WorldWideScience

Sample records for unique visual experience

  1. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  2. Destination visual image and expectation of experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, H.; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2011-01-01

    A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims...... at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found...

  3. Visual Neuroscience: Unique Neural System for Flight Stabilization in Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbotson, M R

    2017-01-23

    The pretectal visual motion processing area in the hummingbird brain is unlike that in other birds: instead of emphasizing detection of horizontal movements, it codes for motion in all directions through 360°, possibly offering precise visual stability control during hovering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Frames of References – Art Museums as Unique Visual Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Hristova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The age old activity of collecting arts is not intrinsically dependent on the art museum as separate architectural type. How was the art museum as an independent structure conceptualized and why? What was the idea behind that concept? Was it created as a medium consciously and what kind of messages was it supposed to deliver? What kind of unique “textual” overlaps the various disciplines of archaeology, art history, politics, literature, science and architecture created in order to produce what we today recognize as art museum space? This study focuses on the crucial historical moments of the late 17th century when such questions were posed for the first time within the classical discourse of the French architectural theory which followed the consolidation of French absolutism and the foundation of the Royal academies of arts and sciences, until the mid 19th century when the answers to those questions were finally exemplified in built architecture. The study gives a comprehensive overview of the cultural context art museums as public institutions emerged from and became new spatial models for collective cultivation.

  5. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider.

  6. Audio-visual interactions uniquely contribute to resolution of visual conflict in people possessing absolute pitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available Individuals possessing absolute pitch (AP are able to identify a given musical tone or to reproduce it without reference to another tone. The present study sought to learn whether this exceptional auditory ability impacts visual perception under stimulus conditions that provoke visual competition in the form of binocular rivalry. Nineteen adult participants with 3-19 years of musical training were divided into two groups according to their performance on a task involving identification of the specific note associated with hearing a given musical pitch. During test trials lasting just over half a minute, participants dichoptically viewed a scrolling musical score presented to one eye and a drifting sinusoidal grating presented to the other eye; throughout the trial they pressed buttons to track the alternations in visual awareness produced by these dissimilar monocular stimuli. On "pitch-congruent" trials, participants heard an auditory melody that was congruent in pitch with the visual score, on "pitch-incongruent" trials they heard a transposed auditory melody that was congruent with the score in melody but not in pitch, and on "melody-incongruent" trials they heard an auditory melody completely different from the visual score. For both groups, the visual musical scores predominated over the gratings when the auditory melody was congruent compared to when it was incongruent. Moreover, the AP participants experienced greater predominance of the visual score when it was accompanied by the pitch-congruent melody compared to the same melody transposed in pitch; for non-AP musicians, pitch-congruent and pitch-incongruent trials yielded equivalent predominance. Analysis of individual durations of dominance revealed differential effects on dominance and suppression durations for AP and non-AP participants. These results reveal that AP is accompanied by a robust form of bisensory interaction between tonal frequencies and musical notation that boosts

  7. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  8. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  9. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    The Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE) is a program designed to obtain data necessary to evaluate atmospheric transport and diffusion models used to calculate regional population doses caused by nuclear facility emissions to the atmosphere. This experiment will significantly improve the basis for evaluating the cost effectiveness of different methods of managing airborne nuclear wastes. During the period from March 1982 through September 1982, twice daily air samples have been collected at each of five sampling stations located on a radial from the SRP to Murray Hill, NJ (1000 km). Kr-85 emitted from the F and H area chemical separations facilities is being used as a tracer to determine the transport and diffusion of atmospheric releases from the SRP. The Kr-85 concentrations in the air samples will be compared with the calculated concentrations as predicted by the transport and diffusion models. The Kr-85 data and the meteorological data are being archived and will be made available to the modeling community

  10. Visual experience and blindsight: A methodological review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Blindsight is classically defined as residual visual capacity, e.g., to detect and identify visual stimuli, in the total absence of perceptual awareness following lesions to V1. However, whereas most experiments have investigated what blindsight patients can and cannot do, the literature contains...

  11. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  12. The unique experience of adults with multimorbidity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Duguay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Findings from several countries indicate that the prevalence of multimorbidity is very high among clients of primary healthcare. A deeper understanding of patients’ experiences from their own perspective can greatly enrich any intervention to help them live as well as possible with multimorbidity. Objective: To describe the fundamental structure of adults’ experience with multimorbidity. Design: A phenomenological study was undertaken to describe the experiences of 11 adults with multimorbidity. These adults participated in two semi-structured interviews, the content of which was rigorously analyzed. Results: At the core of the study participants’ multimorbidity experience are the impression of aging prematurely, difficulties with self-care management, and issues with access to the healthcare system, which contribute to the problem’s complexity. Despite these issues, participants with multimorbidity report attempting to take control of their situation and adjusting to daily living. Conclusions: The description of this experience, through the systemic vision of participants, provides a better understanding of the realities experienced by people with multimorbidity.

  13. Hawadith Street Initiative: A unique Sudanese childhood charity experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad Mohamed; A-Rahman, Nada Hassan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Due to escalating conflicts and resultant economic constraints, different social services in low income and low-middle income countries have witnessed a decline in its standards, and increase in the costs. This situation has led to emergence of large numbers of patients and their families who cannot afford the costs of health services provided by public hospitals. On this background, and the old heritage of the Sudanese to help the needy, the Hawadith Street Initiative (HSI) was established. Named after the street on which it was founded - which translates indirectly to "Accidents Lane", HSI was established in 2012 by a group of youths, most of them in their twenties of age, and recently graduated. The main activity of the initiative is helping the needy hospital patients, especially with regards to their treatment costs, in Khartoum and other cities in Sudan. Starting with recreational programs for cancer patients, and public campaigns for donation of blood, the initiative's youths changed their activities. Using the social media, Facebook, they adopted the strategy of communication with potential donors, after sending posts containing brief anonymous presentations and call of help for needy cases. Currently HSI includes more than 2000 volunteers in Khartoum and 17 other cities. The most important achievement of HSI is the establishment of an intensive care unit at a children hospital in Omdurman city costing 435,880 US dollars. HSI demonstrates the possibility of delivering great services with minimum resources, and constitutes a unique organization, worldwide, in a new wave of Internet-based initiatives.

  14. A unique experiment. Measurement of radiation doses at Vinca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-15

    For the first time in the history of the peaceful applications of atomic energy, an experiment was conducted to determine the exact levels of radiation exposure resulting from a reactor incident. The experiment was made at Vinca, Yugoslavia, wherein October 1958 six persons had been subjected to high doses of neutron and gamma radiation during a brief uncontrolled run of a zero-power reactor. One of them died but the other five were successfully treated at the Curie Hospital in Paris. In the case of four of them, the treatment involved the grafting of healthy bone marrow to counteract the effects of radiation on blood-forming tissues. It was recognized that if the effects produced on the irradiated persons could be related to the exact doses of radiation they had received, it would be possible to gain immensely valuable knowledge about the biological consequences of acute and high level radiation exposure on a quantitative basis. It was suggested to the Yugoslav authorities that a dosimetry experiment be conducted at Vinca. The most accurate modern techniques of dosimetry developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory were employed during the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the neutron and gamma doses were made at points where the people had been located. At these points the effects of the radiation on the salt solution in the phantoms were studied. In particular, the energy distribution of the radiation was investigated.It was the ratio between the various components of the radiation that was of special interest in these measurements because this ratio itself would help in determining the exact doses. The dose of one of the components, viz. slow neutrons, had already been determined during the treatment of the patients. If the ratio of the components could be ascertained, the doses of the fast neutrons and gamma rays could also be established because the ratio would not be affected by the power level at which the reactor was operated

  15. Digital media Experiences for Visual Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2013-01-01

    for new tools and new theoretical approaches with which to understand them. the article argues that the current phase of social practices and technological development makes it difficult to disitnguish between experience with digital media and mediated experiences, because of the use of renegotiation og......Visual learning is a topic for didactic studies in all levels of educaion, brought about by an increasing use of digital meida- digital media give rise to discussions of how learning expereienes come about from various media ressources that generate new learning situations. new situations call...... about by the nature of diverse digital artefacts, 3. the learning potentials in using mobils devices for integrating the body in visual perception processes....

  16. Developing Verbal and Visual Literacy through Experiences in the Visual Arts: 25 Tips for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Margaret H.

    2008-01-01

    Including talk about art--conversing with children about artwork, their own and others'--as a component of visual art activities extends children's experiences in and understanding of visual messages. Johnson discusses practices that help children develop visual and verbal expression through active experiences with the visual arts. She offers 25…

  17. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Attentional Disengagement from Visually Unique and Unexpected Items at Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmole, James R.; Boot, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Distinctive aspects of a scene can capture attention even when they are irrelevant to one's goals. The authors address whether visually unique, unexpected, but task-irrelevant features also tend to hold attention. Observers searched through displays in which the color of each item was irrelevant. At the start of search, all objects changed color.…

  18. Augmented Visual Experience of Simulated Solar Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A. O., IV; Berardino, R. A.; Hahne, D.; Schreurs, B.; Fox, N. J.; Raouafi, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will explore the Sun's corona, studying solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections. The effects of these phenomena can impact the technology that we use in ways that are not readily apparent, including affecting satellite communications and power grids. Determining the structure and dynamics of corona magnetic fields, tracing the flow of energy that heats the corona, and exploring dusty plasma near the Sun to understand its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation requires a suite of sensors on board the PSP spacecraft that are engineered to observe specific phenomena. Using models of these sensors and simulated observational data, we can visualize what the PSP spacecraft will "see" during its multiple passes around the Sun. Augmented reality (AR) technologies enable convenient user access to massive data sets. We are developing an application that allows users to experience environmental data from the point of view of the PSP spacecraft in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens. Observational data, including imagery, magnetism, temperature, and density are visualized in 4D within the user's immediate environment. Our application provides an educational tool for comprehending the complex relationships of observational data, which aids in our understanding of the Sun.

  19. The Role of Visual Working Memory in Attentive Tracking of Unique Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2009-01-01

    When tracking moving objects in space humans usually attend to the objects' spatial locations and update this information over time. To what extent do surface features assist attentive tracking? In this study we asked participants to track identical or uniquely colored objects. Tracking was enhanced when objects were unique in color. The benefit…

  20. AODA Training Experiences of Blindness and Visual Impairment Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Koch, D. Shane; McKee, Marissa F.; Nelipovich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Co-existing alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) and blindness or visually impairment may complicate the delivery of rehabilitation services. Professionals working with individuals who are blind or visually impaired need to be aware of unique issues facing those with co-existing disabilities. This study sought to examine the AODA training needs,…

  1. A Unique Role of Endogenous Visual-Spatial Attention in Rapid Processing of Multiple Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Palafox, German; Suzuki, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Visual spatial attention can be exogenously captured by a salient stimulus or can be endogenously allocated by voluntary effort. Whether these two attention modes serve distinctive functions is debated, but for processing of single targets the literature suggests superiority of exogenous attention (it is faster acting and serves more functions).…

  2. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  3. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  4. Neurons Responsive to Global Visual Motion Have Unique Tuning Properties in Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Andrea H; Goller, Benjamin; Lam, Jessica P M; Wylie, Douglas R; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2017-01-23

    Neurons in animal visual systems that respond to global optic flow exhibit selectivity for motion direction and/or velocity. The avian lentiformis mesencephali (LM), known in mammals as the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), is a key nucleus for global motion processing [1-4]. In all animals tested, it has been found that the majority of LM and NOT neurons are tuned to temporo-nasal (back-to-front) motion [4-11]. Moreover, the monocular gain of the optokinetic response is higher in this direction, compared to naso-temporal (front-to-back) motion [12, 13]. Hummingbirds are sensitive to small visual perturbations while hovering, and they drift to compensate for optic flow in all directions [14]. Interestingly, the LM, but not other visual nuclei, is hypertrophied in hummingbirds relative to other birds [15], which suggests enhanced perception of global visual motion. Using extracellular recording techniques, we found that there is a uniform distribution of preferred directions in the LM in Anna's hummingbirds, whereas zebra finch and pigeon LM populations, as in other tetrapods, show a strong bias toward temporo-nasal motion. Furthermore, LM and NOT neurons are generally classified as tuned to "fast" or "slow" motion [10, 16, 17], and we predicted that most neurons would be tuned to slow visual motion as an adaptation for slow hovering. However, we found the opposite result: most hummingbird LM neurons are tuned to fast pattern velocities, compared to zebra finches and pigeons. Collectively, these results suggest a role in rapid responses during hovering, as well as in velocity control and collision avoidance during forward flight of hummingbirds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pop-out and pop-in: Visual working memory advantages for unique items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Sun, Sol Z; Huxtable, Lauren; Pratt, Jay; Ferber, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    Attentional control is thought to play a critical role in determining the amount of information that can be stored and retrieved from visual working memory (VWM). We tested whether and how task-irrelevant feature-based salience, known to affect the control of visual attention, affects VWM performance. Our results show that features of a task-irrelevant color singleton are more likely to be recalled from VWM than non-singleton items and that this increased memorability comes at a cost to the other items in the display. Furthermore, the singleton effect in VWM was negatively correlated with an individual's baseline VWM capacity. Taken together, these results suggest that individual differences in VWM storage capacity may be partially attributable to the ability to ignore differences in task-irrelevant physical salience.

  6. Predictors of the long-term retention of a unique experience in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ineke; Jansen, Josephien; Lammertink, Sophie; Nanninga, Eline

    2016-01-01

    We explored the predictive value of age, language ability and rehearsal for performance on various indices of long-term (episodic) memory in early childhood. Preschoolers engaged in a unique treasure-hunt experience. One year later, we tested recall, pictorial recognition and temporal ordering of

  7. Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Maureen; Curtis, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents a study of the higher education experiences of students with visual impairments in Canada. Methods: Students with visual impairments and the staff members of disability programs were surveyed and interviewed regarding the students' experiences in entering higher education and completing their higher education…

  8. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  9. Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.

  10. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  11. Couple-level Minority Stress: An Examination of Same-sex Couples' Unique Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory

    2017-12-01

    Social stress resulting from stigma, prejudice, and discrimination-"minority stress"-negatively impacts sexual minority individuals' health and relational well-being. The present study examined how being in a same-sex couple can result in exposure to unique minority stressors not accounted for at the individual level. Relationship timeline interviews were conducted with 120 same-sex couples equally distributed across two study sites (Atlanta and San Francisco), gender (male and female), and relationship duration (at least six months but less than three years, at least three years but less than seven years, and seven or more years). Directed content analyses identified 17 unique couple-level minority stressors experienced within nine distinct social contexts. Analyses also revealed experiences of dyadic minority stress processes (stress discrepancies and stress contagion). These findings can be useful in future efforts to better understand and address the cumulative impact of minority stress on relational well-being and individual health.

  12. Creating Visual Design and Meaningful Audience Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur; Ion Wille, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the EU Interreg funded Classical Composition Music and Experience Design project, was to rethink audience experiences and develop knowledge of applied technologies connected to classical music and live concerts. The project and its main objectives was motivated by at least thee...... conditions. The most important being 1) the development in new technology creating new expectations in audiences attending cultural events, including classical concerts, 2) resent decline in audiences attending classical music and 3) a will to strengthen relations between cultural institutions, creative...... businesses and educational institutions in the Øresund region (including the city and surroundings of Malmø and Copenhagen). Therefore the project Classical Composition Music and Experience Design focused on developing new and meaningful audience experiences where live classical music meets new digital...

  13. The Spiritual Form of Ancient Art and Culture - Bharatanatyam (Visual Art Depicted Using Unique Techniques on Scratchboard (Fine Art Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpitha Parthasarathy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The most ancient form of dance that is prevailing todays is a form of classical Indian dance, Bharatanatyam. In Sanskrit (and Devanagri, bharatanatyam means "Indian dance", is believed to have divine origin and is of the most ancient form of classical dance. Bharatanatyam is a two thousand-year-old dance form, originally practiced in the temples of ancient India. The art today remains purely devotional even today and this performing art is yet to gain awareness and interest in the western world. This dance form has various implications in improving the higher order thinking in children and provides health benefits in adults apart from cultural preservation. The current study uses scratchboard as a medium to display the artistic movements and emotions. Scratchboard, a fine art is one means by which the visual art is expressed in this current study using sharp tools, namely X-acto 11 scalpel and tattoo needles. This unique medium made up of a masonite hardboard coated with soft clay and Indian ink has been used to not only show the details of the ancient dance form and expression but also to comprehend and transcribe both visual art and fine art. It is for the first time that scratchboard medium has been the innovatively used to show various textures of flower, glistening gold jewels, hand woven silk and the divine expression in the same art ‘devotion’. The current study was carried out in-order to perpetuate, conserve and disseminate these classic forms of visual art and fine art.

  14. Flow visualization of acoustic levitation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroth, ED

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic levitation experiments for space applications were performed. Holographic interferometry is being used to study the heat transfer rates on a heated rod enclosed in a 6 cu in chamber. Acoustic waves at levels up to 150 db increased the heating rates to the rod by factors of three to four. High speed real time holographic interferometry was used to measure the boundary layer on the heated rod. Data reduction and digitization of the interferograms are being implemented.

  15. A Simple Experiment for Visualizing Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and fascinating experiment for studying diffusion in gels using a pH-sensitive dye. By doping agar with methyl red, we obtain a gel which rapidly reacts to changes in pH by changing its absorption spectrum. The pH gradients can be followed using a digital camera, and we demonstrate here that the pH-sensitive colour changes can…

  16. Visual signal quality assessment quality of experience (QOE)

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Lin; Lin, Weisi; Ngan, King

    2015-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the latest trends/advances in subjective and objective quality evaluation for traditional visual signals, such as 2D images and video, as well as the most recent challenges for the field of multimedia quality assessment and processing, such as mobile video and social media. Readers will learn how to ensure the highest storage/delivery/ transmission quality of visual content (including image, video, graphics, animation, etc.) from the server to the consumer, under resource constraints, such as computation, bandwidth, storage space, battery life, etc.    Provides an overview of quality assessment for traditional visual signals; Covers newly emerged visual signals such as social media, 3D image/video, mobile video, high dynamic range (HDR) images, graphics/animation, etc., which demand better quality of experience (QoE); Helps readers to develop better quality metrics and processing methods for newly emerged visual signals; Enables testing, optimizing, benchmarking...

  17. Sensory experience modifies feature map relationships in visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloherty, Shaun L; Hughes, Nicholas J; Hietanen, Markus A; Bhagavatula, Partha S

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which brain structure is influenced by sensory input during development is a critical but controversial question. A paradigmatic system for studying this is the mammalian visual cortex. Maps of orientation preference (OP) and ocular dominance (OD) in the primary visual cortex of ferrets, cats and monkeys can be individually changed by altered visual input. However, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps has appeared immutable. Using a computational model we predicted that biasing the visual input to orthogonal orientation in the two eyes should cause a shift of OP pinwheels towards the border of OD columns. We then confirmed this prediction by rearing cats wearing orthogonally oriented cylindrical lenses over each eye. Thus, the spatial relationship between OP and OD maps can be modified by visual experience, revealing a previously unknown degree of brain plasticity in response to sensory input. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13911.001 PMID:27310531

  18. Transcultural healthcare immersion: a unique interprofessional experience poised to influence collaborative practice in cultural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a model for interprofessional and transcultural learning established by the author and supported by the University of New England and Ghana Health Mission, Inc. The model for interprofessional immersion in cultural settings represents a guiding framework predicated on a conceptual "brick and mortar" process for building cultural proficiency among individuals and within teams. It encompasses social, clinical and behavioral components (brick) and personal desire, cultural humility and values (mortar). The ``bounty'' aspect of the model is achieved by way of successful student learning outcomes, positive interprofessional and community-based collaborations, and finally, and to be measured over time, favorable patient and population (programmatic) outcomes. In partnership with the Ghana Health Mission, Inc and local community health workers, students and faculty from a range of health professions took part in a cultural-clinical experience known as Transcultural Immersion in Healthcare. The goal of the experience was to advance cultural proficiency and knowledge through intensive cultural immersion. An urban setting in Ghana, located in West Africa served as the setting for this unique experience. The transcultural immersion in healthcare experience achieved its ``bounty'' as seen in the enhanced cultural proficiency of students and faculty, seamless interprofessional communication and collaboration, and provision of primary care and related services to patients and the Ghanaian community. Future research is in development to test the Model for Interprofessional Immersion in Cultural Settings (MIICS) in a variety of other settings and with a cross section of health disciplines.

  19. Visual expression of the experiences of restrictive eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Edith

    Background of the research: Visual methods are used in nursing research. These methods include media such as film, video, still images, material artifacts and drawing. The current study is a PhD project, dealing with children's experiences of eating restrictively (diabetes or obesity). Visual...... and as an option in the dialogue with the patient. Material and method description: Drawing, modeling and role-playing with stuffed animals is part of the material from the study and illustrate how visual methods can be used in relationship with the child. Result: The play and creativity have a function...

  20. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  1. Experiences of Individuals With Visual Impairments in Integrated Physical Education: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Zhu, Xihe

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the experiences of adults with visual impairments during school-based integrated physical education (PE). An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) research approach was used and 16 adults (ages 21-48 years; 10 women, 6 men) with visual impairments acted as participants for this study. The primary sources of data were semistructured audiotaped telephone interviews and reflective field notes, which were recorded during and immediately following each interview. Thematic development was undertaken utilizing a 3-step analytical process guided by IPA. Based on the data analysis, 3 interrelated themes emerged from the participant transcripts: (a) feelings about "being put to the side," frustration and inadequacy; (b) "She is blind, she can't do it," debilitating feelings from physical educators' attitudes; and (c) "not self-esteem raising," feelings about peer interactions. The 1st theme described the participants' experiences and ascribed meaning to exclusionary practices. The 2nd theme described the participants' frustration over being treated differently by their PE teachers because of their visual impairments. Lastly, "not self-esteem raising," feelings about peer interactions demonstrated how participants felt about issues regarding challenging social situations with peers in PE. Utilizing an IPA approach, the researchers uncovered 3 interrelated themes that depicted central feelings, experiences, and reflections, which informed the meaning of the participants' PE experiences. The emerged themes provide unique insight into the embodied experiences of those with visual impairments in PE and fill a previous gap in the extant literature.

  2. A Ventral Visual Stream Reading Center Independent of Sensory Modality and Visual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Reich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Visual Word Form Area (VWFA is a ventral-temporal-visual area that develops expertise for visual reading. It encodes letter-strings irrespective of case, font, or location in the visual-field, with striking anatomical reproducibility across individuals. In the blind, reading can be achieved using Braille, with a comparable level-of-expertise to that of sighted readers. We investigated which area plays the role of the VWFA in the blind. One would expect it to be at either parietal or bilateral occipital cortex, reflecting the tactile nature of the task and crossmodal plasticity, respectively. However, according to the notion that brain areas are task specific rather than sensory-modality specific, we predicted recruitment of the left-hemispheric VWFA, identically to the sighted and independent of visual experience. Using fMRI we showed that activation during Braille reading in congenitally blind individuals peaked in the VWFA, with striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted. The VWFA was reading-selective when contrasted to high-level language and low-level sensory controls. Further preliminary results show that the VWFA is selectively activated also when people learn to read in a new language or using a different modality. Thus, the VWFA is a mutlisensory area specialized for reading regardless of visual experience.

  3. DORADO/DOLPHIN: A Unique Semi-submersible Autonomous Vehicle for Ocean Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D.

    2016-02-01

    The Ocean Science and Technology research group (CERC.OCEAN) at Dalhousie University focuses on new approaches to the design and development of autonomous platforms to study biogeochemical and ecological changes in the world's oceans. Mesoscale "patch" experiments involving tracers are used to test hypotheses (e.g. iron fertilization) and examine near-surface processes and air-sea exchange. Such experiments typically require mapping of rapidly-evolving properties on scales of 10's to 100's of kilometers. These experiments typically employ a research vessel to monitor patch movement and to support process studies: however allocation of expensive vessel time between these uses can be problematic. We present a class of autonomous vehicle with unique potential for mesoscale mapping and experimental science at sea. The Dorado/Dolphin semi-submersibles, manufactured by International Submarine Engineering Ltd., travel just below the sea surface. A surface-piercing, "snorkel" mast allows use of a diesel engine allowing speeds of up to 16 knots and sufficient power for support of complex payloads. A tow-body can profile to 200m. The mast allows air sampling with near-zero atmospheric disturbance as well as remote sensing of the sea surface. The characteristics of this type of vehicle will be compared with those of other available platforms. We will report on our adaptation of the vehicle for measurement of gases and purposeful tracers (e.g. SF5CF3) as well as properties such as T, S, pCO2, O2, fluorescence, etc. and present and solicit ideas for the vehicles' further application/use for ocean science.

  4. Investigating the Experiences of Special School Visual Arts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a recent hermeneutic phenomenological study aimed at understanding the experiences of special school teachers in Hong Kong, and specifically visual arts teachers tasked with teaching students with intellectual disabilities. Illustrating the use of a phenomenological research method, the paper ...

  5. Experiences of Visually Impaired Students in Community College Math Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S. Tomeka

    Blind and visually impaired students who attend community colleges face challenges in learning mathematics (Forrest, 2010). Scoy, McLaughlin, Walls, and Zuppuhaur (2006) claim these students are at a disadvantage in studying mathematics due to the visual and interactive nature of the subject, and by the way mathematics is taught. In this qualitative study six blind and visually impaired students attended three community colleges in one Mid-Atlantic state. They shared their experiences inside the mathematics classroom. Five of the students were enrolled in developmental level math, and one student was enrolled in college level math. The conceptual framework used to explore how blind and visually impaired students persist and succeed in math courses was Piaget's theory on constructivism. The data from this qualitative study was obtained through personal interviews. Based on the findings of this study, blind and visually impaired students need the following accommodations in order to succeed in community college math courses: Accommodating instructors who help to keep blind and visually impaired students motivated and facilitate their academic progress towards math completion, tutorial support, assistive technology, and a positive and inclusive learning environment.

  6. Experience-independent development of the hamster circadian visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Kampf-Lassin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent functional plasticity is a hallmark of the primary visual system, but it is not known if analogous mechanisms govern development of the circadian visual system. Here we investigated molecular, anatomical, and behavioral consequences of complete monocular light deprivation during extended intervals of postnatal development in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were raised in constant darkness and opaque contact lenses were applied shortly after eye opening and prior to the introduction of a light-dark cycle. In adulthood, previously-occluded eyes were challenged with visual stimuli. Whereas image-formation and motion-detection were markedly impaired by monocular occlusion, neither entrainment to a light-dark cycle, nor phase-resetting responses to shifts in the light-dark cycle were affected by prior monocular deprivation. Cholera toxin-b subunit fluorescent tract-tracing revealed that in monocularly-deprived hamsters the density of fibers projecting from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN was comparable regardless of whether such fibers originated from occluded or exposed eyes. In addition, long-term monocular deprivation did not attenuate light-induced c-Fos expression in the SCN. Thus, in contrast to the thalamocortical projections of the primary visual system, retinohypothalamic projections terminating in the SCN develop into normal adult patterns and mediate circadian responses to light largely independent of light experience during development. The data identify a categorical difference in the requirement for light input during postnatal development between circadian and non-circadian visual systems.

  7. Development of the Visual Word Form Area Requires Visual Experience: Evidence from Blind Braille Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Judy S; Kanjlia, Shipra; Merabet, Lotfi B; Bedny, Marina

    2017-11-22

    Learning to read causes the development of a letter- and word-selective region known as the visual word form area (VWFA) within the human ventral visual object stream. Why does a reading-selective region develop at this anatomical location? According to one hypothesis, the VWFA develops at the nexus of visual inputs from retinotopic cortices and linguistic input from the frontotemporal language network because reading involves extracting linguistic information from visual symbols. Surprisingly, the anatomical location of the VWFA is also active when blind individuals read Braille by touch, suggesting that vision is not required for the development of the VWFA. In this study, we tested the alternative prediction that VWFA development is in fact influenced by visual experience. We predicted that in the absence of vision, the "VWFA" is incorporated into the frontotemporal language network and participates in high-level language processing. Congenitally blind ( n = 10, 9 female, 1 male) and sighted control ( n = 15, 9 female, 6 male), male and female participants each took part in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments: (1) word reading (Braille for blind and print for sighted participants), and (2) listening to spoken sentences of different grammatical complexity (both groups). We find that in blind, but not sighted participants, the anatomical location of the VWFA responds both to written words and to the grammatical complexity of spoken sentences. This suggests that in blindness, this region takes on high-level linguistic functions, becoming less selective for reading. More generally, the current findings suggest that experience during development has a major effect on functional specialization in the human cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The visual word form area (VWFA) is a region in the human cortex that becomes specialized for the recognition of written letters and words. Why does this particular brain region become specialized for reading? We

  8. Recent Visual Experience Shapes Visual Processing in Rats through Stimulus-Specific Adaptation and Response Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2017-03-20

    From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions [4]. A popular "predictive coding" theory of cortical responses states that neural responses should decrease for expected sensory input and increase for unexpected input [5, 6]. Despite evidence for response suppression and enhancement in noninvasive scalp recordings in humans with this paradigm [7, 8], it has proven challenging to observe both phenomena in invasive action potential recordings in other animals [9-11]. During a visual oddball experiment, we recorded multi-unit spiking activity in rat primary visual cortex (V1) and latero-intermediate area (LI), which is a higher area of the rodent ventral visual stream. In rat V1, there was only evidence for response suppression related to stimulus-specific adaptation, and not for response enhancement. However, higher up in area LI, spiking activity showed clear surprise-based response enhancement in addition to stimulus-specific adaptation. These results show that neural responses along the rat ventral visual stream become increasingly sensitive to changes in the visual environment, suggesting a system specialized in the detection of unexpected events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Nursing Experience of Using Mirror Visual Feedback for a Schizophrenia Patient With Visual Hallucinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shu-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chi; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the nursing application of mirror visual feedback in a patient suffering from long-term visual hallucinations. The intervention period was from May 15th to October 19th, 2015. Using the five facets of psychiatric nursing assessment, several health problems were observed, including disturbed sensory perceptions (prominent visual hallucinations) and poor self-care (e.g. limited abilities to self-bathe and put on clothing). Furthermore, "caregiver role strain" due to the related intense care burden was noted. After building up a therapeutic interpersonal relationship, the technique of brain plasticity and mirror visual feedback were performed using multiple nursing care methods in order to help the patient suppress her visual hallucinations by enhancing a different visual stimulus. We also taught her how to cope with visual hallucinations in a proper manner. The frequency and content of visual hallucinations were recorded to evaluate the effects of management. The therapeutic plan was formulated together with the patient in order to boost her self-confidence, and a behavior contract was implemented in order to improve her personal hygiene. In addition, psychoeducation on disease-related topics was provided to the patient's family, and they were encouraged to attend relevant therapeutic activities. As a result, her family became less passive and negative and more engaged in and positive about her future. The crisis of "caregiver role strain" was successfully resolved. The current experience is hoped to serve as a model for enhancing communication and cooperation between family and staff in similar medical settings.

  10. Visual expression of the experiences of restrictive eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Edith; Delmar, Charlotte

    Background of the research: Visual methods are used in nursing research. These methods include media such as film, video, still images, material artifacts and drawing. The current study is a PhD project, dealing with children's experiences of eating restrictively (diabetes or obesity). Visual...... of reflection work. Children often end their drawing and throw the drawing work, because they have gained the insight that they were looking for. This insight can be shared and used in conversation with children who have difficulties in finding verbal expression. The drawing creates a passable path...... methods were used as a complement to qualitative research methods (e.g., interviews) in an effort to explore and identify children's perceptions of life situation. Purpose for the presentation: Presenting the use of visual methods as a research tool in the phenomenological nursing research...

  11. The Fungible Audio-Visual Mapping and its Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws a perceptual approach to audio-visual mapping. Clearly perceivable cause and effect relationships can be problematic if one desires the audience to experience the music. Indeed perception would bias those sonic qualities that fit previous concepts of causation, subordinating other sonic qualities, which may form the relations between the sounds themselves. The question is, how can an audio-visual mapping produce a sense of causation, and simultaneously confound the actual cause-effect relationships. We call this a fungible audio-visual mapping. Our aim here is to glean its constitution and aspect. We will report a study, which draws upon methods from experimental psychology to inform audio-visual instrument design and composition. The participants are shown several audio-visual mapping prototypes, after which we pose quantitative and qualitative questions regarding their sense of causation, and their sense of understanding the cause-effect relationships. The study shows that a fungible mapping requires both synchronized and seemingly non-related components – sufficient complexity to be confusing. As the specific cause-effect concepts remain inconclusive, the sense of causation embraces the whole. 

  12. Tactile Radar: experimenting a computer game with visually disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Virgínia; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Quérette, Paulo; Bergstrom, Niklas; Sampaio, Eliana

    2017-09-18

    Visually disabled people increasingly use computers in everyday life, thanks to novel assistive technologies better tailored to their cognitive functioning. Like sighted people, many are interested in computer games - videogames and audio-games. Tactile-games are beginning to emerge. The Tactile Radar is a device through which a visually disabled person is able to detect distal obstacles. In this study, it is connected to a computer running a tactile-game. The game consists in finding and collecting randomly arranged coins in a virtual room. The study was conducted with nine congenital blind people including both sexes, aged 20-64 years old. Complementary methods of first and third person were used: the debriefing interview and the quasi-experimental design. The results indicate that the Tactile Radar is suitable for the creation of computer games specifically tailored for visually disabled people. Furthermore, the device seems capable of eliciting a powerful immersive experience. Methodologically speaking, this research contributes to the consolidation and development of first and third person complementary methods, particularly useful in disabled people research field, including the evaluation by users of the Tactile Radar effectiveness in a virtual reality context. Implications for rehabilitation Despite the growing interest in virtual games for visually disabled people, they still find barriers to access such games. Through the development of assistive technologies such as the Tactile Radar, applied in virtual games, we can create new opportunities for leisure, socialization and education for visually disabled people. The results of our study indicate that the Tactile Radar is adapted to the creation of video games for visually disabled people, providing a playful interaction with the players.

  13. Flow boiling in microgap channels experiment, visualization and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna; Jin, Li-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Flow Boiling in Microgap Channels: Experiment, Visualization and Analysis presents an up-to-date summary of the details of the confined to unconfined flow boiling transition criteria, flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, instability characteristics, two phase flow pattern and flow regime map and the parametric study of microgap dimension. Advantages of flow boiling in microgaps over microchannels are also highlighted. The objective of this Brief is to obtain a better fundamental understanding of the flow boiling processes, compare the performance between microgap and c

  14. Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, James; Davison, Peter A.; Nolan, John M.; Akkali, Mukunda C.; Beatty, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    There is now a consensus, based on histological, biochemical and spectral absorption data, that the yellow colour observed at the macula lutea is a consequence of the selective accumulation of dietary xanthophylls in the central retina of the living eye. Scientific research continues to explore the function(s) of MP in the human retina, with two main hypotheses premised on its putative capacity to (1) protect the retina from (photo)-oxidative damage by means of its optical filtration and/or antioxidant properties, the so-called protective hypothesis and (2) influence the quality of visual performance by means of selective short wavelength light absorption prior to photoreceptor light capture, thereby attenuating the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter, the so-called acuity and visibility hypotheses. The current epidemic of age-related macular degeneration has directed researchers to investigate the protective hypothesis of MP, while there has been a conspicuous lack of work designed to investigate the role of MP in visual performance. The aim of this review is to present and critically appraise the current literature germane to the contribution of MP, if any, to visual performance and experience.

  15. Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Loughman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is now a consensus, based on histological, biochemical and spectral absorption data, that the yellow colour observed at the macula lutea is a consequence of the selective accumulation of dietary xanthophylls in the central retina of the living eye. Scientific research continues to explore the function(s of MP in the human retina, with two main hypotheses premised on its putative capacity to (1 protect the retina from (photo-oxidative damage by means of its optical filtration and/or antioxidant properties, the so-called protective hypothesis and (2 influence the quality of visual performance by means of selective short wavelength light absorption prior to photoreceptor light capture, thereby attenuating the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter, the so-called acuity and visibility hypotheses. The current epidemic of age-related macular degeneration has directed researchers to investigate the protective hypothesis of MP, while there has been a conspicuous lack of work designed to investigate the role of MP in visual performance. The aim of this review is to present and critically appraise the current literature germane to the contribution of MP, if any, to visual performance and experience.

  16. Experiment archive, analysis, and visualization at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, Matthew S.; Azevedo, Stephen; Beeler, Richard; Bettenhausen, Rita; Bond, Essex; Casey, Allan; Liebman, Judith; Marsh, Amber; Pannell, Thomas; Warrick, Abbie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the computing architecture to manage scientific data from NIF experiments. ► NIF laser “shots” generate GBs of data for sub-microsec events separated by hours. ► Results are archived, analyzed and displayed with parallel and scalable code. ► Data quality and pedigree, based on calibration of each part, are tracked. ► Web-based visualization tools present data across shots and diagnostics. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic laser, providing a scientific research center to study inertial confinement fusion and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. A target shot involves over 30 specialized diagnostics measuring critical x-ray, optical and nuclear phenomena to quantify ignition results for comparison with computational models. The Shot Analysis and Visualization System (SAVI) acquires and analyzes target diagnostic data for display within a time-budget of 30 min. Laser and target diagnostic data are automatically loaded into the NIF archive database through clustered software data collection agents. The SAVI Analysis Engine distributes signal and image processing tasks to a Linux cluster where computation is performed. Intermediate results are archived at each step of the analysis pipeline. Data is archived with metadata and pedigree. Experiment results are visualized through a web-based user interface in interactive dashboards tailored to single or multiple shot perspectives. The SAVI system integrates open-source software, commercial workflow tools, relational database and messaging technologies into a service-oriented and distributed software architecture that is highly parallel, scalable, and flexible. The architecture and functionality of the SAVI system will be presented along with examples.

