduction of FHB disease severity (by between 39 and 93% and DON levels in wheat kernels (by between 40 and 91% and increased wheat yields (from 0.4 to 5.6 t ha-1, average 2.2 t ha-1, as compared to the untreated/inoculated control. Fungicides containing tebuconazole (Folicur® SE and cyproconazole plus prochloraz (Tiptor® Xcell showed a reduced effectiveness compared with prothioconazole-based treatments. All fungicide treatments were more effective in reducing DON and increasing grain yields of common wheat than durum wheat. Results showed that the application of fungicides containing prothioconazole at the beginning of anthesis provided a strong reduction of FHB disease, allowing both an increase in grain yields and a considerable reduction of DON content in wheat kernels.

  1. Improving wheat to remove coeliac epitopes but retain functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R.; Tatham, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an intolerance triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins. It is of increasing concern to consumers and health professionals as its incidence appears to be increasing. The amino acid sequences in gluten proteins that are responsible for triggering responses in sensitive individuals have been identified showing that they vary in distribution among and between different groups of gluten proteins. Conventional breeding may therefore be used to select for gluten protein fractions with lower contents of coeliac epitopes. Molecular breeding approaches can also be used to specifically down-regulate coeliac-toxic proteins or mutate coeliac epitopes within individual proteins. A combination of these approaches may therefore be used to develop a “coeliac-safe” wheat. However, this remains a formidable challenge due to the complex multigenic control of gluten protein composition. Furthermore, any modified wheats must retain acceptable properties for making bread and other processed foods. Not surprisingly, such coeliac-safe wheats have not yet been developed despite over a decade of research. PMID:26937068

  2. Improving wheat to remove coeliac epitopes but retain functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Tatham, Arthur S

    2016-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an intolerance triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins. It is of increasing concern to consumers and health professionals as its incidence appears to be increasing. The amino acid sequences in gluten proteins that are responsible for triggering responses in sensitive individuals have been identified showing that they vary in distribution among and between different groups of gluten proteins. Conventional breeding may therefore be used to select for gluten protein fractions with lower contents of coeliac epitopes. Molecular breeding approaches can also be used to specifically down-regulate coeliac-toxic proteins or mutate coeliac epitopes within individual proteins. A combination of these approaches may therefore be used to develop a "coeliac-safe" wheat. However, this remains a formidable challenge due to the complex multigenic control of gluten protein composition. Furthermore, any modified wheats must retain acceptable properties for making bread and other processed foods. Not surprisingly, such coeliac-safe wheats have not yet been developed despite over a decade of research.

  3. Biofortifcation of Wheat Grain with Copper Through Soil Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzeniowska Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in the literature, there have been frequent reports of insuffcient amounts of copper in the diet of various groups of the inhabitants of our country. This is disturbing as the adequate input of copper is signifcant from the point of view of prevention of cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, grain of wheat cultivated in Poland is characterized by low content of this element. Considering that the main source of Cu is bread and cereal preparations, the important issue is to increase the content of Cu in the grain of wheat. If the defciency in the diet is accompanied by the defciencies in the soil, biofortifcation through fertilization is a favourable solution. Pot experiments have shown the pos-sibility to signifcantly increase Cu content in the grain of wheat as a result of soil fertilization with copper. It was also found that a small difference between the defciency and surplus of Cu in the grain may lead to some copper excess content, especially on the soils with low organic matter content. For this reason, biofortifcation of wheat with copper requires a precise determination of soil fertilization doses under the conditions of feld experiments.

  4. Nutritional and technological quality of the durum wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Flagella

    Full Text Available Durum wheat quality is a complex system that combines yield characteristics, cultivation conditions and certification requirements. In this review, the technological and nutritional aspects of grain quality were evaluated in relation to the influence of climate and agronomic practices. In particular, the technological quality was investigated with regard to the kind of processed product (pasta, bread, couscous, burghul. The influence of nitrogen and sulphur nutrition, temperature, water regime and organic farming on grain quality was evaluated. Furthermore, the nutritional characteristics of durum wheat related to starch, proteins, lipids, vitamins, fibres and mineral ions content were examined. Special focus was on the antioxidant activity capable of preventing chronic and degenerative diseases thanks to the high content in bioactive compounds, as phenols, tocols, carotenoids and fibres in whole grain. In the light of the new direction of the Community agricultural policy and of the growing interest in human nutrition, two prospects for development of the durum wheat sector were delineated: i developing certified products (PGI, PDO and organic; ii promoting production and processing technologies aimed at increasing the level of bioactive compounds in durum wheat grain and its by-products.

  5. Wheat Rust Toolbox Related to New Initiatives on Yellow Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    A wheat rust toolbox was developed in the frame of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) to support the early warning and monitoring of stem rust on a global scale. The toolbox consists of a number of databases and web applications for data management, quality control, dissemination and display...... of interactive maps; including information on surveillance (disease data over years and across countries for all three rusts) and graphs and maps indicating the distribution of UG99 and related pathotypes. Graphs and maps are integrated with, and disseminated, via the Rust SPORE web portal at FAO (http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/rust/stem/rust......-report/en/). The Wheat rust toolbox is one of several International research platforms hosted by Aarhus University, and it uses the same ICT framework and databases as EuroWheat (www.eurowheat.org) and EuroBlight (www.EuroBlight.net). The Wheat Rust Toolbox will also serve the Global Rust Reference Centre (GRRC) as well...

  6. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains.

  7. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  8. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  9. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  10. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  11. ENHANCEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM BY METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ISOFLAVONE PATHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Shehawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are large group of secondary metabolites produced in legumes such as soybeans. They have essential biological functions as nutraceutical and health functions for human. They are involved in plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing organisms and plant competition (allelopathy. In this report, isoflavonoids were expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum via introducing the key enzymes Isoflavone Synthase (IFS. Transgenic callli induced from wheat immature embryos were propagated and prepared for bombardment. Five gene constructs were prepared; the binary vector (plasmid pAHC25, 35S-CRC, 35S-IFS, Oleocin-IFS, Oleocin-IFS-CHI and were used for wheat calli transformation. Putative transgenic calli were used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants. Evaluation of recovered transgenic plants was carried out using PCR, southern bloting of PCR products and IFS-specific probe and HPLC analysis of transgenic plant tissue extracts. Genistein and naranigenin were detected in transgenic plants carrying IFS gene, indicating that the introduced IFS was able to use the endogenous substrate from wheat. IFS showed activity under 35S promoter as well as oleocin promoter. The activity of oleocin promoter in monocots provides a good tool to use plant promoters to drive plant gene expression in plants. This also represents promoter compatibility that the cis acting elements of the oleocin promoter represent binding targets for trans acting elements of wheat. Engineering the isoflavone pathway in wheat would lead to enhancement of nutraceutical value of wheat grains and improvement of wheat resistance to diseases.

  12. Structural genes of wheat and barley 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases and their potential applications for human health

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Wheat supplies about 20% of the total food calories consumed worldwide and is a national staple in many countries. Besides being a key source of plant proteins, it is also a major cause of many diet-induced health issues, especially celiac disease. The only effective treatment for this disease is a total gluten-free diet. The present report describes an effort to develop a natural dietary therapy for this disorder by transcriptional suppression of wheat DEMETER (DME) homeologs using RNA inter...

  13. Aphid–parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore–natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and it...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF RAPD MARKER LINKED TO POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCE GENE Pm 12 IN WHEAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Feng; ZHANG Qing-li; GUO Xiao-chun; LI Tao; WANG Hong-gang

    2004-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases of wheat in China. In this paper,bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to search for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the Pm12 gene,which confers resistance to the powdery mildew in wheat. 200 decamer primers were screened and one RAPD marker (S1071900) was identified to be linked to Pm 12 in coupling phase, and their genetic distance is 11.98 ±4.00cM. This marker can be used for marker - assisted selection in wheat breeding for the identification or pyramiding of Pm12 with other resistance genes.Key Words: Wheat, RAPD, Powdery mildew, resistance genes.