  17. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  18. The Phenomenology of Metal Detecting: Insights from a Unique Type of Landscape Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Winkley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal detecting is a unique way of experiencing the historic landscape, allowing many amateurs to access heritage hands-on in a way that would otherwise be impossible, locating and unearthing their own fragment of the archaeological record. With a conservative estimate of 15,000 people currently detecting in the UK, and 1,122,998 objects recorded to date (October 2015 on the Portable Antiquities Scheme database since its inception in 1997, England’s historic places are being walked, searched and mapped by a significantly-sized population whose enthusiasm would be better off integrated into heritage programming, than rebuffed by it and misdirected elsewhere. Achieving this would not only have potential financial benefits for the sector, where cuts are prevalent, but also see the kind of community engagement that is regularly discussed but not often arrived at. Research by the author has shown that the majority of metal detectorists operating in the UK are members of clubs or societies with a local focus; 86% of detectorists (club members, or independent report that they detect close to home. With a strong attachment to their home area and a good understanding of local history, the conscientious amongst them have been searching the same area for decades, building up a unique resource of artefactual and spatial data that informs a complex milieu of perception. These detectorists generate a unique attachment to the landscape on which they search – producing links between their own experienced version of the landscape and their perceived version of how it was experienced in the past, thus creating a very particular type of place-making. This paper begins by setting out the phenomenological method and the implications of this for studying the perception of landscape, before using qualitative and quantitative data from the author’s research into the attitudes of metal detectorists to consider what this means for metal detecting within a perceived

  19. Improving the User Experience of Finding and Visualizing Oceanographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Kinkade, D.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Searching for and locating data of interest can be a challenge to researchers as increasing volumes of data are made available online through various data centers, repositories, and archives. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) is keenly aware of this challenge and, as a result, has implemented features and technologies aimed at improving data discovery and enhancing the user experience. BCO-DMO was created in 2006 to manage and publish data from research projects funded by the Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Division of Polar Programs (PLR) Antarctic Sciences Organisms and Ecosystems Program (ANT) of the US National Science Foundation (NSF). The BCO-DMO text-based and geospatial-based data access systems provide users with tools to search, filter, and visualize data in order to efficiently find data of interest. The geospatial interface, developed using a suite of open-source software (including MapServer [1], OpenLayers [2], ExtJS [3], and MySQL [4]), allows users to search and filter/subset metadata based on program, project, or deployment, or by using a simple word search. The map responds based on user selections, presents options that allow the user to choose specific data parameters (e.g., a species or an individual drifter), and presents further options for visualizing those data on the map or in "quick-view" plots. The data managed and made available by BCO-DMO are very heterogeneous in nature, from in-situ biogeochemical, ecological, and physical data, to controlled laboratory experiments. Due to the heterogeneity of the data types, a 'one size fits all' approach to visualization cannot be applied. Datasets are visualized in a way that will best allow users to assess fitness for purpose. An advanced geospatial interface, which contains a semantically-enabled faceted search [5], is also available. These search facets are highly interactive and responsive, allowing

  20. Uniqueness of Experience and Virtual Playworlds: Playing Is Not Just for Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Alessandra; Pozzi, Simone; Mellini, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions within virtual communities are often described solely as being online experiences. Such descriptions are limited, for they fail to reference life external to the screen. The terms "virtual" and "real" have a negative connotation for many people and can even be interpreted to mean that something is "false" or "inauthentic."…

  1. Migrant readers and wordless books: visual narratives’ inclusive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Grilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research here told is the Italian contribution to the international project Visual Journeys: Understanding Immigrant Children’s Response to Visual Images in Picturebooks, Conducted in Scotland, Arizona, Spain and Australia as an Observation of the Response of Migrant ten-eleven years old Readers to the Wordless Book The Arrival by Shaun Tan (2006. Reflections are made about co-construction and negotiation of meaning in a shared reading; wordless book is experienced as occasion of empowerment for those involved, giving value to individual stories and showing a positive outcome in school life, as for self-esteem and reciprocal relationships; it promotes discussion and increases interest in books, it shows an important effect on learning a foreign language and creating a group. The perspective of the whole experience is an interdisciplinary approach. The reading of wordless or silent book can be a true practice of right and belonging to the international community, and therefore a precious means for an education to global citizenship.

  2. Efficient visualization of high-throughput targeted proteomics experiments: TAPIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röst, Hannes L; Rosenberger, George; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars

    2015-07-15

    Targeted mass spectrometry comprises a set of powerful methods to obtain accurate and consistent protein quantification in complex samples. To fully exploit these techniques, a cross-platform and open-source software stack based on standardized data exchange formats is required. We present TAPIR, a fast and efficient Python visualization software for chromatograms and peaks identified in targeted proteomics experiments. The input formats are open, community-driven standardized data formats (mzML for raw data storage and TraML encoding the hierarchical relationships between transitions, peptides and proteins). TAPIR is scalable to proteome-wide targeted proteomics studies (as enabled by SWATH-MS), allowing researchers to visualize high-throughput datasets. The framework integrates well with existing automated analysis pipelines and can be extended beyond targeted proteomics to other types of analyses. TAPIR is available for all computing platforms under the 3-clause BSD license at https://github.com/msproteomicstools/msproteomicstools. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses

  4. Medical students' unique experience of army leadership training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earis, John; Garner, J; Haddock, D; Jenkins, J; Jha, V

    2017-10-01

    To assess the interactive experience of first year medical students attending the leadership and management course hosted by a British Army Reserve Field Hospital developed in partnership with Liverpool University. 244 students submitted a 1000-word structured reflective learning assignment about their reaction to, learning from and any behaviour and attitude changes as a result of, the training. The assignments were thematically analysed to identify how aspects of the training had impacted upon the students' understanding of leadership and teamwork. Their comments relating to the army were analysed to gain insight into their views and experience of the training. Students were surprised at how enjoyable and useful they found the course. Initially they expressed scepticism about what they could learn in an army-based environment. However, the training, particularly command and planning tasks, helped them appreciate and understand the different skills individuals can bring to a team environment, and the importance of everyone contributing. While some students were challenged by aspects of the course, with support and encouragement from team-mates and the army personnel, they learned they could achieve more together. Teaching leadership and management skills to medical students is a challenge which can be effectively addressed by adapting and developing army training resources. Students overcame initial scepticism about participating, and learned a lot about themselves and each other. In addition, the army developed a better understanding of the doctors of the future. The expertise of the army in delivering this training was crucial to its success as the medical school could not have provided this experience unsupported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. The unique experience of home for parents and carers of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Tammy; Thornton, Heloise; Gustafsson, Louise

    2017-01-24

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the experience of home for parents and carers of children with disabilities in Australia. Data for this qualitative study were gathered using semi-structured interviews with four families living in their own homes. An inductive thematic analysis revealed two main themes. The first was titled 'Aspects making everyday life easier' explored the aspects of the home environment that facilitated home life for the child, including access to transport, services, family and home modifications. The second theme 'Decisions and efforts to create opportunities for the child' emphasized the efforts made by parents and carers to promote their child's independence and participation including a strong consideration for their children's future needs. The study indicated that the location of home, appropriate home modifications and planning for the future defined the experience of home for parents and carers. These findings identify some important considerations for occupational therapists when providing services in the homes of families with children who have a disability.

  6. Entwining Psychology and Visual Arts: A Classroom Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Sara; Trindade, Jose Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how activating perception, imagery and creativity facilitate the mastery of specific skills of visual arts education. Specifically, the study aimed at answering two questions: How can teachers enhance visual and creative expression?; and What criteria should be used to evaluate specific learning of visual arts…

  7. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person's mindset, which determines what top-down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art.

  8. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person’s mindset, which determines what top–down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art. PMID:25566111

  9. Children's unique experience of depression: Using a developmental approach to predict variation in symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginicola Misty M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current clinical knowledge suggests that children can have different types of depressive symptoms (irritability and aggression, but presents no theoretical basis for these differences. Using a developmental approach, the present study sought to test the relationship between developmental level (mental age and expression of depressive symptoms. The primary hypothesis was that as children's mental age increased, so would the number of internalizing symptoms present. Methods Participants were 252 psychiatric inpatients aged 4 to 16 with a diagnosed depressive disorder. All children were diagnosed by trained clinicians using DSM criteria. Patients were predominantly male (61% with varied ethnic backgrounds (Caucasian 54%; African American 22%; Hispanic 19%; Other 5%. Children were given an IQ test (KBIT or WISC while within the hospital. Mental age was calculated by using the child's IQ score and chronological age. Four trained raters reviewed children's records for depressive symptoms as defined by the DSM-IV TR. Additionally, a ratio score was calculated to indicate the number of internalizing symptoms to total symptoms. Results Mental age positively correlated (r = .51 with an internalizing total symptom ratio score and delineated between several individual symptoms. Mental age also predicted comorbidity with anxiety and conduct disorders. Children of a low mental age were more likely to be comorbid with conduct disorders, whereas children with a higher mental age presented more often with anxiety disorders. Gender was independently related to depressive symptoms, but minority status interacted with mental age. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that a developmental approach is useful in understanding children's depressive symptoms and has implications for both diagnosis and treatment of depression. If children experience depression differently, it follows that treatment options may also differ from that which is

  10. A Decade of Life Sciences Experiment Unique Equipment Development for Spacelab and Space Station, 1990-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Paul D.; Connolly, J. P.; Navarro, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Division has developed and flown an extensive array of spaceflight experiment unique equipment (EUE) during the last decade of the twentieth century. Over this ten year span, the EUE developed at ARC supported a vital gravitational biology flight research program executed on several different platforms, including the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station Mir. This paper highlights some of the key EUE elements developed at ARC and flown during the period 1990-1999. Resulting lessons learned will be presented that can be applied to the development of similar equipment for the International Space Station.

  11. Stroke survivors' views and experiences on impact of visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J

    2017-09-01

    We sought to determine stroke survivors' views on impact of stroke-related visual impairment to quality of life. Stroke survivors with visual impairment, more than 1 year post stroke onset, were recruited. Semistructured biographical narrative interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic approach to analysis of the qualitative data was adopted. Transcripts were systematically coded using NVivo10 software. Thirty-five stroke survivors were interviewed across the UK: 16 females, 19 males; aged 20-75 years at stroke onset. Five qualitative themes emerged: "Formal care," "Symptoms and self," "Adaptations," "Daily life," and "Information." Where visual problems existed, they were often not immediately recognized as part of the stroke syndrome and attributed to other causes such as migraine. Many participants did not receive early vision assessment or treatment for their visual problems. Visual problems included visual field loss, double vision, and perceptual problems. Impact of visual problems included loss in confidence, being a burden to others, increased collisions/accidents, and fear of falling. They made many self-identified adaptations to compensate for visual problems: magnifiers, large print, increased lighting, use of white sticks. There was a consistent lack of support and provision of information about visual problems. Poststroke visual impairment causes considerable impact to daily life which could be substantially improved by simple measures including early formal visual assessment, management and advice on adaptive strategies and self-management options. Improved education about poststroke visual impairment for the public and clinicians could aid earlier diagnosis of visual impairments.

  12. Developing an Inclusive Learning Environment for Students with Visual Impairment in Higher Education: Progressive Mutual Accommodation and Learner Experiences in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Rachel; Douglas, Graeme; McLinden, Michael; Keil, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of a unique longitudinal qualitative study, this article investigates the experiences of 32 young people with visual impairment (VI) in higher education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) to explore how well they were able to participate on their courses. We propose and apply a Bioecological Model of Inclusive HE to interpret…

  13. 3D Visual Data Mining: goals and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter; Bukauskas, Linas; Eriksen, Poul Svante

    2003-01-01

    , statistical analyses, perceptual and cognitive psychology, and scientific visualization. At the conceptual level we offer perceptual and cognitive insights to guide the information visualization process. We then choose cluster surfaces to exemplify the data mining process, to discuss the tasks involved...

  14. GABAA agonist reduces visual awareness : a masking-EEG experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; van Gaal, Simon; van der Hoort, Björn J J; Lamme, Victor A F

    Consciousness can be manipulated in many ways. Here, we seek to understand whether two such ways, visual masking and pharmacological intervention, share a common pathway in manipulating visual consciousness. We recorded EEG from human participants who performed a backward-masking task in which they

  15. Conversational Pedagogy: Exploring Interactions between a Teaching Artist and Young Learners during Visual Arts Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela

    2013-01-01

    In many early childhood classrooms, visual arts experiences occur around a communal arts table. A shared workspace allows for spontaneous conversation and exploration of the art-making process of peers and teachers. In this setting, conversation can play an important role in visual arts experiences as children explore new media, skills, and ideas.…

  16. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    This study analyses visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments are found to be strongly affected by stimuli presentation format. These results...

  17. Experiences in using DISCUS for visualizing human communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groehn, Matti; Nieminen, Marko; Haho, Paeivi; Smeds, Riitta

    2000-02-01

    In this paper, we present further improvement to the DISCUS software that can be used to record and analyze the flow and constants of business process simulation session discussion. The tool was initially introduced in 'visual data exploration and analysis IV' conference. The initial features of the tool enabled the visualization of discussion flow in business process simulation sessions and the creation of SOM analyses. The improvements of the tool consists of additional visualization possibilities that enable quick on-line analyses and improved graphical statistics. We have also created the very first interface to audio data and implemented two ways to visualize it. We also outline additional possibilities to use the tool in other application areas: these include usability testing and the possibility to use the tool for capturing design rationale in a product development process. The data gathered with DISCUS may be used in other applications, and further work may be done with data ming techniques.

  18. Experiments with general purpose visualization software on a unix workstation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, G

    1995-10-01

    A study was performed on the opportunity of buying, for the ICTP use, one of the following visualization systems: Advanced Visualization Systems (AVS) - release 5.02 IRIS Explorer - release 2.2 from NAG IBM Data Explorer (DX) - release 2.1.5 Khoros - Developer`s Release 2.0+p2. Criteria for an optimal choice were defined and it was concluded that none of these visualization systems would be a good today compromise. Conservative consideration of the market opportunities shows that substantially improved releases of these systems are expected to be operational within at most an year. For short term period, the ratio benefit to burden still makes public domain low-end graphics attractive. (author).

  19. Experiments with general purpose visualization software on a unix workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.

    1995-10-01

    A study was performed on the opportunity of buying, for the ICTP use, one of the following visualization systems: Advanced Visualization Systems (AVS) - release 5.02 IRIS Explorer - release 2.2 from NAG IBM Data Explorer (DX) - release 2.1.5 Khoros - Developer's Release 2.0+p2. Criteria for an optimal choice were defined and it was concluded that none of these visualization systems would be a good today compromise. Conservative consideration of the market opportunities shows that substantially improved releases of these systems are expected to be operational within at most an year. For short term period, the ratio benefit to burden still makes public domain low-end graphics attractive. (author)

  20. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas in children: a 15-year experience and the identification of a unique immunohistochemical marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laje, Pablo; Bhatti, Tricia R; Adzick, N Scott

    2013-10-01

    To review our 15-year experience in the management of children with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPPN) of the pancreas at a single pediatric institution, to delineate a unique immunohistochemical marker for SPPN, and to analyze cumulative data on this rare entity in the literature. We did a retrospective analysis of the demographic data, clinical presentation, immunohistochemical characteristics, surgical approach, and long-term outcomes of all patients diagnosed with SPPN between 1997 and 2012. There were 6 patients in the series, 5 females and 1 male. Median age at presentation and at surgery was 15 years (11-18 years). Abdominal pain was the presenting symptom in 5 cases and jaundice in 1 case. Two patients had a pancreatic head tumor and underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic tail and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Two patients had the tumor in the pancreatic body and underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy in one case and with preservation of the spleen in the other. All tumors were completely resected with pathologic margins free of disease. The median maximum diameter was 6.8 cm (3 to 15 cm). On immunohistochemistry the tumors exhibited different combinations of non-specific markers like chromogranin, vimentin and neuron-specific enolase, but all tumors showed the highly SPPN-specific paranuclear dot-like immunoreactivity pattern for CD99 in the solid as well as in the pseudopapillary areas. No patient had metastasis at presentation. Median follow-up was 6.5 years (6 months to 15 years). There were no recurrences, no long-term metastasis, and all patients are disease-free. Our series supports the concept that complete resection is necessary to achieve the best possible long-term results. Additionally, we demonstrate that SPPN exhibits a very unique immunostaining pattern for CD99 that is present in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The unique field experiments on the assessment of accident consequences at industrial enterprises of gas-chemical complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.S.; Trebin, I.S.; Sorokovikova, O.

    1998-01-01

    Sour natural gas fields are the unique raw material base for setting up such large enterprises as gas chemical complexes. The presence of high toxic H 2 S in natural gas results in widening a range of dangerous and harmful factors for biosphere. Emission of such gases into atmosphere during accidents at gas wells and gas pipelines is of especial danger for environment and first of all for people. Development of mathematical forecast models for assessment of accidents progression and consequences is one of the main elements of works on safety analysis and risk assessment. The critical step in development of such models is their validation using the experimental material. Full-scale experiments have been conducted by the All-Union Scientific-Research institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technology (VNIIGAZ) for grounding of sizes of hazard zones in case of the severe accidents with the gas pipelines. The source of emergency gas release was the working gas pipelines with 100 mm dia. And 110 km length. This pipeline was used for transportation of natural gas with significant amount of hydrogen sulphide. During these experiments significant quantities of the gas including H 2 S were released into the atmosphere and then concentrations of gas and H 2 S were measured in the accident region. The results of these experiments are used for validation of atmospheric dispersion models including the new Lagrangian trace stochastic model that takes into account a wide range of meteorological factors. This model was developed as a part of computer system for decision-making support in case of accident release of toxic gases into atmosphere at the enterprises of Russian gas industry. (authors)

  2. Finding Futures: A Spatio-Visual Experiment In Participatory Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Gano, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    The Finding Futures Project explores innovative ways of deliberating the future of cities through an emphasis on embodied spatio-visual engagement with urban landscapes. The first instantiation of the project - which took place in Lisbon in 2011 - is reported through a discussion of the project's...

  3. The Dynamic Discourse of Visual Literacy in Experience Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, people have used perspectives of space and time to define a sense of place and personal identity. Western cultures interpret place and time as static entities. In interactive multimedia computing, visual literacy defines new dimensions in communication that are reshaping traditional Western concepts of place and time. Experience…

  4. HNCA-TOCSY-CANH experiments with alternate 13C-12C labeling: a set of 3D experiment with unique supra-sequential information for mainchain resonance assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Gal, Maayan; Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio; Wagner, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Described here is a set of three-dimensional (3D) NMR experiments that rely on CACA-TOCSY magnetization transfer via the weak 3 J(C α C α ) coupling. These pulse sequences, which resemble recently described 13 C detected CACA-TOCSY (Takeuchi et al. 2010) experiments, are recorded in 1 H 2 O, and use 1 H excitation and detection. These experiments require alternate 13 C- 12 C labeling together with perdeuteration, which allows utilizing the small 3 J(C α C α ) scalar coupling that is otherwise masked by the stronger 1 J CC couplings in uniformly 13 C labeled samples. These new experiments provide a unique assignment ladder-mark that yields bidirectional supra-sequential information and can readily straddle proline residues. Unlike the conventional HNCA experiment, which contains only sequential information to the 13 (C α ) of the preceding residue, the 3D hnCA-TOCSY-caNH experiment can yield sequential correlations to alpha carbons in positions i−1, i + 1 and i−2. Furthermore, the 3D hNca-TOCSY-caNH and Hnca-TOCSY-caNH experiments, which share the same magnetization pathway but use a different chemical shift encoding, directly couple the 15 N- 1 H spin pair of residue i to adjacent amide protons and nitrogens at positions i−2, i−1, i + 1 and i + 2, respectively. These new experimental features make protein backbone assignments more robust by reducing the degeneracy problem associated with the conventional 3D NMR experiments.

  5. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: The role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective dura-tion of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The con-gruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  6. A Quantitative Analysis of the Work Experiences of Adults with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, people with visual impairments often struggle to gain employment. This study attempts to closely evaluate the work experiences of employed individuals with visual impairments living in one of the world's most populous developing nations, Nigeria. Methods: The researchers developed a questionnaire that assessed personal and…

  7. Visualization environment for reviewing and experimenting with compaction equipment trajectories in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Hartmann, Timo; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.

    Visualization Environments (VEs) can assist construction professionals in studying intricate interrelations between construction equipment trajectories and their context. Such VEs typically support them in either reviewing earlier conducted work or experimenting with possible alternatives. In the

  8. Visual field changes after cataract extraction: the AGIS experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Patel, Gitane; Gaasterland, Douglas; Caprioli, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that cataract extraction in glaucomatous eyes improves overall sensitivity of visual function without affecting the size or depth of glaucomatous scotomas. Experimental study with no control group. One hundred fifty-eight eyes (of 140 patients) from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study with at least two reliable visual fields within a year both before and after cataract surgery were included. Average mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were compared before and after cataract extraction. To evaluate changes in scotoma size, the number of abnormal points (P < .05) on the pattern deviation plot was compared before and after surgery. We described an index ("scotoma depth index") to investigate changes of scotoma depth after surgery. Mean values for MD, PSD, and CPSD were -13.2, 6.4, and 5.9 dB before and -11.9, 6.8, and 6.2 dB after cataract surgery (P < or = .001 for all comparisons). Mean (+/- SD) number of abnormal points on pattern deviation plot was 26.7 +/- 9.4 and 27.5 +/- 9.0 before and after cataract surgery, respectively (P = .02). Scotoma depth index did not change after cataract extraction (-19.3 vs -19.2 dB, P = .90). Cataract extraction caused generalized improvement of the visual field, which was most marked in eyes with less advanced glaucomatous damage. Although the enlargement of scotomas was statistically significant, it was not clinically meaningful. No improvement of sensitivity was observed in the deepest part of the scotomas.

  9. Development of a visualized software for tokamak experiment data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianyong; Ding Xuantong; Luo Cuiwen

    2004-01-01

    With the VBA programming in Microsoft Excel, the authors have developed a post-processing software of experimental data in tokamak. The standard formal data in the HL-1M and HL-2A tokamaks can be read, displayed in Excel, and transmitted directly into the MATLAB workspace, for displaying pictures in MATLAB with the software. The authors have also developed data post-processing software in MATLAB environment, which can read standard format data, display picture, supply visual graphical user interface and provide part of advanced signal processing ability

  10. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  11. Real-Time Strategy Video Game Experience and Visual Perceptual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Hye-Jin; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-07-22

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is defined as long-term improvement in performance on a visual-perception task after visual experiences or training. Early studies have found that VPL is highly specific for the trained feature and location, suggesting that VPL is associated with changes in the early visual cortex. However, the generality of visual skills enhancement attributable to action video-game experience suggests that VPL can result from improvement in higher cognitive skills. If so, experience in real-time strategy (RTS) video-game play, which may heavily involve cognitive skills, may also facilitate VPL. To test this hypothesis, we compared VPL between RTS video-game players (VGPs) and non-VGPs (NVGPs) and elucidated underlying structural and functional neural mechanisms. Healthy young human subjects underwent six training sessions on a texture discrimination task. Diffusion-tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after training. VGPs performed better than NVGPs in the early phase of training. White-matter connectivity between the right external capsule and visual cortex and neuronal activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were greater in VGPs than NVGPs and were significantly correlated with RTS video-game experience. In both VGPs and NVGPs, there was task-related neuronal activity in the right IFG, ACC, and striatum, which was strengthened after training. These results indicate that RTS video-game experience, associated with changes in higher-order cognitive functions and connectivity between visual and cognitive areas, facilitates VPL in early phases of training. The results support the hypothesis that VPL can occur without involvement of only visual areas. Significance statement: Although early studies found that visual perceptual learning (VPL) is associated with involvement of the visual cortex, generality of visual skills enhancement by action video-game experience

  12. The impact of presentation format on visual attention and choice in discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    with visual attributes, or as product mock-ups simulating realistic products as close as possible. So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behavior. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice...... experiments across three different presentation formats. Method. Participants’ visual attention was measured by means of eye tracking during a discrete choice experiment for yoghurt products varying on six attributes with two to four levels. The study used a mixed within-between subjects design in which...... the presentation format varied between a verbal information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Results. A strong relationship between attention and choice was observed so that attributes with a higher importance for participant choices also received a higher...

  13. The impact of presentation format on visual attention and choice in discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    in the product mock-up presentation required significantly fewer fixations and less decision time, and more within-alternative transitions were observed compared to the verbal and visual presentation formats. Attributes presented visually or at larger size had a higher impact on participants’ choices......Objectives. Discrete choice experiments in which participants choose between alternatives differing on attribute levels are an important research method for preference elicitation. In such experiments choice stimuli is typically presented in tables with verbally described attributes, in tables...... with visual attributes, or as product mock-ups simulating realistic products as close as possible. So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behavior. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice...

  14. Understanding the unique experiences, perspectives and sexual and reproductive health needs of very young adolescents: Somali refugees in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Echevarria, Luis; Greeley, Meghan; Bawoke, Tenaw; Zimmerman, Linnea; Robinson, Courtland; Schlecht, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Kobe Refugee camp hosts roughly 39,000 refugees displaced from Somalia during the 2011-2012 Horn of Africa Crisis. Sexual and reproductive health, as with the greater issues of health and well-being for adolescents displaced from this crisis remain largely unknown and neglected. In 2013, the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins University, and International Medical Corps in Ethiopia, implemented qualitative and quantitative research to explore the factors and risks that impact the health of very young adolescents (VYAs), those 10-14 years of age, in this setting. This paper presents findings from the qualitative effort. Focus group discussions (FGD), incorporating community mapping and photo elicitation activities, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year-olds to obtain information about their own perspectives, experiences and values. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year-olds and adults, to consider their perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health needs and risks of VYAs. This research identified several factors that were found to influence the health and well-being of VYAs in Kobe refugee camp, including newfound access to education and security, combined with gender divisions and parental communication around early SRH and puberty that remained intact from traditional Somali culture. Girls were found to face an additional risk of child marriage and early pregnancy exacerbated since displacement, which significantly limited their ability to access education and achieve future aspirations. Findings from this study could help to inform future programs in Kobe and similar contexts involving long-term displacement from conflict, focusing on the health and development needs of VYAs. Future programs should consider the determinants of positive VYA health and development, including access to education, gender equity, and safety.By better understanding the unique experiences, perspectives and needs of VYAs, practitioners, policy makers and donors can

  15. Experiences with Matlab and VRML in Functional Neuroimaging Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    We describe some experiences with Matlab and VRML. We are developing a toolbox for neuroinformatics and describe some of the functionalities we have implemented or will implement and how Matlab and VRML support the implementation....

  16. Prior Visual Experience Modulates Learning of Sound Localization Among Blind Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qian; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Luo, Yue-Jia; Li, Jian-Jun; Ting, Kin-Hung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Wang, Jun; Lee, Tatia M C

    2017-05-01

    Cross-modal learning requires the use of information from different sensory modalities. This study investigated how the prior visual experience of late blind individuals could modulate neural processes associated with learning of sound localization. Learning was realized by standardized training on sound localization processing, and experience was investigated by comparing brain activations elicited from a sound localization task in individuals with (late blind, LB) and without (early blind, EB) prior visual experience. After the training, EB showed decreased activation in the precuneus, which was functionally connected to a limbic-multisensory network. In contrast, LB showed the increased activation of the precuneus. A subgroup of LB participants who demonstrated higher visuospatial working memory capabilities (LB-HVM) exhibited an enhanced precuneus-lingual gyrus network. This differential connectivity suggests that visuospatial working memory due to the prior visual experience gained via LB-HVM enhanced learning of sound localization. Active visuospatial navigation processes could have occurred in LB-HVM compared to the retrieval of previously bound information from long-term memory for EB. The precuneus appears to play a crucial role in learning of sound localization, disregarding prior visual experience. Prior visual experience, however, could enhance cross-modal learning by extending binding to the integration of unprocessed information, mediated by the cognitive functions that these experiences develop.

  17. Absence of visual experience modifies the neural basis of numerical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjlia, Shipra; Lane, Connor; Feigenson, Lisa; Bedny, Marina

    2016-10-04

    In humans, the ability to reason about mathematical quantities depends on a frontoparietal network that includes the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). How do nature and nurture give rise to the neurobiology of numerical cognition? We asked how visual experience shapes the neural basis of numerical thinking by studying numerical cognition in congenitally blind individuals. Blind (n = 17) and blindfolded sighted (n = 19) participants solved math equations that varied in difficulty (e.g., 27 - 12 = x vs. 7 - 2 = x), and performed a control sentence comprehension task while undergoing fMRI. Whole-cortex analyses revealed that in both blind and sighted participants, the IPS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were more active during the math task than the language task, and activity in the IPS increased parametrically with equation difficulty. Thus, the classic frontoparietal number network is preserved in the total absence of visual experience. However, surprisingly, blind but not sighted individuals additionally recruited a subset of early visual areas during symbolic math calculation. The functional profile of these "visual" regions was identical to that of the IPS in blind but not sighted individuals. Furthermore, in blindness, number-responsive visual cortices exhibited increased functional connectivity with prefrontal and IPS regions that process numbers. We conclude that the frontoparietal number network develops independently of visual experience. In blindness, this number network colonizes parts of deafferented visual cortex. These results suggest that human cortex is highly functionally flexible early in life, and point to frontoparietal input as a mechanism of cross-modal plasticity in blindness.

  18. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Visual Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the steps to be followed in planning, constructing, and evaluating the effectiveness of merchandise displays. The course is comprised of one unit, General Merchandise Displays. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions…

  19. Leading and Learning as a Transcultural Experience: A Visual Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schratz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Leaving one's own territory in research by taking part in an international project is like learning a new language: it's not just learning a new vocabulary and grammar, but is a total human experience which is best learnt in everyday activity. Social scientists like Jean Lave argued that "knowledge-in-practice, constituted in the settings of…

  20. Investigating the Experiences of Special School Visual Arts Teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the practical learning problems their students experience, the teachers maintained that studying ... 2009, the Hong Kong Education Bureau adopted a new ... arts is one of the elective subjects available to special ... methodology, since it is attentive to how things reveal .... educational backgrounds and their teaching careers.

  1. Experience-dependent spatial expectations in mouse visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiser, Aris; Mahringer, David; Oyibo, Hassana K.

    2016-01-01

    In generative models of brain function, internal representations are used to generate predictions of sensory input, yet little is known about how internal models influence sensory processing. Here we show that, with experience in a virtual environment, the activity of neurons in layer 2/3 of mouse...

  2. Reading in the dark: neural correlates and cross-modal plasticity for learning to read entire words without visual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalov, Nadine; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has long attempted to determine the ways in which cortical selectivity develops, and the impact of nature vs. nurture on it. Congenital blindness (CB) offers a unique opportunity to test this question as the brains of blind individuals develop without visual experience. Here we approach this question through the reading network. Several areas in the visual cortex have been implicated as part of the reading network, and one of the main ones among them is the VWFA, which is selective to the form of letters and words. But what happens in the CB brain? On the one hand, it has been shown that cross-modal plasticity leads to the recruitment of occipital areas, including the VWFA, for linguistic tasks. On the other hand, we have recently demonstrated VWFA activity for letters in contrast to other visual categories when the information is provided via other senses such as touch or audition. Which of these tasks is more dominant? By which mechanism does the CB brain process reading? Using fMRI and visual-to-auditory sensory substitution which transfers the topographical features of the letters we compare reading with semantic and scrambled conditions in a group of CB. We found activation in early auditory and visual cortices during the early processing phase (letter), while the later phase (word) showed VWFA and bilateral dorsal-intraparietal activations for words. This further supports the notion that many visual regions in general, even early visual areas, also maintain a predilection for task processing even when the modality is variable and in spite of putative lifelong linguistic cross-modal plasticity. Furthermore, we find that the VWFA is recruited preferentially for letter and word form, while it was not recruited, and even exhibited deactivation, for an immediately subsequent semantic task suggesting that despite only short sensory substitution experience orthographic task processing can dominate semantic processing in the VWFA. On a wider

  3. A uniform geometry description for simulation, reconstruction and visualization in the BESIII experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Yutie [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: liangyt@hep.pku.edu.cn; Zhu Bo; You Zhengyun; Liu Kun; Ye Hongxue; Xu Guangming; Wang Siguang [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li Weidong; Liu Huaimin; Mao Zepu [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Mao Yajun [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-05-21

    In the BESIII experiment, the simulation, reconstruction and visualization were designed to use the same geometry description in order to ensure the consistency of the geometry for different applications. Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML), an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors, was chosen and met our requirement. The detector of BESIII was described with GDML and then used in Geant4-based simulation and ROOT-based reconstruction and visualization.

  4. A uniform geometry description for simulation, reconstruction and visualization in the BESIII experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yutie; Zhu Bo; You Zhengyun; Liu Kun; Ye Hongxue; Xu Guangming; Wang Siguang; Li Weidong; Liu Huaimin; Mao Zepu; Mao Yajun

    2009-01-01

    In the BESIII experiment, the simulation, reconstruction and visualization were designed to use the same geometry description in order to ensure the consistency of the geometry for different applications. Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML), an application-independent persistent format for describing the geometries of detectors, was chosen and met our requirement. The detector of BESIII was described with GDML and then used in Geant4-based simulation and ROOT-based reconstruction and visualization.

  5. Experiments at Scale with In-Situ Visualization Using ParaView/Catalyst in RAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kares, Robert John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-31

    In this paper I describe some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation on the Cielo supercomputer at Los Alamos. The detailed procedures for the creation of the visualizations using ParaView/Catalyst are discussed and several images sequences from the ICF simulation problem produced with the in-situ method are presented. My impressions and conclusions concerning the use of the in-situ visualization method in RAGE are discussed.

  6. Building effective learning experiences around visualizations: NASA Eyes on the Solar System and Infiniscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, A. J. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Klug Boonstra, S.; Mead, C.; Swann, J. L.; Hunsley, D.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in scientific visualization and public access to data have transformed science outreach and communication, but have yet to realize their potential impacts in the realm of education. Computer-based learning is a clear bridge between visualization and education, but creating high-quality learning experiences that leverage existing visualizations requires close partnerships among scientists, technologists, and educators. The Infiniscope project is working to foster such partnerships in order to produce exploration-driven learning experiences around NASA SMD data and images, leveraging the principles of ETX (Education Through eXploration). The visualizations inspire curiosity, while the learning design promotes improved reasoning skills and increases understanding of space science concepts. Infiniscope includes both a web portal to host these digital learning experiences, as well as a teaching network of educators using and modifying these experiences. Our initial efforts to enable student discovery through active exploration of the concepts associated with Small Worlds, Kepler's Laws, and Exoplanets led us to develop our own visualizations at Arizona State University. Other projects focused on Astrobiology and Mars geology led us to incorporate an immersive Virtual Field Trip platform into the Infiniscope portal in support of virtual exploration of scientifically significant locations. Looking to apply ETX design practices with other visualizations, our team at Arizona State partnered with the Jet Propulsion Lab to integrate the web-based version of NASA Eyes on the Eclipse within Smart Sparrow's digital learning platform in a proof-of-concept focused on the 2017 Eclipse. This goes a step beyond the standard features of "Eyes" by wrapping guided exploration, focused on a specific learning goal into standards-aligned lesson built around the visualization, as well as its distribution through Infiniscope and it's digital teaching network. Experience from this

  7. Seeing The "New Forest": A Visual Curricular Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garramone, Pariss Nicola

    In contemporary Western contexts, human interaction with and interpretation of nature is a perpetually mediated process. Understandings and engagements with natural environments are informed by and often overlaid with meanings derived from representations. In other words, representations help constitute human relationships with nature. Thus learning how representations shape human understandings and experiences of nature and the resulting social, political, and ecological impact of these mediated relationships has emerged as an important field of inquiry within environmental education. This dissertation examines how a critical, self-reflexive act of looking at photographs can challenge an individual's concepts of nature/culture, real/imaginary, and self/other. The project engages in a curricular experiment where the researcher explores how photography meditates her abstract and embodied understandings of specific natural environments. A critical, self-reflexive approach to aesthetic engagement with photographs moves beyond simply deciphering or decoding representations; it incorporates the learner's own narrative and embodied responses to the photographic representations being explored. This approach also recognizes that pedagogy has a transformative effect; both the learner and the representations being explored are transformed through the process of engagement. In this dissertation, a selection of iconic photographs of Canadian tree planting from the collection of the National Gallery of Canada are looked at: Lorraine Gilbert's (1987-2004) series "Shaping the New Forest" and Sarah Anne Johnson's (2005) work "The Tree Planting Project." The aim of this project is twofold: to unravel how these photographs construct and transform knowledge of and relationships with the environment in Canada, and to demonstrate a model of environmental inquiry that can be integrated into critical environmental education curricula.

  8. Brain responses to repeated visual experience among low and high sensation seekers: role of boredom susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Lianekhammy, Joann; Lawson, Adam; Guo, Chunyan; ynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.; Gold, Brian T.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and present...

  9. Food experiences and eating patterns of visually impaired and blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyk, Marie Claire; Sontrop, Jessica M; Chapman, Gwen E; Barr, Susan I; Mamer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind Canadians will rise dramatically as our population ages, and yet little is known about the impact of blindness on the experience of food and eating. In this qualitative study, the food experiences and eating patterns of visually impaired and blind people were examined. Influencing factors were also explored. In 2000, nine blind or severely visually impaired subjects were recruited through blindness-related organizations in British Columbia. Participants completed individual semi-structured, in-depth interviews. These were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to explicate participants' experiences. Participants experienced blindness-related obstacles when shopping for food, preparing food, and eating in restaurants. Inaccessible materials and environments left participants with a diet lacking in variety and limited access to physical activity. Seven participants were overweight or obese, a finding that may be related to limited physical activity and higher-than-average restaurant use. This is the first study in which the experience of food and eating is described from the perspective of visually impaired Canadians. Nutrition and blindness professionals must work together to reduce the food-related obstacles faced by visually impaired and blind people. Professionals must address both individual skill development and social and structural inequities.

  10. Embodied experiences. Visual representations of woman and maternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena BRIGIDI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a reflection on the embodied experience of mother and representations of mother- hood in Western culture, within advertising and television series, documentaries and movies.Typically, motherhood is imagined as the product (having a baby, becoming a parent and not as the arduous process over the life of a person. It is presents with a universal character and it is used in movies as a strategy when they want to feel emotions: an a-historical mother gives birth, looks at his son, she takes him in her arms, and she loves him, sacrifices and she is next him forever. In other words, it’s all worth it if the prize is to become mother. In the collective imagination, these ideas have helped to cre- ate the ideal type of mother: how she should act and what value would motherhood in our society. With this premise, I analyze the omissions after the images: we are taking just a simple model of mother who destroy or idealize. Though models of women, mothers, couples and families are many more today.

  11. The Rhetoric of Multi-Display Learning Spaces: exploratory experiences in visual art disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Bligh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Display Learning Spaces (MD-LS comprise technologies to allow the viewing of multiple simultaneous visual materials, modes of learning which encourage critical reflection upon these materials, and spatial configurations which afford interaction between learners and the materials in orchestrated ways. In this paper we provide an argument for the benefits of Multi-Display Learning Spaces in supporting complex, disciplinary reasoning within learning, focussing upon our experiences within postgraduate visual arts education. The importance of considering the affordances of the physical environment within education has been acknowledged by the recent attention given to Learning Spaces, yet within visual art disciplines the perception of visual material within a given space has long been seen as a key methodological consideration with implications for the identity of the discipline itself. We analyse the methodological, technological and spatial affordances of MD-LS to support learning, and discuss comparative viewing as a disciplinary method to structure visual analysis within the space which benefits from the simultaneous display of multiple partitions of visual evidence. We offer an analysis of the role of the teacher in authoring and orchestration and conclude by proposing a more general structure for what we term ‘multiple perspective learning’, in which the presentation of multiple pieces of visual evidence creates the conditions for complex argumentation within Higher Education.

  12. Macular photostress and visual experience between microscope and intracameral illumination during cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyejin; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Jong Yeon; Park, Su Jin; Kim, Yu Jeong; Kim, Seong-Woo; Chung, Tae-Young; Inoue, Makoto; Kim, Terry

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate macular photostress and visual experience between coaxial microscope illumination versus oblique intracameral illumination during cataract surgery. Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon, South Korea. Prospective case series. Consecutive patients who had cataract surgery using microscope illumination and intracameral illumination were included. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire (seeing strong lights, feeling photophobia, feeling startled (fright) when seeing lights, seeing any colors, seeing any instruments or surgical procedures, and estimating intraoperative visual function) designed to describe their cataract surgery experience. The images projected on the retina of the model eye (rear view) with artificial opaque fragments in the anterior chamber during simulating cataract surgery were compared between the 2 illumination types. Sixty patients completed the questionnaire. Scores for strong lights, photophobia, fright, and color perception were significantly higher with microscope illumination than with intracameral illumination (all P microscope illumination (13 [21.7%]). In the rear-view images created in a model eye, only the bright microscope light in the center was seen without any lens image in the microscope illumination. However, in the intracameral illumination, the less bright light from the light pipe in the periphery and the lens fragments were seen more clearly. In a view of the patients' visual experience, oblique intracameral illumination caused less subjective photostress and was preferred over coaxial microscope illumination. Objective findings from the model-eye experiment correlated to the result of visual experience. Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a vocabulary of object shapes in a child with a very-early-acquired visual agnosia: a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Elaine; Wilding, John

    2011-02-01

    We report a longitudinal study of an exceptional child (S.R.) whose early-acquired visual agnosia, following encephalitis at 8 weeks of age, did not prevent her from learning to construct an increasing vocabulary of visual object forms (drawn from different categories), albeit slowly. S.R. had problems perceiving subtle differences in shape; she was unable to segment local letters within global displays; and she would bring complex scenes close to her eyes: a symptom suggestive of an attempt to reduce visual crowding. Investigations revealed a robust ability to use the gestalt grouping factors of proximity and collinearity to detect fragmented forms in noisy backgrounds, compared with a very weak ability to segment fragmented forms on the basis of contrasts of shape. When contrasts in spatial grouping and shape were pitted against each other, shape made little contribution, consistent with problems in perceiving complex scenes, but when shape contrast was varied, and spatial grouping was held constant, S.R. showed the same hierarchy of difficulty as the controls, although her responses were slowed. This is the first report of a child's visual-perceptual development following very early neurological impairments to the visual cortex. Her ability to learn to perceive visual shape following damage at a rudimentary stage of perceptual development contrasts starkly with the loss of such ability in childhood cases of acquired visual agnosia that follow damage to the established perceptual system. Clearly, there is a critical period during which neurological damage to the highly active, early developing visual-perceptual system does not prevent but only impairs further learning.

  14. Cortical activation during Braille reading is influenced by early visual experience in subjects with severe visual disability: a correlational fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, P; Morgan, V L; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Wall, R S; Ebner, F F

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on blind adults resting and reading Braille. The strongest activation was found in primary somatic sensory/motor cortex on both cortical hemispheres. Additional foci of activation were situated in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes where visual information is processed in sighted persons. The regions were differentiated most in the correlation of their time courses of activation with resting and reading. Differences in magnitude and expanse of activation were substantially less significant. Among the traditionally visual areas, the strength of correlation was greatest in posterior parietal cortex and moderate in occipitotemporal, lateral occipital, and primary visual cortex. It was low in secondary visual cortex as well as in dorsal and ventral inferior temporal cortex and posterior middle temporal cortex. Visual experience increased the strength of correlation in all regions except dorsal inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex. The greatest statistically significant increase, i.e., approximately 30%, was in ventral inferior temporal and posterior middle temporal cortex. In these regions, words are analyzed semantically, which may be facilitated by visual experience. In contrast, visual experience resulted in a slight, insignificant diminution of the strength of correlation in dorsal inferior temporal cortex where language is analyzed phonetically. These findings affirm that posterior temporal regions are engaged in the processing of written language. Moreover, they suggest that this function is modified by early visual experience. Furthermore, visual experience significantly strengthened the correlation of activation and Braille reading in occipital regions traditionally involved in the processing of visual features and object recognition suggesting a role for visual imagery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Experimental evidence of randomness and non-uniqueness in unsaturated outflow experiments designed for hydraulic parameter estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollenbeck, Karl-Josef; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    . Experiments with large step changes were well reproducible, but the out flow response was virtually the same for different step levels. Neither type of observation was predicted by a theoretical sensitivity analysis of the Richards equation, given the minimal inaccuracy in our experiments. Inverse estimation...

  16. Layers Of Visual Imagination And Degrees Of Subjectivity In Listening Experiences Exploring Visual Imagination In Acousmatic Composition And Listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Poillucci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electroacoustic music especially Acousmatic is often perceived differently between listeners and a wide variety of visual images is evoked. This because of the spectromorphological qualities and the abstract reality in which this kind of music carries the listener into. In everyday life it seems that we have a natural tendency to assess and understand reality around us and to quantise how and if the perceived circumstances could affect our wellbeing. Some studies also affirm that brain and the biological function of the sensory and perceptual processes are commonly identical in each listener. This gives evidence that arises the interest to investigate which variations the subjectivity of visual imagery depends on and if it is possible to unfold it in various layers. This experimental research has taken in consideration questionnaire-based listening tests to gather details from each listening experience and to get a better understanding of the visual imagery evoked by electroacoustic compositions into the listeners mind and its degrees of objectivity and subjectivity. The compositions used in the experiment were both composed by the author with the intention of guiding listeners into their personal perceptual-imaginative journey by delivering encoded perhaps objective sonic cues. This paper is a theoretical inter-disciplinary analysis backed by research on the foundations of senses perception cognition emotions etc. An artistic approach based on scientific evidences led to the theorization of layers of imagination and their bias to produce visual images with a degree of subjectivity that lies into micro aspects of sounds and in the perceptual and innate knowledge of each individual. Glossary The terms listed here have been invented or readapted for the purpose of the study in order to make concepts easier to assimilate and understand. Aural World sonic world with intrinsic features Smalley 1997. The purely auditory realm which an

  17. Braille and Tactile Graphics: Youths with Visual Impairments Share Their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Data were collected from youths with visual impairment about their experiences with tactile graphics and braille materials used in mathematics and science classes. Methods: Youths answered questions and explored four tactile graphics made using different production methods. They located specific information on each graphic and shared…

  18. Bandpass characteristics of high-frequency sensitivity and visual experience in blindsight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Doerthe; Falter, Christine; Strasburger, Hans; Elliott, Mark A.

    Patient RP suffers a unilateral right homonymous quadrant anopia but demonstrates better than chance discrimination for Stimuli presented in the blind field at temporal frequencies between 33 and 47 Hz (all significant at p <05, binomial) Examination of her reports of visual experience during

  19. Visual Research Methods: A Novel Approach To Understanding The Experiences of Compulsive Hoarders: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Singh

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: The study concluded that the experience of hoarding is both psychologically and physically distressing with numerous impacts upon everyday living and relationships. The study also concluded that visual research methods may be particularly helpful when generating qualitative evidence within this specialist field. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 36-42

  20. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Scholte, H.S.; van Es, D.M.; Knapen, T.; Rouw, R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual

  1. Integration of spectral domain optical coherence tomography with microperimetry generates unique datasets for the simultaneous identification of visual function and retinal structure in ophthalmological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulen, Peter; Gallimore, Gary; Vincent, Ryan D.; Sabates, Nelson R.; Sabates, Felix N.

    2011-06-01

    Conventional perimeters are used routinely in various eye disease states to evaluate the central visual field and to quantitatively map sensitivity. However, standard automated perimetry proves difficult for retina and specifically macular disease due to the need for central and steady fixation. Advances in instrumentation have led to microperimetry, which incorporates eye tracking for placement of macular sensitivity values onto an image of the macular fundus thus enabling a precise functional and anatomical mapping of the central visual field. Functional sensitivity of the retina can be compared with the observed structural parameters that are acquired with high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography and by integration of scanning laser ophthalmoscope-driven imaging. Findings of the present study generate a basis for age-matched comparison of sensitivity values in patients with macular pathology. Microperimetry registered with detailed structural data performed before and after intervention treatments provides valuable information about macular function, disease progression and treatment success. This approach also allows for the detection of disease or treatment related changes in retinal sensitivity when visual acuity is not affected and can drive the decision making process in choosing different treatment regimens and guiding visual rehabilitation. This has immediate relevance for applications in central retinal vein occlusion, central serous choroidopathy, age-related macular degeneration, familial macular dystrophy and several other forms of retina related visual disability.

  2. The experiences of severely visually impaired students in higher music education

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the experiences of severely visually impaired students in higher music education. Higher education should be accessible to all and therefore policies must be created and implemented to ensure this. The experiences of students with impairments best show where barriers exist for such students and how they can be removed. This studied is based on the social model of disability and the emancipatory research paradigm which is linked to critical pedagogy....

  3. Go Home, Med Student: Comics as Visual Media for Students' Traumatic Medical Education Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    A comic created by a medical student allows the reader to share the student's own unique perception of the medical education experience. Through the process of comic creation, medical students have opportunities to gain insight into how their relationships with patients and supervising physicians have shaped the physician they will become. The comic itself can be a safe space for expression and provides an opportunity for students and educators to share experiences. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Effects of Fluoxetine and Visual Experience on Glutamatergic and GABAergic Synaptic Proteins in Adult Rat Visual Cortex123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Simon; Beston, Brett R.; Pinto, Joshua G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fluoxetine has emerged as a novel treatment for persistent amblyopia because in adult animals it reinstates critical period-like ocular dominance plasticity and promotes recovery of visual acuity. Translation of these results from animal models to the clinic, however, has been challenging because of the lack of understanding of how this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic mechanisms that are essential for experience-dependent plasticity. An appealing hypothesis is that fluoxetine recreates a critical period (CP)-like state by shifting synaptic mechanisms to be more juvenile. To test this we studied the effect of fluoxetine treatment in adult rats, alone or in combination with visual deprivation [monocular deprivation (MD)], on a set of highly conserved presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins (synapsin, synaptophysin, VGLUT1, VGAT, PSD-95, gephyrin, GluN1, GluA2, GluN2B, GluN2A, GABAAα1, GABAAα3). We did not find evidence that fluoxetine shifted the protein amounts or balances to a CP-like state. Instead, it drove the balances in favor of the more mature subunits (GluN2A, GABAAα1). In addition, when fluoxetine was paired with MD it created a neuroprotective-like environment by normalizing the glutamatergic gain found in adult MDs. Together, our results suggest that fluoxetine treatment creates a novel synaptic environment dominated by GluN2A- and GABAAα1-dependent plasticity. PMID:26730408

  5. The Dynamics of Visual Art Dialogues: Experiences to Be Used in Hospital Settings with Visual Art Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Maj Wikström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Given that hospitals have environmental enrichment with paintings and visual art arrangement, it would be meaningful to develop and document how hospital art could be used by health professionals. Methods. The study was undertaken at an art site in Sweden. During 1-hour sessions, participants (=20 get together in an art gallery every second week five times. Results. According to the participants a new value was perceived. From qualitative analyses, three themes appear: raise association, mentally present, and door-opener. In addition 72% of the participants reported makes me happy and gives energy and inspiration, and 52% reported that dialogues increase inspiration, make you involved, and stimulate curiosity. Conclusion. The present study supported the view that visual art dialogue could be used by health care professionals in a structured manner and that meaningful art stimulation, related to a person’s experiences, could be of importance for the patients. Implementing art dialogues in hospital settings could be a fruitful working tool for nurses, a complementary manner of patient communication.

  6. Moving beyond the trickle-down approach: addressing the unique disparate health experiences of adolescents of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Barbara J; Low, Lisa Kane

    2006-01-01

    Health disparities in adults have received significant attention and research, yet the healthcare experiences of adolescents of color have been ignored. The purpose of this paper is to identify the shortcomings of our state of knowledge regarding adolescent health disparities and argue for the use of an inter-sectional, contextually embedded understanding of healthcare experiences. To understand health disparities, deficit-based models should be replaced with the framework proposed in this paper. Using the proposed model in practice will aid in identifying and preventing the health disparities experienced by adolescents of color.

  7. Showing the Unsayable: Participatory Visual Approaches and the Constitution of 'Patient Experience' in Healthcare Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Constantina

    2018-06-01

    This article considers the strengths and potential contributions of participatory visual methods for healthcare quality improvement research. It argues that such approaches may enable us to expand our understanding of 'patient experience' and of its potential for generating new knowledge for health systems. In particular, they may open up dimensions of people's engagement with services and treatments which exceed both the declarative nature of responses to questionnaires and the narrative sequencing of self reports gathered through qualitative interviewing. I will suggest that working with such methods may necessitate a more reflexive approach to the constitution of evidence in quality improvement work. To this end, the article will first consider the emerging rationale for the use of visual participatory methods in improvement before outlining the implications of two related approaches-photo-elicitation and PhotoVoice-for the constitution of 'experience'. It will then move to a participatory model for healthcare improvement work, Experience Based Co-Design (EBCD). It will argue that EBCD exemplifies both the strengths and the limitations of adequating visual participatory approaches to quality improvement ends. The article will conclude with a critical reflection on a small photographic study, in which the author participated, and which sought to harness service user perspectives for the design of psychiatric facilities, as a way of considering the potential contribution of visual participatory methods for quality improvement.

  8. Analysis of the Relationship Between Training Experience and Visual Sensory Functions in Athletes from Different Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesiakowski Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gaining insight into the mechanisms and scope of possible adaptations of visual functions to the conditions determined by the demands imposed by sports training seems to be very interesting not only from a cognitive point of view, but also with respect to the practical applications of the findings of such investigations in the training process. The aim of the study was to assess the function of early visual processing in athletes representing different sports disciplines with varying training experience. Material and methods. The study involved 95 athletes practising football (n = 24, volleyball (n = 22, boxing (n = 26, and rowing (n = 23. The bioelectric function of the visual pathway was assessed based on recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs. The regions which were stimulated were the peripheral and central areas of the retina. During the test, we recorded the amplitude (μV and latency (ms of the P100 component of the VEP waveform for both monocular stimulation (for the dominant and non-dominant eye and binocular stimulation. Results. Lower VEP P100 amplitude values were found for the peripheral and central locations for monocular and binocular viewing in more experienced volleyball players and rowers (p 0.05 in intragroup variability in VEP P100 latency in relation to training experience in any of the sports disciplines examined. Conclusions. Training experience has an influence on the early stage of sensory processing with respect to neural activity. Training experience has been found to differentiate athletes in terms of the temporal parameters of the visual evoked potentials recorded in the current study only to a limited extent.

  9. Segmentation of dance movement: Effects of expertise, visual familiarity, motor experience and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina E. Bläsing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to event segmentation theory, action perception depends on sensory cues and prior knowledge, and the segmentation of observed actions is crucial for understanding and memorizing these actions. While most activities in everyday life are characterized by external goals and interaction with objects or persons, this does not necessarily apply to dance-like actions. We investigated to what extent visual familiarity of the observed movement and accompanying music influence the segmentation of a dance phrase in dancers of different skill level and non-dancers. In Experiment 1, dancers and non-dancers repeatedly watched a video clip showing a dancer performing a choreographed dance phrase and indicated segment boundaries by key press. Dancers generally defined less segment boundaries than non-dancers, specifically in the first trials in which visual familiarity with the phrase was low. Music increased the number of segment boundaries in the non-dancers and decreased it in the dancers. The results suggest that dance expertise reduces the number of perceived segment boundaries in an observed dance phrase, and that the ways visual familiarity and music affect movement segmentation are modulated by dance expertise. In a second experiment, motor experience was added as factor, based on empirical evidence suggesting that action perception is modified by visual and motor expertise in different ways. In Experiment 2, the same task as in Experiment 1 was performed by dance amateurs, and was repeated by the same participants after they had learned to dance the presented dance phrase. Less segment boundaries were defined in the middle trials after participants had learned to dance the phrase, and music reduced the number of segment boundaries before learning. The results suggest that specific motor experience of the observed movement influences its perception and anticipation and makes segmentation broader, but not to the same degree as dance expertise

  10. Experience-dependent plasticity from eye opening enables lasting, visual cortex-dependent enhancement of motion vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusky, Glen T; Silver, Byron D; Tschetter, Wayne W; Alam, Nazia M; Douglas, Robert M

    2008-09-24

    Developmentally regulated plasticity of vision has generally been associated with "sensitive" or "critical" periods in juvenile life, wherein visual deprivation leads to loss of visual function. Here we report an enabling form of visual plasticity that commences in infant rats from eye opening, in which daily threshold testing of optokinetic tracking, amid otherwise normal visual experience, stimulates enduring, visual cortex-dependent enhancement (>60%) of the spatial frequency threshold for tracking. The perceptual ability to use spatial frequency in discriminating between moving visual stimuli is also improved by the testing experience. The capacity for inducing enhancement is transitory and effectively limited to infancy; however, enhanced responses are not consolidated and maintained unless in-kind testing experience continues uninterrupted into juvenile life. The data show that selective visual experience from infancy can alone enable visual function. They also indicate that plasticity associated with visual deprivation may not be the only cause of developmental visual dysfunction, because we found that experientially inducing enhancement in late infancy, without subsequent reinforcement of the experience in early juvenile life, can lead to enduring loss of function.

  11. Experiences of visually impaired students in higher education: Bodily perspectives on inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Heidi; Swartz, Leslie

    Although previous literature sheds light on the experiences of visually impaired students on tertiary grounds, these studies failed to provide an embodied understanding of their lives. In-depth interviews with 15 visually impaired students at one university demonstrated the ways in which they experienced their disability and the built environment in their bodies. At the same time, lost, fearful, shameful and aching bodies revealed prevailing gaps in provision for disabled students. Through this research it becomes clear how the environment is acutely felt within fleshly worlds, while bodies do not fail to tell of disabling societal structures. Based on the bodily stories, we thus make recommendations to improve the lives of visually impaired students on tertiary campuses.

  12. Experiences of graduate students: Using Cabri as a visualization tool in math education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Gül

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of graphic calculators and dynamic software running on computers and mobile devices, students can learn complex algebraic concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the experiences of graduate students using Cabri as a visualization tool in math education. The qualitative case study was used in this study. Five students from graduate students studying at the non-thesis math program of a university located in the Blacksea region were the participant of the study. As a dynamic learning tool, Cabri provided participants an environment where participants visually discovered the geometry. It was concluded that dynamic learning tools like Cabri has a huge potential for teaching visually the challenging concepts that students struggle to image. Further research should investigate the potential plans for integrating the use of dynamic learning software into the math curriculum

  13. Four-Month-Old Infants' Visual Investigation of Cats and Dogs: Relations with Pet Experience and Attentional Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovack-Lesh, Kristine A.; McMurray, Bob; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the eye-movements of 4-month-old infants (N = 38) as they visually inspected pairs of images of cats or dogs. In general, infants who had previous experience with pets exhibited more sophisticated inspection than did infants without pet experience, both directing more visual attention to the informative head regions of the animals,…

  14. Recreational Physical Activity Experiences Among Guatemalan Families With Children With Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columna, Luis; Fernández-Vivó, Margarita; Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina

    2015-08-01

    Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp. Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits. There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.

  15. Impact of audio-visual storytelling in simulation learning experiences of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sandra; Parker, Christina N; Fox, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    Use of high fidelity simulation has become increasingly popular in nursing education to the extent that it is now an integral component of most nursing programs. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have difficulty engaging with simulation manikins due to their unrealistic appearance. Introduction of the manikin as a 'real patient' with the use of an audio-visual narrative may engage students in the simulated learning experience and impact on their learning. A paucity of literature currently exists on the use of audio-visual narratives to enhance simulated learning experiences. This study aimed to determine if viewing an audio-visual narrative during a simulation pre-brief altered undergraduate nursing student perceptions of the learning experience. A quasi-experimental post-test design was utilised. A convenience sample of final year baccalaureate nursing students at a large metropolitan university. Participants completed a modified version of the Student Satisfaction with Simulation Experiences survey. This 12-item questionnaire contained questions relating to the ability to transfer skills learned in simulation to the real clinical world, the realism of the simulation and the overall value of the learning experience. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise demographic information. Two tailed, independent group t-tests were used to determine statistical differences within the categories. Findings indicated that students reported high levels of value, realism and transferability in relation to the viewing of an audio-visual narrative. Statistically significant results (t=2.38, psimulation to clinical practice. The subgroups of age and gender although not significant indicated some interesting results. High satisfaction with simulation was indicated by all students in relation to value and realism. There was a significant finding in relation to transferability on knowledge and this is vital to quality educational outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  16. The influence of anaesthetists' experience on workload, performance and visual attention during simulated critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian M; Schneider, Erich; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Heuser, Fabian; Wagner, Klaus J; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Development of accurate Situation Awareness (SA) depends on experience and may be impaired during excessive workload. In order to gain adequate SA for decision making and performance, anaesthetists need to distribute visual attention effectively. Therefore, we hypothesized that in more experienced anaesthetists performance is better and increase of physiological workload is less during critical incidents. Additionally, we investigated the relation between physiological workload indicators and distribution of visual attention. In fifteen anaesthetists, the increase of pupil size and heart rate was assessed in course of a simulated critical incident. Simulator log files were used for performance assessment. An eye-tracking device (EyeSeeCam) provided data about the anaesthetists' distribution of visual attention. Performance was assessed as time until definitive treatment. T tests and multivariate generalized linear models (MANOVA) were used for retrospective statistical analysis. Mean pupil diameter increase was 8.1% (SD ± 4.3) in the less experienced and 15.8% (±10.4) in the more experienced subjects (p = 0.191). Mean heart rate increase was 10.2% (±6.7) and 10.5% (±8.3, p = 0.956), respectively. Performance did not depend on experience. Pupil diameter and heart rate increases were associated with a shift of visual attention from monitoring towards manual tasks (not significant). For the first time, the following four variables were assessed simultaneously: physiological workload indicators, performance, experience, and distribution of visual attention between "monitoring" and "manual" tasks. However, we were unable to detect significant interactions between these variables. This experimental model could prove valuable in the investigation of gaining and maintaining SA in the operation theatre.

  17. Video game experience and its influence on visual attention parameters: an investigation using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Torsten; Finke, Kathrin; Redel, Petra; Kluckow, Steffen; Müller, Hermann; Strobach, Tilo

    2015-05-01

    Experts with video game experience, in contrast to non-experienced persons, are superior in multiple domains of visual attention. However, it is an open question which basic aspects of attention underlie this superiority. We approached this question using the framework of Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) with tools that allowed us to assess various parameters that are related to different visual attention aspects (e.g., perception threshold, processing speed, visual short-term memory storage capacity, top-down control, spatial distribution of attention) and that are measurable on the same experimental basis. In Experiment 1, we found advantages of video game experts in perception threshold and visual processing speed; the latter being restricted to the lower positions of the used computer display. The observed advantages were not significantly moderated by general person-related characteristics such as personality traits, sensation seeking, intelligence, social anxiety, or health status. Experiment 2 tested a potential causal link between the expert advantages and video game practice with an intervention protocol. It found no effects of action video gaming on perception threshold, visual short-term memory storage capacity, iconic memory storage, top-down control, and spatial distribution of attention after 15 days of training. However, observations of a selected improvement of processing speed at the lower positions of the computer screen after video game training and of retest effects are suggestive for limited possibilities to improve basic aspects of visual attention (TVA) with practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Supracondylar corrective osteotomy for cubitus varus--the internal rotation component and its importance. An unique bone experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimulia T

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In 20 patients with cubitus varus, a clinical test suggested by Yamamoto et al (1985 was carried out to measure the internal rotation. Average internal rotation was found to be 37.5 +/- 9.390. A correction for internal rotation was carried out for all the patients having angle more than 20 degrees. Following osteotomy, post-operative Yamamoto′s angle was measured and was found to be 8.85 +/- 6.5. An experiment was carried out on postmortem human humerus with cubitus varus. The internal rotation was measured with Kirschner wires and was found to be 30 degrees. Osteotomy was carried out to eliminate varus and correct internal rotation. Radiographs taken before and after the osteotomy confirmed the correction. We conclude that this derotation has to be corrected and Yamamoto′s test should be used to assess the correction.

  19. Integration in a nuclear physics experiment of a visualization unit managed by a microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, M.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor (Intel 8080) is introduced in the equipment controlling the (e,e'p) experiment that will take place at the linear accelerator operating in the premises of CEA (Orme des Merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). The purpose of the microprocessor is to handle the visualization tasks that are necessary to have a continuous control of the experiment. By doing so more time and more memory will be left for data processing by the calculator unit. In a forward version of the system, the controlling of the level of helium in the target might also be in charge of the microprocessor. This work is divided into 7 main parts: 1) a presentation of the linear accelerator and its experimental facilities, 2) the Intel 8080 micro-processor and its programming, 3) the implementation of the micro-processor in the electronic system, 4) the management of the memory, 5) data acquisition, 6) the keyboard, and 7) the visualization unit [fr

  20. Development of real time visual evaluation system for sodium transient thermohydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Shingo

    1990-01-01

    A real time visual evaluation system, the Liquid Metal Visual Evaluation System (LIVES), has been developed for the Plant Dynamics Test Loop facility at O-arai Engineering Center. This facility is designed to provide sodium transient thermohydraulic experimental data not only in a fuel subassembly but also in a plant wide system simulating abnormal or accident conditions in liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Since liquid metal sodium is invisible, measurements to obtain experimental data are mainly conducted by numerous thermo couples installed at various locations in the test sections and the facility. The transient thermohydraulic phenomena are a result of complicated interactions among global and local scale three-dimensional phenomena, and short- and long-time scale phenomena. It is, therefore, difficult to grasp intuitively thermohydraulic behaviors and to observe accurately both temperature distribution and flow condition solely by digital data or various types of analog data in evaluating the experimental results. For effectively conducting sodium transient experiments and for making it possible to observe exactly thermohydraulic phenomena, the real time visualization technique for transient thermohydraulics has been developed using the latest Engineering Work Station. The system makes it possible to observe and compare instantly the experiment and analytical results while experiment or analysis is in progress. The results are shown by not only the time trend curves but also the graphic animations. This paper shows an outline of the system and sample applications of the system. (author)

  1. On the role of visual experience in mathematical development: Evidence from blind mathematicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalric, Marie; Denghien, Isabelle; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2018-04-01

    Advanced mathematical reasoning, regardless of domain or difficulty, activates a reproducible set of bilateral brain areas including intraparietal, inferior temporal and dorsal prefrontal cortex. The respective roles of genetics, experience and education in the development of this math-responsive network, however, remain unresolved. Here, we investigate the role of visual experience by studying the exceptional case of three professional mathematicians who were blind from birth (n=1) or became blind during childhood (n=2). Subjects were scanned with fMRI while they judged the truth value of spoken mathematical and nonmathematical statements. Blind mathematicians activated the classical network of math-related areas during mathematical reflection, similar to that found in a group of sighted professional mathematicians. Thus, brain networks for advanced mathematical reasoning can develop in the absence of visual experience. Additional activations were found in occipital cortex, even in individuals who became blind during childhood, suggesting that either mental imagery or a more radical repurposing of visual cortex may occur in blind mathematicians. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. On the role of visual experience in mathematical development: Evidence from blind mathematicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Amalric

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced mathematical reasoning, regardless of domain or difficulty, activates a reproducible set of bilateral brain areas including intraparietal, inferior temporal and dorsal prefrontal cortex. The respective roles of genetics, experience and education in the development of this math-responsive network, however, remain unresolved. Here, we investigate the role of visual experience by studying the exceptional case of three professional mathematicians who were blind from birth (n = 1 or became blind during childhood (n = 2. Subjects were scanned with fMRI while they judged the truth value of spoken mathematical and nonmathematical statements. Blind mathematicians activated the classical network of math-related areas during mathematical reflection, similar to that found in a group of sighted professional mathematicians. Thus, brain networks for advanced mathematical reasoning can develop in the absence of visual experience. Additional activations were found in occipital cortex, even in individuals who became blind during childhood, suggesting that either mental imagery or a more radical repurposing of visual cortex may occur in blind mathematicians. Keywords: Advanced mathematical development, Blindness, Functional MRI

  3. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  4. The effects of age and experience on memory for visually presented music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinz, E J; Salthouse, T A

    1998-01-01

    Increased age is often associated with lower levels of performance in tests of memory for spatial information. The primary question in the current study was whether this relationship could be moderated as a function of one's relevant experience and/or knowledge. Stimulus materials consisted of short (7-11 note), visually presented musical melodies and structurally equivalent nonmusical stimuli. Participants (N = 128) were recruited from a wide range of age and experience levels. Although there were strong main effects of age and experience on memory for music, there was no evidence that the age-related differences in memory for these stimuli were smaller for individuals with moderate to large amounts of experience with music.

  5. Modernized Approach for Generating Reproducible Heterogeneity Using Transmitted-Light for Flow Visualization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Image capturing in flow experiments has been used for fluid mechanics research since the early 1970s. Interactions of fluid flow between the vadose zone and permanent water table are of great interest because this zone is responsible for all recharge waters, pollutant transport and irrigation efficiency for agriculture. Griffith, et al. (2011) developed an approach where constructed reproducible "geologically realistic" sand configurations are deposited in sandfilled experimental chambers for light-transmitted flow visualization experiments. This method creates reproducible, reverse graded, layered (stratified) thin-slab sand chambers for point source experiments visualizing multiphase flow through porous media. Reverse-graded stratification of sand chambers mimic many naturally occurring sedimentary deposits. Sandfilled chambers use light as nonintrusive tools for measuring water saturation in two-dimensions (2-D). Homogeneous and heterogeneous sand configurations can be produced to visualize the complex physics of the unsaturated zone. The experimental procedure developed by Griffith, et al. (2011) was designed using now outdated and obsolete equipment. We have modernized this approach with new Parker Deadel linear actuator and programed projects/code for multiple configurations. We have also updated the Roper CCD software and image processing software with the latest in industry standards. Modernization of transmitted-light source, robotic equipment, redesigned experimental chambers, and newly developed analytical procedures have greatly reduced time and cost per experiment. We have verified the ability of the new equipment to generate reproducible heterogeneous sand-filled chambers and demonstrated the functionality of the new equipment and procedures by reproducing several gravity-driven fingering experiments conducted by Griffith (2008).

  6. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel ("aesthetics of perception"), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel ("aesthetics of cognition"). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

  7. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom–up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top–down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel (“aesthetics of perception”), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel (“aesthetics of cognition”). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of

  8. Visual perception and appraisal of persons with impairments: a randomised controlled field experiment using photo elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Ballert, Carolina Saskia; Fellinghauer, Bernd; Lötscher, Alexander; Gradinger, Felix; Hilfiker, Roger; Graf, Sibylle; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Visual cues from persons with impairments may trigger stereotypical generalisations that lead to prejudice and discrimination. The main objective of this pilot study is to examine whether visual stimuli of impairment activate latent prejudice against disability and whether this connection can be counteracted with priming strategies. In a field experiment, participants were asked to rate photographs showing models with mental impairments, wheelchair users with paraplegia, and persons without any visible impairment. Participants should appraise the models with regard to several features (e.g. communicativeness, intelligence). One hundred participants rated 12 photo models yielding a total of 1183 observations. One group of participants was primed with a cover story introducing visual perception of impairment as the study's gist, while controls received neutral information. Photo models with mental impairments were rated lowest and models without visible impairment highest. In participants who did not have prior contacts with persons with impairments, priming led to a levelling of scores of models with and without impairment. Prior contacts with persons with impairments created similar effects as the priming. Unexpectedly, a pattern of converse double discrimination to the disadvantage of men with mental impairments was revealed. Signs of stereotypical processing of visual cues of impairment have been found in participants of the Swiss general population. Personal contact with persons with impairments as well as priming participants seems to reduce stereotyping.

  9. POSSIBILITIES FOR INNOVATIVE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH: INFORMATION VISUALIZATION AND EXPERIMENT IN INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ulcej

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to universal social changes, the information revolution also brought a lot of innovation to the workings of intelligence services, which are traditionally the part of the national security system that is conducting data analyses and for which information is the primary product. If in the past the main problem and challenge has been the timely acquisition of data, today most agencies are faced with an entirely different problem - information overload. This problem is being tackled by technical as well as systemic measures that combine various types of intelligence work. However, there are still unanswered questions regarding the applicability of intelligence products for decision makers. Here we have to point out information visualization as the subject of an interdisciplinary scientific research that definitely shows a lot of potential in the context of the defense science as well. This article points out three key requirements that allow the application of information visualization to defense research: (1 the concept of the intelligence cycle can be used as a good basis for the information that is subject to visualization; (2 the quality of decision-making support information depends on proper visualization; (3 the first two requirements offer a stable theoretical and empirical basis for the introduction of innovative scientific methods in the field of defense science, such as experiments.

  10. Task-related Functional Connectivity Dynamics in a Block-designed Visual Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eDi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying task modulations of brain connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is critical to understand brain functions that support cognitive and affective processes. Existing methods such as psychophysiological interaction (PPI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM usually implicitly assume that the connectivity patterns are stable over a block-designed task with identical stimuli. However, this assumption lacks empirical verification on high-temporal resolution fMRI data with reliable data-driven analysis methods. The present study performed a detailed examination of dynamic changes of functional connectivity (FC in a simple block-designed visual checkerboard experiment with a sub-second sampling rate (TR = 0.645 s by estimating time-varying correlation coefficient (TVCC between BOLD responses of different brain regions. We observed reliable task-related FC changes (i.e., FCs were transiently decreased after task onset and went back to the baseline afterward among several visual regions of the bilateral middle occipital gyrus (MOG and the bilateral fusiform gyrus (FuG. Importantly, only the FCs between higher visual regions (MOG and lower visual regions (FuG exhibited such dynamic patterns. The results suggested that simply assuming a sustained FC during a task block may be insufficient to capture distinct task-related FC changes. The investigation of FC dynamics in tasks could improve our understanding of condition shifts and the coordination between different activated brain regions.