  15. Genomic Regions Associated with Tolerance to Freezing Stress and Snow Mold in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B. Kruse

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants grown through the winter are subject to selective pressures that vary with each year’s unique conditions, necessitating tolerance of numerous abiotic and biotic stress factors. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. associated with tolerance of two of these stresses, freezing temperatures and snow mold—a fungal disease complex active under snow cover. A population of 155 F2:5 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between soft white wheat cultivars “Finch” and “Eltan” was evaluated for snow mold tolerance in the field, and for freezing tolerance under controlled conditions. A total of 663 molecular markers was used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify marker-trait associations. One quantitative trait locus (QTL associated with both freezing and snow mold tolerance was identified on chromosome 5A. A second, distinct, QTL associated with freezing tolerance also was found on 5A, and a third on 4B. A second QTL associated with snow mold tolerance was identified on chromosome 6B. The QTL on 5A associated with both traits was closely linked with the Fr-A2 (Frost-Resistance A2 locus; its significant association with both traits may have resulted from pleiotropic effects, or from greater low temperature tolerance enabling the plants to better defend against snow mold pathogens. The QTL on 4B associated with freezing tolerance, and the QTL on 6B associated with snow mold tolerance have not been reported previously, and may be useful in the identification of sources of tolerance for these traits.

  16. 新耕作制度下河北省冬小麦病虫草害发生状况的研究%Study on Diseases,Insect Pests and Weeds of Winter Wheat Under the New Farming System in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳; 齐永志; 张书敏; 甄文超; 张月辰

    2012-01-01

    To further clarify the occurrence of the diseases, insect pests and weeds of winter wheat under the new fanning system, the main species, the occurrence characteristics and the change reasons were studied with sampling investigations and questionnaires to farmers in 32 monitoring sites from Piedmont, Heilonggang and Eastern Plains in Heibei Province. The results showed that under the new farming system, the main species of diseases, pests and weeds had reached up to 15, 20 and 21 respectively, and the main diseases and pests were Powdery Mildew, Sharp Eyespot, Scab, Aphids, Wheat-spider and Wheat midge with Descurainia Sophia as the dominant species in all weeds. There were four characteristics about the occurrence of the diseases, insect pests and weeds, including some secondary diseases and insect pests becoming to the dominant, the complex and diverse weeds species, a tendency expanding from the former location to North and East and a continuous damage to wheat and corn. In a word, the occurrence changes of the diseases, insect pests and weeds were mainly caused by the new fanning system which was benefit to protect the habitats, improve the cardinal number and accelerate the transmission of the diseases and insect pests in different regions and blocks. In addition, the warming climate and the lack of resistant varieties were also the important factors in the occurrence of diseases and insect pests over the past decade.%为明确新耕作制度下河北省冬小麦病虫草害发生状况.通过对河北省山前平原、黑龙港和冀东平原32个点进行监测及农户问卷普查,分析了冬小麦主要病虫草害种类、发生特点和变化原因.结果表明:新耕作制度下,河北省麦田主要病虫草害分别高达15、20、21种,其中白粉病、纹枯病、赤霉病、蚜虫、麦蜘蛛和吸浆虫等为主要病虫,杂草以播娘蒿为主.麦田病虫草害发生特点为部分次要病虫害上升为主要病虫害、杂草种类变化

  17. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  18. Assessment of Risk of Establishment of Wheat Dwarf Bunt (Tilletia controversa) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Wen-ming; ZHOU Yi-lin; DUAN Xia-yu; LUO Yong; DING Sheng-li; CAO Xue-ren; Bruce D L Fitt

    2013-01-01

    Wheat dwarf bunt, caused by Tilletia controversa Kühn (TCK), is an important quarantine wheat disease throughout the world. Based on published research results of the biology and the epidemiology of the disease, the main factors including temperature, humidity, snow cover, and their parameters relating to teliospore germination, infection and epidemics of TCK were determined. The geophytopathological models for the risk analysis of wheat dwarf bunt establishment were modified. Fifty-year meteorologic data from about 500 weather stations in China were used to calculate the probabilities of TCK establishment in different geographic sites with the models. The map that displays the establishment risk of TCK in winter wheat growing regions in China was generated by using geographical information system (GIS). The zones showing high, moderate, low, and very low, including no risk, of TCK establishment accounted for 27.33, 27.69, 38.12, and 6.86% of total winter wheat growing areas in China, respectively. These results will provide useful information to formulate quarantine regulations and wheat importation policy in China.

  19. Characterization of wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica small segment translocation line with enhanced kernels per spike and stripe rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hou-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Xu, Li-Li; Qi, Wei-Liang; Tang, Yao; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Li, Dai-Yan; Zeng, Jian; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Sha, Li-Na; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs), a distant wild relative of common wheat, possesses rich potentially valuable traits, such as disease resistance and more spikelets and kernels per spike, that could be useful for wheat genetic improvement. Development of wheat - P. huashanica translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat breeding. In the present study, a wheat - P. huashanica small segmental translocation line, K-13-835-3, was isolated and characterized from the BC1F5 population of a cross between wheat - P. huashanica amphiploid PHW-SA and wheat cultivar CN16. Cytological studies showed that the mean chromosome configuration of K-13-835-3 at meiosis was 2n = 42 = 0.10 I + 19.43 II (ring) + 1.52 II (rod). GISH analyses indicated that chromosome composition of K-13-835-3 included 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of wheat - P. huashanica translocation chromosomes. FISH results demonstrated that the small segment from an unidentified P. huashanica chromosome was translocated into wheat chromosome arm 5DS, proximal to the centromere region of 5DS. Compared with the cultivar wheat parent CN16, K-13-835-3 was highly resistant to stripe rust pathogens prevalent in China. Furthermore, spikelets and kernels per spike in K-13-835-3 were significantly higher than those of CN16 in two growing seasons. These results suggest that the desirable genes from P. huashanica were successfully transferred into CN16 background. This translocation line could be used as novel germplasm for high-yield and, eventually, resistant cultivar breeding.

  20. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    , but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24...

  1. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  2. WHEAT FLOUR (DUBBIE) IN RATS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food product to be widely distributed was a blend of wheat, defatted soy flour, .... drops of blood from the retroocular capillary bed (under light diethyl ether ..... Bioavaiiability to rats of the iron contents in selected cereals and pulses. Nutr. Rep.

  3. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Amanda J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

  4. HULLED WHEAT FARMING IN DEVELI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Bulut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emmer (Triticum dicoccum and einkorn (T. monococcum cultivation has a long history in Anatolia. The crops, cultivated in Anatolia over thousands years, can still be found in some parts of the country, especially Develi in the Kayseri province. The total cultivation area of these crops was around 36 000 ha in 2015. The species is mainly cultivated in sloping and marginal lands by poor farmers, where no other crops can be economically grown. Cultivation area is rapidly declining, and if such trend continues, hulled wheats will be shortly completely wiped out from Turkey. Present-day distribution of emmer and spelt within Turkey is concentrated in countryside areas of Develi where traditional farming systems still survive. This group of wheats is called in Turkish the general name of ‘kaplìca’ which means ‘covered’ or ‘hulled’. More specifically, the tetraploid species (emmer is called ‘gacer’ in the Develi. Being a low-yielding type of wheat, emmer was replaced by other improved varieties of Triticum. This decrease was mainly due to the widespread use of improved cultivars of wheat and the adoption of new agricultural techniques, but also to social and economic factors. In fact, wheat yielded 2840 t/ha, whereas hulled wheats yielded 1200 t/ha. The cultivation of these two crops shows disadvantages that relate to the harvesting techniques used and the need to dehisce the spikelets to obtain the grain for human consumption. The increasing interest in low-input systems due to the actual ecological and economical situation has led to a growing interest in specific genetic variability. Organic agriculture and health food products have been gaining increasing popularity that has led to a renewed interest in hulled wheat species such as emmer and spelt. The objective of this study was to estimate agronomical and grain quality characteristics of some Turkey (Develi emmer landraces. This effort was motivated by the fact that autochthonous

  5. Molecular basis of processing wheat gluten toward biobased materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrain, Bert; Goderis, Bart; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-03-08

    The unique properties of the wheat grain reside primarily in the gluten-forming storage proteins of its endosperm. Wheat gluten's structural and functional properties have led to an expanding diversity of applications in food products. However, its viscoelastic properties and low water solubility also are very interesting features for nonfood applications. Moreover, gluten is annually renewable and perfectly biodegradable. In the processing and setting of gluten containing products, temperature plays a very important role. In this review, the structure and reactivity of gluten are discussed and the importance of sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide (SS) groups is demonstrated. Wheat gluten aggregation upon thermosetting proceeds through direct covalent cross-linking in and between its protein groups, glutenin and gliadin. Predominant reactions include SH oxidation and SH/SS interchange reactions leading to the formation of SS cross-links. Additionally, thermal treatment of gluten can result in the formation of other than SS covalent bonds. We here review two main technological approaches to make gluten-based materials: wet processes resulting in thin films and dry processes, such as extrusion or compression molding, exploiting the thermoplastic properties of proteins under low moisture conditions and potentially resulting in very useful materials. Gluten bioplastics can also be reinforced with natural fibers, resulting in biocomposites. Although a lot of progress has been made the past decade, the current gluten materials are still outperformed by their synthetic polymer counterparts.

  6. The Analysis on China s Biofortified Iron-rich Wheat Nutrition Intervening Chinese People s Disease Burden of Iron Deficiency Anemia%中国生物强化富铁小麦营养干预居民缺铁性贫血疾病负担分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金磊; 李路平

    2014-01-01

    There is one of five Chinese people who are suffering from anemia now,most of people�s anemia are caused by iron nutrient deficiency. Women and children are severe iron nutrient deficiency target population, and people in rural areas are more vulnerable to iron deficiency. In order to reduce the high incidence of iron deficiency anemia ( IDA) in China, this paper focused on the discussion and analysis of the potential health intervention effects of biofortified iron⁃rich wheat as a new nutrition intervention. Based on the materials acquired and data collected, this paper applied DALYs analysis method, took research on the changes of disease burden of IDA of Chinese people and the potential nutrition improvement before and after biofortified iron⁃rich wheat nutrition intervention. The research results showed that biofortified iron⁃rich wheat has a good nutrition intervention effects. The policy advices were:put more research funds on biofortified wheat breeding research in order to breed higher iron content wheat varieties;pay more attention to the promotion and application of biofortified iron⁃rich wheat.%目前我国人口中平均每5人中就有1人遭受贫血危害,大部分居民贫血是由于铁营养素缺乏引起的,妇女和儿童是我国人口中铁营养素缺乏比较严重的群体,农村则是铁营养素缺乏的高发地区。针对我国高发的缺铁性贫血状况,重点讨论和分析了生物强化富铁小麦作为一种新的营养干预手段,其潜在的健康干预效果。在获取和依据相关材料和数据的基础上,采用失能调整生命年作为分析工具,研究确定了生物强化富铁小麦营养干预前后我国居民缺铁性贫血疾病负担的现状和潜在的营养改善情况。研究表明,生物强化富铁小麦具有很好的营养干预效果。最后提出加大对生物强化小麦育种研究的投入,培育含铁量更高的小麦新品种,并重视生物强化富铁

  7. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase). Besides the...

  8. Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat using the in vitro androgenic approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) belongs to the three most important food crops in the world. In certain years, the crop can suffer considerable damage as a result of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), especially as no chemical control is effective against this disease. This disease is mainly caused by the fu

  9. Towards a more sustainable agriculture: wheat mycorrhization to protect against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, G; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Fontaine, J; Reignault, Ph; Sahraoui, A Lounes-Hadj

    2013-01-01

    One of the means to reduce the use of pesticides, which are harmful for humans and the environment, is the development of alternative methods to control crop diseases. In this context, arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation possesses a great potential for crop production by a more sustainable agriculture. Our work aims to (i) determine the optimal conditions for wheat mycorrhization (ii) study the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on a foliar disease of wheat, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, Bgt), (iii) evaluate the stimulation of natural defences of wheat (Triticuma estivum). Therefore, this work consisted firstly of defining the parameters, affecting the establishment of wheat mycorrhization, such as: phosphorus concentration (62, 12.5, 6.2 mg/L), culture time (4, 5, 6, 7 weeks), arbuscular mycorrhizal species used as an inoculum (Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri), Glomus masseae (Gm) and the mixture of (Ri+Gm)) and wheat cultivars (Orvantis and Lord, sensitive and moderately resistant to Bgt, respectively). Secondly, the protective effect of mycorrhizal inoculation against Bgt was estimated by comparing infection rates of wheat seedlings subjected and non-subjected to AMF. Finally, to better understand the biochemical mechanisms involved in the protection, two enzymatic activities described as defense markers [lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxidase (POX)] were also assessed. Extensive mycorrhization (about 31%) was obtained at P/5 concentration (12.5 mg/L) when wheat plants were 6 weeks old. The highest colonization rate was obtained when wheat was inoculated with Gm compared to SZE and Ri. The higher resistance level of Lord wheat cultivar against Bgt did not affect the mycorrhizal rate compared to the more susceptible cultivar Orvantis. Our work showed a significant protection level in mycorrhizal (M) wheat plants against Bgt, estimated to about 25 and 43% with Ri and SZE respectively compared to non-mycorrhizal (NM) Orvantis plants. The

  10. Biological control of take-all and Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat by the cyclic lipopeptide-producing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, inhibited a broad range of plant pathogens, including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, and suppressed the soilborne diseases of wheat, take-all and Rhizoctonia roo...

  11. Climate change impacts on the ecology of Fusarium graminearum species complex and susceptibility of wheat to Fusarium head blight: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a major threat to agricultural grain production, food safety, and animal health. The severity of disease epidemics and accumulation of associated trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat kerne...

  12. Characterization of the Wheat Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) Fungal Effector Candidate PEC6 and Its Corresponding Host Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Changhai

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important fungal diseases on wheat worldwide and a serious threat to wheat production. Understanding the plant-microbe interaction mechanism is the basic step to assist future plant breeding aiming at increasing...

  13. Wheat stripe rust resistance protein WKS1 reduces the ability of the thylakoid-associated ascorbate peroxidase to detoxify reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici(Pst). The WKS1 resistance gene has an unusual combination of serine/threonine kinase and START lipid-binding domains and confers partial resistance to Pst. Here we show that wheat plants transformed w...

  14. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  15. Identification and genetic mapping of the putative Thinopyrum intermedium-derived dominant powdery mildew resistance gene PmL962 on wheat chromosome arm 2BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a destructive disease affecting the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Powdery mildew resistance was putatively transferred from Thinopyrum intermedium to the common wheat line L962, which conferred resistance to multiple Ch...

  16. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Starch. ... Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising ... Article Metrics.