  11. Dendritic development of Drosophila high order visual system neurons is independent of sensory experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuter John E

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex and characteristic structures of dendrites are a crucial part of the neuronal architecture that underlies brain function, and as such, their development has been a focal point of recent research. It is generally believed that dendritic development is controlled by a combination of endogenous genetic mechanisms and activity-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, it is of interest to test the relative contributions of these two types of mechanisms towards the construction of specific dendritic trees. In this study, we make use of the highly complex Vertical System (VS of motion sensing neurons in the lobula plate of the Drosophila visual system to gauge the importance of visual input and synaptic activity to dendritic development. Results We find that the dendrites of VS1 neurons are unchanged in dark-reared flies as compared to control flies raised on a 12 hour light, 12 hour dark cycle. The dendrites of these flies show no differences from control in dendrite complexity, spine number, spine density, or axon complexity. Flies with genetically ablated eyes show a slight but significant reduction in the complexity and overall length of VS1 dendrites, although this effect may be due to a reduction in the overall size of the dendritic field in these flies. Conclusions Overall, our results indicate no role for visual experience in the development of VS dendrites, while spontaneous activity from photoreceptors may play at most a subtle role in the formation of fully complex dendrites in these high-order visual processing neurons.

  12. Auditory-visual aversive stimuli modulate the conscious experience of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffou, Marine; Guerchouche, Rachid; Drettakis, George; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In a natural environment, affective information is perceived via multiple senses, mostly audition and vision. However, the impact of multisensory information on affect remains relatively undiscovered. In this study, we investigated whether the auditory-visual presentation of aversive stimuli influences the experience of fear. We used the advantages of virtual reality to manipulate multisensory presentation and to display potentially fearful dog stimuli embedded in a natural context. We manipulated the affective reactions evoked by the dog stimuli by recruiting two groups of participants: dog-fearful and non-fearful participants. The sensitivity to dog fear was assessed psychometrically by a questionnaire and also at behavioral and subjective levels using a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT). Participants navigated in virtual environments, in which they encountered virtual dog stimuli presented through the auditory channel, the visual channel or both. They were asked to report their fear using Subjective Units of Distress. We compared the fear for unimodal (visual or auditory) and bimodal (auditory-visual) dog stimuli. Dog-fearful participants as well as non-fearful participants reported more fear in response to bimodal audiovisual compared to unimodal presentation of dog stimuli. These results suggest that fear is more intense when the affective information is processed via multiple sensory pathways, which might be due to a cross-modal potentiation. Our findings have implications for the field of virtual reality-based therapy of phobias. Therapies could be refined and improved by implicating and manipulating the multisensory presentation of the feared situations.

  13. The Importance of Visual Experience, Gender, and Emotion in the Assessment of an Assistive Tactile Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayda, Luca; Campus, Claudio; Memeo, Mariacarla; Lucagrossi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tactile maps are efficient tools to improve spatial understanding and mobility skills of visually impaired people. Their limited adaptability can be compensated with haptic devices which display graphical information, but their assessment is frequently limited to performance-based metrics only which can hide potential spatial abilities in O&M protocols. We assess a low-tech tactile mouse able to deliver three-dimensional content considering how performance, mental workload, behavior, and anxiety status vary with task difficulty and gender in congenitally blind, late blind, and sighted subjects. Results show that task difficulty coherently modulates the efficiency and difficulty to build mental maps, regardless of visual experience. Although exhibiting attitudes that were similar and gender-independent, the females had lower performance and higher cognitive load, especially when congenitally blind. All groups showed a significant decrease in anxiety after using the device. Tactile graphics with our device seems therefore to be applicable with different visual experiences, with no negative emotional consequences of mentally demanding spatial tasks. Going beyond performance-based assessment, our methodology can help with better targeting technological solutions in orientation and mobility protocols.

  14. Visual Experience Shapes the Neural Networks Remapping Touch into External Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crollen, Virginie; Lazzouni, Latifa; Rezk, Mohamed; Bellemare, Antoine; Lepore, Franco; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-10-18

    Localizing touch relies on the activation of skin-based and externally defined spatial frames of reference. Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that early visual deprivation prevents the automatic remapping of touch into external space. We used fMRI to characterize how visual experience impacts the brain circuits dedicated to the spatial processing of touch. Sighted and congenitally blind humans performed a tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) task, either with the hands uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. Behavioral data confirmed that crossing the hands has a detrimental effect on TOJ judgments in sighted but not in early blind people. Crucially, the crossed hand posture elicited enhanced activity, when compared with the uncrossed posture, in a frontoparietal network in the sighted group only. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed, however, that the congenitally blind showed enhanced functional connectivity between parietal and frontal regions in the crossed versus uncrossed hand postures. Our results demonstrate that visual experience scaffolds the neural implementation of the location of touch in space. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In daily life, we seamlessly localize touch in external space for action planning toward a stimulus making contact with the body. For efficient sensorimotor integration, the brain has therefore to compute the current position of our limbs in the external world. In the present study, we demonstrate that early visual deprivation alters the brain activity in a dorsal parietofrontal network typically supporting touch localization in the sighted. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the intrinsic role that developmental vision plays in scaffolding the neural implementation of touch perception. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710097-07$15.00/0.

  15. Interactive WebGL-based 3D visualizations for EAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, J.Y.; Xiao, B.J.; Li, Dan; Wang, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D [1] (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.

  16. Interactive WebGL-based 3D visualizations for EAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, J.Y., E-mail: jyxia@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Li, Dan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wang, K.R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the EAST experimental data and the device is important to scientists and engineers. • The Web3D visualization system is based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. • The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. • The original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification to enable realistic rendering and improve performance. - Abstract: In recent years EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) experimental data are being shared and analyzed by an increasing number of international collaborators. Developing a user-friendly interface to visualize the data, meta data and the relevant parts of the device is becoming more and more important to aid scientists and engineers. Compared with the previous virtual EAST system based on VRML/Java3D [1] (Li et al., 2014), a new technology is being adopted to create a 3D visualization system based on HTML5 and WebGL, which runs without the need for plug-ins or third party components. The interactive WebGL-based 3D visualization system is a web-portal integrating EAST 3D models, experimental data and plasma videos. It offers a highly interactive interface allowing scientists to roam inside EAST device and view the complex 3-D structure of the machine. It includes technical details of the device and various diagnostic components, and provides visualization of diagnostic metadata with a direct link to each signal name and its stored data. In order for the quick access to the device 3D model, the original CAD model was discretized into different layers with different simplification. It allows users to search for plasma videos in any experiment and analyze the video frame by frame. In this paper, we present the implementation details to enable realistic rendering and improve performance.

  17. Experiments on Auditory-Visual Perception of Sentences by Users of Unilateral, Bimodal, and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Michael F.; Liss, Julie; Wang, Shuai; Berisha, Visar; Ludwig, Cimarron; Natale, Sarah Cook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Five experiments probed auditory-visual (AV) understanding of sentences by users of cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Sentence material was presented in auditory (A), visual (V), and AV test conditions to listeners with normal hearing and CI users. Results: (a) Most CI users report that most of the time, they have access to both A and V…

  18. In-Situ Visualization Experiments with ParaView Cinema in RAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kares, Robert John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A previous paper described some numerical experiments performed using the ParaView/Catalyst in-situ visualization infrastructure deployed in the Los Alamos RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code to produce images from a running large scale 3D ICF simulation. One challenge of the in-situ approach apparent in these experiments was the difficulty of choosing parameters likes isosurface values for the visualizations to be produced from the running simulation without the benefit of prior knowledge of the simulation results and the resultant cost of recomputing in-situ generated images when parameters are chosen suboptimally. A proposed method of addressing this difficulty is to simply render multiple images at runtime with a range of possible parameter values to produce a large database of images and to provide the user with a tool for managing the resulting database of imagery. Recently, ParaView/Catalyst has been extended to include such a capability via the so-called Cinema framework. Here I describe some initial experiments with the first delivery of Cinema and make some recommendations for future extensions of Cinema’s capabilities.

  19. BACE1 Is Necessary for Experience-Dependent Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity in Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Petrus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of age-related dementia, which is thought to result from overproduction and/or reduced clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ peptides. Studies over the past few decades suggest that Aβ is produced in an activity-dependent manner and has physiological relevance to normal brain functions. Similarly, physiological functions for β- and γ-secretases, the two key enzymes that produce Aβ by sequentially processing the amyloid precursor protein (APP, have been discovered over recent years. In particular, activity-dependent production of Aβ has been suggested to play a role in homeostatic regulation of excitatory synaptic function. There is accumulating evidence that activity-dependent immediate early gene Arc is an activity “sensor,” which acts upstream of Aβ production and triggers AMPA receptor endocytosis to homeostatically downregulate the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that Arc is critical for sensory experience-dependent homeostatic reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in the superficial layers of visual cortex. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the major neuronal β-secretase, BACE1, exhibit a similar phenotype: stronger basal excitatory synaptic transmission and failure to adapt to changes in visual experience. Our results indicate that BACE1 plays an essential role in sensory experience-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the neocortex.

  20. Qualitative systematic review: the unique experiences of the nurse-family member when a loved one is admitted with a critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tracey M; Hall, Karen L

    2014-07-01

    To interpret and synthesize nurse-family member experiences when a critically ill loved one is admitted to hospital. Having a family member hospitalized in a critical condition is an important stressor. When the family member is also a nurse, the provision of care is more complex, yet little research exists on this issue. Systematic review using Thomas and Harden's approach to thematic synthesis of qualitative research. Primary studies were located by searching CINAHL, Proquest, Journals@Ovid, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. No date restrictions were applied due to a lack of relevant literature. All studies that met inclusion criteria were retrieved (n = 1717) and seven met the review aim. Following critical appraisal, seven studies from 1999-2011 describing the nurse-family member's experience were reviewed and synthesized. Six characteristics of the nurse-family member experience were identified: specialized knowledge; dual-role conflicts; competing expectations; building relationships; being 'let in'; and healthcare setting. Nurse-family members experience important stressors that can negatively affect their psychological health and experience as a healthcare consumer. Nurse-family members want a different type of care than other healthcare consumers. Acknowledging nurse-family members' specialized knowledge and dual role, keeping them fully informed and allowing them to be with the patient and feel in control can reduce their fear and anxiety. Further research is needed to develop a deeper understanding of the unique experiences, challenges and needs of nurse-family members to provide them with an enhanced level of care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ego depletion in visual perception: Ego-depleted viewers experience less ambiguous figure reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Marina C; Stirk, Steven; Hancock, Peter J B

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the effects of ego depletion on ambiguous figure perception. Adults (N = 315) received an ego depletion task and were subsequently tested on their inhibitory control abilities that were indexed by the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and their ability to perceive both interpretations of ambiguous figures that was indexed by reversal (Experiment 2). Ego depletion had a very small effect on reducing inhibitory control (Cohen's d = .15) (Experiment 1). Ego-depleted participants had a tendency to take longer to respond in Stroop trials. In Experiment 2, ego depletion had small to medium effects on the experience of reversal. Ego-depleted viewers tended to take longer to reverse ambiguous figures (duration to first reversal) when naïve of the ambiguity and experienced less reversal both when naïve and informed of the ambiguity. Together, findings suggest that ego depletion has small effects on inhibitory control and small to medium effects on bottom-up and top-down perceptual processes. The depletion of cognitive resources can reduce our visual perceptual experience.

  2. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S; Lauring, Jon O; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art.

  3. Visualizing the Impact of Art: An Update and Comparison of Current Psychological Models of Art Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S.; Lauring, Jon O.; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of empirical and psychological approaches to art study, especially regarding cognitive models of art processing experience. This new emphasis on modeling has often become the basis for our theoretical understanding of human interaction with art. Models also often define areas of focus and hypotheses for new empirical research, and are increasingly important for connecting psychological theory to discussions of the brain. However, models are often made by different researchers, with quite different emphases or visual styles. Inputs and psychological outcomes may be differently considered, or can be under-reported with regards to key functional components. Thus, we may lose the major theoretical improvements and ability for comparison that can be had with models. To begin addressing this, this paper presents a theoretical assessment, comparison, and new articulation of a selection of key contemporary cognitive or information-processing-based approaches detailing the mechanisms underlying the viewing of art. We review six major models in contemporary psychological aesthetics. We in turn present redesigns of these models using a unified visual form, in some cases making additions or creating new models where none had previously existed. We also frame these approaches in respect to their targeted outputs (e.g., emotion, appraisal, physiological reaction) and their strengths within a more general framework of early, intermediate, and later processing stages. This is used as a basis for general comparison and discussion of implications and future directions for modeling, and for theoretically understanding our engagement with visual art. PMID:27199697

  4. Overview of long-term field experiments in Germany - metadata visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqit Zoarder, Md Abdul; Heinrich, Uwe; Svoboda, Nikolai; Grosse, Meike; Hierold, Wilfried

    2017-04-01

    BonaRes ("soil as a sustainable resource for the bioeconomy") is conducting to collect data and metadata of agricultural long-term field experiments (LTFE) of Germany. It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the umbrella of the National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030. BonaRes consists of ten interdisciplinary research project consortia and the 'BonaRes - Centre for Soil Research'. BonaRes Data Centre is responsible for collecting all LTFE data and regarding metadata into an enterprise database upon higher level of security and visualization of the data and metadata through data portal. In the frame of the BonaRes project, we are compiling an overview of long-term field experiments in Germany that is based on a literature review, the results of the online survey and direct contacts with LTFE operators. Information about research topic, contact person, website, experiment setup and analyzed parameters are collected. Based on the collected LTFE data, an enterprise geodatabase is developed and a GIS-based web-information system about LTFE in Germany is also settled. Various aspects of the LTFE, like experiment type, land-use type, agricultural category and duration of experiment, are presented in thematic maps. This information system is dynamically linked to the database, which means changes in the data directly affect the presentation. An easy data searching option using LTFE name, -location or -operators and the dynamic layer selection ensure a user-friendly web application. Dispersion and visualization of the overlapping LTFE points on the overview map are also challenging and we make it automatized at very zoom level which is also a consistent part of this application. The application provides both, spatial location and meta-information of LTFEs, which is backed-up by an enterprise geodatabase, GIS server for hosting map services and Java script API for web application development.

  5. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Jenkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state’s chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents’ experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1 Population specific design, (2 Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3 Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4 Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one’s vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment.

  6. Experience of Multisensory Environments in Public Space among People with Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Vogtle, Laura K

    2015-07-23

    This qualitative study explored the role of sensory characteristics embedded in the built environment and whether they support or hinder people with visual impairment in their use of public spaces. An online survey link was e-mailed to the presidents and committee members of each state's chapters and associations of the National Federation of the Blind in the United States, resulting in 451 direct invitations to participate. Written responses of the survey questions from 48 respondents with visual impairment were analyzed. Three main themes: Barriers, Supporters, and Context-Dependence emerged from the respondents' experience of multisensory characteristics within the built environment. The four subthemes subsumed in Barriers were: (1) Population specific design, (2) Extreme sensory backgrounds, (3) Uneven ground surfaces and objects, and (4) Inconsistent lighting. For Supporters, respondents provided specific examples of various sensory characteristics in built environments, including audible cues and echoes, smells, tactile quality of the ground surface, and temperature. Context-Dependence referred to the effects of sensory characteristics embedded in public spaces depending on one's vision condition, the proximity to the sensory cues and the purpose of the activities one was performing at that moment. Findings provide occupational therapy practitioners an in-depth understanding of the transactional relationship between embedded sensory characteristics in the built environment, occupations, and people with visual impairment in order to make appropriate modifications or removal of barriers that affect occupational performance and engagement. Suggestions for occupational therapists as well as architects, designers, planners, policy makers/legislators related to functional sensory cues in the design of built environments were provided to increase accessibility in the use of public spaces by people with visual impairment.

  7. Working together: Using a unique approach to evaluate an interactive and clinic-based longitudinal interprofessional education experience with 13 professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Bratzler, Dale W; Fisher, Mark J; Torres, Amie; Faculty, Epic; Sparks, Rhonda A

    2016-11-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) involving an interactive and longitudinal clinic experience at an inner-city charitable clinic from September to May 2013/2014 was evaluated. Pre-, mid-, and post-intervention data were collected from students in 13 different professions including medicine (medical and physician assistant), dentistry (dental and dental hygiene), nursing (undergraduate and clinical nurse specialist), public health, pharmacy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, nutritional sciences, speech and language pathology, and social work. To evaluate their interprofessional attitudes, students completed the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (T-TAQ) and Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). They also completed a unique measure, healthcare professionals circles diagrams (HPCDs), that indicated student conceptualisation of a healthcare team caring for a complex patient, along with perception of their team's progress towards meeting patient goals. Results from the T-TAQ and RIPLS scores indicated small but significant increases from pre- to post-intervention (p = 0.005 and 0.012, respectively). Analysis of the HPCDs revealed significant increases in students' perceptions of the types of interprofessional team members, relationships, and communication between professions to provide medical care to patients (p < 0.01). Most HPCDs included pharmacists, nurses, and physicians as part of the care team at all time points. Students significantly increased their inclusion of dentistry, public health, social work, and physician assistants as members of the healthcare team from pre- to post-intervention. Implications of our data indicated the importance of IPE interventions that include not only classroom-based sessions, but actual patient care experiences within interprofessional teams. It also reinforced the importance of new and unique methods to assess IPE.

  8. Application Of Empirical Phase Diagrams For Multidimensional Data Visualization Of High Throughput Microbatch Crystallization Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijn, Marieke E; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2018-04-27

    Protein phase diagrams are a tool to investigate cause and consequence of solution conditions on protein phase behavior. The effects are scored according to aggregation morphologies such as crystals or amorphous precipitates. Solution conditions affect morphological features, such as crystal size, as well as kinetic features, such as crystal growth time. Common used data visualization techniques include individual line graphs or symbols-based phase diagrams. These techniques have limitations in terms of handling large datasets, comprehensiveness or completeness. To eliminate these limitations, morphological and kinetic features obtained from crystallization images generated with high throughput microbatch experiments have been visualized with radar charts in combination with the empirical phase diagram (EPD) method. Morphological features (crystal size, shape, and number, as well as precipitate size) and kinetic features (crystal and precipitate onset and growth time) are extracted for 768 solutions with varying chicken egg white lysozyme concentration, salt type, ionic strength and pH. Image-based aggregation morphology and kinetic features were compiled into a single and easily interpretable figure, thereby showing that the EPD method can support high throughput crystallization experiments in its data amount as well as its data complexity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. EXPERIENCE, BODY AND MEMORY IN SCHOOL – REFLECTIONS ON THE TEACHING OF VISUAL ARTS FOR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristani Polidori Zamperetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The separation of body and spirit, body and mind experienced by western culture perpetuates denial of embodiment and expression, following and promoting the separation and estrangement between the observed and observer, between Man and Nature. The body, which has been forgotten by the adults at school, is the object of knowledge and learning for children. Contrary to conventional educational forms, the body needs to take and hold other school spaces, increasing the materialization of our desires and possibilities of becoming the world. Trying to understand the issues of embodiment and the Arts at school realized experiences of teaching with research (2007-2009, with students of elementary school of Pelotas, Brazil, in the discipline of Visual Arts. I looked through the artistic process of drawing with chalk on the floor, enabling experiences of being in space and not being in it, as proposed by Merleau-Ponty (1989. In the artistic productions that have made the body and the manner of acting and body movement in the schoolyard, children have reaffirmed the proposition's author. Children are formed in the psychic space of their culture, in touch with people and with pedagogical proposals circulating in the school environment. Thus, there is the experience, students become belonging to a particular culture produced at the time actually experienced it, according to the relationships established among themselves, peers and teacher. Supporting me in Brandão (2008, Josso (2004 and Maturana (2004 long to reflect on the questions of experience and memory, issues considered relevant to the question of teacher education and teaching practices in visual arts.

  10. Resolving Visual Interference During Covert Spatial Orienting: Online Attentional Control Through Static Records of Prior Visual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awh, Edward; Sgarlata, Antoinette Marie; Kliestik, John

    2005-01-01

    Models of attentional control usually describe online shifts in control settings that accommodate changing task demands. The current studies suggest that online control over distractor exclusion--a core component of visual selection--can be accomplished without online shifts in top-down settings. Measurements of target discrimination accuracy…

  11. The identification and modeling of visual cue usage in manual control task experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Barbara Townsend

    Many fields of endeavor require humans to conduct manual control tasks while viewing a perspective scene. Manual control refers to tasks in which continuous, or nearly continuous, control adjustments are required. Examples include flying an aircraft, driving a car, and riding a bicycle. Perspective scenes can arise through natural viewing of the world, simulation of a scene (as in flight simulators), or through imaging devices (such as the cameras on an unmanned aerospace vehicle). Designers frequently have some degree of control over the content and characteristics of a perspective scene; airport designers can choose runway markings, vehicle designers can influence the size and shape of windows, as well as the location of the pilot, and simulator database designers can choose scene complexity and content. Little theoretical framework exists to help designers determine the answers to questions related to perspective scene content. An empirical approach is most commonly used to determine optimum perspective scene configurations. The goal of the research effort described in this dissertation has been to provide a tool for modeling the characteristics of human operators conducting manual control tasks with perspective-scene viewing. This is done for the purpose of providing an algorithmic, as opposed to empirical, method for analyzing the effects of changing perspective scene content for closed-loop manual control tasks. The dissertation contains the development of a model of manual control using a perspective scene, called the Visual Cue Control (VCC) Model. Two forms of model were developed: one model presumed that the operator obtained both position and velocity information from one visual cue, and the other model presumed that the operator used one visual cue for position, and another for velocity. The models were compared and validated in two experiments. The results show that the two-cue VCC model accurately characterizes the output of the human operator with a

  12. The uniqueness of elderly care: registered nurses' experience as preceptors during clinical practice in nursing homes and home-based care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elisabeth; Bengtsson, Mariette

    2014-04-01

    The expected shortage of registered nurses with an advanced degree as specialists in geriatric care or gerontology is imminent. Previous studies report that clinical practice where student nurses are supervised by registered nurses has a direct impact on how students perceive nursing as a profession and future career choice. Considering the anticipated need for well-educated and specialised nurses it is therefore, relevant as well as necessary to describe clinical learning with a focus on preceptorship in geriatric nursing care. This paper is a report of a study describing registered nurses' experience of precepting undergraduate student nurses during clinical practice in nursing homes and home-based care. A qualitative design, based on seven focus group interviews, was employed with 30 registered nurses with preceptor experience from nursing homes and home-based care for the elderly. Our findings present three precepting strategies that are unique to elderly care: preparing students for end of life care, facilitating a respectful approach to the older person and promoting creativity and independent work. The findings are discussed using a socio-cultural perspective and illustrate how communities of elderly practice can be valuable learning environments. © 2013.

  13. Tornado Warning Perception and Response: Integrating the Roles of Visual Design, Demographics, and Hazard Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ronald L; Ash, Kevin D; Bowser, Gregg C

    2018-02-01

    Recent advancements in severe weather detection and warning dissemination technologies have reduced, but not eliminated, large-casualty tornado hazards in the United States. Research on warning cognition and behavioral response by the public has the potential to further reduce tornado-related deaths and injuries; however, less research has been conducted in this area compared to tornado research in the physical sciences. Extant research in this vein tends to bifurcate. One branch of studies derives from classic risk perception, which investigates cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors in relation to concern and preparation for uncertain risks. Another branch focuses on psychological, social, and cultural factors implicated in warning response for rapid onset hazards, with attention paid to previous experience and message design. Few studies link risk perceptions with cognition and response as elicited by specific examples of warnings. The present study unites risk perception, cognition, and response approaches by testing the contributions of hypothesized warning response drivers in one set of path models. Warning response is approximated by perceived fear and intended protective action as reported by survey respondents when exposed to hypothetical tornado warning scenarios. This study considers the roles of hazard knowledge acquisition, information-seeking behaviors, previous experience, and sociodemographic factors while controlling for the effects of the visual warning graphic. Findings from the study indicate the primacy of a user's visual interpretation of a warning graphic in shaping tornado warning response. Results also suggest that information-seeking habits, previous tornado experience, and local disaster culture play strong influencing roles in warning response. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Intermittently-visual Tracking Experiments Reveal the Roles of Error-correction and Predictive Mechanisms in the Human Visual-motor Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshikatsu; Tamura, Yurie; Sase, Kazuya; Sugawara, Ken; Sawada, Yasuji

    Prediction mechanism is necessary for human visual motion to compensate a delay of sensory-motor system. In a previous study, “proactive control” was discussed as one example of predictive function of human beings, in which motion of hands preceded the virtual moving target in visual tracking experiments. To study the roles of the positional-error correction mechanism and the prediction mechanism, we carried out an intermittently-visual tracking experiment where a circular orbit is segmented into the target-visible regions and the target-invisible regions. Main results found in this research were following. A rhythmic component appeared in the tracer velocity when the target velocity was relatively high. The period of the rhythm in the brain obtained from environmental stimuli is shortened more than 10%. The shortening of the period of rhythm in the brain accelerates the hand motion as soon as the visual information is cut-off, and causes the precedence of hand motion to the target motion. Although the precedence of the hand in the blind region is reset by the environmental information when the target enters the visible region, the hand motion precedes the target in average when the predictive mechanism dominates the error-corrective mechanism.

  15. Experience of in-cell visual inspection using CCD camera in hot cell of Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Padi Srinivas; Amudhu Ramesh Kumar, R.; Geo Mathews, M.; Ravisankar, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the selection, customization and operating experience of the visual inspection system for the hot cell of a Reprocessing Plant. For process equipment such as fuel chopping machine, dissolver, centrifuge, centrifugal extractors etc., viewing of operations and maintenance using manipulators is required. For this, the service of in-cell camera is essential. The ambience of the hot cell of Compact facility for Reprocessing of Advanced fuels in Lead cell (CORAL) for the reprocessing of fast reactor spent fuel has high gamma radiation and acidic vapors. Black and white Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera has been used in CORAL incorporating in-house modifications to suit the operating ambient conditions, thereby extending the operating life of the camera. (author)

  16. Fusing Visual and Behavioral Cues for Modeling User Experience in Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Asteriadis, Stylianos; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating affective and cognitive states in condi- tions of rich human-computer interaction, such as in games, is a field of growing academic and commercial interest. Entertain- ment and serious games can benefit from recent advances in the field as, having access to predictors of the current...... state of the player (or learner) can provide useful information for feeding adaptation mechanisms that aim to maximize engagement or learning effects. In this paper, we introduce a large data corpus derived from 58 participants that play the popular Super Mario Bros platform game and attempt to create...... accurate models of player experience for this game genre. Within the view of the current research, features extracted both from player gameplay behavior and game levels, and player visual characteristics have been utilized as potential indicators of reported affect expressed as pairwise preferences between...

  17. ALPHA visual data collection. STX005-025: melt drop steam explosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Sugimoto, Jun

    1999-03-01

    Steam explosion is a phenomenon in which a high temperature liquid gives its internal energy to a low temperature volatile liquid extremely quickly causing rapid evaporation and shock wave generation. In the field of nuclear reactor safety research regarding severe accidents in LWRs, steam explosions involving molten fuel and coolant has been recognized as a potential threat to the integrity of the reactor containment vessel. In the ALPHA (Assessment of Loads and Performance of Containment in Hypothetical Accident) program, experiments were performed to investigate the phenomenology of vapor explosions using iron-alumina thermite melt as a simulant of molten core. This report collects the experimental results especially emphasizing the visual observations by high speed photography. (author)

  18. eXframe: reusable framework for storage, analysis and visualization of genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Amit U

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide experiments are routinely conducted to measure gene expression, DNA-protein interactions and epigenetic status. Structured metadata for these experiments is imperative for a complete understanding of experimental conditions, to enable consistent data processing and to allow retrieval, comparison, and integration of experimental results. Even though several repositories have been developed for genomics data, only a few provide annotation of samples and assays using controlled vocabularies. Moreover, many of them are tailored for a single type of technology or measurement and do not support the integration of multiple data types. Results We have developed eXframe - a reusable web-based framework for genomics experiments that provides 1 the ability to publish structured data compliant with accepted standards 2 support for multiple data types including microarrays and next generation sequencing 3 query, analysis and visualization integration tools (enabled by consistent processing of the raw data and annotation of samples and is available as open-source software. We present two case studies where this software is currently being used to build repositories of genomics experiments - one contains data from hematopoietic stem cells and another from Parkinson's disease patients. Conclusion The web-based framework eXframe offers structured annotation of experiments as well as uniform processing and storage of molecular data from microarray and next generation sequencing platforms. The framework allows users to query and integrate information across species, technologies, measurement types and experimental conditions. Our framework is reusable and freely modifiable - other groups or institutions can deploy their own custom web-based repositories based on this software. It is interoperable with the most important data formats in this domain. We hope that other groups will not only use eXframe, but also contribute their own

  19. Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia Jitsev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character modulated by an oscillatory rhythm. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units and their synaptic connections. Choosing human face recognition as a test task, we show that, under the condition of open-ended, unsupervised incremental learning, the system is able to form memory traces for individual faces in a parts-based fashion. On a lower memory layer the synaptic structure is developed to represent local facial features and their interrelations, while the identities of different persons are captured explicitly on a higher layer. An additional property of the resulting representations is the sparseness of both the activity during the recall and the synaptic patterns comprising the memory traces.

  20. Analysis of experience-regulated transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development reveals spatiotemporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Lin; Chou, Chih-Hsuan; Huang, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Yi; Lin, Meng-Ying; Tung, Chun-Che; Lin, Chun-Yen; Lai, Ivan Pochou; Zou, Yan-Fang; Youngson, Neil A; Lin, Shau-Ping; Yang, Chang-Hao; Chen, Shih-Kuo; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Huang, Hsien-Sung

    2018-03-15

    Visual system development is light-experience dependent, which strongly implicates epigenetic mechanisms in light-regulated maturation. Among many epigenetic processes, genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism through which monoallelic gene expression occurs in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is unknown if genomic imprinting contributes to visual system development. We profiled the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development under normal- and dark-rearing conditions using B6/CAST F1 hybrid mice. We identified experience-regulated, isoform-specific and brain-region-specific imprinted genes. We also found imprinted microRNAs were predominantly clustered into the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus with light experience affecting some imprinted miRNA expression. Our findings provide the first comprehensive analysis of light-experience regulation of the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of visual system development. Our results may contribute to therapeutic strategies for visual impairments and circadian rhythm disorders resulting from a dysfunctional imprintome.

  1. Toward autonomous rotorcraft flight in degraded visual environments: experiments and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambler, Adam; Spiker, Spencer; Bergerman, Marcel; Singh, Sanjiv

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned cargo delivery to combat outposts will inevitably involve operations in degraded visual environments (DVE). When DVE occurs, the aircraft autonomy system needs to be able to function regardless of the obscurant level. In 2014, Near Earth Autonomy established a baseline perception system for autonomous rotorcraft operating in clear air conditions, when its m3 sensor suite and perception software enabled autonomous, no-hover landings onto unprepared sites populated with obstacles. The m3's long-range lidar scanned the helicopter's path and the perception software detected obstacles and found safe locations for the helicopter to land. This paper presents the results of initial tests with the Near Earth perception system in a variety of DVE conditions and analyzes them from the perspective of mission performance and risk. Tests were conducted with the m3's lidar and a lightweight synthetic aperture radar in rain, smoke, snow, and controlled brownout experiments. These experiments showed the capability to penetrate through mild DVE but the perceptual capabilities became degraded with the densest brownouts. The results highlight the need for not only improved ability to see through DVE, but also for improved algorithms to monitor and report DVE conditions.

  2. Visual capture of action, experience of ownership, and the illusion of self-touch: a new rubber hand paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C; Thew, Graham; Aimola, Natalie M V; Davies, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A new rubber hand paradigm evokes an illusion with three conceptually distinct components: (i) the participant experiences her/his hidden right hand as administering touch at the location of the examiner's viewed administering hand (visual capture of action); (ii) the participant experiences the examiner's administering hand as being the participant's own hand (experience of ownership); and (iii) the participant experiences her/his two hands as being in contact, as if she/he were touching her/his own hand (illusion of self-touch). The presence of these illusory experiences was confirmed by questionnaire responses and proprioceptive drift data.

  3. HNCA-TOCSY-CANH experiments with alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling: a set of 3D experiment with unique supra-sequential information for mainchain resonance assignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Gal, Maayan [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Biomedicinal Information Research Center (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard_wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Described here is a set of three-dimensional (3D) NMR experiments that rely on CACA-TOCSY magnetization transfer via the weak {sup 3}J(C{sub {alpha}}C{sub {alpha}}) coupling. These pulse sequences, which resemble recently described {sup 13}C detected CACA-TOCSY (Takeuchi et al. 2010) experiments, are recorded in {sup 1}H{sub 2}O, and use {sup 1}H excitation and detection. These experiments require alternate {sup 13}C-{sup 12}C labeling together with perdeuteration, which allows utilizing the small {sup 3}J(C{sub {alpha}}C{sub {alpha}}) scalar coupling that is otherwise masked by the stronger {sup 1}J{sub CC} couplings in uniformly {sup 13}C labeled samples. These new experiments provide a unique assignment ladder-mark that yields bidirectional supra-sequential information and can readily straddle proline residues. Unlike the conventional HNCA experiment, which contains only sequential information to the {sup 13}(C{sub {alpha}}) of the preceding residue, the 3D hnCA-TOCSY-caNH experiment can yield sequential correlations to alpha carbons in positions i-1, i + 1 and i-2. Furthermore, the 3D hNca-TOCSY-caNH and Hnca-TOCSY-caNH experiments, which share the same magnetization pathway but use a different chemical shift encoding, directly couple the {sup 15}N-{sup 1}H spin pair of residue i to adjacent amide protons and nitrogens at positions i-2, i-1, i + 1 and i + 2, respectively. These new experimental features make protein backbone assignments more robust by reducing the degeneracy problem associated with the conventional 3D NMR experiments.

  4. Touching words is not enough: how visual experience influences haptic-auditory associations in the "Bouba-Kiki" effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Louise; Freeman, Jonathan; Pring, Linda

    2014-08-01

    Since Köhler's experiments in the 1920s, researchers have demonstrated a correspondence between words and shapes. Dubbed the "Bouba-Kiki" effect, these auditory-visual associations extend across cultures and are thought to be universal. More recently the effect has been shown in other modalities including taste, suggesting the effect is independent of vision. The study presented here tested the "Bouba-Kiki" effect in the auditory-haptic modalities, using 2D cut-outs and 3D models based on Köhler's original drawings. Presented with shapes they could feel but not see, sighted participants showed a robust "Bouba-Kiki" effect. However, in a sample of people with a range of visual impairments, from congenital total blindness to partial sight, the effect was significantly less pronounced. The findings suggest that, in the absence of a direct visual stimulus, visual imagery plays a role in crossmodal integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortical response tracking the conscious experience of threshold duration visual stimuli indicates visual perception is all or none

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Krithiga; Findley, William M.; Poeppel, David; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2013-01-01

    At perceptual threshold, some stimuli are available for conscious access whereas others are not. Such threshold inputs are useful tools for investigating the events that separate conscious awareness from unconscious stimulus processing. Here, viewing unmasked, threshold-duration images was combined with recording magnetoencephalography to quantify differences among perceptual states, ranging from no awareness to ambiguity to robust perception. A four-choice scale was used to assess awareness: “didn’t see” (no awareness), “couldn’t identify” (awareness without identification), “unsure” (awareness with low certainty identification), and “sure” (awareness with high certainty identification). Stimulus-evoked neuromagnetic signals were grouped according to behavioral response choices. Three main cortical responses were elicited. The earliest response, peaking at ∼100 ms after stimulus presentation, showed no significant correlation with stimulus perception. A late response (∼290 ms) showed moderate correlation with stimulus awareness but could not adequately differentiate conscious access from its absence. By contrast, an intermediate response peaking at ∼240 ms was observed only for trials in which stimuli were consciously detected. That this signal was similar for all conditions in which awareness was reported is consistent with the hypothesis that conscious visual access is relatively sharply demarcated. PMID:23509248

  6. Sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words: Relationships with other psycholinguistic variables and visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Bugaïska, Aurélia

    2015-09-01

    We collected sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words in adults. Sensory experience for words is a recently introduced variable that corresponds to the degree to which words elicit sensory and perceptual experiences (Juhasz & Yap Behavior Research Methods, 45, 160-168, 2013; Juhasz, Yap, Dicke, Taylor, & Gullick Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1683-1691, 2011). The relationships of the sensory experience norms with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g., imageability and age of acquisition) were analyzed. We also investigated the degree to which SER predicted performance in visual word recognition tasks (lexical decision, word naming, and progressive demasking). The analyses indicated that SER reliably predicted response times in lexical decision, but not in word naming or progressive demasking. The findings are discussed in relation to the status of SER, the role of semantic code activation in visual word recognition, and the embodied view of cognition.

  7. Photographic Memory: The Effects of Volitional Photo Taking on Memory for Visual and Auditory Aspects of an Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasch, Alixandra; Diehl, Kristin; Silverman, Jackie; Zauberman, Gal

    2017-08-01

    How does volitional photo taking affect unaided memory for visual and auditory aspects of experiences? Across one field and three lab studies, we found that, even without revisiting any photos, participants who could freely take photographs during an experience recognized more of what they saw and less of what they heard, compared with those who could not take any photographs. Further, merely taking mental photos had similar effects on memory. These results provide support for the idea that photo taking induces a shift in attention toward visual aspects and away from auditory aspects of an experience. Additional findings were in line with this mechanism: Participants with a camera had better recognition of aspects of the scene that they photographed than of aspects they did not photograph. Furthermore, participants who used a camera during their experience recognized even nonphotographed aspects better than participants without a camera did. Meta-analyses including all reported studies support these findings.

  8. Using ICT at an Open Distance Learning (ODL) Institution in South Africa: The Learning Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokiwa, S. A.; Phasha, T. N.

    2012-01-01

    For students with visual impairments, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an important means through which they can learn and access learning materials at various levels of education. However, their learning experiences in using such form of technologies have been rarely documented, thus suggests society's lack of…

  9. Children's Negotiations of Visualization Skills during a Design-Based Learning Experience Using Nondigital and Digital Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaunna

    2018-01-01

    In the context of a 10-day summer camp makerspace experience that employed design-based learning (DBL) strategies, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to better understand the ways in which children use visualization skills to negotiate design as they move back and forth between the world of nondigital design techniques (i.e., drawing,…

  10. The Impact of Visual Cues and Service Behavior on the Consumer Retail Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerk, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    With product differentiation low in the retail industry, businesses need to create strong brand images and increase customer loyalty in order to remain competitive. Visual merchandising is one tool that businesses have to communicate their message in a compelling and strategic manner. Within the scope of visual merchandising there are a number of atmospherics, or cues, which include visual, tactile, and auditory, that can be used in conjunction with one another to influence consumer behavior....

  11. Capturing lived experiences in movement educational contexts through videographic participation and visual narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendler Nielsen, Charlotte; Degerbøl, Stine Mikés

    visualizing and communicating the meaning-making of the participants and emphasizes the role of the researcher’s embodied involvement when ‘looking for lived experiences’. The paper exemplifies the use of videographic participation and presents (audio)visual narratives from two educational contexts: children...... of how meaning-making of the participants can be captured and disseminated through (audio)visual narratives....

  12. Differences in characteristics of raters who use the visual estimation method in hospitals based on their training experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yui; Tamaura, Yuki; Akamatsu, Rie; Sakai, Masashi; Fujiwara, Keiko

    2018-02-07

    Despite a clinical need, only a few studies have provided information concerning visual estimation training for raters to improve the validity of their evaluations. This study aims to describe the differences in the characteristics of raters who evaluated patients' dietary intake in hospitals using the visual estimation method based on their training experiences. We collected data from three hospitals in Tokyo from August to September 2016. The participants were 199 nursing staff members, and they completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic data; working career; training in the visual estimation method; knowledge, attitude, and practice associated with nutritional care; and self-evaluation of method validity of and skills of visual estimation. We classified participants into two groups, experienced and inexperienced, based on whether they had received training. Square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the differences between these two groups in terms of their characteristics; knowledge, attitude, and practice associated with nutritional care; and self-evaluation of method validity and tips used in the visual estimation method. Of the 158 staff members (79.4%) (118 nurses and 40 nursing assistants) who agreed to participate in the analysis, thirty-three participants (20.9%) were trained in the visual estimation method. Participants who had received training had better knowledge (2.70 ± 0.81, score range was 1-5) than those who had not received any training (2.34 ± 0.74, p = 0.03). Score of self-evaluation of method validity of the visual estimation method was higher in the experienced group (3.78 ± 0.61, score range was 1-5) than the inexperienced group (3.40 ± 0.66, p trained had adequate knowledge (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.05-7.35) and frequently used tips in visual estimation (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.26-2.73). Trained participants had more required knowledge and

  13. How the researcher’s experience of visual images can contribute to qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical argument exploring how visual images appeal to sensory knowledge, and how sensory knowledge can contribute to qualitative research where visual images are included as part of the method. The argument is based on a phenomenological approach and a conceptual model...

  14. The visual advice centre Eindhoven, an experiment in Dutch low vision care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neve, J.J.; Jorritsma, F.F.; Kinds, G.F.; Kooijman, A.C.; Looijestijn, P.L.; Welling, J.A.; Wildt, van der G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Visual Advice Centre Eindhoven (VAC-E) provides the partially sighted with advice and prescriptions for low vision aids and illumination on the basis of an examination of their individual needs and their residual visual abilities. In the Dutch context of low vision care the V AC-E can be

  15. The Nature of Experience Determines Object Representations in the Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta K.; Folstein, Jonathan R.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (PL) and perceptual expertise (PE) traditionally lead to different training effects and recruit different brain areas, but reasons for these differences are largely unknown. Here, we tested how the learning history influences visual object representations. Two groups were trained with tasks typically used in PL or PE…

  16. Monitoring Processes in Visual Search Enhanced by Professional Experience: The Case of Orange Quality-Control Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Antonino; Vallesi, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Visual search tasks have often been used to investigate how cognitive processes change with expertise. Several studies have shown visual experts' advantages in detecting objects related to their expertise. Here, we tried to extend these findings by investigating whether professional search experience could boost top-down monitoring processes involved in visual search, independently of advantages specific to objects of expertise. To this aim, we recruited a group of quality-control workers employed in citrus farms. Given the specific features of this type of job, we expected that the extensive employment of monitoring mechanisms during orange selection could enhance these mechanisms even in search situations in which orange-related expertise is not suitable. To test this hypothesis, we compared performance of our experimental group and of a well-matched control group on a computerized visual search task. In one block the target was an orange (expertise target) while in the other block the target was a Smurfette doll (neutral target). The a priori hypothesis was to find an advantage for quality-controllers in those situations in which monitoring was especially involved, that is, when deciding the presence/absence of the target required a more extensive inspection of the search array. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. Quality-controllers were faster in those conditions that extensively required monitoring processes, specifically, the Smurfette-present and both target-absent conditions. No differences emerged in the orange-present condition, which resulted to mainly rely on bottom-up processes. These results suggest that top-down processes in visual search can be enhanced through immersive real-life experience beyond visual expertise advantages.

  17. Monitoring Processes in Visual Search Enhanced by Professional Experience: The Case of Orange Quality-Control Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Visalli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual search tasks have often been used to investigate how cognitive processes change with expertise. Several studies have shown visual experts' advantages in detecting objects related to their expertise. Here, we tried to extend these findings by investigating whether professional search experience could boost top-down monitoring processes involved in visual search, independently of advantages specific to objects of expertise. To this aim, we recruited a group of quality-control workers employed in citrus farms. Given the specific features of this type of job, we expected that the extensive employment of monitoring mechanisms during orange selection could enhance these mechanisms even in search situations in which orange-related expertise is not suitable. To test this hypothesis, we compared performance of our experimental group and of a well-matched control group on a computerized visual search task. In one block the target was an orange (expertise target while in the other block the target was a Smurfette doll (neutral target. The a priori hypothesis was to find an advantage for quality-controllers in those situations in which monitoring was especially involved, that is, when deciding the presence/absence of the target required a more extensive inspection of the search array. Results were consistent with our hypothesis. Quality-controllers were faster in those conditions that extensively required monitoring processes, specifically, the Smurfette-present and both target-absent conditions. No differences emerged in the orange-present condition, which resulted to mainly rely on bottom-up processes. These results suggest that top-down processes in visual search can be enhanced through immersive real-life experience beyond visual expertise advantages.

  18. Visualization of microscale phase displacement proceses in retention and outflow experiments: nonuniquensess of unsaturated flow properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annette Pia; Glass, R.J.; Hollenbeck, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    -scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these microscale processes yields macroscale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. Such results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties....

  19. A vivência da sexualidade por adolescentes portadoras de deficiência visual La vivencia de la sexualidad por adolescentes portadores de deficiencia visual The experience of sexuality by visually impaired adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Pontes Bezerra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Devido às transformações ocorridas na adolescência, as indefinições que a acompanham, somadas à deficiência visual, justifica-se um estudo sobre a vivência da sexualidade das adolescentes portadoras de deficiência visual inseridas na sociedade e na comunidade escolar. Foram entrevistadas cinco adolescentes em um Centro de Apoio Pedagógico, com questões que buscaram o conhecimento e a compreensão sobre as causa da sua deficiência visual, composição e orientações familiares, experiência afetivo-sexual e o nível de conhecimento acerca de assuntos relacionados à sexualidade, dentre eles métodos contraceptivos e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Os resultados mostram que estas adolescentes apresentam as mesmas características de desenvolvimento da sexualidade da sua faixa etária, embora possuam características individuais. Percebeu-se o desconhecimento sobre métodos contraceptivos e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis com informações superficiais. Torna-se imprescindível que o conhecimento se faça de forma acessível para esta população.En razón de las transformaciones sufridas durante la adolescencia, las indefiniciones que a acompañan, sumándose la deficiencia visual, se justifica un estudio sobre la experiencia de la sexualidad de las adolescentes afectadas por deficiencia visual insertas en la sociedad y en la comunidad escolar. Fueron entrevistadas cinco adolescentes en un Centro de Apoyo Pedagógico con preguntas que buscaron el conocimiento y comprensión de la causa de su deficiencia visual, composición y orientaciones familiares, experiencia afectivo-sexual, nivel de conocimientos acerca de asuntos relacionados con la sexualidad, sin excluir métodos anticonceptivos y enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Los resultados muestran que estas adolescentes presentan las mismas características de desarrollo de la sexualidad de su faja etaria, sin embargo poseen características particulares. Se percibió el

  20. Basic visualization experiments on eutectic reaction of boron carbide and stainless steel under sodium-cooled fast reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Kamiyama, Kenji; Kudo, Isamu

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes basic visualization experiments on eutectic reaction and relocation of boron carbide (B 4 C) and stainless steel (SS) under a high temperature condition exceeding 1500degC as well as the importance of such behaviors in molten core during a core disruptive accident in a Generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (750 MWe class) designed in Japan. At first, a reactivity history was calculated using an exact perturbation calculation tool taking into account expected behaviors. This calculation indicated the importance of a relocation behavior of the B 4 C-SS eutectic because its behavior has a large uncertainty in the reactivity history. To clarify this behavior, basic experiments were carried out by visualizing the reaction of a B 4 C pellet contacted with molten SS in a high temperature-heating furnace. The experiments have shown the eutectic reaction visualization as well as freezing and relocation of the B 4 C-SS eutectic in upper part of the solidified test piece due to the density separation. (author)

  1. P1-7: Modern Display Technology in Vision Science: Assessment of OLED and LCD Monitors for Visual Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Elze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, cathode ray tube (CRT monitors have been the dominant display technology in vision science. However, in recent years, most manufacturers stopped their CRT production lines, which enforces the application of alternative display technology in the field of vision science. Here, we analyze liquid crystal displays (LCDs and organic light-emitting diode (OLED monitors for their applicability in vision science experiments. Based on extensive measurements of their photometric output, we compare these technologies and contrast them with classical CRT monitors. Vision scientists aim to accurately present both static and dynamic stimuli on their display devices. As for the presentation of static stimuli, we demonstrate an increased accuracy for LCD and OLED devices compared to CRT monitors, because the former exhibit a higher degree of independence of neighboring pixels. As for dynamic presentations, both CRTs and OLEDs outperform LCD devices in terms of accuracy, because dynamic presentations on LCDs require a reorientation of the liquid crystal molecules, so that successive frames in time depend on each other. Together with widely unknown and uncontrolled technical artifacts, these properties of LCDs may impair visual experiments that require high temporal precision. Therefore, OLED monitors are more suitable for vision science experiments with respect to both their static and their temporal characteristics. However, for certain applications in visual neuroscience, the low duty cycle of some OLED devices may introduce frequencies to the photometric output which fall within the window of visibility of neurons in the visual cortex and therefore interfere with single unit recordings.

  2. J-TEXT WebScope: An efficient data access and visualization system for long pulse fusion experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wei, E-mail: zhenghaku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology in Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wan, Kuanhong; Chen, Zhi; Hu, Feiran; Liu, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology in Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • No matter how large the data is, the response time is always less than 500 milliseconds. • It is intelligent and just gives you the data you want. • It can be accessed directly over the Internet without installing special client software if you already have a browser. • Adopt scale and segment technology to organize data. • To support a new database for the WebScope is quite easy. • With the configuration stored in user’s profile, you have your own portable WebScope. - Abstract: Fusion research is an international collaboration work. To enable researchers across the world to visualize and analyze the experiment data, a web based data access and visualization tool is quite important [1]. Now, a new WebScope based on RIA (Rich Internet Application) is designed and implemented to meet these requirements. On the browser side, a fluent and intuitive interface is provided for researchers at J-TEXT laboratory and collaborators from all over the world to view experiment data and related metadata. The fusion experiments will feature long pulse and high sampling rate in the future. The data access and visualization system in this work has adopted segment and scale concept. Large data samples are re-sampled in different scales and then split into segments for instant response. It allows users to view extremely large data on the web browser efficiently, without worrying about the limitation on the size of the data. The HTML5 and JavaScript based web front-end can provide intuitive and fluent user experience. On the server side, a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) web API, which is based on ASP.NET MVC (Model View Controller), allows users to access the data and its metadata through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). An interface to the database has been designed to decouple the data access and visualization system from the data storage. It can be applied upon any data storage system like MDSplus or JTEXTDB, and this system is very easy to

  3. J-TEXT WebScope: An efficient data access and visualization system for long pulse fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wan, Kuanhong; Chen, Zhi; Hu, Feiran; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • No matter how large the data is, the response time is always less than 500 milliseconds. • It is intelligent and just gives you the data you want. • It can be accessed directly over the Internet without installing special client software if you already have a browser. • Adopt scale and segment technology to organize data. • To support a new database for the WebScope is quite easy. • With the configuration stored in user’s profile, you have your own portable WebScope. - Abstract: Fusion research is an international collaboration work. To enable researchers across the world to visualize and analyze the experiment data, a web based data access and visualization tool is quite important [1]. Now, a new WebScope based on RIA (Rich Internet Application) is designed and implemented to meet these requirements. On the browser side, a fluent and intuitive interface is provided for researchers at J-TEXT laboratory and collaborators from all over the world to view experiment data and related metadata. The fusion experiments will feature long pulse and high sampling rate in the future. The data access and visualization system in this work has adopted segment and scale concept. Large data samples are re-sampled in different scales and then split into segments for instant response. It allows users to view extremely large data on the web browser efficiently, without worrying about the limitation on the size of the data. The HTML5 and JavaScript based web front-end can provide intuitive and fluent user experience. On the server side, a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) web API, which is based on ASP.NET MVC (Model View Controller), allows users to access the data and its metadata through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). An interface to the database has been designed to decouple the data access and visualization system from the data storage. It can be applied upon any data storage system like MDSplus or JTEXTDB, and this system is very easy to

  4. Subjective evaluation of two stereoscopic imaging systems exploiting visual attention to improve 3D quality of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-03-01

    Crosstalk and vergence-accommodation rivalry negatively impact the quality of experience (QoE) provided by stereoscopic displays. However, exploiting visual attention and adapting the 3D rendering process on the fly can reduce these drawbacks. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two different approaches that exploit visual attention to improve 3D QoE on stereoscopic displays: an offline system, which uses a saliency map to predict gaze position, and an online system, which uses a remote eye tracking system to measure real time gaze positions. The gaze points were used in conjunction with the disparity map to extract the disparity of the object-of-interest. Horizontal image translation was performed to bring the fixated object on the screen plane. The user preference between standard 3D mode and the two proposed systems was evaluated through a subjective evaluation. Results show that exploiting visual attention significantly improves image quality and visual comfort, with a slight advantage for real time gaze determination. Depth quality is also improved, but the difference is not significant.

  5. Organising and learning experiences of the first semester MA Program ePedagogy / Visual Knowledge Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaap Jansen

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss the process of the MA program ePedagogy / Visual Knowledge Building during the first semester of the academic year 2005 – 2006. This MA program is a joint venture between the Universities of Helsinki, Hamburg and INHOLLAND. This publication will discuss and evaluate the

  6. Beyond surprise : A longitudinal study on the experience of visual-tactual incongruities in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.

    2012-01-01

    When people encounter products with visual-tactual incongruities, they are likely to be surprised because the product feels different than expected. In this paper, we investigate (1) the relationship between surprise and the overall liking of the products, (2) the emotions associated with surprise,

  7. Joint evaluation of communication quality and user experience in an audio-visual virtual reality meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Carrozzino, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-the-art speech intelligibility tests are created with the purpose of evaluating acoustic communication devices and not for evaluating audio-visual virtual reality systems. This paper present a novel method to evaluate a communication situation based on both the speech intelligibility...

  8. Investigating Visual Alerting in the Maritime Domain; Report on 3 Experiments, With Supporting Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    opérateurs les états ou événements critiques qui requièrent leur attention. La recherche dont il est question ici vise principalement à alerter...Visual alerting in complex command and control environments. Poster presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting, San

  9. Family Voices at Mealtime: Experiences with Young Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Catherine A.; Spicer, Carol L.; Morgese, Zoe L.

    2014-01-01

    Infants with visual impairment often require additional interaction from adults to reinforce behaviors that lead to competency at mealtimes, but parental and professional confidence in teaching these skills is often limited. In the following collective case study, the authors, a speech/language pathologist (S/LP), occupational therapist (OT), and…

  10. The role of visual experience in the production of emotional facial expressions by blind people: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Dannyelle; Theurel, Anne; Gentaz, Edouard

    2018-04-01

    Facial expressions of emotion are nonverbal behaviors that allow us to interact efficiently in social life and respond to events affecting our welfare. This article reviews 21 studies, published between 1932 and 2015, examining the production of facial expressions of emotion by blind people. It particularly discusses the impact of visual experience on the development of this behavior from birth to adulthood. After a discussion of three methodological considerations, the review of studies reveals that blind subjects demonstrate differing capacities for producing spontaneous expressions and voluntarily posed expressions. Seventeen studies provided evidence that blind and sighted spontaneously produce the same pattern of facial expressions, even if some variations can be found, reflecting facial and body movements specific to blindness or differences in intensity and control of emotions in some specific contexts. This suggests that lack of visual experience seems to not have a major impact when this behavior is generated spontaneously in real emotional contexts. In contrast, eight studies examining voluntary expressions indicate that blind individuals have difficulty posing emotional expressions. The opportunity for prior visual observation seems to affect performance in this case. Finally, we discuss three new directions for research to provide additional and strong evidence for the debate regarding the innate or the culture-constant learning character of the production of emotional facial expressions by blind individuals: the link between perception and production of facial expressions, the impact of display rules in the absence of vision, and the role of other channels in expression of emotions in the context of blindness.

  11. The effects of action video game experience on the time course of inhibition of return and the efficiency of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Pratt, Jay; Drummond, Emily

    2005-06-01

    The ability to efficiently search the visual environment is a critical function of the visual system, and recent research has shown that experience playing action video games can influence visual selective attention. The present research examined the similarities and differences between video game players (VGPs) and non-video game players (NVGPs) in terms of the ability to inhibit attention from returning to previously attended locations, and the efficiency of visual search in easy and more demanding search environments. Both groups were equally good at inhibiting the return of attention to previously cued locations, although VGPs displayed overall faster reaction times to detect targets. VGPs also showed overall faster response time for easy and difficult visual search tasks compared to NVGPs, largely attributed to faster stimulus-response mapping. The findings suggest that relative to NVGPs, VGPs rely on similar types of visual processing strategies but possess faster stimulus-response mappings in visual attention tasks.

  12. Design of a two-phase loop thermosyphon for telecommunications system(I): experiments and visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu Sub [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    A two-phase loop thermosyphon system is developed for the B-ISDN telecommunications system and its performance is evaluated both experimentally and by visualization techniques. The design of the thermosyphon system proposed is aimed to cool MultiChip Modules (MCM) upto heat flux of 8 W/cm{sup 2}. The results indicate that in the loop thermosyphon system cooling heat flux is capable of 12 W/cm{sup 2} with two condensers under the forced convection cooling of the condenser section with acetone or FC-87 as the working fluid. The instability of the working fluid flow within the loop is observed using the visualization techniques and temperature fluctuation is stabilized with orifice insertion.

  13. Design of a two-phase loop thermosyphon for telecommunications system(I): experiments and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Tae; Song, Kyu Sub; Lee, Young

    1998-01-01

    A two-phase loop thermosyphon system is developed for the B-ISDN telecommunications system and its performance is evaluated both experimentally and by visualization techniques. The design of the thermosyphon system proposed is aimed to cool MultiChip Modules (MCM) upto heat flux of 8 W/cm 2 . The results indicate that in the loop thermosyphon system cooling heat flux is capable of 12 W/cm 2 with two condensers under the forced convection cooling of the condenser section with acetone or FC-87 as the working fluid. The instability of the working fluid flow within the loop is observed using the visualization techniques and temperature fluctuation is stabilized with orifice insertion

  14. Impact of a visual programming experience on the attitude toward programming of introductory undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Saurabh

    Traditionally, textual tools have been utilized to teach basic programming languages and paradigms. Research has shown that students tend to be visual learners. Using flowcharts, students can quickly understand the logic of their programs and visualize the flow of commands in the algorithm. Moreover, applying programming to physical systems through the use of a microcontroller to facilitate this type of learning can spark an interest in students to advance their programming knowledge to create novel applications. This study examined if freshmen college students' attitudes towards programming changed after completing a graphical programming lesson. Various attributes about students' attitudes were examined including confidence, interest, stereotypes, and their belief in the usefulness of acquiring programming skills. The study found that there were no statistically significant differences in attitudes either immediately following the session or after a period of four weeks.

  15. Confinement has no effect on visual space perception: The results of the Mars-500 experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2014), s. 438-451 ISSN 1943-3921 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2528 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : visual space perception * perspective * Mars-500 * size judgment * size constancy * confinement Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-013-0594-y

  16. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  17. The dynamics of visual experience, an EEG study of subjective pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the origin of psychological science a number of studies have reported visual pattern formation in the absence of either physiological stimulation or direct visual-spatial references. Subjective patterns range from simple phosphenes to complex patterns but are highly specific and reported reliably across studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using independent-component analysis (ICA we report a reduction in amplitude variance consistent with subjective-pattern formation in ventral posterior areas of the electroencephalogram (EEG. The EEG exhibits significantly increased power at delta/theta and gamma-frequencies (point and circle patterns or a series of high-frequency harmonics of a delta oscillation (spiral patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subjective-pattern formation may be described in a way entirely consistent with identical pattern formation in fluids or granular flows. In this manner, we propose subjective-pattern structure to be represented within a spatio-temporal lattice of harmonic oscillations which bind topographically organized visual-neuronal assemblies by virtue of low frequency modulation.

  18. Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Caroline D B; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-05-01

    Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Initial experience with visualizing hand and foot tendons by dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Sun, Cong; Liu, Cheng; Ma, Rui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of visualizing hand and foot tendons by dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Twenty patients who suffered from hand or feet pains were scanned on dual-source CT (Definition, Forchheim, Germany) with dual-energy mode at tube voltages of 140 and 80 kV and a corresponding ratio of 1:4 between tube currents. The reconstructed images were postprocessed by volume rendering techniques (VRT) and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). All of the suspected lesions were confirmed by surgery or follow-up studies. Twelve patients (total of 24 hands and feet, respectively) were found to be normal and the other eight patients (total of nine hands and feet, respectively) were found abnormal. Dual-energy techniques are very useful in visualizing tendons of the hands and feet, such as flexor pollicis longus tendon, flexor digitorum superficialis/profundus tendon, Achilles tendon, extensor hallucis longus tendon, and extensor digitorum longus tendon, etc. It can depict the whole shape of the tendons and their fixation points clearly. Peroneus longus tendon in the sole of the foot was not displayed very well. The distal ends of metacarpophalangeal joints with extensor digitoium tendon and extensor pollicis longus tendon were poorly shown. The lesions of tendons such as the circuitry, thickening, and adherence were also shown clearly. Dual-energy CT offers a new method to visualize tendons of the hand and foot. It could clearly display both anatomical structures and pathologic changes of hand and foot tendons.

  20. Visual complexity, player experience, performance and physical exertion in motion-based games for older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Smeddinck, Jan D.; Gerling, Kathrin M.; Tiemkeo, Saranat

    2013-01-01

    Motion-based video games can have a variety of benefits for the players and are increasingly applied in physical therapy, rehabilitation and prevention for older adults. However, little is known about how this audience experiences playing such games, how the player experience affects the way older adults interact with motion-based games, and how this can relate to therapy goals. In our work, we decompose the player experience of older adults engaging with motion-based games, focusing on the e...

  1. Children’s Negotiations of Visualization Skills During a Design-Based Learning Experience Using Nondigital and Digital Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Shaunna

    2018-01-01

    In the context of a 10-day summer camp makerspace experience that employed design-based learning (DBL) strategies, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to better understand the ways in which children use visualization skills to negotiate design as they move back and forth between the world of nondigital design techniques (i.e., drawing, 3-D drawing with hot glue, sculpture, discussion, writing) and digital technologies (i.e., 3-D scanning, 3-D modeling, 3-D printing). Participants i...

  2. Integral data test of HENDL1.0/MG and visualBUS with neutronics shielding experiments. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunjing; Deng Tieru; Xu Dezheng; Li Jingjing; Wu Yican

    2004-01-01

    HENDL1.0/MG, a multi-group working library of the Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, was home-developed by the FDS Team of ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) on the basis of several national data libraries. To validate and qualify the process of producing HENDL1.0/MG, simulating calculations of a series of existent spherical shell benchmark experiments (Al, Mo, Co, Ti, Mn, W, Be and V) have been performed with HENDL1.0/MG and the multifunctional neutronics code system named VisualBUS home-developed also by FDS Team. (authors)

  3. An experiment of a 3D real-time robust visual odometry for intelligent vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Florez , Sergio Alberto; Fremont , Vincent; Bonnifait , Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Vision systems are nowadays very promising for many on-board vehicles perception functionalities, like obstacles detection/recognition and ego-localization. In this paper, we present a 3D visual odometric method that uses a stereo-vision system to estimate the 3D ego-motion of a vehicle in outdoor road conditions. In order to run in real-time, the studied technique is sparse meaning that it makes use of feature points that are tracked during several frames. A robust sc...

  4. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: A voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Singh, Namita; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Khushu, Subash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. Materials and methods: High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. Results: VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Conclusion: Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness

  5. Goal-Directed Visual Attention Drives Health Goal Priming: An Eye-Tracking Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Laura N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Several lab and field experiments have shown that goal priming interventions can be highly effective in promoting healthy food choices. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms by which goal priming affects food choice. This experiment tested the hypothesis that goal priming affects

  6. Real-time analysis, visualization, and steering of microtomography experiments at photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszeski, G. von; Insley, J.A.; Foster, I.; Bresnahan, J.; Kesselman, C.; Su, M.; Thiebaux, M.; Rivers, M.L.; Wang, S.; Tieman, B.; McNulty, I.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of specialized scientific instruments called synchrotron light sources allow the imaging of materials at very fine scales. However, in contrast to a traditional microscope, interactive use has not previously been possible because of the large amounts of data generated and the considerable computation required translating this data into a useful image. The authors describe a new software architecture that uses high-speed networks and supercomputers to enable quasi-real-time and hence interactive analysis of synchrotron light source data. This architecture uses technologies provided by the Globus computational grid toolkit to allow dynamic creation of a reconstruction pipeline that transfers data from a synchrotron source beamline to a preprocessing station, next to a parallel reconstruction system, and then to multiple visualization stations. Collaborative analysis tools allow multiple users to control data visualization. As a result, local and remote scientists can see and discuss preliminary results just minutes after data collection starts. The implications for more efficient use of this scarce resource and for more effective science appear tremendous

  7. ComVisMD - compact visualization of multidimensional data: experimenting with cricket players data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandin, Shridhar B.; Ducassé, Mireille

    2018-03-01

    Database information is multidimensional and often displayed in tabular format (row/column display). Presented in aggregated form, multidimensional data can be used to analyze the records or objects. Online Analytical database Processing (OLAP) proposes mechanisms to display multidimensional data in aggregated forms. A choropleth map is a thematic map in which areas are colored in proportion to the measurement of a statistical variable being displayed, such as population density. They are used mostly for compact graphical representation of geographical information. We propose a system, ComVisMD inspired by choropleth map and the OLAP cube to visualize multidimensional data in a compact way. ComVisMD displays multidimensional data like OLAP Cube, where we are mapping an attribute a (first dimension, e.g. year started playing cricket) in vertical direction, object coloring based on b (second dimension, e.g. batting average), mapping varying-size circles based on attribute c (third dimension, e.g. highest score), mapping numbers based on attribute d (fourth dimension, e.g. matches played). We illustrate our approach on cricket players data, namely on two tables Country and Player. They have a large number of rows and columns: 246 rows and 17 columns for players of one country. ComVisMD’s visualization reduces the size of the tabular display by a factor of about 4, allowing users to grasp more information at a time than the bare table display.

  8. Considerations on the Use of Visual Tools in Planning Processes: A Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Zyngier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assumes that citizen participation does not really happen in relation to current urban planning practice for a number of reasons. First of all, many planning processes do not involve citizens as ideally they should. Secondly, although if they involve citizens, many planning processes are not able to communicate them the actual questions to deal with. Thirdly, many citizens have not a sufficient knowledge or ability to understand the planning issues. Therefore, the paper supposes that the use of visual interfaces can collaborate to organize data and improve the involvement of citizens within planning processes. Focusing on the Brazilian reality, the case study present two selected areas with great relevance for the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte’s (MRBH: Santa Lúcia, within the municipality of Belo Horizonte, and the neighborhood Vale do Sereno, in the Nova Lima municipality. The areas result under a great pressure and intensification of anthropic interventions, containing consolidated occupancy. The example on the two areas shows how urban planning still lacks a systematization of data. This also implies that the two municipalities not consider the communication of information as a priority for developing cities. Although current information technology can offer advantages for implementing the planning processes though visual languages, harder efforts are required to build the communication process between people, including communication as part of the planning process.

  9. The roles of vocal and visual interactions in social learning zebra finches: A video playback experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2017-06-01

    The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  11. Virtual reality visualization algorithms for the ALICE high energy physics experiment on the LHC at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrcha, Julian; Trzciński, Tomasz; Rokita, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    Analyzing massive amounts of data gathered during many high energy physics experiments, including but not limited to the LHC ALICE detector experiment, requires efficient and intuitive methods of visualisation. One of the possible approaches to that problem is stereoscopic 3D data visualisation. In this paper, we propose several methods that provide high quality data visualisation and we explain how those methods can be applied in virtual reality headsets. The outcome of this work is easily applicable to many real-life applications needed in high energy physics and can be seen as a first step towards using fully immersive virtual reality technologies within the frames of the ALICE experiment.

  12. MRMer, an interactive open source and cross-platform system for data extraction and visualization of multiple reaction monitoring experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel B; Holzman, Ted; May, Damon; Peterson, Amelia; Eastham, Ashley; Eng, Jimmy; McIntosh, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry identifies and quantifies specific peptides in a complex mixture with very high sensitivity and speed and thus has promise for the high throughput screening of clinical samples for candidate biomarkers. We have developed an interactive software platform, called MRMer, for managing highly complex MRM-MS experiments, including quantitative analyses using heavy/light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer parses and extracts information from MS files encoded in the platform-independent mzXML data format. It extracts and infers precursor-product ion transition pairings, computes integrated ion intensities, and permits rapid visual curation for analyses exceeding 1000 precursor-product pairs. Results can be easily output for quantitative comparison of consecutive runs. Additionally MRMer incorporates features that permit the quantitative analysis experiments including heavy and light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer is open source and provided under the Apache 2.0 license.

  13. The effect of an olfactory and visual cue on realism and engagement in a health care simulation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanji, Karen C; Baca, Kirsten; Raemer, Daniel B

    2013-06-01

    Fidelity has been identified as an important element in a subject's perception of realism and engagement in learning during a simulation experience. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an isolated visual and olfactory sensory change to the simulation environment affects the subjects' perceptions of realism during simulation cases. Using an electrosurgical unit applied to bovine muscle tissue, we created a model to simulate the characteristic operating room smoke and burning odor that occur during many procedures. Anesthesiologist subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention group that participated in a simulation involving the characteristic smoke and odor or a control group whose simulation involved no smoke or odor. Subjects completed a 7-question survey on the fidelity of the simulation, their perception of realism, and their learning engagement. We enrolled 103 subjects over 22 simulation courses in our study (intervention, n = 52; control, n = 51). The subjects' reactions to the physical (P = 0.73), conceptual (P = 0.34), and emotional (P = 0.12) fidelity and their perception of realism (P = 0.71) did not differ between the intervention and control groups. In a high-fidelity simulation environment, a visual and olfactory increment to physical fidelity did not affect subjects' overall ratings of fidelity, perceptions of realism, and engagement in the learning experience.

  14. Visual observations of fuel disruption in in-pile LMFBR accident experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.A.; Mast, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating initiation phase phenomena in a series of Fuel Disruption (FD) experiments since 1977. In this program high speed cinematography is used to observe fuel disruption in in-pile experiments that simulate loss of flow accidents. Thus, these experiments provide high resolution measurements of initial fuel and clad motion with prototypic materials and prototypic heating conditions. The main objective of the FD experiment is to determine the timing (relative to fuel temperature) and the mode of fuel disruption under LOF heating conditions. Observed modes of disruption include fuel swelling, solid state breakup, cracking, ejection of a molten fuel jet, slumping, and rapid expansion of small particles. Because the temperature and character of the fuel at disruption are known, disruption can be correlated with the mechanisms driving the disruption such as fuel vapor pressure, molten fuel expansion, fission gases, and impurity gases

  15. [Cardiac sonographers: a unique reality in Anglo-saxon countries? The experience of an Italian echo-lab which is employing them since 1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mestre, Lorenzo; Compassi, Rossana; Badano, Luigi P; Monti, Maria Luisa; Ciani, Rosanna; Buiese, Simonetta; Gianfagna, Pasquale; Fioretti, Paolo M

    2006-12-01

    Cardiac sonographers play a key role in the management of echo-laboratories in anglo-saxon countries. In Italy, and generally in "latin" countries nearly all echocardiographic studies are performed by cardiologists. However, because of the increasing demand for echocardiography, this practice will no longer be feasible (medical schools do not graduate enough cardiologists!), and cost-effective (the cost of echocardiography performed by cardiologists only is becoming too high!). Introduction of cardiac sonographers in Italian echo-laboratories may represent a feasible and cost-effective solution to the ever increasing demand for echocardiography. In order to contribute to the debate, we report the experience of our echo-laboratory that employs cardiac sonographers since 1984.

  16. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  17. Uma experiência didática de corrosão usando colorimetria visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bidoia Bidetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and rapid method of evaluating galvanized steel sheet corrosion in a CuSO4 solution, as an experimentation proposal for corrosion teaching. Galvanized steel corrosion is present in tanks and tubing by leading of natural or industrial waters which contain soluble copper compounds. This was the rationale for choosing the Cu2+ ions solution as an oxidizing agent. The method principle is based on visual colorimetry because the used oxidant has an intense blue color. Thus, a change in its concentration as a result of the corrosive process can be followed by a color intensity change in the solution thereby allowing evaluation of the corrosion rate.

  18. Visual Cluster Analysis for Computing Tasks at Workflow Management System of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoryeva, Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Hundreds of petabytes of experimental data in high energy and nuclear physics (HENP) have already been obtained by unique scientific facilities such as LHC, RHIC, KEK. As the accelerators are being modernized (energy and luminosity were increased), data volumes are rapidly growing and have reached the exabyte scale, that also affects the increasing the number of analysis and data processing tasks, that are competing continuously for computational resources. The increase of processing tasks causes an increase in the performance of the computing environment by the involvement of high-performance computing resources, and forming a heterogeneous distributed computing environment (hundreds of distributed computing centers). In addition, errors happen to occur while executing tasks for data analysis and processing, which are caused by software and hardware failures. With a distributed model of data processing and analysis, the optimization of data management and workload systems becomes a fundamental task, and the ...

  19. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  20. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2009-01-01

    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  1. Preliminary Clinical Experience with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in the Visualization of Breast Microcalcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatia V Destounis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the visualization and image quality of microcalcifications imaged with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT versus conventional digital mammography. Materials and Methods: Patients with microcalcifications detected on full field digital mammography (FFDM recommended for needle core biopsy were enrolled in the study after obtaining patient′s consent and institutional review board approval (n = 177 patients, 179 lesions. All had a bilateral combination DBT exam, after undergoing routine digital mammography, prior to biopsy. The study radiologist reviewed the FFDM and DBT images in a non-blinded comparison and assessed the visibility of the microcalcifications with both methods, including image quality and clarity with which the calcifications were seen. Data recorded included patient demographics, lesion size on FFDM, DBT, and surgical excision (when applicable, biopsy, and surgical pathology, if any. Results: Average lesion size on DBT was 1.5 cm; average lesion size on FFDM was 1.4 cm. The image quality of DBT was assessed as equivalent or superior in 92.2% of cases. In 7.8% of the cases, the FFDM image quality was assessed as equivalent or superior. Conclusion: In our review, DBT image quality appears to be comparable to or better than conventional FFDM in terms of demonstrating microcalcifications, as shown in 92.2% of cases.

  2. Rapid Improvement in Visual Selective Attention Related to Action Video Gaming Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Qiu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A central issue in cognitive science is understanding how learning induces cognitive and neural plasticity, which helps illuminate the biological basis of learning. Research in the past few decades showed that action video gaming (AVG offered new, important perspectives on learning-related cognitive and neural plasticity. However, it is still unclear whether cognitive and neural plasticity is observable after a brief AVG session. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, this study examined the plasticity of visual selective attention (VSA associated with a 1 h AVG session. Both AVG experts and non-experts participated in this study. Their VSA was assessed prior to and after the AVG session. Within-group comparisons on the participants' performance before and after the AVG session showed improvements in response time in both groups and modulations of electrophysiological measures in the non-experts. Furthermore, between-group comparisons showed that the experts had superior VSA, relative to the non-experts, prior to the AVG session. These findings suggested an association between the plasticity of VSA and AVG. Most importantly, this study showed that the plasticity of VSA was observable after even a 1 h AVG session.