  17. No significant difference in antigenicity or tissue transglutaminase substrate specificity of Irish and US wheat gliadins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveny, A P; Offner, G D; Bootle, E; Nunes, D P

    2000-04-01

    The prevalence of clinical celiac disease has been shown to vary both across time and between genetically similar populations. Differences in wheat antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate properties are a possible explanation for these differences. This study assessed the antigenicity and transglutaminase substrate specificities of gliadins from regions of high and low celiac disease prevalence. Gliadin was extracted from three commercial US wheat sources and two Irish sources. SDS-PAGE and western blotting revealed minor, but significant variations in the gliadin extracts. However, ELISA showed no difference in the antigenicity of these gliadins. Transglutaminase pretreatment of gliadin resulted in no significant change in gliadin antigenicity and kinetic studies showed that the Kms of the various gliadins were very similar. Purified IgA and IgG had no effect on transglutaminase activity. In summary, minor variations in wheat gliadins are unlikely to explain the observed differences in disease expression across genetically similar populations.

  18. Remission of severe aphthous stomatitis of celiac disease with etanercept

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasan, Adey; Patel, Hiren; Saleh, Hana; Youngberg, George; Litchfield, John; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2013-01-01

    ... (wheat, barley and rye) in genetically predisposed individuals. We present a patient with celiac disease complicated by severe aphthous stomatitis resulting in impairing swallowing, chewing and speaking...

  19. Incidência de doenças fúngicas e sanidade de sementes de trigo sob diferentes doses de nitrogênio e aplicação de fungicida Incidence of fungal diseases and wheat seed health, under different nitrogen rates, and fungicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Souza Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças fúngicas na cultura do trigo são responsáveis pela redução da produtividade, além de aumentar o custo de produção da cultura, em virtude da necessidade de aplicação de fungicidas para o seu controle. Muitos patógenos são transmitidos pelas sementes e desempenham um importante papel na epidemiologia das doenças. O trabalho teve com objetivo verificar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio sobre a severidade de doenças fúngicas e a sanidade de sementes de duas cultivares de trigo, IAC-24 e IAC-60, com e sem aplicação do fungicida propiconazole. Os resultados mostraram efeito polinomial das doses de N para a severidade da mancha marrom (Bipolaris sorokiniana nas folhas e linear para as sementes, na ausência do fungicida, para ambas as cultivares.Many fungal diseases on wheat are responsible for yield loss and besides increasing production cost due to the fungicide application. Many pathogens are seedborne and play an important role in disease epidemiology. The present work was carried out to verify the effect of nitrogen rates and propiconazole application on fungal disease severity and seed health of two wheat cultivars, 'IAC-24' and 'IAC-60'. The results showed a polinomial effect of N rates on the severity of Bipolaris sorokiniana on leaves and a linear effect on seeds, in the absence of fungicide application, for both cultivars.

  20. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  1. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  2. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  3. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  4. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  5. Concept, Characteristics and Future of Cold-type Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Songwu

    2007-01-01

    Cold types of wheat are the kinds of wheat whose canopy temperature keeps slightly lower and has a series of advantageous traits, which are favorable for wheat to have high and stable yield and stable high quality. The paper expatiates on the advances and important problems in the research of cold types of wheat and predicts the future of cold types of wheat and the influences of the research about cold types of wheat on other crops and plants.

  6. Colonization of Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09 in Wheat Roots Observed under Transmission Electron Microscopy and Its Biocontrol Efficiency against Diseases%内生解淀粉芽孢杆菌CC09在小麦根部定殖的电镜观察及防病效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪凤; 余向阳; 薛雅蓉; 刘常宏

    2014-01-01

    采用抗利福平标记菌株的平板菌落计数法,检测了内生解淀粉芽孢杆菌 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09在小麦根部的定殖能力及消长动态,发现菌株CC09在小麦根内、根表和根际均能定殖,接种后5 d定殖量分别稳定维持在2.7×105、2.0×105和5.5×105 cfu/g。透射电镜观察发现,菌株CC09能够在小麦根组织的皮层细胞、细胞间隙、中柱鞘及髓腔中定殖,且不影响根组织细胞结构。室内盆栽试验表明,用菌株CC09发酵液灌根处理小麦,对由禾谷镰刀菌Fusarium graminearum侵染引起的麦苗赤霉病的防效高达90.7%,表明菌株CC09是潜在的防治小麦赤霉病的生防菌,具有良好的开发和应用价值。%Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can colonize many plant roots, promote plant growth and suppress pathogenic fungi. However, its colonization process and potential disease control efficacy on wheat roots and rhizosphere are rarely studied. By applying the rifampicin resistant mutant and plate diluting method, we have investigated the colonization capacity and population dynamics of endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens CC09 within wheat root tissues, surface and rhizosphere. Results showed that CC09 strain colonized well within root tissues, surfaces and rhizosphere with a density of 2.7×105, 2.0×105 and 5.5×105 cfu/g, respectively, at 5 d after inoculation, and maintained at these population levels thereafter. Moreover, the strain could colonize in the cortical cells, intercellular spaces, pericycle cells and canal tissues in wheat root tissues and did not show clear adverse impacts on the cell ultra-structures based on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. In addition, the cultural broth of the strain exhibited 90.7% control efficiency against wheat seedling blight caused by Fusarium graminearum using root-drenching pot assay under the greenhouse conditions. These results suggested that the endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens

  7. Evaluation and reselection of wheat resistance to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia, Mordvilko) biotype 2 (RWA2) is virulent to most known RWA resistance genes and severely threatens wheat production in the hard winter wheat area of the US western Great Plains. We determined RWA2 reactions of 386 cultivars from China, 227 advanced breeding...

  8. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridge...

  9. Effects of protein in wheat flour on retrogradation of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xijun, Lian; Junjie, Guo; Danli, Wang; Lin, Li; Jiaran, Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins were isolated from wheat flour and the effects of those proteins on retrogradation of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that only glutenins retarded retrogradation of wheat starch and other 3 proteins promoted it. The results of IR spectra proved that no S-S linkage formed during retrogradation of wheat starch blended with wheat proteins. Combination of wheat starch and globulins or gliadins through glucosidic bonds hindered the hydrolysis of wheat starch by α-amylase. The melting peak temperatures of retrograded wheat starch attached to different proteins were 128.46, 126.14, 132.03, 121.65, and 134.84 °C for the control with no protein, albumins, glutenins, globulins, gliadins groups, respectively, and there was no second melting temperature for albumins group. Interaction of wheat proteins and starch in retrograded wheat starch greatly decreased the endothermic enthalpy (△H) of retrograded wheat starch. Retrograded wheat starch bound to gliadins might be a new kind of resistant starch based on glycosidic bond between starch and protein.

  10. Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects, and potential food use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Fred; Hemery, Youna; Price, Ruth; Anson, Nuria Mateo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades substantial attention has been given to the role of dietary fiber in health and disease, in particular diabetes, cardiovascular disease, intestinal health, and some types of cancer. As a result the food industry started to add back fiber to refined foods and develop fiber rich foods. Scientists suggested that whole grain foods are superior to foods enriched with fibers obtained/synthesized using enzyme treatment, and thermal or chemical processing because the content of bioactive components and micronutrients in whole grain is more abundant. This triggered interest in how to isolate the micronutrient rich aleurone fiber fraction from wheat. Aleurone is a single cell layer at the inner site of the bran. It contains most of the minerals, vitamins, phenolic antioxidants, and lignans of the wheat grain. Novel milling and dry-fractionation techniques have recently allowed for full-scale separation of aleurone cells from the other layers of wheat bran, yielding a fiber rich concentrate which potentially contains many of the "whole grain kernel bioactives," which recently have been used in a variety of studies. The present review highlights available data on aleurone isolation, composition, intestinal physiology, and its metabolism and potential health benefits as well as its use in food.

  11. Effect of seed treatment with organic acids on the control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici and T. laevis) in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, B; Azmeh, F; Mamluk, O F; Sikora, R A

    2001-01-01

    Common bunt caused by Tilletia tritici and T. laevis is an important disease, causes considerable losses in wheat yield on a world wild. The disease reduces yields, complicates harvesting and lowers the quality of the grain. It occurs more frequently and causes greater damage on winter wheat than on spring wheat. Grain standards designate wheat that has an unmistakable odor of smut or that contains smut balls, portions of balls, or spores of smut in excess of a quantity equal to 14 balls of average size in 250 g of wheat as "light smutty". Samples containing an excess of 30 balls, or their equivalent, in 250 g of wheat are graded as "smutty". Grain in these grades brings lower prices. Using commercial acetic acid and lactic acid, the pathogen was successfully controlled, but the treatment negatively affected seed germination and seedling vitality. Using dilutions of acetic acid and lactic acid, significant control of the pathogen also was achieved with acetic acid without causing phytotoxicity. Dilutions of lactic acid also gave good control, but showed some phytotoxicity. Using 30-50 ml/kg of vinegar, which is a natural source of acetic acid, proved to be one of the most effective alternatives for control of common bunt on wheat. The treatment had no negative effects on seed germination nor on seedling vitality.

  12. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  13. [Fusarium graminearum presence in wheat samples for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Mauro; Castañares, Eliana; Dinolfo, María I; Pacheco, Walter G; Moreno, María V; Stenglein, Sebastián A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important diseases in cereal crops is Fusarium head blight, being Fusarium graminearum the main etiological agent. This fungus has the ability to produce a wide spectrum and quantity of toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). During the last crop season (2012-2013) the climatic conditions favored Fusarium colonization. The objective of this work was to determine the presence of this fungus as well as the DON content in 50 wheat grain samples. Our results showed that 80% of the samples were contaminated with Fusarium graminearum. Twenty four percent (24%) of the samples contained ≥ 1μg/g DON, 26% ranged from 0,5 and 0,99μg/g, and the remaining 50% had values lower than 0,5μg/g. Correlation was found between the presence of Fusarium graminearum and DON. It is necessary to establish DON limit values in wheat grains for human consumption.

  14. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  15. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  16. Interference of allelopathic wheat with different weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Zhu; Li, Yong-Hua; Kong, Chui-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interference of allelopathic wheat with weeds involves a broad spectrum of species either independently or synergistically with competitive factors. This study examined the interference of allelopathic wheat with 38 weeds in relation to the production of allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in wheat with and without root-root interactions. There were substantial differences in weed biomass and DIMBOA concentration in wheat-weed coexisting systems. Among 38 weeds, nine weeds were inhibited significantly by allelopathic wheat but the other 29 weeds were not. DIMBOA levels in wheat varied greatly with weed species. There was no significant relationship between DIMBOA levels and weed suppression effects. Root segregation led to great changes in weed inhibition and DIMBOA level. Compared with root contact, the inhibition of eight weeds was lowered significantly, while significantly increased inhibition occurred in 11 weeds with an increased DIMBOA concentration under root segregation. Furthermore, the production of DIMBOA in wheat was induced by the root exudates from weeds. Interference of allelopathic wheat with weeds not only is determined by the specificity of the weeds but also depends on root-root interactions. In particular, allelopathic wheat may detect certain weeds through the root exudates and respond by increasing the allelochemical, resulting in weed identity recognition. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Control of Fusarium head blight of winter wheat by artificial and natural infection using new fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Treikale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia, climatic factors are influential in spreading of Fusarium head blight of cereals caused by Fusarium species. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of the disease in winter wheat is hightened temperature at the time of wheat anthesis. Field trials for the control of the disease in winter wheat were done in 2003-2004 using new fungicides applied at various rates by natural infection and artificial inoculation. Three species of causative agents: Fusarium avenaceum var. herbarum, F. gibbosum, F. culmorum were collected from infected seeds of wheat and used for inoculation of experimental plots at the concentration 106 conidia ml-1 (1:1:1 at the stage of full anthesis. Effective control of the disease was obtained through application of new fungicides with different active ingredient: Prosaro 250 EC (tebuconazole 125 G, prothioconazole 125 G L-1, Input 460 EC (spiroxamine 300 G, prothioconazole 160 G L-1. In conditions of artificial infection by severe attack of Fusarium spp. the application of fungicides containing tebuconazole at T3 gave significant influence on yield of winter wheat through plumpness of grains increase. High efficacy of fungicides against leaf infection with Erysiphe graminis and Drechslera tritici-repentis was also in the trial achieved. Application of fungicide containing cyproconazole and trifloxystrobin at T1 in the trial 2004 gave good control of Septoria tritici, E. graminis and D. triticirepentis.

  18. Evidence for Increased Aggressiveness in a Recent Widespread Strain of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Causing Stripe Rust of Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milus, Eugene A; Kristensen, Kristian; Hovmøller, Mogens S

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based on vir...... that wheat rust fungi can adapt to warmer temperatures and cause severe disease in previously unfavorable environments......Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based...

  19. Proteomic analysis of middle and late stages of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic approaches were applied in four grain developmental stages of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutant line Yunong 3114. 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analyzed proteome characteristics during middle and late grain development of the Chinese bread wheat Yunong 201 and its EMS mutant line Yunong 3114 with larger grain sizes. We identified 130 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 88 unique proteins, and four main expression patterns displayed a dynamic description of middle and late grain formation. Those identified protein species participated in eight biochemical processes: stress/defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/assembly/degradation, storage proteins, energy production and transportation, photosynthesis, transcription/translation, signal transduction. Comparative proteomic characterization demonstrated 12 protein spots that co-accumulated in the two wheat cultivars with different expression patterns, and 6 cultivar-specific protein spots including serpin, small heat shock protein, beta-amylase, alpha-amylase inhibitor, dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor, and cold regulated protein. These cultivar-specific protein spots possibly resulted in differential yield-related traits of the two wheat cultivars. Our results provide valuable information for dissection of molecular and genetics basis of yield-related traits in bread wheat and the proteomic characterization in this study could also provide insights in the biology of late grain development.

  20. Cytogenetic and molecular markers for detecting Aegilops uniaristata chromosomes in a wheat background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Li, Guangrong; Zhou, Jianping; Li, Genying; Liu, Cheng; Huang, Chengyan; Zhao, Zhendong; Yang, Zujun

    2014-09-01

    Aegilops uniaristata has many agronomically useful traits that can be used for wheat breeding. So far, a Triticum turgidum - Ae. uniaristata amphiploid and one set of Chinese Spring (CS) - Ae. uniaristata addition lines have been produced. To guide Ae. uniaristata chromatin transformation from these lines into cultivated wheat through chromosome engineering, reliable cytogenetic and molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes need to be developed. Standard C-banding shows that C-bands mainly exist in the centromeric regions of Ae. uniaristata but rarely at the distal ends. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using (GAA)8 as a probe showed that the hybridization signal of chromosomes 1N-7N are different, thus (GAA)8 can be used to identify all Ae. uniaristata chromosomes in wheat background simultaneously. Moreover, a total of 42 molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes were developed by screening expressed sequence tag - sequence tagged site (EST-STS), expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR), and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) primers. The markers were subsequently localized using the CS - Ae. uniaristata addition lines and different wheat cultivars as controls. The cytogenetic and molecular markers developed herein will be helpful for screening and identifying wheat - Ae. uniaristata progeny.