  3. Rapid Improvement in Visual Selective Attention Related to Action Video Gaming Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Nan; Ma, Weiyi; Fan, Xin; Zhang, Youjin; Li, Yi; Yan, Yuening; Zhou, Zhongliang; Li, Fali; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2018-01-01

    A central issue in cognitive science is understanding how learning induces cognitive and neural plasticity, which helps illuminate the biological basis of learning. Research in the past few decades showed that action video gaming (AVG) offered new, important perspectives on learning-related cognitive and neural plasticity. However, it is still unclear whether cognitive and neural plasticity is observable after a brief AVG session. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, this study examined the plasticity of visual selective attention (VSA) associated with a 1 h AVG session. Both AVG experts and non-experts participated in this study. Their VSA was assessed prior to and after the AVG session. Within-group comparisons on the participants' performance before and after the AVG session showed improvements in response time in both groups and modulations of electrophysiological measures in the non-experts. Furthermore, between-group comparisons showed that the experts had superior VSA, relative to the non-experts, prior to the AVG session. These findings suggested an association between the plasticity of VSA and AVG. Most importantly, this study showed that the plasticity of VSA was observable after even a 1 h AVG session.

  4. Recognition of simple visual images using a sparse distributed memory: Some implementations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, a method was described of representing a class of simple visual images so that they could be used with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). Herein, two possible implementations are described of a SDM, for which these images, suitably encoded, will serve both as addresses to the memory and as data to be stored in the memory. A key feature of both implementations is that a pattern that is represented as an unordered set with a variable number of members can be used as an address to the memory. In the 1st model, an image is encoded as a 9072 bit string to be used as a read or write address; the bit string may also be used as data to be stored in the memory. Another representation, in which an image is encoded as a 256 bit string, may be used with either model as data to be stored in the memory, but not as an address. In the 2nd model, an image is not represented as a vector of fixed length to be used as an address. Instead, a rule is given for determining which memory locations are to be activated in response to an encoded image. This activation rule treats the pieces of an image as an unordered set. With this model, the memory can be simulated, based on a method of computing the approximate result of a read operation.

  5. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: A voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi, E-mail: modi_shilpi@yahoo.co.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, Manisha, E-mail: manishab10@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Singh, Namita, E-mail: namita23m@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad, E-mail: director@inmas.drdo.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. Materials and methods: High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. Results: VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Conclusion: Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness.

  6. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: a voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Singh, Namita; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Khushu, Subash

    2012-10-01

    To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 3D visualization based customer experiences of nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tienlung; Chou Chinmei; Hung Tamin; Cheng Tsungchieh; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs virtual reality (VR) technology to develop an interactive virtual nuclear plant control room in which the general public could easily walk into the 'red zone' and play with the control buttons. The VR-based approach allows deeper and richer customer experiences that the real nuclear plant control room could not offer. When people know more about the serious process control procedures enforced in the nuclear plant control room, they will appropriate more about the safety efforts imposed by the nuclear plant and become more comfortable about the nuclear plant. The virtual nuclear plant control room is built using a 3D game development tool called Unity3D. The 3D scene is connected to a nuclear plant simulation system through Windows API programs. To evaluate the usability of the virtual control room, an experiment will be conducted to see how much 'immersion' the users could feel when they played with the virtual control room. (author)

  8. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  9. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Ricardo C G; Edden, Richard A E; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J M; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, pNAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What can an image tell? Challenges and benefits of using visual art as a research method to voice lived experiences of students and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alerby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As humans, we have the ability to use many forms of “language” to express our self and our experiences, where visual art, an image, is one. Accordingly, experiences can be described in many different ways. In this paper we describe the challenges and benefits of using visual art as a research method to voice lived experiences of students and teachers based on life-world phenomenology. We give three examples of the analysis of visual art works, such as photographs, lino prints, and drawings made by students and teachers, as a way to express their lived experiences of different phenomena. The conclusion is that there are limits with using visual art as the sole source of empirical data. We argue that such data has to be accompanied by oral or written comments to enhance credibility and rigor. A life-world phenomenological analysis of visual art and subsequent comments emphasizes openness and humility to participants’ experiences as well as an all-inclusive understanding of a phenomenon.

  11. Experience of three-dimensional vision in the era of digital interaction new devices : opportunity and challenges for applied mathematics and visual design

    CERN Document Server

    Brunetti, Federico Alberto

    2014-01-01

    It will be soon presented to the public a new version of stereoscopic viewers designed for observing files and video projected images through a system of transparent optical prisms which allow the simultaneous perception of the surrounding environment. The real challenge for applied mathematics and visual design will be to prefigure how to use them and their applications, since these new devices can actually enable a deeper visual experience. A specific case study concerns the visualizations of the collisions at the LHC at CERN, selected to verify the traces of the boson theorized by Francois Englert and Peter Higgs, with Robert Brout, who recently (2013) received the Nobel Prize for their research.

  12. Expansion of the ipsilateral visual corticotectal projection in hamsters subjected to partial lesions of the visual cortex during infancy: anatomical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophysiological methods were employed to determine whether or not partial visual cortical lesions in neonatal (7--11-day) hamster produced large scotomas in the cortical visual representation. In cases where such scotomas were present electrophoretic deposits of radioactive amino acids in the visually responsive ''cortical remnant'' of the damaged hemisphere resulted in labelling throughout the lower portion of the stratum griseum superficiale and the stratum opticum of the ipsilateral superior colliculus. No differential labeling of the part of the colliculus which was topographically matched with the remaining visual representation in the cortical remnant was observed. In normal hamsters relatively localized, visual cortical deposits of radioactive amino acids resulted in superficial layer labeling only in portions of the colliculus which corresponded to the locus of the cortical deposit. In a similar fashion, small lesions at physiologically defined loci in the cortical remnant produced degeneration throughout most of the superficial tectal laminae, but a more restricted ''focus'' of denser degeneration was also visible in these cases. The position of this focus in the colliculus for a given cortical lesion varied with the nature of the visual map in the cortical remnant. In several additional neonatally brain-damaged hamsters large lesions of the visual cortex in the intact hemisphere were combined with radioactive amino acid deposits in the cortical remnant to determine whether or not axons from the crossed corticocollicular pathway previously demonstrated in such hamsters were intermingled with fibers from the ipsilateral corticotectal projection. In alternate sections processed for autoradiography or by the Fink-Heimer ('67) method autoradiographic label and degeneration argyrophilia were both observed in the medical part of the colliculus ipsilateral to the neonatal cortical lesion

  13. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  14. Keys to the Stars : A Unique Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 saw the birth of a remarkable arts and science collaboration, between a piano duo and an astronomer. Since 2009, the Dutch Grieg Piano Duo, consisting of the professional pianists Elles van der Heiden and Siebert Nix, and the author have performed together in

  15. A Unique Experience in Marketing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Students at Bremerton High School developed marketing ideas for a local small business. They identified target markets; designed business cards, brochures, and advertisements; and created a new advertising campaign they presented to the business. (JOW)

  16. Visual Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ting-Hao; Huang; Ferraro, Francis; Mostafazadeh, Nasrin; Misra, Ishan; Agrawal, Aishwarya; Devlin, Jacob; Girshick, Ross; He, Xiaodong; Kohli, Pushmeet; Batra, Dhruv; Zitnick, C. Lawrence; Parikh, Devi; Vanderwende, Lucy; Galley, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the first dataset for sequential vision-to-language, and explore how this data may be used for the task of visual storytelling. The first release of this dataset, SIND v.1, includes 81,743 unique photos in 20,211 sequences, aligned to both descriptive (caption) and story language. We establish several strong baselines for the storytelling task, and motivate an automatic metric to benchmark progress. Modelling concrete description as well as figurative and social language, as prov...

  17. Flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities. 8 refs

  18. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  19. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  20. Cartografia e deficiência visual: experiências no Colégio Pedro II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Medeiros de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo de construção de uma escola inclusiva perpassa um conjunto de esforços cognitivos e técnicos por parte da comunidade escolar que são necessários para a adequada educação e desenvolvimento do aluno. No que diz respeito ao ensino de Geografia para alunos deficientes visuais, fazem parte deste conjunto de medidas o domínio do sistema Braille, a confecção de materiais e mapas táteis, a gravação de textos em áudio e, entre outras, a realização de trabalhos de campo. O presente relato de experiência refere-se à um projeto de dedicação exclusiva, implementado no Colégio Pedro II de 2008 a 2010, cujo objetivo foi aprimorar o ensino de Geografia para os alunos deficientes visuais. Conclui-se que a adoção dessas medidas representa o início de um longo trabalho de toda comunidade escolar que não pode ser resumido à existência de alguns materiais táteis. Deve, por outro lado, envolver um processo de construção e adequação instrumental, acompanhado da capacitação profissional e da sensibilização da comunidade escolar.

  1. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  2. Publisher Correction: Single-cell analysis of experience-dependent transcriptomic states in the mouse visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrvatin, Sinisa; Hochbaum, Daniel R; Nagy, M Aurel; Cicconet, Marcelo; Robertson, Keiramarie; Cheadle, Lucas; Zilionis, Rapolas; Ratner, Alex; Borges-Monroy, Rebeca; Klein, Allon M; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Greenberg, Michael E

    2018-05-11

    In the version of this article initially published, the x-axis labels in Fig. 3c read Vglut, Gad1/2, Aldh1l1 and Pecam1; they should have read Vglut + , Gad1/2 + , Aldh1l1 + and Pecam1 + . In Fig. 4, the range values were missing from the color scales; they are, from left to right, 4-15, 0-15, 4-15 and 0-15 in Fig. 4a and 4-15, 4-15 and 4-8 in Fig. 4h. In the third paragraph of the main text, the phrase reading "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types, thus masking the full diversity of excitatory populations" should have read "Previous approaches have analyzed a limited number of inhibitory cell types and masked the full diversity of excitatory populations." In the second paragraph of Results section "Diversity of experience-regulated ERGs," the phrase reading "thus suggesting considerable divergence within the gene expression program responding to early stimuli" should have read "thus suggesting considerable divergence within the early stimulus-responsive gene expression program." In the fourth paragraph of Results section "Excitatory neuronal LRGs," the sentence reading "The anatomical organization of these cell types into sublayers, coupled with divergent transcriptional responses to a sensory stimulus, suggested previously unappreciated functional subdivisions located within the laminae of the mouse visual cortex and resembling the cytoarchitecture in higher mammals" should have read "The anatomical organization of these cell types into sublayers, coupled with divergent transcriptional responses to a sensory stimulus, suggests previously unappreciated functional subdivisions located within the laminae of the mouse visual cortex, resembling the cytoarchitecture in higher mammals." In the last sentence of the Results, "sensory-responsive genes" should have read "sensory-stimulus-responsive genes." The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

  3. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  4. Detection experiments with humans implicate visual predation as a driver of colour polymorphism dynamics in pygmy grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal colour patterns offer good model systems for studies of biodiversity and evolution of local adaptations. An increasingly popular approach to study the role of selection for camouflage for evolutionary trajectories of animal colour patterns is to present images of prey on paper or computer screens to human ‘predators’. Yet, few attempts have been made to confirm that rates of detection by humans can predict patterns of selection and evolutionary modifications of prey colour patterns in nature. In this study, we first analyzed encounters between human ‘predators’ and images of natural black, grey and striped colour morphs of the polymorphic Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers presented on background images of unburnt, intermediate or completely burnt natural habitats. Next, we compared detection rates with estimates of capture probabilities and survival of free-ranging grasshoppers, and with estimates of relative morph frequencies in natural populations. Results The proportion of grasshoppers that were detected and time to detection depended on both the colour pattern of the prey and on the type of visual background. Grasshoppers were detected more often and faster on unburnt backgrounds than on 50% and 100% burnt backgrounds. Striped prey were detected less often than grey or black prey on unburnt backgrounds; grey prey were detected more often than black or striped prey on 50% burnt backgrounds; and black prey were detected less often than grey prey on 100% burnt backgrounds. Rates of detection mirrored previously reported rates of capture by humans of free-ranging grasshoppers, as well as morph specific survival in the wild. Rates of detection were also correlated with frequencies of striped, black and grey morphs in samples of T. subulata from natural populations that occupied the three habitat types used for the detection experiment. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that crypsis is background-dependent, and implicate visual predation

  5. Inter-observer variability of visual analysis of "stress"-only adenosine first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging in relation to clinical experience and reading criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, D. D.; Kuijpers, D.; Bodewes, R.; Kappert, P.; Kerkhof, M.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Oudkerk, M.

    To assess the inter-observer agreement of adenosine "stress"-only visual analysis of perfusion MR images in relation to experience and reading criteria. 106 adenosine perfusion MR examinations out of 350, 46 consecutive positive examinations and 60 randomly selected negative examinations were

  6. H3 and H4 Lysine Acetylation Correlates with Developmental and Experimentally Induced Adult Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Mouse Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vierci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone posttranslational modifications play a fundamental role in orchestrating gene expression. In this work, we analyzed the acetylation of H3 and H4 histones (AcH3-AcH4 and its modulation by visual experience in the mouse visual cortex (VC during normal development and in two experimental conditions that restore juvenile-like plasticity levels in adults (fluoxetine treatment and enriched environment. We found that AcH3-AcH4 declines with age and is upregulated by treatments restoring plasticity in the adult. We also found that visual experience modulates AcH3-AcH4 in young and adult plasticity-restored mice but not in untreated ones. Finally, we showed that the transporter vGAT is downregulated in adult plasticity-restored models. In summary, we identified a dynamic regulation of AcH3-AcH4, which is associated with high plasticity levels and enhanced by visual experience. These data, along with recent ones, indicate H3-H4 acetylation as a central hub in the control of experience-dependent plasticity in the VC.

  7. Preliminary experiments on surface flow visualization in the cryogenic wind tunnel by use of condensing or freezing gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic wind tunnel users must have available surface flow visualization techniques to satisfy a variety of needs. While the ideal from an aerodynamic stand would be non-intrusive, until an economical technique is developed there will be occasions when the user will be prepared to resort to an intrusive method. One such method is proposed, followed by preliminary evaluation experiments carried out in environments representative of the cryogenic nitrogen tunnel. The technique uses substances which are gases at normal temperature and pressure but liquid or solid at cryogenic temperatures. These are deposited on the model in localized regions, the patterns of the deposits and their subsequent melting or evaporation revealing details of the surface flow. The gases were chosen because of the likelihood that they will not permanently contaminate the model or tunnel. Twenty-four gases were identified as possibly suitable and four of these were tested from which it was concluded that surface flow direction can be shown by the method. Other flow details might also be detectable. The cryogenic wind tunnel used was insulated on the outside and did not show signs of contamination.

  8. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  9. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  10. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A survey on the knowledge and attitudes of anaesthesia providers in the United States of America, United Kingdom and Singapore on visual experiences during cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C S H; Kumar, C M; Fanning, G L; Lai, Y C; Au Eong, K G

    2006-04-01

    To assess the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of anaesthesia providers on the patients' possible intraoperative visual experiences during cataract surgery under local anaesthesia. Anaesthesia providers from the Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society (USA); British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society (UK); Alexandra Hospital, National University Hospital, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore General Hospital and Changi General Hospital (Singapore) were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 146 anaesthesiologists (81.6%), 10 ophthalmologists (5.6%) and 23 nurse anaesthetists (12.8%) responded to the survey. Most respondents believed that patients would experience light perception and many also felt that patients might encounter other visual sensations such as movements, flashes, colours, surgical instruments, hands/fingers and the surgeon during the surgery. A significantly higher proportion of anaesthesia providers with previous experience of monitoring patients under topical anaesthesia believed that patients might experience the various visual sensations compared to those who have not previously monitored. For both topical and regional anaesthesia, anaesthesia providers who routinely counsel their patients are (1) more likely to believe that preoperative counselling helps or (2) were previously told by patients that they could see intraoperatively and/or that they were frightened by their visual sensations. These findings were statistically significant. The majority of anaesthesia providers in the USA, UK and Singapore are aware that patients may experience a variety of visual sensations during cataract surgery under regional or topical anaesthesia. Those who have previously managed patients undergoing cataract surgery under topical anaesthesia are more likely to believe this compared to those who have not.

  12. Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyra, Eliza; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Śniegocka, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA efficacy and feasibility in Latin America, little is known about NGO involvement with VIA programming or experiences with VIA outside the context of clinical trials and pilot projects in the region. To explore challenges faced by NGOs implementing VIA programs in Guatemala, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 NGO staff members involved with 20 VIA programs as direct service providers, program administrators, and training course instructors. Additionally, we collected data through observation at 30 NGO-sponsored cervical cancer screening campaigns, 8 cervical cancer prevention conferences, and 1 week-long NGO-sponsored VIA training course. Frequently highlighted challenges included staff turnover, concerns over training quality, a need for opportunities for continued supervision, and problems with cryotherapy referrals when immediate treatment for VIA-positive women was unavailable. Reducing staff turnover, budgeting to train replacement providers, standardizing training curricula, and offering continued supervision are key strategies to improve VIA service quality and program sustainability. Alternative training methods, such as on-the-job mentoring and course prerequisites of online learning, could help increase training time available for clinical supervision. Efforts should be made to ensure that VIA testing is coupled with immediate cryotherapy, that providers trained in VIA are also trained in cryotherapy, and that cryotherapy supplies and equipment are maintained. Where this is not

  14. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  15. A comparison between patients with epiphora and cataract of the activity limitations they experience in daily life due to their visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Elin; Wyon, Maria; Lundström, Mats; Dafgård Kopp, Eva

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare patients with epiphora and cataract in terms of the activity limitations they experience in daily life due to their visual disability and to validate the use of the Catquest-9SF questionnaire for epiphora patients. Seventy-two consecutively encountered adult patients with confirmed lacrimal obstruction and listed for dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) or lacrimal intubation at the St. Erik Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, completed the Catquest-9SF questionnaire, which measures activity limitations in daily life due to visual disability. The psychometric qualities of the Catquest-9SF results obtained from this group of patients were evaluated by Rasch analysis. Rasch analysis was further employed to convert the ordinal raw data to a Rasch score for comparison with the preoperative scores of patients registered in the Swedish National Cataract Register (NCR) during March 2013. The Catquest-9SF exhibited good psychometric qualities when investigating epiphora patients, with the exception of a misfit for Item 4, the item regarding facial recognition. On the Rasch scale (-5.43 = no activity limitations to +5.01 = severe activity limitations), the mean score for epiphora patients was -0.82 while for patients listed for 1st eye and 2nd eye cataract surgery it was -0.17 and -0.76, respectively. An equivalence test confirmed that the reported visual disability of epiphora patients was not significantly different from visual disability reported by patients waiting for 2nd eye cataract surgery. The Catquest-9SF is a valid measure of visual disability in patients with epiphora. Epiphora patients experience visual disability to the same degree as patients awaiting 2nd eye cataract surgery. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Treatment decision for occipital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to achieve hemorrhagic control while maximizing visual preservation: Our experience and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuyang; Porras, Jose L; Philadelphia, Eunice; Law, Jody; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Caplan, Justin M; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2018-02-01

    Despite concern of hemorrhagic risk, patients with occipital AVMs are at significant risk for visual disturbances after treatment. We aim to characterize the hemorrhage risk and visual disturbance in occipital AVMs patients from our experience and literature review. We performed retrospective review of occipital AVM patients seen at our institution from 1990 to 2015. Patient characteristics were compared using multivariable logistic regression with follow-up visual disturbance as the outcome. We also systematically reviewed the PubMed database for English literature describing occipital AVMs (with exclusion of case reports). Ninety-seven patients satisfied inclusion criteria for our study. Mean age was 34.9 ± 16.4 years, with 50.5% male. Thirty-one (32.0%) presented with hemorrhage, and 32 (33.0%) presented with visual disturbance. Average AVM size was 4.0 ± 2.5 cm. Twenty-five (25.8%) were conservatively managed, 13 (13.4%) underwent surgery, and the rest were managed by radiosurgery (52.6%) or embolization (8.2%), with an obliteration rate of 38.9% in treated patients. During average follow-up of 5.4 years, 6 patients (6.7%) hemorrhaged yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 1.2% for all patients, and 0.0% for surgically-treated patients. Thirty-seven (38.3%) patients experienced visual disturbance in some capacity, nineteen (21.1%) had de novo visual disturbance, fourteen of which were surgically treated patients (19.4%). Multivariable analysis reveals visual disturbance at presentation (p = .012) and microsurgery (p = .047) are significantly predictors of follow-up visual disturbance. While hemorrhage control remains the primary goal of AVM treatment, visual preservation in occipital AVMs is also a major concern. Recommending patients for microsurgery should be weighed carefully and individualized as it bears the highest risk of visual field disturbance despite most optimal hemorrhage control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  18. Visual operations management tools applied to the oil pipelines and terminals standardization process: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the process by which visual operations management (VOM) tools were implemented, concerning standards and operational procedures in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit. It provides: a brief literature review of visual operations management tools applied to total quality management and the standardization processes; a discussion of the assumptions from the second level of VOM (visual standards) upon which TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals business processes and operational procedures are based; and a description of the VOM implementation process involving more than 100 employees and one illustrative example of 'Quick Guides' for right-of- way management activities. Finally, it discusses the potential impacts and benefits of using VOM tools in the current practices in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit, reinforcing the importance of such visual guides as vital to implement regional and corporate procedures, focusing on the main operational processes. (author)

  19. The Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes does not depend on a normal visual experience: A study with early blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Rinaldi, Luca; Fantino, Micaela; Ferrari, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Vecchi, Tomaso

    2018-02-26

    Converging evidence suggests that the perception of auditory pitch exhibits a characteristic spatial organization. This pitch-space association can be demonstrated experimentally by the Spatial Musical Association of Response Codes (SMARC) effect. This is characterized by faster response times when a low-positioned key is pressed in response to a low-pitched tone, and a high-positioned key is pressed in response to a high-pitched tone. To investigate whether the development of this pitch-space association is mediated by normal visual experience, we tested a group of early blind individuals on a task that required them to discriminate the timbre of different instrument sounds with varying pitch. Results revealed a comparable pattern in the SMARC effect in both blind participants and sighted controls, suggesting that the lack of prior visual experience does not prevent the development of an association between pitch height and vertical space.

  20. Explorations in Aeolian Ecology: Radar and Visual Studies of the Aerofauna during the Convection and Precipitation/electrification (cape) Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert William

    I studied the ecology of aerial insects and birds (the "aerofauna") during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) Experiment in Florida during the summer of 1991. Visual observations were coordinated with simultaneous measurements of atmospheric motions, permitting novel explorations of: (1) patterns and processes in the distribution of "aerial plankton" (i.e., small, weakly flying insects that drift with boundary-layer winds); (2) the feeding ecology of "aerial planktivores" (i.e., predators that feed on aerial plankton); and (3) the flight tactics of soaring birds. Sensitive Doppler radars regularly detected fine lines of enhanced reflectivity in boundary-layer convergence zones. These "fine lines" were attributable to dense concentrations of aerial plankton entrained by the convergent airflow. Insect densities were inferred to be about an order of magnitude higher inside convergence zones then elsewhere. Anecdotal observations suggested that large quantities of aerial plankton entrained in convergence zones were sometimes "scrubbed" from the boundary layer by precipitation. Radar images clearly depicted the rapid aeolian transport of aerial plankton across the landscape, but also showed that densities of aerial plankton became concentrated along coastlines when winds blew toward the sea. In contrast, airspace over the adjacent ocean remained largely free of radar echoes under all wind conditions. The coastal concentrations, together with the absence of overwater echoes, indicate that the organisms comprising the aerial plankton respond behaviorally to coastlines to avoid being blown out to sea. Several species of aerial insectivorous predators commonly exploited boundary-layer fine lines as food resources. Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica), barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), and wandering gliders (Pantala flavescens) showed significant responses to fine lines. Details of these responses differed, but this variation clearly reflected species

  1. Audiovisual plasticity following early abnormal visual experience: Reduced McGurk effect in people with one eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Stefania S; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2018-04-13

    Previously, we have shown that people who have had one eye surgically removed early in life during visual development have enhanced sound localization [1] and lack visual dominance, commonly observed in binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls [2]. Despite these changes, people with one eye integrate auditory and visual components of multisensory events optimally [3]. The current study investigates how people with one eye perceive the McGurk effect, an audiovisual illusion where a new syllable is perceived when visual lip movements do not match the corresponding sound [4]. We compared individuals with one eye to binocular and monocular viewing controls and found that they have a significantly smaller McGurk effect compared to binocular controls. Additionally, monocular controls tended to perceive the McGurk effect less often than binocular controls suggesting a small transient modulation of the McGurk effect. These results suggest altered weighting of the auditory and visual modalities with both short and long-term monocular viewing. These results indicate the presence of permanent adaptive perceptual accommodations in people who have lost one eye early in life that may serve to mitigate the loss of binocularity during early brain development. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  3. Immersive visualization of dynamic CFD model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparato, J.R.; Ringel, K.L.; Heath, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    With immersive visualization the engineer has the means for vividly understanding problem causes and discovering opportunities to improve design. Software can generate an interactive world in which collaborators experience the results of complex mathematical simulations such as computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling. Such software, while providing unique benefits over traditional visualization techniques, presents special development challenges. The visualization of large quantities of data interactively requires both significant computational power and shrewd data management. On the computational front, commodity hardware is outperforming large workstations in graphical quality and frame rates. Also, 64-bit commodity computing shows promise in enabling interactive visualization of large datasets. Initial interactive transient visualization methods and examples are presented, as well as development trends in commodity hardware and clustering. Interactive, immersive visualization relies on relevant data being stored in active memory for fast response to user requests. For large or transient datasets, data management becomes a key issue. Techniques for dynamic data loading and data reduction are presented as means to increase visualization performance. (author)

  4. Using Virtual Microscopy to Scaffold Learning of Pathology: A Naturalistic Experiment on the Role of Visual and Conceptual Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Markus; Saljo, Roger; Rystedt, Hans; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Lehtinen, Erno

    2012-01-01

    New representational technologies, such as virtual microscopy, create new affordances for medical education. In the article, a study on the following two issues is reported: (a) How does collaborative use of virtual microscopy shape students' engagement with and learning from virtual slides of tissue specimen? (b) How do visual and conceptual cues…

  5. PRI-CAT: a web-tool for the analysis, storage and visualization of plant ChIP-seq experiments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muino, J.M.; Hoogstraat, M.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.; Dijk, van A.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Although several tools for the analysis of ChIP-seq data have been published recently, there is a growing demand, in particular in the plant research community, for computational resources with which such data can be processed, analyzed, stored, visualized and integrated within a single,

  6. Visual Aversive Learning Compromises Sensory Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Lee; Paz, Rony; Avidan, Galia

    2018-03-14

    Aversive learning is thought to modulate perceptual thresholds, which can lead to overgeneralization. However, it remains undetermined whether this modulation is domain specific or a general effect. Moreover, despite the unique role of the visual modality in human perception, it is unclear whether this aspect of aversive learning exists in this modality. The current study was designed to examine the effect of visual aversive outcomes on the perception of basic visual and auditory features. We tested the ability of healthy participants, both males and females, to discriminate between neutral stimuli, before and after visual learning. In each experiment, neutral stimuli were associated with aversive images in an experimental group and with neutral images in a control group. Participants demonstrated a deterioration in discrimination (higher discrimination thresholds) only after aversive learning. This deterioration was measured for both auditory (tone frequency) and visual (orientation and contrast) features. The effect was replicated in five different experiments and lasted for at least 24 h. fMRI neural responses and pupil size were also measured during learning. We showed an increase in neural activations in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala during aversive compared with neutral learning. Interestingly, the early visual cortex showed increased brain activity during aversive compared with neutral context trials, with identical visual information. Our findings imply the existence of a central multimodal mechanism, which modulates early perceptual properties, following exposure to negative situations. Such a mechanism could contribute to abnormal responses that underlie anxiety states, even in new and safe environments. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using a visual aversive-learning paradigm, we found deteriorated discrimination abilities for visual and auditory stimuli that were associated with visual aversive stimuli. We showed increased neural

  7. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  8. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, S

    1995-06-01

    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  9. ARCHITECTURE DEGREE PROJECT: USE OF 3D TECHNOLOGY, MODELS AND AUGMENTED REALITY EXPERIENCE WITH VISUALLY IMPAIRED USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Navarro Delgado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 technologies provide effective tools for interpreting architecture and culture in general. Thus, a project may have an emotional impact on people while also having a more widespread effect in society as a whole. This project defines a methodology for evaluating accessibility of architecture for people with visual disabilities and the application of this to visiting emblematic buildings such as the Basilica of the Holly Family in Barcelona, designed by the architect, Antoni Gaudí.

  10. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA ef...

  11. Visual-spatial processing and working-memory load as a function of negative and positive psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, A; Reniers, R L E P; Wood, S J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in working-memory and visual-spatial processing, but little is known about the dynamic interplay between the two. To provide insight into this important question, we examined the effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults on perceptual processing while concurrently performing a working-memory task that requires the allocations of various degrees of cognitive resources. The effect of positive and negative symptom expressions in healthy adults (N = 91) on perceptual processing was examined in a dual-task paradigm of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) under three conditions of cognitive load: a baseline condition (with no concurrent working-memory demand), a low VSWM load condition, and a high VSWM load condition. Participants overall performed more efficiently (i.e., faster) with increasing cognitive load. This facilitation in performance was unrelated to symptom expressions. However, participants with high-negative, low-positive symptom expressions were less accurate in the low VSWM condition compared to the baseline and the high VSWM load conditions. Attenuated, subclinical expressions of psychosis affect cognitive performance that is impaired in schizophrenia. The "resource limitations hypothesis" may explain the performance of the participants with high-negative symptom expressions. The dual-task of visual-spatial processing and working memory may be beneficial to assessing the cognitive phenotype of individuals with high risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  12. Spatial limits on the nonvisual self-touch illusion and the visual rubber hand illusion: subjective experience of the illusion and proprioceptive drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C; Davies, Martin

    2013-06-01

    The nonvisual self-touch rubber hand paradigm elicits the compelling illusion that one is touching one's own hand even though the two hands are not in contact. In four experiments, we investigated spatial limits of distance (15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm) and alignment (0°, 90° anti-clockwise) on the nonvisual self-touch illusion and the well-known visual rubber hand illusion. Common procedures (synchronous and asynchronous stimulation administered for 60s with the prosthetic hand at body midline) and common assessment methods were used. Subjective experience of the illusion was assessed by agreement ratings for statements on a questionnaire and time of illusion onset. The nonvisual self-touch illusion was diminished though never abolished by distance and alignment manipulations, whereas the visual rubber hand illusion was more robust against these manipulations. We assessed proprioceptive drift, and implications of a double dissociation between subjective experience of the illusion and proprioceptive drift are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feature-based memory-driven attentional capture: Visual working memory content affects visual attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivers, C.N.L.; Meijer, F.; Theeuwes, J.

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly

  14. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  15. Early experience with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies under visual transrectal ultrasound guidance in patients suspicious for prostate cancer undergoing repeated biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Noergaard, Nis; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies (mp-MRI-bx) in patients with prior negative transrectal ultrasound biopsy (TRUS-bx) sessions without previous experience of this......-RADS) and Likert classification. All underwent repeated TRUS-bx (10 cores) and mp-MRI-bx under visual TRUS guidance of any mp-MRI-suspicious lesion not targeted by systematic TRUS-bx. RESULTS: PCa was found in 39 out of 83 patients (47%) and mp-MRI identified at least one lesion with some degree of suspicion...

  16. THE TIME COURSE OF ABNORMALITIES IN THE BRAIN SUBCORTICAL VISUAL CENTRE FOLLOWING EARLY IMPAIRMENT OF BINOCULAR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Alekseenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amblyopia related to congenital strabismus belongs to neurological disorders since it is caused by structural and functional remodeling of the visual parts of the brain without any baseline retinal pathology. Although a large number of animal studies on experimentally induced strabismus, as well as clinical cases have been published, the mechanisms and time course of the processes within the brain structures are not fully understood. Aim: To study the time course of abnormalities in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd in animals with surgically induced convergent strabismus. LGNd is the structure through which the information from the retina goes to the visual cortex separately for each eye. Materials and methods: 14 strabismic and 17 intact kittens of four age groups were studied. Histochemical method was used to identify cytochrome oxidase which is a  mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme whose activity correlates with neuronal functional activity. Optical density in eye-specific layers  A  and A1 was measured on the images of stained LGNd sections, with calculation of the contrast difference between them. Results: In strabismic kittens, there were changes in activity of A and A1 layers in the projection of the central part of visual field in LGNd of both hemispheres. At early stages of their formation, a relative decrease in activity was found in both hemispheres in the LGNd layers innervated through non-crossed pathways from both retinae. Thereafter, the time course of abnormalities in LGNd of both hemispheres was different. In the hemisphere ipsilateral to the squinting eye, the difference in layer activity was highest at the age from 3 to 5 months. However, in the opposite hemisphere the same difference indicating a decreased activity in the layer of the squinting eye were observed only at the age of 5 months. Conclusion: The process of amblyopia development during congenital convergent strabismus is

  17. Constructing visual representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, Samuel; Jansen, Yvonne; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2014-01-01

    tangible building blocks. We learned that all participants, most of whom had little experience in visualization authoring, were readily able to create and talk about their own visualizations. Based on our observations, we discuss participants’ actions during the development of their visual representations......The accessibility of infovis authoring tools to a wide audience has been identified as a major research challenge. A key task in the authoring process is the development of visual mappings. While the infovis community has long been deeply interested in finding effective visual mappings......, comparatively little attention has been placed on how people construct visual mappings. In this paper, we present the results of a study designed to shed light on how people transform data into visual representations. We asked people to create, update and explain their own information visualizations using only...

  18. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  19. Python data visualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanovic, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style targeted towards an advanced audience. It covers the advanced topics of data visualization in Python.Python Data Visualization Cookbook is for developers that already know about Python programming in general. If you have heard about data visualization but you don't know where to start, then this book will guide you from the start and help you understand data, data formats, data visualization, and how to use Python to visualize data.You will need to know some general programming concepts, and any kind of programming experience will be helpful, but the co

  20. Modulation of the inter-hemispheric processing of semantic information during normal aging. A divided visual field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyau, E; Cousin, E; Jaillard, A; Baciu, M

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of normal aging on the inter-hemispheric processing of semantic information by using the divided visual field (DVF) method, with words and pictures. Two main theoretical models have been considered, (a) the HAROLD model which posits that aging is associated with supplementary recruitment of the right hemisphere (RH) and decreased hemispheric specialization, and (b) the RH decline theory, which assumes that the RH becomes less efficient with aging, associated with increased LH specialization. Two groups of subjects were examined, a Young Group (YG) and an Old Group (OG), while participants performed a semantic categorization task (living vs. non-living) in words and pictures. The DVF was realized in two steps: (a) unilateral DVF presentation with stimuli presented separately in each visual field, left or right, allowing for their initial processing by only one hemisphere, right or left, respectively; (b) bilateral DVF presentation (BVF) with stimuli presented simultaneously in both visual fields, followed by their processing by both hemispheres. These two types of presentation permitted the evaluation of two main characteristics of the inter-hemispheric processing of information, the hemispheric specialization (HS) and the inter-hemispheric cooperation (IHC). Moreover, the BVF allowed determining the driver-hemisphere for processing information presented in BVF. Results obtained in OG indicated that: (a) semantic categorization was performed as accurately as YG, even if more slowly, (b) a non-semantic RH decline was observed, and (c) the LH controls the semantic processing during the BVF, suggesting an increased role of the LH in aging. However, despite the stronger involvement of the LH in OG, the RH is not completely devoid of semantic abilities. As discussed in the paper, neither the HAROLD nor the RH decline does fully explain this pattern of results. We rather suggest that the effect of aging on the hemispheric specialization and inter

  1. Scientific visualization and radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrance, D.P.; Hoyer, C.E.; Wrestler, F.A.; Kuhn, M.J.; Moore, W.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Scientific visualization is the visual presentation of numerical data. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) has developed methods for visualizing computerbased simulations of digital imaging data. The applicability of these various tools for unique and potentially medical beneficial display of MR images is investigated. Raw data are obtained from MR images of the brain, neck, spine, and brachial plexus obtained on a 1.5-T imager with multiple pulse sequences. A supercomputer and other mainframe resources run a variety of graphic and imaging programs using this data. An interdisciplinary team of imaging scientists, computer graphic programmers, an physicians works together to achieve useful information

  2. Experiment and analysis of basic phenomena of gas catching by liquid surface. Observation by visualizing vortex structure and gas catching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamemoto, Takashi; Nishiyama, Tadao

    1995-01-01

    Since gravity, viscous force, surface tension and so on are related simultaneously to the inertia force of flow, in gas catching phenomena, it is often difficult to grasp exactly its similarity. At the time of designing actual equipment, careful model test is required, and the validity of the evaluation by model test for applying it to actual machines sometimes becomes a problem. In this research, for the purpose of elucidating the essential mechanism of the gas-catching phenomena by vortices, and obtaining the knowledge useful for the probability of the method of evaluating the limit of gas catching, the knowledge obtained so far on the similarity law and model testing method related to the air catching by vortices was put in order, and vortex structure and basic gas-catching process were observed by water flow visualizing experiment, thus the noteworthy flow characteristics for clarifying the essential mechanism of the phenomena were obtained. The main knowledges on the air catching by vortices obtained so far, the experiment of visualizing vortices using water flow and the experimental results are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection Leads to a Poor Visual Outcome in Endogenous Endophthalmitis: A 12-year Experience in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chou; Lee, Ying-Yen; Chen, Ya-Hsin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Wu, Tsung-Tien; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2017-12-01

    To compare the characteristics, visual outcome, and prognostic factors of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis and to determine the association of endophthalmitis with Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. We retrospectively analyzed records of patients diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis from January 2002 to August 2013. A total of 86 patients were diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis; 48 patients were infected with K. pneumoniae, 28 patients were infected with other pathogens, and 10 were culture-negative. Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among patients infected with K. pneumoniae. Liver abscess and urinary tract infection were the leading sources of infection in patients with and without a K. pneumoniae infection, respectively. In patients with endogenous endophthalmitis, poor initial vision (pendogenous endophthalmitis.