  1. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  2. Effects of crop rotation on weed density, biomass and yield of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zareafeizabadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the weed populations in wheat, under different crop rotations an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station of Jolgeh Rokh, Iran. During growing season this project was done in five years, based on Randomized Complete Bloch Design with three replications, on Crop rotations included: wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW, wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW, wheat- sugar beet- wheat-sugar beet- wheat (WSWSW, wheat- potato- wheat- potato- wheat (WPWPW, wheat- potato- wheat- canola- wheat (WPWCW, wheat- sugar beet- wheat- potato- wheat (WSWPW, wheat- maize- wheat- potato- wheat (WMWPW, wheat- maize- wheat- sugar beet- wheat (WMWSW. Data analysis was done in fifth year. Weed sampling was done at four growth stages of wheat, including tillering, shooting, heading and soft dough stage of grains. Density, dry and fresh weight of each weed species per unit area, besides wheat grain yield were determined. All analysis of variances for traits related to weed were statistically significant (p≤0.01. The highest weed biomass was obtained in heading stage of wheat, and the greatest weed dry matter in all four growth stages was achieved in WWWWW rotation and the least one in WMWSW rotation. The highest weed density in different growth stages was achieved in rotations 7, 3, and 6. Wheat grain yield in all crop rotation treatments had a significant increase compared to monoculture. It seems that, yield reduction of wheat monoculture is related to weed density, its population and higher weed biomass in this treatment.

  3. Biocontrol effect of endophytic fungus HPFJ3 from Magnolia officinalis on wheat take-all disease%厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3对小麦全蚀病的生防作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华年; 丁婷

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic fungus HPFJ3 with the potential of biocontrol activity against wheat take⁃all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis were studied through the investigations of the interactions between HPFJ3 and G. graminis by du⁃al culture experiment on PDA plates and enzymes activities in wheat root at different growth stages. The strain HPFJ3 had an antagonistic activity against G. graminis by causing mycelial malformation and breakage. The inoculation of HPFJ3 to the wheat rhizosphere could significantly improve the resistance to wheat take⁃all, and the incidence was only 15�95% at seed⁃ling stage, much lower than that of control group ( 88�07%) . The activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO ) , peroxidase ( POD) and phenylalanine ammonla( PAL) in wheat roots treated with HPFJ3 were enhanced throughout the growth period.%为了研究厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3对小麦全蚀病的生防作用,以厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3为试验菌株,小麦全蚀病菌为指示菌,通过离体平板对峙培养检测、光学显微镜观察,分析厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3与小麦全蚀病菌之间的相互作用;利用盆栽接种试验,研究厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3对小麦全蚀病的防治效果以及对不同生育期的小麦植株根部多酚氧化酶( PPO )、过氧化物酶( POD )和苯丙氨酸解氨酶( PAL )活性的影响。结果表明,厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3能抑制小麦全蚀病菌的生长,造成小麦全蚀病菌菌丝节间缩短、变粗等畸形现象;接种至小麦根际土壤中的厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3能增强小麦对全蚀病的抗性,其苗期小麦全蚀病的发病率为15�95%,显著低于未经厚朴内生真菌HPFJ3处理的小麦全蚀病的发病率(88�07%);且经HPFJ3单独接种处理的小麦植株根部PPO、POD和PAL 3种防御酶活性在小麦5个生长时期均有所提高。

  4. NBS profiling技术在小麦抗叶锈病研究中的应用初探%Preliminary Study of Wheat Leaf Rust Disease Using NBS Profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽然; 王珅; 高琳; 王海燕; 刘大群

    2013-01-01

    为了研究NBS profiling技术在小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)抗叶锈病基因中应用的可行性,本研究选用15个小麦抗叶锈病近等基因系和感病亲本Thatcher为材料,建立NBS profiling体系,并进行多态性分析;同时选取含有成株抗叶锈病基因Lr35的近等基因系TcLr35和Thatcher为材料,进行cDNA NBSprofiling,从转录水平上寻找与目的基因Lr35相关的RGA片段.研究结果表明:基因组NBS profiling中所选的16对酶/引物组合中Mse Ⅰ/NBS2、Mse Ⅰ/NBS5和Mse Ⅰ/NBS7均得到了较好扩增结果,多态性高,多态性检出率分别为26.4%、26.4%和23.5%; cDNA NBS profiling中共筛选了52对酶/引物组合进行差异片段的扩增,有多对组合能成功揭示抗感间差异.NBS profiling技术可应用于小麦叶锈病抗病基因的研究中,为该技术在小麦抗叶锈病基因筛选及分子标记研究中的应用奠定了基础.%In order to study the feasibility of NBS profiling in leaf rust resistance gene, fifteen near-isogenic lines (NILs) and the susceptible parent Thatcher were selected as materials in the study. The NBS profiling system was established in wheat successfully and the polymorphism was analyzed. In the meanwhile, the TcLr35 wheat containing wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr35 and Thatcher was used for the cDNA NBS profiling in order to uncover the RGA fragments related to Lr35 gene in the transcriptional level. The experimental results showed that the combination of Mse I /NBS2, Mse I /NBS5, Mse I /NBS7 could amplify the polymorphic bands and the rate of polymorphism was 26.4%, 26.4%, 23.5% respectively among the sixteen combinations of enzyme/primer; Fifty-two combinations of enzyme/primer were used to screen the specific fragment using cDNA NBS profiling between resistant and susceptible materials; several combinations could reflect the difference in TcLr35 and Thatcher. These results indicated that NBS profiling could be used for the study of wheat leaf

  5. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  6. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  7. Suppression of gliadins results in altered protein body morphology in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola; Barro, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Wheat gluten proteins, gliadins and glutenins, are of great importance in determining the unique biomechanical properties of wheat. Studies have therefore been carried out to determine their pathways and mechanisms of synthesis, folding, and deposition in protein bodies. In the present work, a set of transgenic wheat lines has been studied with strongly suppressed levels of γ-gliadins and/or all groups of gliadins, using light and fluorescence microscopy combined with immunodetection using specific antibodies for γ-gliadins and HMW glutenin subunits. These lines represent a unique material to study the formation and fusion of protein bodies in developing seeds of wheat. Higher amounts of HMW subunits were present in most of the transgenic lines but only the lines with suppression of all gliadins showed differences in the formation and fusion of the protein bodies. Large rounded protein bodies were found in the wild-type lines and the transgenic lines with reduced levels of γ-gliadins, while the lines with all gliadins down-regulated had protein bodies of irregular shape and irregular formation. The size and number of inclusions, which have been reported to contain triticins, were also higher in the protein bodies in the lines with all the gliadins down-regulated. Changes in the protein composition and PB morphology reported in the transgenic lines with all gliadins down-regulated did not result in marked changes in the total protein content or instability of the different fractions.

  8. Genome-wide association mapping for resistance to leaf and stripe rust in winter-habit hexaploid wheat landraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt), and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst re...

  9. Novel QTL for stripe rust resistance on chromosomes 4A and 6B in soft white winter wheat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a devastating disease in temperate regions when susceptible varieties are grown and environmental conditions sustain high disease pressures. With frequent and severe outbreaks, disease resistance is a key too...