  4. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  5. ExpTreeDB: web-based query and visualization of manually annotated gene expression profiling experiments of human and mouse from GEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ming; Ye, Fuqiang; Zhu, Juanjuan; Li, Zongwei; Yang, Shuai; Yang, Bite; Han, Lu; Wu, Yongge; Chen, Ying; Li, Fei; Wang, Shengqi; Bo, Xiaochen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous public microarray datasets are valuable resources for the scientific communities. Several online tools have made great steps to use these data by querying related datasets with users' own gene signatures or expression profiles. However, dataset annotation and result exhibition still need to be improved. ExpTreeDB is a database that allows for queries on human and mouse microarray experiments from Gene Expression Omnibus with gene signatures or profiles. Compared with similar applications, ExpTreeDB pays more attention to dataset annotations and result visualization. We introduced a multiple-level annotation system to depict and organize original experiments. For example, a tamoxifen-treated cell line experiment is hierarchically annotated as 'agent→drug→estrogen receptor antagonist→tamoxifen'. Consequently, retrieved results are exhibited by an interactive tree-structured graphics, which provide an overview for related experiments and might enlighten users on key items of interest. The database is freely available at http://biotech.bmi.ac.cn/ExpTreeDB. Web site is implemented in Perl, PHP, R, MySQL and Apache. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Reflective Reconstruction of Visual Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    objects. The teacher used a range of visual materials including video clips, diagrams, student drawings, and student produced 3D models, each endowed with unique material and visual dimensions. The teacher activated those through talking, writing, drawing and working with artifacts and purposefully...

  7. Influence of visual experience on developmental shift from long-term depression to long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Dieni, Cristina; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2004-11-01

    The influence of visual experience deprivation on changes in synaptic plasticity during postnatal development was studied in the ventral part of the rat medial vestibular nuclei (vMVN). We analysed the differences in the occurrence, expressed as a percentage, of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents in rats reared in the light (LR) and those in the dark (DR). In LR rats, HFS only induced LTD in the early stages of development, but the occurrence of LTD progressively decreased to zero before their eyes opened, while that of LTP enhanced from zero to about 50%. Once the rats' eyes had opened, LTD was no longer inducible while LTP occurrence gradually reached the normal adult value (70%). In DR rats, a similar shift from LTD to LTP was observed before their eyes opened, showing only a slightly slower LTD decay and LTP growth, and the LTD annulment was delayed by 1 day. By contrast, the time courses of LTD and LTP development in DR and LR rats showed remarkable differences following eye opening. In fact, LTD occurrence increased to about 50% in a short period of time and remained high until the adult stage. In addition, the occurrence of LTP slowly decreased to less than 20%. The effect of light-deprivation was reversible, since the exposure of DR rats to light, 5 days after eye opening, caused a sudden disappearance of LTD and a partial recover of LTP occurrence. In addition, we observed that a week of light deprivation in LR adult rats did not affect the normal adult LTP occurrence. These results provide evidence that in a critical period of development visual input plays a crucial role in shaping synaptic plasticity of the vMVN, and suggest that the visual guided shift from LTD to LTP during development may be necessary to refine and consolidate vestibular circuitry.

  8. A Guide for Developing Human-Robot Interaction Experiments in the Robotic Interactive Visualization and Experimentation Technology (RIVET) Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    5.2 Gunnery 34 5.3 Driverless Vehicle Transport 36 6. Discussion 38 6.1 Lessons Learned 38 6.1.1 Problem No. 1: CARVE Does Not Always Load...gunnery user interface GUI setup 5.3 Driverless Vehicle Transport A third, and most recent, type of mission used for HRI experimentation investigated a...specific non-combat operation of driverless vehicles for passenger transit. One example is an experiment motivated by the Autonomous Robotics for

  9. Visual capture and the experience of having two bodies – Evidence from two different virtual reality techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas eHeydrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In neurology and psychiatry the detailed study of illusory own body perceptions has suggested close links between bodily processing and self-consciousness. One such illusory own body perception is heautoscopy where patients have the sensation of being reduplicated and to exist at two or even more locations. In previous experiments, using a video head-mounted display, self-location and self-identification were manipulated by applying conflicting visuo-tactile information. Yet the experienced singularity of the self was not affected, i.e. participants did not experience having multiple bodies or selves. In two experiments presented in this paper, we investigated self-location and self-identification while participants saw two virtual bodies (video-generated in study 1 and 3D computer generated in study 2 that were stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their own body. In both experiments, we report that self-identification with two virtual bodies was stronger during synchronous stroking. Furthermore, in the video generated setup with synchronous stroking participants reported a greater feeling of having multiple bodies than in the control conditions. In study 1, but not in study 2, we report that self-location – measured by anterior posterior drift – was significantly shifted towards the two bodies in the synchronous condition only. Self-identification with two bodies, the sensation of having multiple bodies, and the changes in self-location show that the experienced singularity of the self can be studied experimentally. We discuss our data with respect to ownership for supernumerary hands and heautoscopy. We finally compare the effects of the video and 3D computer generated head-mounted display technology and discuss the possible benefits of using either technology to induce changes in illusory self-identification with a virtual body.

  10. The Application of WebGIS Tools for Visualizing Coastal Flooding Vulnerability and Planning for Resiliency: The New Jersey Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lathrop

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While sea level rise is a world-wide phenomenon, mitigating its impacts is a local decision-making challenge that is going to require site-specific remedies. Faced with a variety of conflicting mandates and uncertainty as to appropriate responses, local land use planners and managers need place-based decision support tools. With the increasing availability of high-resolution digital elevation models and the advancing speed and sophistication of web-based mapping, a number of web geographic information systems (GIS tools have been developed to map and visualize what areas of a coastal landscape will potentially be flooded under different scenarios of sea level rise. This paper presents a case study of one such WebGIS application, NJFloodMapper (www.NJFloodMapper.org, with a focus on the user-centered design process employed to help our target audience of coastal decision-makers in the state of New Jersey, USA, access and understand relevant geographic information concerning sea level rise and exposure to coastal inundation, as well as assess the vulnerability of key infrastructure, populations and natural resources within their communities. We discuss the success of this approach amidst the broader context of the application of WebGIS tools in this arena. Due to its flexible design and user-friendly interface, NJFloodMapper has been widely adopted by government and non-governmental agencies in the state to assess coastal flooding exposure and vulnerability in the aftermath of a recent destructive coastal storm. However, additional decision support tools are needed to help coastal decision-makers translate the place-based information into concrete action plans aimed at promoting more resilient coastal land use decisions.

  11. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  12. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  13. Design for Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeries, Larry

    Experiences suggested within this visual arts packet provide high school students with awareness of visual expression in graphic design, product design, architecture, and crafts. The unit may be used in whole or in part and includes information about art careers and art-related jobs found in major occupational fields. Specific lesson topics…

  14. Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.

  15. What do we watch when we watch? Limits of visualism in the definition of authenticity in the anthropological tourism experience

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the way by which the anthropology of the senses and perceptions affects tourist’s experience. By utilizing the concept of authenticity and the way it is outlined by its existential value (Wang 1999), or as process of authentication (Van de Port 2004; Cohen & Cohen 2012), my aim is to show how it is negotiated and mediated with, amongst other, through the senses. In the specific field of tourism, although anthropology nowadays strives to regain more room to analyse ...

  16. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  17. Visualization in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    MacEachren, AM

    1994-01-01

    Visualization in Modern Cartography explores links between the centuries-old discipline of cartography and today's revolutionary developments in scientific visualization. The book has three main goals: (1) to pass on design and symbolization expertise to the scientific visualization community - information that comes from centuries of pre-computer visualization by cartographers, and their more recent experiences with computerizing the discipline; (2) to help cartographers cope with the dramatic shift from print cartography to a dynamic virtual cartography for which their role is changing from

  18. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Hammond

    2013-01-01

    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  19. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  20. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  1. Visual memory and visual perception: when memory improves visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Benoit; Lesourd, Mathieu; Brunel, Lionel; Versace, Rémy

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between memory and perception in order to identify the influence of a memory dimension in perceptual processing. Our aim was to determine whether the variation of typical size between items (i.e., the size in real life) affects visual search. In two experiments, the congruency between typical size difference and perceptual size difference was manipulated in a visual search task. We observed that congruency between the typical and perceptual size differences decreased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 1), and noncongruency between these two differences increased reaction times in the visual search (Exp. 2). We argue that these results highlight that memory and perception share some resources and reveal the intervention of typical size difference on the computation of the perceptual size difference.

  2. O aprendizado da utilização da substituição sensorial visuo-tátil por pessoas com deficiência visual: primeiras experiências e estratégias metodológicas The learning of the use of the tactile-vision sensory substitution by people with visual disability: first experiences and methodological strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Kastrup

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de substituição tátil-visual (TVSS é uma tecnologia assistiva criada para ajudar deficientes visuais a perceberem aspectos visuais de seu ambiente através do tato e contribuir para sua inclusão social. Para melhor entender o processo de aprendizagem dessa tecnologia, quatro participantes cegos foram treinados com o Brainport®, a última versão do TVSS, onde imagens visuais transformadas são exploradas pela língua. O artigo objetiva de investigar o estágio inicial desse processo de aprendizagem, em termos tanto do desempenho dos participantes quanto da qualidade de sua experiência. O treinamento, conduzido de acordo com um método clínico-pedagógico, produziu dados em terceira pessoa e em primeira pessoa. Os dados foram obtidos através de registros de desempenho e de entrevistas de explicitação. Os resultados mostram que as maiores dificuldades surgidas foram relativas ao acoplamento sensório-motor, aos movimentos do corpo e da cabeça e à dissonância entre as expectativas e a qualidade da experiência perceptiva.The tactile-vision-substitution-system (TVSS is an assistive technology designed to aid the visually impaired in perceiving visual aspects of their environment located beyond touch. In order to better understand the learning process of that assistive aid, we trained four blind participants with the Brainport®, the last version of the TVSS, where the transformed visual images are explored by the tongue. More specifically, this article aims to investigate the initial stage of this learning process, in terms both of participants' performance and their qualitative experience. The training, conducted according to the clinical-pedagogic method, produced data both from the first-person and the third-person point of view. Data were gathered through records of participants' performance and explanation interviews. Results show that the main difficulties arising during the process concerned sensory-motor coupling

  3. What Is Seen and What Is Listened: an Experience on the Visual Learning of Music Through the Artistic Picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M. Zavala Arnal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of an experiment consisting of a sequence of didactic activities carried out with students of first grade of Musical Language of Professional Conservatory Education through the artistic picture as main tool for the historical and musical contextualization and to support musical audition and interpretation. On this occasion, the central panel of the altarpiece of the Coronation of the Virgin from the parochial church of Retascón (Zaragoza, made in the first third of the fifteen century by the Master of Retascón, which includes singing angels with music sheet rolls / music scrolls, is the medium through which the different learning activities are going to be developed. In addition, an unpublished iconographic-musical description of the selected work is provided. With the aim of reaching some specific learning objects related to Medieval and modal music, apart from the particular methodologies of artistic and musical education, the quantitative method is used. Its results confirm the usefulness of the artistic picture in Musical Language learning.

  4. Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of weak central coherence effects: experiments in visual configural learning and auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Kate; Saksida, Lisa; Alcántara, José; Weisblatt, Emma

    2003-01-01

    The weak central coherence hypothesis of Frith is one of the most prominent theories concerning the abnormal performance of individuals with autism on tasks that involve local and global processing. Individuals with autism often outperform matched nonautistic individuals on tasks in which success depends upon processing of local features, and underperform on tasks that require global processing. We review those studies that have been unable to identify the locus of the mechanisms that may be responsible for weak central coherence effects and those that show that local processing is enhanced in autism but not at the expense of global processing. In the light of these studies, we propose that the mechanisms which can give rise to 'weak central coherence' effects may be perceptual. More specifically, we propose that perception operates to enhance the representation of individual perceptual features but that this does not impact adversely on representations that involve integration of features. This proposal was supported in the two experiments we report on configural and feature discrimination learning in high-functioning children with autism. We also examined processes of perception directly, in an auditory filtering task which measured the width of auditory filters in individuals with autism and found that the width of auditory filters in autism were abnormally broad. We consider the implications of these findings for perceptual theories of the mechanisms underpinning weak central coherence effects. PMID:12639334

  5. Unique computer system for safeguards use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Pratt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors have been used to implement specialized scientific data processing systems since 1976. One such system, the LeCroy 3500, is presently being used by the Detection and Verification Group of the Energy Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for a large variety of tasks involving measurement of various nuclear parameters associated with radioactive materials. The system is unique because it can do not only sophisticated pulse height and multi-scale analyses but also other analyses that are limited only by the availability fo CAMAC modules that would acquire data from exotic experiments. The system is also field portable which extends the range of experiments that it can control. Four applications of this system are described in this paper: (1) plutonium storage vault monitoring, (2) coded aperture image reconstruction, (3) spatial distribution of gamma radiation, and (4) nuclear waste management. 7 figures

  6. MRI: unique costing and pricing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H W; Jarl, D F

    1985-01-01

    Acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves a plethora of costs not traditionally encountered in radiology procedure cost accounting models. Experiences with MRI gained at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics during 1984 uncovered a wide variety of unique costing issues which were eventually identified at the time when the MRI hospital charge was being established. Our experience at UMHC can provide those radiology departments now acquiring MRI with an earlier awareness of these special costing issues, hopefully resulting in better and more timely data collection. Current reimbursement and pricing issues are also having a dramatic impact on MRI costs at each institution and must be assessed in terms of third-party payor intentions.

  7. Understanding Visual Novel As Artwork of Visual Communication Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dendi Pratama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual Novel is a kind of audiovisual game that offers visual strength through the narrative and visual characters. The developer community of Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia indicated a limited local game developer that produces Visual Novel of Indonesia. In addition, Indonesian Visual Novel production was also more influenced by the style of anime or manga from Japan. Actually, Visual Novel is part of the potential of  creative industries products. The study is to formulate the problem, how to understand Visual Novel as artwork of visual communication design, especially among students? This research is a case study conducted on visual communication design student at the University Indraprasta PGRI Jakarta. The results showed low levels of knowledge, understanding, and experience of  the Visual Novel game, which is below 50%. Qualitative and quantitative methods combined with structural semiotic approach is used to describe the elements of the design and the signs structure at the Visual Novel. This research can be a scientific reference for further introduce and encourage an understanding of Visual Novel as artwork of Visual Communication Design. In addition, the results may add to the knowledge of  society, and encourage the development of Visual Novel artwork that  reflect the culture of Indonesia. Visual Novel adalah sejenis permainan audiovisual yang menawarkan kekuatan visual melalui narasi dan karakter visual. Data dari komunitas pengembang Visual Novel (VN Project Indonesia menunjukkan masih terbatasnya pengembang game lokal yang memproduksi Visual Novel Indonesia. Selain itu, produksi Visual Novel Indonesia juga lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh gaya anime dan manga dari Jepang. Padahal Visual Novel adalah bagian dari produk industri kreatif yang potensial. Studi ini merumuskan masalah, bagaimana memahami Visual Novel sebagai karya seni desain komunikasi visual, khususnya di kalangan mahasiswa? Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus

  8. Math for visualization, visualizing math

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Hart, G.; Sarhangi, R.

    2013-01-01

    I present an overview of our work in visualization, and reflect on the role of mathematics therein. First, mathematics can be used as a tool to produce visualizations, which is illustrated with examples from information visualization, flow visualization, and cartography. Second, mathematics itself

  9. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  10. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  11. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  12. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  13. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  14. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Reward associations impact both iconic and visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Elisa; Hickey, Clayton; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Reward plays a fundamental role in human behavior. A growing number of studies have shown that stimuli associated with reward become salient and attract attention. The aim of the present study was to extend these results into the investigation of iconic memory and visual working memory. In two experiments we asked participants to perform a visual-search task where different colors of the target stimuli were paired with high or low reward. We then tested whether the pre-established feature-reward association affected performance on a subsequent visual memory task, in which no reward was provided. In this test phase participants viewed arrays of 8 objects, one of which had unique color that could match the color associated with reward during the previous visual-search task. A probe appeared at varying intervals after stimulus offset to identify the to-be-reported item. Our results suggest that reward biases the encoding of visual information such that items characterized by a reward-associated feature interfere with mnemonic representations of other items in the test display. These results extend current knowledge regarding the influence of reward on early cognitive processes, suggesting that feature-reward associations automatically interact with the encoding and storage of visual information, both in iconic memory and visual working memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active listening impairs visual perception and selectivity: an ERP study of auditory dual-task costs on visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherri, Elena; Eimer, Martin

    2011-04-01

    The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual-attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1) or feature conjunction (Experiment 2), and simultaneously listened to narrated text passages that had to be recalled later (encoding condition), or heard backward-played speech sounds that could be ignored (control condition). Responses to targets were slower in the encoding condition, and ERPs revealed that the visual processing of search arrays and the attentional selection of target stimuli were less efficient in the encoding relative to the control condition. Results demonstrate that the attentional processing of visual information is impaired when concurrent spoken messages are encoded and maintained, in line with cross-modal links in selective attention, but inconsistent with the view that attentional resources are modality-specific. The distraction of visual attention by active listening could contribute to the adverse effects of cell phone use on driving performance.

  17. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your visual field. How the Test is Performed Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  18. Teen camp: a unique approach to recruit future nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Donna A; Riech, Sandy; Prater, Marsha A

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative and unique approach to interest high school students in nursing. To inform educators and nursing departments about an innovative approach to recruit future nurses. Professional literature and authors' experience. All students related positive experiences. The initial camp evaluation produced innovative input from the students, and each camp met its goal of creating career interest in the nursing profession.

  19. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  20. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  1. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  2. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  3. Feature-Based Memory-Driven Attentional Capture: Visual Working Memory Content Affects Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Meijer, Frank; Theeuwes, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In 7 experiments, the authors explored whether visual attention (the ability to select relevant visual information) and visual working memory (the ability to retain relevant visual information) share the same content representations. The presence of singleton distractors interfered more strongly with a visual search task when it was accompanied by…

  4. The Probabilities of Unique Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    Washington, DC USA Max Lotstein and Phil Johnson-Laird Department of Psychology Princeton University Princeton, NJ USA August 30th 2012...social justice and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations. The participants ranked the probability that Linda is a feminist bank teller as...retorted that such a flagrant violation of the probability calculus was a result of a psychological experiment that obscured the rationality of the

  5. Visual and Haptic Mental Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shioiri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that visual information can be retained in several types of memory systems. Haptic information can also be retained in a memory because we can repeat a hand movement. There may be a common memory system for vision and action. On the one hand, it may be convenient to have a common system for acting with visual information. On the other hand, different modalities may have their own memory and use retained information without transforming specific to the modality. We compared memory properties of visual and haptic information. There is a phenomenon known as mental rotation, which is possibly unique to visual representation. The mental rotation is a phenomenon where reaction time increases with the angle of visual target (eg,, a letter to identify. The phenomenon is explained by the difference in time to rotate the representation of the target in the visual sytem. In this study, we compared the effect of stimulus angle on visual and haptic shape identification (two-line shapes were used. We found that a typical effect of mental rotation for the visual stimulus. However, no such effect was found for the haptic stimulus. This difference cannot be explained by the modality differences in response because similar difference was found even when haptical response was used for visual representation and visual response was used for haptic representation. These results indicate that there are independent systems for visual and haptic representations.

  6. Institutionalizing New Ideas Through Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus A.

    How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various...... stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays...... a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual...

  7. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource

  8. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  9. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  10. Visual Literacy and Visual Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, John A.

    It is proposed that visual literacy be defined as the ability to understand (read) and use (write) images and to think and learn in terms of images. This definition includes three basic principles: (1) visuals are a language and thus analogous to verbal language; (2) a visually literate person should be able to understand (read) images and use…

  11. Visual Literacy and Visual Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Paul

    Familiarity with specific images or sets of images plays a role in a culture's visual heritage. Two questions can be asked about this type of visual literacy: Is this a type of knowledge that is worth building into the formal educational curriculum of our schools? What are the educational implications of visual literacy? There is a three-part…

  12. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  13. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  14. VRML metabolic network visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdestvenski, Igor

    2003-03-01

    A successful date collection visualization should satisfy a set of many requirements: unification of diverse data formats, support for serendipity research, support of hierarchical structures, algorithmizability, vast information density, Internet-readiness, and other. Recently, virtual reality has made significant progress in engineering, architectural design, entertainment and communication. We experiment with the possibility of using the immersive abstract three-dimensional visualizations of the metabolic networks. We present the trial Metabolic Network Visualizer software, which produces graphical representation of a metabolic network as a VRML world from a formal description written in a simple SGML-type scripting language.

  15. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... of visual deprivation has a substantial impact on experience-dependent plasticity of the human visual cortex.......The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex...

  16. Data mining and visualization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung [Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul [Richland, WA; Thomas, Jim [Richland, WA

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  17. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Fish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transitions occurred on average every 40 seconds for the pre-treatment group with approximately 600 visuals total, compared to slide transitions every 10 seconds for the post-treatment group with approximately 2,000 visuals total. All students received the same audio recordings. Research questions addressed are: (1 Are student perceptions of the effectiveness of examples used to illustrate concepts affected by number of visual aids? (2 Is the extent to which students feel engaged during the lectures affected by number of visual aids? (3 Are students’ perceived overall learning experiences affected by number of visual aids? Surprisingly, results indicate that for questions #1 and #3, student ratings of those who viewed videos with fewer visuals rated their experiences higher than students who viewed more visuals. There was no significant difference found for question #2. Conclusion: Although some visuals have been shown to enhance learning, too many visuals may be a deterrent to learning.

  18. Experiência de EAD na formação de gestores educacionais: educação visual e construção de narrativas/Experience of on-line education in the educational management training: visual education and construction of narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Albuquerque Miranda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a experiência de EAD da disciplina ‘Escola, Gestão e Cultura’ no ‘Curso de Especialização em Gestão Educacional’ (CEGE oferecido pela Faculdade de Educação da Unicamp. A proposta de EAD desta disciplina é trabalhar com educação visual e produção de narrativas de professores. Utilizamos as ferramentas de comunicação do ambiente virtual TelEduc para implementar uma dinâmica pedagógica assincrônica de trabalho docente. Esta dinâmica se apresenta como alternativa à lógica de concomitância entre parte presencial e parte em EAD do CEGE. Os resultados apresentados permitem-nos refletir sobre as potencialidades pedagógicas das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e alguns posicionamentos em relação ao trabalho docente em EAD. This article have objective of the present the experience of on-line education of the discipline ‘Escola, Gestão e Cultura’ in the ‘Curso de Especialização em Gestão educacional’ (CEGE offered by the Faculty of Education at Unicamp. The proposed on-line education of this discipline is to work with visual education and production of narratives of teachers. We use the tools of communication in virtual environment TelEduc to implement a pedagogical dynamic asynchronous at teaching work. This dynamic presents itself as an alternative to the logic of concomitance between the presencial part of the CEGE the of the online education part. The results presented allow us to reflect on the pedagogical potential of information and communication technologies and take some positions about to teaching work in the on-line education.

  19. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  20. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  1. Visual inspection with acetic acid (via screening program: 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani Poli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem in India in the absence of wide spread organised cervical screening programs. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA is an effective, inexpensive screening test that can be combined with simple treatment procedures for early cervical lesions, provided by trained health workers. We report 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers using the VIA test in a community-based program in rural Andhra Pradesh, India where there are no existing organised cervical screening programs. Materials and Methods: Eligible women aged between 26 and 60 were opportunistically screened by trained health wor kers using the VIA test. Women who tested positive were further evaluated and those with cervical lesions were treated either by cryotherapy in the screening clinic or referred to a higher center. Results: A total of 18,869 women were screened by a single round of VIA testing with a positive rate of 10.75%. Biopsy proven high-grade squamous intraepithelials (HSILs were 90 (0.48% and low-grade squamous intraepithelials (LSILs were 43 (0.28%. The overall prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+ lesion rate is 1.05%. A total of 312 (1.65% cryotherapies were done and 49 women underwent hysterectomy. Conclusions: VIA by trained female health workers is a safe, acceptable, and effective test that can save lives from cervical cancer even in remote areas with few resources. These results have important implications for efficient service delivery in cervical screening programs in low-resourced settings.

  2. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  3. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  4. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  5. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  6. An Empirical Study on Using Visual Embellishments in Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, R; Abdul-Rahman, A; Mohamed, F; Grant, P W; Reppa, I; Floridi, L; Chen, Min

    2012-12-01

    In written and spoken communications, figures of speech (e.g., metaphors and synecdoche) are often used as an aid to help convey abstract or less tangible concepts. However, the benefits of using rhetorical illustrations or embellishments in visualization have so far been inconclusive. In this work, we report an empirical study to evaluate hypotheses that visual embellishments may aid memorization, visual search and concept comprehension. One major departure from related experiments in the literature is that we make use of a dual-task methodology in our experiment. This design offers an abstraction of typical situations where viewers do not have their full attention focused on visualization (e.g., in meetings and lectures). The secondary task introduces "divided attention", and makes the effects of visual embellishments more observable. In addition, it also serves as additional masking in memory-based trials. The results of this study show that visual embellishments can help participants better remember the information depicted in visualization. On the other hand, visual embellishments can have a negative impact on the speed of visual search. The results show a complex pattern as to the benefits of visual embellishments in helping participants grasp key concepts from visualization.

  7. Keys to the Stars — A Unique Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 saw the birth of a remarkable arts and science collaboration, between a piano duo and an astronomer. Since 2009, the Dutch Grieg Piano Duo, consisting of the professional pianists Elles van der Heiden and Siebert Nix, and the author have performed together in

  8. Unique furnace system for high-energy-neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    1982-03-01

    The low flux of high energy neutron sources requires optimum utilization of the available neutron field. A furnace system has been developed in support of the US DOE fusion materials program which meets this challenge. Specimens positioned in two temperature zones just 1 mm away from the outside surface of a neutron window in the furnace enclosure can be irradiated simultaneously at two independent, isothermal (+- 1 0 C) temperatures. The temperature difference between these closely spaced isothermal zones is controllable from 0 to 320 0 C and the maximum temperature is 400 0 C. The design of the system also provides a controlled specimen environment, rapid heating and cooling and easy access to heaters and thermocouples. This furnace system is in use at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  9. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    A long-range, long-term data set on the regional scale for air pollution model was developed for evaluation. The ACURATE model used Kr-85 emitted intermittently from the Savannah River Plant as a tracer of hourly source emission data at 5 sites for a total of 3858 measurements

  10. Lourdes: A uniquely Catholic approach to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichoso, Travis Jon

    2015-02-01

    As an American medical student, I spent the summer break between my first and second year in Lourdes, France, the site where the Immaculate Conception appeared eighteen times to St. Bernadette in 1858 as proclaimed approved by the Catholic Church and whose water is associated with over seven thousand unexplained cures. During this time I volunteered with St. Joseph's Service and Poste Secour, followed several medical teams taking care of large pilgrim groups, and shadowed Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis the president of Le Bureau des Constations Médicales, the office in Lourdes charged with investigating claims of miracles. Through my experiences, I found the mission of medicine in Lourdes to be twofold: to provide the critical care needed to give sick persons the chance to transform their experience of disease through their faith; and secondly, through the efforts of the Medical Bureau, to be an instrument by which we can comprehend the wonders of the work of God. I conclude that this twofold mission should inform the work of every Catholic in health care or research, and Lourdes provides the venue par excellence to cultivate this mission. Lay Summary: Lourdes is a pilgrimage site in southern France that has been associated with medical miracles for the past 150 years. The site is unique in that throughout its history, physicians, of any or no faith, have been invited to participate in the proceedings of the investigations of each claimed cure. The investigations have formalized into a process handled by the Lourdes Medical Bureau and the Lourdes International Medical Association. Travis Dichoso, an American medical student, writes about his experiences as part of this process.

  11. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  12. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  13. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  14. Translating the Verbal to the Visual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Susanna Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Communication has always been at least partly a visual experience--insofar as the speaker's appearance on a stage or the text's appearance on the page. Certainly, however, the experience is becoming more and more visual. Thus, equipping students with the tools necessary to analyze and evaluate the visual rhetoric that surrounds everyone is a task…

  15. The gaming of concussions: a unique intervention in postconcussion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James M; Anderson, Megan; Benton, Brooke; Green, Sue Stanley

    2015-03-01

    To present the case of 2 adolescent high school student-athletes who developed postconcussion syndrome with protracted and limiting visual complaints that markedly affected academic, social, and athletic activity for a year after the onset of symptoms. Both had significant improvement soon after a unique intervention was administered. A 14-year-old female soccer and softball player sustained 2 concussions in the same week. She had persistent symptoms for a year that affected her grades and precluded athletic participation. A 15-year-old male football player sustained a concussion during an altercation with 2 other male adolescents. He continued to have symptoms 1 year later, with a marked decrease in academic performance and restriction from athletics. Both adolescents reported blurry vision, photophobia, and associated headache as significant components of the postconcussion syndrome. Concussion, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, second-impact syndrome, and visually sensitive migraine. Both patients were advised to obtain computer gaming glasses to use throughout the day. The female patient was diligent in her use of the glasses, with marked lessening of symptoms. The male patient was less accepting of the glasses but did report lessening of symptoms when using the glasses. We hypothesized that postconcussion syndrome with marked visual complaints would respond to and improve with decreased stimulation of the visual system. This was attempted with the addition of computer gaming glasses. Both adolescent athletes responded well to the filtering of visual stimuli by off-the-shelf computer gaming glasses. Postconcussion syndrome is a persistent condition with a myriad of symptoms. Two young athletes developed postconcussion syndrome with prominent visual symptoms that lasted a year. The addition of computer gaming glasses markedly lessened symptoms in both patients.

  16. Contrast and Strength of Visual Memory and Imagery Differentially Affect Visual Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Elyana; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual imagery have been shown to modulate visual perception. However, how the subjective experience of VSTM/imagery and its contrast modulate this process has not been investigated. We addressed this issue by asking participants to detect brief masked targets while they were engaged either in VSTM or visual imagery. Subjective experience of memory/imagery (strength scale), and the visual contrast of the memory/mental image (contrast scale) were assessed on...

  17. Cortical networks involved in visual awareness independent of visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Taylor W.; Igelström, Kajsa M.; Schurger, Aaron; Graziano, Michael S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Do specific areas of the brain participate in subjective visual experience? We measured brain activity in humans using fMRI. Participants were aware of a visual stimulus in one condition and unaware of it in another condition. The two conditions were balanced for their effect on visual attention. Specific brain areas were more active in the aware than in the unaware condition, suggesting they were involved in subjective awareness independent of attention. The largest cluster of activity was f...

  18. Regional cluster policy between best practices and cultural uniqueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Boneschansker, E.; van Dijk, J.; Jansma, L.G.J.; Verhaar, K.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter deals with an intriguing paradox in current regional economic policy: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, more and more governments simultaneously try to copy policy experiences that have proved successful in a particular

  19. Initial experience of using an iron-containing fiducial marker for radiotherapy of prostate cancer: Advantages in the visualization of markers in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Iida, Takayoshi; Komeda, Hisao; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Seike, Kensaku; Kato, Daiki; Yokoyama, Takamasa; Hirose, Shigeki; Kawaguchi, Daisuke

    2016-12-01

    Visualization of markers is critical for imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the size of the marker varies according to the imaging technique. While a large-sized marker is more useful for visualization in MRI, it results in artifacts on CT and causes substantial pain on administration. In contrast, a small-sized marker reduces the artifacts on CT but hampers MRI detection. Herein, we report a new ironcontaining marker and compare its utility with that of non-iron-containing markers. Five patients underwent CT/MRI fusion-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and the markers were placed by urologists. A Gold Anchor™ (GA; diameter, 0.28 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed using a 22G needle on the right side of the prostate. A VISICOIL™ (VIS; diameter, 0.35 mm; length, 10 mm) was placed using a 19G needle on the left side. MRI was performed using T2*-weighted imaging. Three observers evaluated and scored the visual qualities of the acquired images. The mean score of visualization was almost identical between the GA and VIS in radiography and cone-beam CT (Novalis Tx). The artifacts in planning CT were slightly larger using the GA than using the VIS. The visualization of the marker on MRI using the GA was superior to that using the VIS. In conclusion, the visualization quality of radiography, conebeam CT, and planning CT was roughly equal between the GA and VIS. However, the GA was more strongly visualized than was the VIS on MRI due to iron containing.

  20. Currency features for visually impaired people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Sandra L.; Legge, Gordon E.; Shannon, Robert R.; Baer, Norbert S.

    1996-03-01

    The estimated 3.7 million Americans with low vision experience a uniquely difficult task in identifying the denominations of U.S. banknotes because the notes are remarkably uniform in size, color, and general design. The National Research Council's Committee on Currency Features Usable by the Visually Impaired assessed features that could be used by people who are visually disabled to distinguish currency from other documents and to denominate and authenticate banknotes using available technology. Variation of length and height, introduction of large numerals on a uniform, high-contrast background, use of different colors for each of the six denominations printed, and the introduction of overt denomination codes that could lead to development of effective, low-cost devices for examining banknotes were all deemed features available now. Issues affecting performance, including the science of visual and tactile perception, were addressed for these features, as well as for those features requiring additional research and development. In this group the committee included durable tactile features such as those printed with transparent ink, and the production of currency with holes to indicate denomination. Among long-range approaches considered were the development of technologically advanced devices and smart money.

  1. Ivor Horton's beginning visual C++ 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Learn C++ with the best tutorial on the market! Horton's unique tutorial approach and step-by-step guidance have helped over 100,000 novice programmers learn C++. In Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013, Horton not only guides you through the fundamentals of the standard C++ language, but also teaches you how C++ is used in the latest Visual Studio 2013 environment. Visual Studio 2013 includes major changes to the IDE and expanded options for C++ coding. Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013 will teach you the latest techniques to take your Visual C++ coding to an all-new level.C++ langua

  2. Experience-Dependency of Reliance on Local Visual and Idiothetic Cues for Spatial Representations Created in the Absence of Distal Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Draht

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues. Our goal was to generate a conflict between local visual and direction-specific information, and then to assess which strategy was prioritized in different learning phases. We observed that, in the absence of distal cues, place fields are initially controlled by local visual cues that override idiothetic cues, but that with multiple exposures to the paradigm, spaced at intervals of days, idiothetic cues become increasingly implemented in generating an accurate spatial representation. Taken together, these data support that, in the absence of distal cues, local visual cues are prioritized in the generation of context-specific spatial representations through place cells, whereby idiothetic cues are deemed unreliable. With cumulative exposures to the environments, the animal learns to attend to subtle idiothetic cues to resolve the conflict between visual and direction-specific information.

  3. Experience-Dependency of Reliance on Local Visual and Idiothetic Cues for Spatial Representations Created in the Absence of Distal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draht, Fabian; Zhang, Sijie; Rayan, Abdelrahman; Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues. Our goal was to generate a conflict between local visual and direction-specific information, and then to assess which strategy was prioritized in different learning phases. We observed that, in the absence of distal cues, place fields are initially controlled by local visual cues that override idiothetic cues, but that with multiple exposures to the paradigm, spaced at intervals of days, idiothetic cues become increasingly implemented in generating an accurate spatial representation. Taken together, these data support that, in the absence of distal cues, local visual cues are prioritized in the generation of context-specific spatial representations through place cells, whereby idiothetic cues are deemed unreliable. With cumulative exposures to the environments, the animal learns to attend to subtle idiothetic cues to resolve the conflict between visual and direction-specific information.

  4. HEP visualization and video technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.; Swoboda, D.

    1994-01-01

    The use of scientific visualization for HEP analysis is briefly reviewed. The applications are highly interactive and very dynamical in nature. At Fermilab, E687, in collaboration with Visual Media Services, has produced a 1/2 hour video tape demonstrating the capability of SGI-EXPLORER applied to a Dalitz Analysis of Charm decay. This short contribution describes the authors experience with visualization and video technologies

  5. A Unique Civil Engineering Capstone Design Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanabhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The North Dakota State University, USA, capstone course was developed as a unique model in response to the effort of the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology, USA, to streamline and improve design instruction in the curriculum and has steadily evolved to keep pace with the ever-changing technology and the expectations of the profession and the society we serve. A capstone design course by definition should be a design experience for students in the final year before graduation integrating all major design concepts they have learned up until then in the program. Carefully chosen real world projects with design content in all sub-disciplines of civil engineering are assigned in this team-taught course. Faculty and practicing professionals make presentations on design process; project management; leadership in an engineering environment; and public policy; global perspectives in engineering; and professional career and licensure. Practicing professionals also critique the final student presentations. Students work in teams with number of faculty serving as technical consultants, and a faculty mentor for each team to provide non-technical guidance and direction. The course requires students to demonstrate mastery of the curriculum and to work with others in a team environment. Course assessment includes evaluation of the final design, presentations, written technical reports, project design schedule, a project design journal, and reaction papers.