  10. Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical value of old and modern common wheat cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Leoncini

    Full Text Available Among health-promoting phytochemicals in whole grains, phenolic compounds have gained attention as they have strong antioxidant properties and can protect against many degenerative diseases. Aim of this study was to profile grain phenolic extracts of one modern and five old common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and to evaluate their potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effect in different cell culture systems.Wheat extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic composition (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS profile, polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Results showed that antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH is mostly influenced by flavonoid (both bound and free content and by the ratio flavonoids/polyphenols. Using a leukemic cell line, HL60, and primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the potential antiproliferative or cytoprotective effects of different wheat genotypes were evaluated in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cell viability. All tested wheat phenolic extracts exerted dose-dependent cytoprotective and antiproliferative effects on cardiomyocytes and HL60 cells, respectively. Due to the peculiar phenolic pattern of each wheat variety, a significant genotype effect was highlighted. On the whole, the most relevant scavenging effect was found for the old variety Verna. No significant differences in terms of anti-proliferative activities among wheat genotypes was observed.Results reported in this study evidenced a correspondence between the in vitro antioxidant activity and potential healthy properties of different extracts. This suggests that an increased intake of wheat grain derived products could represent an effective strategy to achieve both chemoprevention and protection against oxidative stress related diseases.

  11. Benzoxazinoid concentrations show correlation with Fusarium Head Blight resistance in Danish wheat varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Jørgensen, Lise N.; Svensmark, Bo;

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease that affects the grain yield and quality of cereals. The relationship between the natural defense chemicals benzoxazinoids and the FHB resistance of field grown winter wheat varieties was investigated. FHB resistance was assessed by the inoculat......Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease that affects the grain yield and quality of cereals. The relationship between the natural defense chemicals benzoxazinoids and the FHB resistance of field grown winter wheat varieties was investigated. FHB resistance was assessed...... by the inoculation of wheat ears with mixtures of Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum, and Microdochium nivale. The benzoxazinoids detected in the highest concentration were 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (3.7-9.4 mu mol/kg DW) and 2-hydroxy-7-nnethoxy-(2H)-1...

  12. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a multysystemic autoimmune disease induced by gluten in wheat, barley and rye. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, high prevalence (1%, widely heterogeneous expression and frequent association with other autoimmune diseases, selective deficit of IgA and Down, Turner and Williams syndrome. The basis of the disease and the key finding in its diagnostics is symptomatic or asymptomatic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa which resolves by gluten-free diet. Therefore, the basis of the treatment involves elimination diet, so that the disorder, if timely recognized and adequately treated, also characterizes excellent prognosis.

  13. Monodehydroascorbate reductase gene, regulated by the wheat PN-2013 miRNA, contributes to adult wheat plant resistance to stripe rust through ROS metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Wang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Yanping; Feng, Chuanxin; Wang, Bing; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2014-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Varieties with adult plant resistance (APR) maintain effective and durable disease resistance. APR to stripe rust in wheat cultivar XZ9104 (XZ) is associated with extensive hypersensitive cell death and production of reactive oxygen species in the host. MDHAR is an important gene in the AsA-GSH cycle, and it plays an important role in maintaining the reduced pool of AsA scavenging hydrogen peroxide. microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to engage in post-transcriptional regulation by degrading target mRNAs or repressing gene translation in plants responding to abiotic/biotic stresses. Previously, two novel miRNAs (1136-P3 and PN-2013) were isolated in wheat and the target gene of them was determined using degradome sequencing technology. In this study, the target gene was isolated and characterized as TaMDHAR, a monodehydroascorbate reductase gene. We first demonstrated that the target gene could be cleaved by these two miRNAs in tobacco leaves experimentally. However, TaMDHAR was regulated by PN-2013, not 1136-P3, in wheat-Pst adult incompatible interaction according to the expression patterns. The TaMDHAR knockdown resulted in improved wheat resistance to Pst at the seedling stage, with no influence on 1136-P3 and PN-2013 expression. The TaMDHAR knockdown resulted in a much greater H2O2 accumulation and lower APX and CAT activities together with higher expression in several PR genes. We deduced that TaMDHAR could contribute to the APR of XZ through ROS metabolism as regulated by the AsA-GSH cycle.

  14. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  15. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  16. Agronomic Performance of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) genotypes of wheat are one approach to improving the nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the concentration of phytic acid in the aleurone layer, thus reducing the chelation of nutritionally important minerals and improving the bioavailability of phosphorus. Field studies ...

  17. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  18. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  19. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  20. A systematic review of rye (Secale cereale L.) as a source of resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Åhman, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Wheat is globally one of the most important crops. With the current human population growth rate, there is an increasing need to raise wheat productivity by means of plant breeding, along with development of more efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. Damage by pathogens and pests, in combination with adverse climate effects, need to be counteracted by incorporating new germplasm that makes wheat more resistant/tolerant to such stress factors. Rye has been used as a source for improved resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat during more than 50 years. With new devastating stem and yellow rust pathotypes invading wheat at large acreage globally, along with new biotypes of pest insects, there is renewed interest in using rye as a source of resistance. Currently the proportion of wheat cultivars with rye chromatin varies between countries, with examples of up to 34%. There is mainly one rye source, Petkus, that has been widely exploited and that has contributed considerably to raise yields and increase disease resistance in wheat. Successively, the multiple disease resistances conferred by this source has been overcome by new pathotypes of leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust and powdery mildew. However, there are several other rye sources reported to make wheat more resistant to various biotic constraints when their rye chromatin has been transferred to wheat. There is also development of knowledge on how to produce new rye translocation, substitution and addition lines. Here we compile information that may facilitate decision making for wheat breeders aiming to transfer resistance to biotic constraints from rye to elite wheat germplasm.

  1. Development of a SCAR marker for detection of Bipolaris sorokiniana causing spot blotch of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R; Gupta, S; Banerjee, S; Singh, V B

    2011-11-01

    Spot blotch of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important disease of wheat, especially in slightly warm (25 ± 1 °C) and humid weather conditions. A quick and reliable PCR-based diagnostic assay has been developed to detect B. sorokiniana using a pathogen-specific marker derived from genomic DNA. A PCR-amplified band of 650 bp obtained in B. sorokiniana isolates using universal rice primer (URP 1F) was cloned in pGEMT easy vector and sequenced. Based on sequences, six primers were designed, out of which a primer pair RABSF1 (GGTCCGAGACAACCAACAA) and RABSR2 (AAAGAAAGCGGTCGACGTAA) amplified a sequence of 600 bp in B. sorokiniana isolates. The specificity of the marker when tested against 40 isolates of B. sorokiniana, seven isolates of other species of Bipolaris, and 27 isolates of other pathogens infecting wheat and other crops showed a specific band of 600 bp only in B. sorokiniana. The detection limit was 50 pg of genomic DNA. The marker could detect the pathogen in soil and wheat leaves at presymptomatic stage. This sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker designated as SCRABS(600) could clearly distinguish B. sorokiniana from other fungal plant pathogens, including Bipolaris spp. The utilization of this diagnostic PCR assay in analysis of field soil and wheat leaves will play a key role in effective management of the disease.

  2. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  3. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  4. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy macaroni products. 139.140 Section... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.140 Wheat and soy macaroni products. (a) Wheat and soy macaroni products... percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from...

  5. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  6. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans,...

  7. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-08

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4).

  8. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Tilley; Valquiria Pierucci; Katherine A Tilley; Okkyung Kim Chung

    2006-01-01

    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. All of the Kansas varieties of white wheat, milled to 80% extraction, performed as well as, if not better than, a standard commercial tortilla flour milled to 72% extraction when various quality factors were compared. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (HRW) wheat samples were Jagger and Ike grown at Hutchinson, Kansas (Ike-Hutch) and at Hays, Kansas (Ike-Hays); and one hard white spring (HWS) wheat cultivar, Idaho 377-S. Tortillas made from these flours were compared to tortillas made from one commercial tortilla-flour milled to 72% extraction from a blend of HRW wheat. Mixograph parameters, starch pasting properties,dough-handling characteristics and tortilla- making attributes of the new Kansas HWW wheat cultivars, Betty and Heyne, were superior. In summary, Kansas HWW wheat flours, milled to 80% extraction, produced tortillas which were equal to, or superior to,those made from 80%-extraction HRW wheat flours and 72%-extraction commercial tortilla flour.

  9. Responses of Some American, European and Japanese Wheat Cultivars to Soil-Borne Wheat Viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ping; CHEN Jian-ping; CHENG Ye; CHEN Jiong; JIANG Hong-ming; LIU Qing; YANG Kai-shu; XU Hong; Michael J Adams

    2002-01-01

    Wheat seeds of 109 cultivars from USA, Europe and Japan were sown in experiments at seven sites in different provinces of China for one or two seasons. Five of the sites were infested with the bymovirus wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) and two jointly with WYMV and the furovirus Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV). Disease symptoms were assessed visually and leaf samples were tested for virus(es) by ELISA. At least 29 cultivars were resistant to WYMV at the sites where only this virus was present but all the cultivars were severely infected at Rongcheng (Shandong Province) where CWMV was mixed with WYMV. There was evidence that the presence of CWMV assisted infection by WYMV and also resulted in more severe symptoms.At the mixed site in Yantai, Shandong Province, symptoms were mild and many cultivars had symptomless infection. Of the two strains of WYMV identified in Japan, the Chinese sites seem to be most similar to the type isolated, WYMV-T. Eleven cultivars seemed to be susceptible to WYMV only at Loutian (Hubei Province),suggesting that the virus at this site would be worth studying further.

  10. Analysis of Two in Planta Expressed LysM Effector Homologs from the Fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Novel Functional Properties and Varying Contributions to Virulence on Wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, R.; Kombrink, A.; Motteram, J.; Loza-Reyes, E.; Lucas, J.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Rudd, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Secreted effector proteins enable plant pathogenic fungi to manipulate host defenses for successful infection. Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. Leaf infection involves a long (approximately 7 d) period of symptomless intercellular

  11. Using multispectral imagery to compare the spatial pattern of injury to wheat caused by Russian wheat aphid and greenbug

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), are important aphid pests of wheat. Outbreaks of both pests in commercial wheat fields occur almost every year in the Great Plains of the United States. Infestations of both pests in wheat fields are...

  12. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. I. Grain, milling and soft wheat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture is used in part to define U.S. wheat market class due to its importance in end-use quality and utilization. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) has lower demand and fewer culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture, which precl...

  13. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  14. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  15. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  16. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  17. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  18. Effects of break crops, and of wheat volunteers growing in break crops or in set-aside or conservation covers, all following crops of winter wheat, on the development of take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) in succeeding crops of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyn, Jf; Gutteridge, Rj; White, Rp

    2014-11-01

    Experiments on the Rothamsted and Woburn Experimental Farms studied the effects on take-all of different break crops and of set-aside/conservation covers that interrupted sequences of winter wheat. There was no evidence for different effects on take-all of the break crops per se but the presence of volunteers, in crops of oilseed rape, increased the amounts of take-all in the following wheat. Severity of take-all was closely related to the numbers of volunteers in the preceding break crops and covers, and was affected by the date of their destruction. Early destruction of set-aside/conservation covers was usually effective in preventing damaging take-all in the following wheat except, sometimes, when populations of volunteers were very large. The experiments were not designed to test the effects of sowing dates but different amounts of take-all in the first wheats after breaks or covers apparently affected the severity of take-all in the following (second) wheats only where the latter were relatively late sown. In earlier-sown second wheats, take-all was consistently severe and unrelated to the severity of the disease in the preceding (first) wheats. Results from two very simple experiments suggested that substituting set-aside/conservation covers for winter wheat, for 1 year only, did not seriously interfere with the development of take-all disease or with the development or maintenance of take-all decline (TAD). With further research, it might be possible for growers wishing to exploit TAD to incorporate set-aside/conservation covers into their cropping strategies, and especially to avoid the worst effects of the disease on grain yield during the early stages of epidemics.

  19. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at HMW Glutenin Subunits Loci in Yunnan,Tibetan and Xinjiang Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-yan; WANG Xiu-e; CHEN Pei-du; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    Allelic variation and genetic diversity at HMW glutenin subunits loci, Glu-A1, Glu-B1and Glu-D1 were investigated in 64 accessions of three unique wheats of western China using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two HMW glutenin patterns (i.e., "null, 7+8, 2+12" and "null, 7, 2+12") in 34 Yunnan wheat accessions, 3 HMW glutenin patterns (i.e., "null, 7+8, 2+12"; "null, 6+8, 2+12" and "null, 7+8, 2") in 24 Tibetan accessions and 1 HMW glutenin pattern ("null, 7, 2+12") in 6 Xinjiang wheat accessions were found. The Tibetan accession TB18 was found to be with a rare subunit 2 encoded by Glu-D1. A total of 4 (i.e., Glu-A1c, Glu-B1a, Glu-B1b and Glu-D1a), 5 (i.e., Glu-A1c, Glu-B1d, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1a and Glu-D1) and 3 alleles (i.e.,Glu-A1c, Glu-B1a and Glu-D1a) at Glu-1 locus were identified among Yunnan, Tibetan and Xinjiang unique wheat accessions, respectively. For Yunnan wheat, Tibetan wheat and Xinjiang wheat, the Nei′s mean genetic variation indexes were 0.1574, 0.1366 and 0,respectively, which might indicate the higher genetic diversity at HMW glutenin subunits loci of Yunnan and Tibetan wheat accessions as compared to that of Xinjiang wheat accessions. Among the three genomes of hexaploid wheats of western China, the highest Nei′s genetic variation index was appeared in B genome with the mean value of 0.2674,while the indexes for genomes A and D were 0 and 0.0270, respectively. It might be reasonable to indicate that Glu-B1 showed the highest, Glu-D1 the intermediate and GluA1 always the lowest genetic diversity.

  20. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Addition, Substitution and Translocation Lines with a Novel Source of Resistance to Wheat Fusarium Head Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Fu; Zhenling Lv; Bao Qi; Xiang Guo; Jun Li; Bao Liu; Fangpu Han

    2012-01-01

    Thinopyrum elongatum (2n =2x =14,EE),a wild relative of wheat,has been suggested as a potentially novel source of resistance to several major wheat diseases including Fusarium Head Blight (FHB).In this study,a series of wheat (cv.Chinese Spring,CS) substitution and ditelosomic lines,including Th.elongatum additions,were assessed for Type Ⅱ resistance to FHB.Results indicated that the lines containing chromosome 7E of Th.elongatum gave a high level of resistance to FHB,wherein the infection did not spread beyond the inoculated floret.Furthermore,it was determined that the novel resistance gene(s) of 7E was located on the short-arm (7ES) based on sharp difference in FHB resistance between the two 7E ditelosomic lines for each arm.On the other hand,Th.elongatum chromosomes 5E and 6E likely contain gene(s) for susceptibility to FHB because the disease spreads rapidly within the inoculated spikes of these lines.Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis revealed that the alien chromosomes in the addition and substitution lines were intact,and the lines did not contain discernible genomic aberrations.GISH and multicolor-GISH analyses were further performed on three translocation lines that also showed high levels of resistance to FHB.Lines TA3499 and TA3695 were shown to contain one pair of wheat-Th.elongatum translocated chromosomes involving fragments of 7D plus a segment of the 7E,while line TA3493 was found to contain one pair of wheat-Th.elongatum translocated chromosomes involving the D- and A-genome chromosomes of wheat.Thus,this study has established that the short-arm of chromosome 7E of Th.elongatum harbors gene(s) highly resistant to the spreading of FHB,and chromatin of 7E introgressed into wheat chromosomes largely retained the resistance,implicating the feasibility of using these lines as novel material for breeding FHB-resistant wheat cultivars.