  6. Collinearity Impairs Local Element Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingling, Li; Tseng, Chia-Huei

    2013-01-01

    In visual searches, stimuli following the law of good continuity attract attention to the global structure and receive attentional priority. Also, targets that have unique features are of high feature contrast and capture attention in visual search. We report on a salient global structure combined with a high orientation contrast to the…

  7. Unique sudden onsets capture attention even when observers are in feature-search mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Thomas M; Yanko, Matthew R; Poiese, Paola; Lagroix, Hayley E P

    2012-01-01

    Two sources of attentional capture have been proposed: stimulus-driven (exogenous) and goal-oriented (endogenous). A resolution between these modes of capture has not been straightforward. Even such a clearly exogenous event as the sudden onset of a stimulus can be said to capture attention endogenously if observers operate in singleton-detection mode rather than feature-search mode. In four experiments we show that a unique sudden onset captures attention even when observers are in feature-search mode. The displays were rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams of differently coloured letters with the target letter defined by a specific colour. Distractors were four #s, one of the target colour, surrounding one of the non-target letters. Capture was substantially reduced when the onset of the distractor array was not unique because it was preceded by other sets of four grey # arrays in the RSVP stream. This provides unambiguous evidence that attention can be captured both exogenously and endogenously within a single task.

  8. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  9. Integrating Visualization Applications, such as ParaView, into HEP Software Frameworks for In-situ Event Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, A. L.; Kowalkowski, J. B.; Jones, C. D.

    2017-10-01

    ParaView is a high performance visualization application not widely used in High Energy Physics (HEP). It is a long standing open source project led by Kitware and involves several Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) laboratories. Futhermore, it has been adopted by many DOE supercomputing centers and other sites. ParaView is unique in speed and efficiency by using state-of-the-art techniques developed by the academic visualization community that are often not found in applications written by the HEP community. In-situ visualization of events, where event details are visualized during processing/analysis, is a common task for experiment software frameworks. Kitware supplies Catalyst, a library that enables scientific software to serve visualization objects to client ParaView viewers yielding a real-time event display. Connecting ParaView to the Fermilab art framework will be described and the capabilities it brings discussed.

  10. Integrating Visualization Applications, such as ParaView, into HEP Software Frameworks for In-situ Event Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, A. L. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, J. B. [Fermilab; Jones, C. D. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    ParaView is a high performance visualization application not widely used in High Energy Physics (HEP). It is a long standing open source project led by Kitware and involves several Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) laboratories. Futhermore, it has been adopted by many DOE supercomputing centers and other sites. ParaView is unique in speed and efficiency by using state-of-the-art techniques developed by the academic visualization community that are often not found in applications written by the HEP community. In-situ visualization of events, where event details are visualized during processing/analysis, is a common task for experiment software frameworks. Kitware supplies Catalyst, a library that enables scientific software to serve visualization objects to client ParaView viewers yielding a real-time event display. Connecting ParaView to the Fermilab art framework will be described and the capabilities it brings discussed.

  11. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  12. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  13. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  14. Thermofluid experiments for Fusion Reactor Safety. Visualization of exchange flows through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Sadao; Shibazaki, Hiroaki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

    1997-01-01

    Exchange flow rates through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA (Loss of VAcuum event) conditions were measured quantitatively by using a preliminary LOVA apparatus and exchange flow patterns over the breach were visualized qualitatively by smoke. Velocity distributions in the exchange flows were predicted from the observed flow patterns by using the correlation method in the flow visualization procedures. Mean velocities calculated from the predicted velocity distributions at the outside of the breach were in good agreement with the LOVA experimental results when the exchange flow velocities were low. It was found that the present flow visualization and the image processing system might be an useful procedure to evaluate the exchange flow rates. (author)

  15. Visualizing Probabilistic Proof

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Pujol, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The author revisits the Blue Bus Problem, a famous thought-experiment in law involving probabilistic proof, and presents simple Bayesian solutions to different versions of the blue bus hypothetical. In addition, the author expresses his solutions in standard and visual formats, i.e. in terms of probabilities and natural frequencies.

  16. Advocating for a Population-Specific Health Literacy for People With Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tracie; Lazard, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Health literacy, the ability to access, process, and understand health information, is enhanced by the visual senses among people who are typically sighted. Emotions, meaning, speed of knowledge transfer, level of attention, and degree of relevance are all manipulated by the visual design of health information when people can see. When consumers of health information are blind or visually impaired, they access, process, and understand their health information in a multitude of methods using a variety of accommodations depending upon their severity and type of impairment. They are taught, or they learn how, to accommodate their differences by using alternative sensory experiences and interpretations. In this article, we argue that due to the unique and powerful aspects of visual learning and due to the differences in knowledge creation when people are not visually oriented, health literacy must be considered a unique construct for people with visual impairment, which requires a distinctive theoretical basis for determining the impact of their mind-constructed representations of health.

  17. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  18. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  19. Selective transfer of visual working memory training on Chinese character learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Bertram; Schneiders, Julia A; Krick, Christoph M; Mecklinger, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown a systematic relationship between phonological working memory capacity and second language proficiency for alphabetic languages. However, little is known about the impact of working memory processes on second language learning in a non-alphabetic language such as Mandarin Chinese. Due to the greater complexity of the Chinese writing system we expect that visual working memory rather than phonological working memory exerts a unique influence on learning Chinese characters. This issue was explored in the present experiment by comparing visual working memory training with an active (auditory working memory training) control condition and a passive, no training control condition. Training induced modulations in language-related brain networks were additionally examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a pretest-training-posttest design. As revealed by pre- to posttest comparisons and analyses of individual differences in working memory training gains, visual working memory training led to positive transfer effects on visual Chinese vocabulary learning compared to both control conditions. In addition, we found sustained activation after visual working memory training in the (predominantly visual) left infero-temporal cortex that was associated with behavioral transfer. In the control conditions, activation either increased (active control condition) or decreased (passive control condition) without reliable behavioral transfer effects. This suggests that visual working memory training leads to more efficient processing and more refined responses in brain regions involved in visual processing. Furthermore, visual working memory training boosted additional activation in the precuneus, presumably reflecting mental image generation of the learned characters. We, therefore, suggest that the conjoint activity of the mid-fusiform gyrus and the precuneus after visual working memory training reflects an interaction of working memory and

  20. Visual search, visual streams, and visual architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M

    1991-10-01

    Most psychological, physiological, and computational models of early vision suggest that retinal information is divided into a parallel set of feature modules. The dominant theories of visual search assume that these modules form a "blackboard" architecture: a set of independent representations that communicate only through a central processor. A review of research shows that blackboard-based theories, such as feature-integration theory, cannot easily explain the existing data. The experimental evidence is more consistent with a "network" architecture, which stresses that: (1) feature modules are directly connected to one another, (2) features and their locations are represented together, (3) feature detection and integration are not distinct processing stages, and (4) no executive control process, such as focal attention, is needed to integrate features. Attention is not a spotlight that synthesizes objects from raw features. Instead, it is better to conceptualize attention as an aperture which masks irrelevant visual information.

  1. Visual Arts and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcia A.; Larson, Meredith A.

    2007-01-01

    The focus on academic performance testing in elementary schools has caused a decrease in student experience in the arts. Visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, and collage) have been minimized in elementary schools. Without exposure to the special avenues of cognitive development and personal expression nurtured by visual arts, students are…

  2. Quantized Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alexander Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

  3. Perceptions Concerning Visual Culture Dialogues of Visual Art Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamur, Nuray

    2012-01-01

    The visual art which is commented by the visual art teachers to help processing of the visual culture is important. In this study it is tried to describe the effect of visual culture based on the usual aesthetic experiences to be included in the learning process art education. The action research design, which is a qualitative study, is conducted…

  4. Getting in and Getting On? The Experiences of Young People with Visual Impairments and Hearing Impairments in Third-Level Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bronagh

    2014-01-01

    Young disabled people continue to be under-represented throughout further and higher education settings. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's social theory of habitus, capital and field, this paper explores the practices of domination and oppression that have made it difficult for young people with visual impairments and hearing impairments to participate…

  5. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  6. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  7. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  8. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.; Albers, D.; Walker, R.; Jusufi, I.; Hansen, C. D.; Roberts, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  9. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  10. CMS tracker visualization tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, G; Osborne, I; Regano, A

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  11. CMS tracker visualization tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennea, M.S. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Osborne, I. [Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Regano, A. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Zito, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' e INFN sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: giuseppe.zito@ba.infn.it

    2005-08-21

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  12. CMS tracker visualization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennea, M.S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-01-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking

  13. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  14. Engineering visualization utilizing advanced animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabionski, Gunter R.; Robinson, Thomas L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Engineering visualization is the use of computer graphics to depict engineering analysis and simulation in visual form from project planning through documentation. Graphics displays let engineers see data represented dynamically which permits the quick evaluation of results. The current state of graphics hardware and software generally allows the creation of two types of 3D graphics. The use of animated video as an engineering visualization tool is presented. The engineering, animation, and videography aspects of animated video production are each discussed. Specific issues include the integration of staffing expertise, hardware, software, and the various production processes. A detailed explanation of the animation process reveals the capabilities of this unique engineering visualization method. Automation of animation and video production processes are covered and future directions are proposed.

  15. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  16. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  17. Altered visual information processing systems in bipolar disorder: evidence from visual MMN and P3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eMaekawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli.Methods: Twenty patients with BD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and handedness participated in this study. Subjects were seated in front of a monitor and listened to a story via earphones. Two types of windmill patterns (standard and deviant and white circle (target stimuli were randomly presented on the monitor. All stimuli were presented in random order at 200-ms durations with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval. Stimuli were presented at 80% (standard, 10% (deviant, and 10% (target probabilities. The participants were instructed to attend to the story and press a button as soon as possible when the target stimuli were presented. Event-related potentials were recorded throughout the experiment using 128-channel EEG equipment. vMMN was obtained by subtracting standard from deviant stimuli responses, and P3 was evoked from the target stimulus.Results: Mean reaction times for target stimuli in the BD group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Additionally, mean vMMN-amplitudes and peak P3-amplitudes were significantly lower in the BD group than in controls.Conclusions: Abnormal vMMN and P3 in patients indicate a deficit of visual information processing in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with their increased reaction time to visual target stimuli.Significance: Both bottom-up and top-down visual information processing are likely altered in BD.

  18. The contributions of visual and central attention to visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Oberauer, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the role of two kinds of attention-visual and central attention-for the maintenance of visual representations in working memory (WM). In Experiment 1 we directed attention to individual items in WM by presenting cues during the retention interval of a continuous delayed-estimation task, and instructing participants to think of the cued items. Attending to items improved recall commensurate with the frequency with which items were attended (0, 1, or 2 times). Experiments 1 and 3 further tested which kind of attention-visual or central-was involved in WM maintenance. We assessed the dual-task costs of two types of distractor tasks, one tapping sustained visual attention and one tapping central attention. Only the central attention task yielded substantial dual-task costs, implying that central attention substantially contributes to maintenance of visual information in WM. Experiment 2 confirmed that the visual-attention distractor task was demanding enough to disrupt performance in a task relying on visual attention. We combined the visual-attention and the central-attention distractor tasks with a multiple object tracking (MOT) task. Distracting visual attention, but not central attention, impaired MOT performance. Jointly, the three experiments provide a double dissociation between visual and central attention, and between visual WM and visual object tracking: Whereas tracking multiple targets across the visual filed depends on visual attention, visual WM depends mostly on central attention.

  19. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  20. Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    This paper discusses the integration of database back-end and visualizer front-end into a one tightly coupled system. The main aim which we achieve is to reduce the data pipeline from database to visualization by using incremental data extraction of visible objects in a fly-through scenarios. We...... also argue that passing only relevant data from the database will substantially reduce the overall load of the visualization system. We propose the system Incremental Visualizer for Visible Objects (IVVO) which considers visible objects and enables incremental visualization along the observer movement...... path. IVVO is the novel solution which allows data to be visualized and loaded on the fly from the database and which regards visibilities of objects. We run a set of experiments to convince that IVVO is feasible in terms of I/O operations and CPU load. We consider the example of data which uses...

  1. What the Eyes Don’t See, The Heart Can’t Feel? Investigating Experiences of Purchase for Visually Impaired in Retail Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Rezende Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la expresividad numérica de la población de Personas Portadoras de Deficiencia (PPD, se puede percibir que, en el campo de la investigación del consumidor en organizaciones minoristas, es notable la ausencia de estudios sobre las cuestiones involucrando este público. Esa comprobación queda más en evidencia cuando se consideran los trabajos que involucran a los deficientes visuales. Justamente, es con motivo de esa laguna existente en la literatura que surgió el interés por conducir una investigación a partir de la siguiente cuestión: ¿Cómo los deficientes visuales viven en el comercio minorista sus experiencias de compra de productos, servicios, artefactos e imágenes simbólicas relacionados con el vestuario? Como aporte teórico, se consideró la literatura referente al abordaje experiencial y simbólico del consumo. Para la obtención de los datos, se optó por el método de entrevista personal en profundidad con 11 portadores de deficiencia visual. Como resultado, se puede destacar que los consumidores deficientes visuales investigados definieron sus experiencias de compra como algo más que situaciones aparentemente comunes, al mismo tiempo que expresaron diversos valores por medio del consumo, celebrando su relación con la sociedad como un todo. A partir de esas comprobaciones, fue posible entender mejor las experiencias de compra de estos consumidores.

  2. Playing the electric light orchestra--how electrical stimulation of visual cortex elucidates the neural basis of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Krug, Kristine

    2015-09-19

    Vision research has the potential to reveal fundamental mechanisms underlying sensory experience. Causal experimental approaches, such as electrical microstimulation, provide a unique opportunity to test the direct contributions of visual cortical neurons to perception and behaviour. But in spite of their importance, causal methods constitute a minority of the experiments used to investigate the visual cortex to date. We reconsider the function and organization of visual cortex according to results obtained from stimulation techniques, with a special emphasis on electrical stimulation of small groups of cells in awake subjects who can report their visual experience. We compare findings from humans and monkeys, striate and extrastriate cortex, and superficial versus deep cortical layers, and identify a number of revealing gaps in the 'causal map' of visual cortex. Integrating results from different methods and species, we provide a critical overview of the ways in which causal approaches have been used to further our understanding of circuitry, plasticity and information integration in visual cortex. Electrical stimulation not only elucidates the contributions of different visual areas to perception, but also contributes to our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying memory, attention and decision-making.

  3. Playing the electric light orchestra—how electrical stimulation of visual cortex elucidates the neural basis of perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Krug, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Vision research has the potential to reveal fundamental mechanisms underlying sensory experience. Causal experimental approaches, such as electrical microstimulation, provide a unique opportunity to test the direct contributions of visual cortical neurons to perception and behaviour. But in spite of their importance, causal methods constitute a minority of the experiments used to investigate the visual cortex to date. We reconsider the function and organization of visual cortex according to results obtained from stimulation techniques, with a special emphasis on electrical stimulation of small groups of cells in awake subjects who can report their visual experience. We compare findings from humans and monkeys, striate and extrastriate cortex, and superficial versus deep cortical layers, and identify a number of revealing gaps in the ‘causal map′ of visual cortex. Integrating results from different methods and species, we provide a critical overview of the ways in which causal approaches have been used to further our understanding of circuitry, plasticity and information integration in visual cortex. Electrical stimulation not only elucidates the contributions of different visual areas to perception, but also contributes to our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying memory, attention and decision-making. PMID:26240421

  4. Automatic User Interface Generation for Visualizing Big Geoscience Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tang, Z.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Along with advanced computing and observation technologies, geoscience and its related fields have been generating a large amount of data at an unprecedented growth rate. Visualization becomes an increasingly attractive and feasible means for researchers to effectively and efficiently access and explore data to gain new understandings and discoveries. However, visualization has been challenging due to a lack of effective data models and visual representations to tackle the heterogeneity of geoscience data. We propose a new geoscience data visualization framework by leveraging the interface automata theory to automatically generate user interface (UI). Our study has the following three main contributions. First, geoscience data has its unique hierarchy data structure and complex formats, and therefore it is relatively easy for users to get lost or confused during their exploration of the data. By applying interface automata model to the UI design, users can be clearly guided to find the exact visualization and analysis that they want. In addition, from a development perspective, interface automaton is also easier to understand than conditional statements, which can simplify the development process. Second, it is common that geoscience data has discontinuity in its hierarchy structure. The application of interface automata can prevent users from suffering automation surprises, and enhance user experience. Third, for supporting a variety of different data visualization and analysis, our design with interface automata could also make applications become extendable in that a new visualization function or a new data group could be easily added to an existing application, which reduces the overhead of maintenance significantly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework using real-world applications.

  5. Creating visual explanations improves learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.

  6. Visual hallucinatory syndromes and the anatomy of the visual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhouse, A M; Howard, R J; ffytche, D H

    2000-10-01

    We have set out to identify phenomenological correlates of cerebral functional architecture within Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) hallucinations by looking for associations between specific hallucination categories. Thirty-four CBS patients were examined with a structured interview/questionnaire to establish the presence of 28 different pathological visual experiences. Associations between categories of pathological experience were investigated by an exploratory factor analysis. Twelve of the pathological experiences partitioned into three segregated syndromic clusters. The first cluster consisted of hallucinations of extended landscape scenes and small figures in costumes with hats; the second, hallucinations of grotesque, disembodied and distorted faces with prominent eyes and teeth; and the third, visual perseveration and delayed palinopsia. The three visual psycho-syndromes mirror the segregation of hierarchical visual pathways into streams and suggest a novel theoretical framework for future research into the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric syndromes.

  7. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  9. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Visualizing Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    The importance of visualisation and multiple representations in mathematics has been stressed, especially in a context of problem solving. Hanna and Sidoli comment that "Diagrams and other visual representations have long been welcomed as heuristic accompaniments to proof, where they not only facilitate the understanding of theorems and their…

  11. Visual feature extraction and establishment of visual tags in the intelligent visual internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiqun; Wang, Zhihui

    2015-12-01

    The Internet of things (IOT) is a kind of intelligent networks which can be used to locate, track, identify and supervise people and objects. One of important core technologies of intelligent visual internet of things ( IVIOT) is the intelligent visual tag system. In this paper, a research is done into visual feature extraction and establishment of visual tags of the human face based on ORL face database. Firstly, we use the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for face feature extraction, then adopt the support vector machine (SVM) for classifying and face recognition, finally establish a visual tag for face which is already classified. We conducted a experiment focused on a group of people face images, the result show that the proposed algorithm have good performance, and can show the visual tag of objects conveniently.

  12. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-05

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  13. Does Differential Visual Exploration Contribute to Visual Memory Impairments in 22Q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelmann, M.; Glaser, B.; Zaharia, A.; Eliez, S.; Schneider, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may…

  14. Visual arts

    OpenAIRE

    Velthuis, O.

    2003-01-01

    A Handbook of Cultural Economics includes over 60 eminently readable and concise articles by 50 expert contributors. This unique Handbook is both highly informative and readable; it covers a wide area of cultural economics and its closely related subjects. While being accessible to any reader with a basic knowledge of economics, it presents a comprehensive study at the fore-front of the field.

  15. Social Capital and Institutions in Rural Kenya: Is Machakos Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangena, Wilfred; Sterner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Eastern Africa, the experience of Machakos has been heavily debated between Malthusians and the more optimistic Boserupians. Machakos was the epitome of overpopulation and resource degradation in the 1950s, but has since thrived. The Boserupians view Machakos as an illustration of how population growth can solve rather than exacerbate the vicious cycle of poverty and resource degradation. The question arises whether Machakos is unique. This study investigates the role of social capital in ...

  16. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  17. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  18. Visual perception and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Medical imaging represents a particularly distinct discipline for image processing since it uniquely depends on the ''expert observer'' and yet models of the human visual system are totally inadequate at the complex level to allow satisfactory prediction of observer response to a given image modification. An illustration of the difficulties in assessing observer performance is shown by a series of optical illustrations which demonstrate that net cognitive behavior is not readily predictable. Although many of these phenomena are often considered as exceptional visual events, the setting of complex images makes it difficult to entirely exclude at least partial operation of these impairments during performance of the diagnostic medical imaging task

  19. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have hypothesised that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996a). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of ...

  20. Seeking the Effects of Visual Narrative Grammar on the Written Dialogue Production of ESL Students at Japanese Universities : A Proposed Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    ファロン, トーマス J.; ベイカー, マシュー

    2016-01-01

      This research considers the use of Visual Narrative Grammar(VNG) as a means to aid in improving the fluency, accuracy, and complexity of dialogue written by ESL students at Japanese universities. VNG, such as the sequential images found in the panels of comic books, appeal to a non-verbal linguistic ability of the human mind (Gernsbacher, 1983; Cohn, 2013). If that be the case, then it could be hypothesized that VNG should have benefits in aiding language acquisition. This research seeks to...

  1. Diálogos entre a imagem visual e a imagem sonora: a experiência de escritura do sonoro nos documentários etnográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Vedana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a experiência de pesquisa do Banco de Imagens e Efeitos Visuais (UFRGS/Brasil na produção de documentários etnográficos. Trata-se de refletir sobre os diálogos e negociações presentes no momento da montagem no que diz respeito às escolhas de decupagem, à relação entre som e imagem visual, e principalmente, sobre o estatuto do som na elaboração da narrativa fílmica. Inspirados na obra de Michel Chion sobre o som como “valor acrescentado” à imagem visual, e de Daniel Deshays sobre a escritura do sonoro, nos concentraremos na potência do som como imagem simbólica da vida social e, portanto, capaz de narrar historias.  Assim, entendemos o som não como “valor acrescentado” ao visual, mas como imagem narrativa.

  2. VISUALIZATION SKILLS FOR THE NEW ARCHITECTURAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Nassar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The practice of architecture is continuously changing, mirroring the paradigm shifts in the world it builds for. With increasing use of digital technology, we need to ensure that learning and teaching do not shift from the fundamental skill set required of an architect. Architectural problems are unique in their nature, requiring volumetric visualization and problem solving skills, and although many of these skills can be replicated using digital technology, can digital technology replace the cognitive development, which occurs through manual problem solving? Over the last three decades we have seen the almost ubiquitous use of computers in the design practice and professional studios with increasingly more complex forms being thought of and turned into buildings. This development obviously raises challenging questions of architectural theory and perplexing issues for those concerned with the future of architectural education and its effect on the design process. But how can this effect be analyzed subjectively remains an open question. Recent research efforts have shown that perception and visualization abilities reflect the quality of a design outcome. Very limited research however exists which attempts to understand or document the spatial analysis and visualization abilities of new generations of architects. This paper reports on a novel scalable test that could be used to investigate the processing and synthesis of visual information related to the new kinds of free form encountered in today’s architecture. Unlike traditional missing views and orthographic projection problems, proposed test can be used to accurate assess freeform visualization. A number of 2-mainfold very high genus surfaces were selected. Physical models of these surfaces are manufactured from a durable thermoplastic material by Fused Deposition Modeling rapid prototyping machines. Students are then asked to position a digital model of the surface to match that of the

  3. Making Memories: The Development of Long-Term Visual Knowledge in Children with Visual Agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Metitieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2 years and 3.7 years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment.

  4. Making memories: the development of long-term visual knowledge in children with visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metitieri, Tiziana; Barba, Carmen; Pellacani, Simona; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Guerrini, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports about the effects of perinatal acquired brain lesions on the development of visual perception. These studies demonstrate nonseverely impaired visual-spatial abilities and preserved visual memory. Longitudinal data analyzing the effects of compromised perceptions on long-term visual knowledge in agnosics are limited to lesions having occurred in adulthood. The study of children with focal lesions of the visual pathways provides a unique opportunity to assess the development of visual memory when perceptual input is degraded. We assessed visual recognition and visual memory in three children with lesions to the visual cortex having occurred in early infancy. We then explored the time course of visual memory impairment in two of them at 2  years and 3.7  years from the initial assessment. All children exhibited apperceptive visual agnosia and visual memory impairment. We observed a longitudinal improvement of visual memory modulated by the structural properties of objects. Our findings indicate that processing of degraded perceptions from birth results in impoverished memories. The dynamic interaction between perception and memory during development might modulate the long-term construction of visual representations, resulting in less severe impairment.

  5. KENeV: A web-application for the automated reconstruction and visualization of the enriched metabolic and signaling super-pathways deriving from genomic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Pilalis

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, KENeV (available online at http://www.grissom.gr/kenev provides an integrative tool, suitable for users with no programming experience, for the functional interpretation, at both the metabolic and signaling level, of differentially expressed gene subsets deriving from genomic experiments.

  6. Measuring tongue volumes and visualizing the chewing and swallowing process using real-time TrueFISP imaging - initial clinical experience in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, W.; Goyen, M.; Herrmann, B.; Massing, S.; Goehde, S.; Lauenstein, T.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed both two-dimensional (2D) TrueFISP imaging for quantifying tongue volume and real-time TrueFISP imaging for evaluating chewing and swallowing in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly. In 50 healthy volunteers, tongue volumes were measured using a 2D TrueFISP sequence. Chewing and swallowing were visualized using a real-time TrueFISP sequence. Ten patients with acromegaly were examined twice with the same magnetic resonance imaging protocol: once prior to therapy and a second time 6 months after therapy. Prior to therapy, healthy volunteers had an average tongue volume of 140 ml for men and 90 ml for women, and patients with acromegaly had an average tongue volume of 180 ml for men and 145 ml for women. However, 6 months after therapy the mean tongue volumes in patients with acromegaly had decreased to 154 ml in the men and to 125 ml in the women. The chewing and swallowing process was normal in all volunteers. Prior to therapy, just two patients showed a chewing and swallowing pathology, which disappeared after therapy. Patients with acromegaly had larger tongue volumes than healthy volunteers, and TrueFISP imaging proved feasible for visualizing chewing and swallowing in real time and is capable of detecting possible pathologies. Furthermore, TrueFISP imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic approaches in patients with acromegaly. (orig.)

  7. Measuring tongue volumes and visualizing the chewing and swallowing process using real-time TrueFISP imaging - initial clinical experience in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, W.; Goyen, M.; Herrmann, B.; Massing, S.; Goehde, S.; Lauenstein, T.; Ruehm, S.G. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    This study assessed both two-dimensional (2D) TrueFISP imaging for quantifying tongue volume and real-time TrueFISP imaging for evaluating chewing and swallowing in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly. In 50 healthy volunteers, tongue volumes were measured using a 2D TrueFISP sequence. Chewing and swallowing were visualized using a real-time TrueFISP sequence. Ten patients with acromegaly were examined twice with the same magnetic resonance imaging protocol: once prior to therapy and a second time 6 months after therapy. Prior to therapy, healthy volunteers had an average tongue volume of 140 ml for men and 90 ml for women, and patients with acromegaly had an average tongue volume of 180 ml for men and 145 ml for women. However, 6 months after therapy the mean tongue volumes in patients with acromegaly had decreased to 154 ml in the men and to 125 ml in the women. The chewing and swallowing process was normal in all volunteers. Prior to therapy, just two patients showed a chewing and swallowing pathology, which disappeared after therapy. Patients with acromegaly had larger tongue volumes than healthy volunteers, and TrueFISP imaging proved feasible for visualizing chewing and swallowing in real time and is capable of detecting possible pathologies. Furthermore, TrueFISP imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic approaches in patients with acromegaly. (orig.)

  8. Source of single photons and interferometry with one photon. From the Young's slit experiment to the delayed choice; Source de photons uniques et interferences a un seul photon. De l'experience des fentes d'Young au choix retarde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, V

    2007-11-15

    This manuscript is divided in two independent parts. In the first part, we study the wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nano-crystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's bi-prism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice Gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. The second part of the manuscript is devoted to the efficiency improvement of single-photon sources. We first describe the implementation of a new single-photon source based on the photoluminescence of a single nickel-related defect center in diamond. The photophysical properties of such defect make this single-photon source well adapted to open-air quantum cryptography. We finally demonstrate an original method that leads to an improvement of single-molecule photo stability at room temperature. (author)

  9. Object representations in visual memory: evidence from visual illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-07-26

    Human visual memory is considered to contain different levels of object representations. Representations in visual working memory (VWM) are thought to contain relatively elaborated information about object structure. Conversely, representations in iconic memory are thought to be more perceptual in nature. In four experiments, we tested the effects of two different categories of visual illusions on representations in VWM and in iconic memory. Unlike VWM that was affected by both types of illusions, iconic memory was immune to the effects of within-object contextual illusions and was affected only by illusions driven by between-objects contextual properties. These results show that iconic and visual working memory contain dissociable representations of object shape. These findings suggest that the global properties of the visual scene are processed prior to the processing of specific elements.

  10. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  11. Studi Perancangan Identitas Visual Wilayah Karimunjawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Priyono Susilo Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is a critical need in our lives. Communication that is not running properly will impede the flow and the system of social activity. Living in a world filled with information needs language as a right marker so that the meaning of a message can be conveyed properly. At such moments, a marker, which also functions as the identity for the people, demands to look unique, creative, communicative, and comprehensible globally, beyond the boundaries of culture and geography. Visual markers of an area are needed so that miscommunication can be reduced. Visual markers were developed in regard to communication strategies within the context of destination branding. Sharp communication strategy would manifest in the form of creative concept, a kind of platform on which to base and the main idea behind the overall design visualization. Manifestation the visual form of logo design, typography, tone color, shapes, graphic elements, mascot, pictograms, wayfinding, posters, merchandise, and so on. The visual identity of the region, in relation to destination branding program, specifically intended for a destination region, will raise the values of locality, the uniqueness, diversity, and distinctiveness of the region. Designing visual identity Karimunjawa region in this case study apply the principles of creativity and uniqueness that is processed into a visual appealing, distinctive, and attractive, yet understated and powerful in raising local elements.   

  12. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-07-01

    Several authors have hypothesized that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996b). Experiment I replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of DVN on recall of static matrix patterns, despite a significant effect of a concurrent spatial tapping task. Experiment 4 showed no effect of DVN on encoding or maintenance of arrays of matrix patterns, despite testing memory by a recognition procedure to encourage visual rather than spatial processing. Serial position curves showed a one-item recency effect typical of visual short-term memory. Experiment 5 showed no effect of DVN on short-term recognition of Chinese characters, despite effects of visual similarity and a concurrent colour memory task that confirmed visual processing of the characters. We conclude that irrelevant visual noise does not impair visual short-term memory. Visual working memory may not be functionally analogous to verbal working memory, and different cognitive processes may underlie visual short-term memory and visual imagery.

  13. Perceptual organization and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual organization--the processes structuring visual information into coherent units--and visual attention--the processes by which some visual information in a scene is selected--are crucial for the perception of our visual environment and to visuomotor behavior. Recent research points to important relations between attentional and organizational processes. Several studies demonstrated that perceptual organization constrains attentional selectivity, and other studies suggest that attention can also constrain perceptual organization. In this chapter I focus on two aspects of the relationship between perceptual organization and attention. The first addresses the question of whether or not perceptual organization can take place without attention. I present findings demonstrating that some forms of grouping and figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention, whereas others require controlled attentional processing, depending on the processes involved and the conditions prevailing for each process. These findings challenge the traditional view, which assumes that perceptual organization is a unitary entity that operates preattentively. The second issue addresses the question of whether perceptual organization can affect the automatic deployment of attention. I present findings showing that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field by Gestalt factors into a coherent perceptual unit (an "object"), with no abrupt onset or any other unique transient, can capture attention automatically in a stimulus-driven manner. Taken together, the findings discussed in this chapter demonstrate the multifaceted, interactive relations between perceptual organization and visual attention.

  14. Peripheral visual response time and visual display layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed on a group of 42 subjects in a study of their peripheral visual response time to visual signals under positive acceleration, during prolonged bedrest, at passive 70 deg headup body lift, under exposures to high air temperatures and high luminance levels, and under normal stress-free laboratory conditions. Diagrams are plotted for mean response times to white, red, yellow, green, and blue stimuli under different conditions.

  15. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  16. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004 http://www.heldermann-verlag.de/jca/jca11/jca0386.pdf

  17. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  18. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  19. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  20. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  1. Tracking Location and Features of Objects within Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Patterson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four studies examined how color or shape features can be accessed to retrieve the memory of an object's location. In each trial, 6 colored dots (Experiments 1 and 2 or 6 black shapes (Experiments 3 and 4 were displayed in randomly selected locations for 1.5 s. An auditory cue for either the shape or the color to-be-remembered was presented either simultaneously, immediately, or 2 s later. Non-informative cues appeared in some trials to serve as a control condition. After a 4 s delay, 5/6 objects were re-presented, and participants indicated the location of the missing object either by moving the mouse (Experiments 1 and 3, or by typing coordinates using a grid (Experiments 2 and 4. Compared to the control condition, cues presented simultaneously or immediately after stimuli improved location accuracy in all experiments. However, cues presented after 2 s only improved accuracy in Experiment 1. These results suggest that location information may not be addressable within visual working memory using shape features. In Experiment 1, but not Experiments 2–4, cues significantly improved accuracy when they indicated the missing object could be any of the three identical objects. In Experiments 2–4, location accuracy was highly impaired when the missing object came from a group of identical rather than uniquely identifiable objects. This indicates that when items with similar features are presented, location accuracy may be reduced. In summary, both feature type and response mode can influence the accuracy and accessibility of visual working memory for object location.

  2. Visual Field Asymmetry in Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the spatial distribution of involuntary attentional capture over the two visual hemi-fields. A new experiment, and an analysis of three previous experiments showed that distractors in the left visual field that matched a sought-for target in color produced a much larger capture effect than identical distractors in the…

  3. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  4. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  5. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  6. The role of object categories in hybrid visual and memory search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    In hybrid search, observers (Os) search for any of several possible targets in a visual display containing distracting items and, perhaps, a target. Wolfe (2012) found that responses times (RT) in such tasks increased linearly with increases in the number of items in the display. However, RT increased linearly with the log of the number of items in the memory set. In earlier work, all items in the memory set were unique instances (e.g. this apple in this pose). Typical real world tasks involve more broadly defined sets of stimuli (e.g. any “apple” or, perhaps, “fruit”). The present experiments show how sets or categories of targets are handled in joint visual and memory search. In Experiment 1, searching for a digit among letters was not like searching for targets from a 10-item memory set, though searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary alphanumeric characters was like searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary objects. In Experiment 2, Os searched for any instance of N sets or categories held in memory. This hybrid search was harder than search for specific objects. However, memory search remained logarithmic. Experiment 3 illustrates the interaction of visual guidance and memory search when a subset of visual stimuli are drawn from a target category. Furthermore, we outline a conceptual model, supported by our results, defining the core components that would be necessary to support such categorical hybrid searches. PMID:24661054

  7. Are Visual Peripheries Forever Young?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Burnat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of lifelong plasticity of peripheral vision. Central vision processing is accepted as critical and irreplaceable for normal perception in humans. While peripheral processing chiefly carries information about motion stimuli features and redirects foveal attention to new objects, it can also take over functions typical for central vision. Here I review the data showing the plasticity of peripheral vision found in functional, developmental, and comparative studies. Even though it is well established that afferent projections from central and peripheral retinal regions are not established simultaneously during early postnatal life, central vision is commonly used as a general model of development of the visual system. Based on clinical studies and visually deprived animal models, I describe how central and peripheral visual field representations separately rely on early visual experience. Peripheral visual processing (motion is more affected by binocular visual deprivation than central visual processing (spatial resolution. In addition, our own experimental findings show the possible recruitment of coarse peripheral vision for fine spatial analysis. Accordingly, I hypothesize that the balance between central and peripheral visual processing, established in the course of development, is susceptible to plastic adaptations during the entire life span, with peripheral vision capable of taking over central processing.

  8. Are visual peripheries forever young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnat, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of lifelong plasticity of peripheral vision. Central vision processing is accepted as critical and irreplaceable for normal perception in humans. While peripheral processing chiefly carries information about motion stimuli features and redirects foveal attention to new objects, it can also take over functions typical for central vision. Here I review the data showing the plasticity of peripheral vision found in functional, developmental, and comparative studies. Even though it is well established that afferent projections from central and peripheral retinal regions are not established simultaneously during early postnatal life, central vision is commonly used as a general model of development of the visual system. Based on clinical studies and visually deprived animal models, I describe how central and peripheral visual field representations separately rely on early visual experience. Peripheral visual processing (motion) is more affected by binocular visual deprivation than central visual processing (spatial resolution). In addition, our own experimental findings show the possible recruitment of coarse peripheral vision for fine spatial analysis. Accordingly, I hypothesize that the balance between central and peripheral visual processing, established in the course of development, is susceptible to plastic adaptations during the entire life span, with peripheral vision capable of taking over central processing.

  9. A Web-based Solution to Visualize Operational Monitoring Data in the Trigger and Data Acquisition System of the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Avolio, Giuseppe; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Soloviev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is composed of a large number of distributed hardware and software components (about 3000 machines and more than 25000 applications) which, in a coordinated manner, provide the data-taking functionality of the overall system. During data taking runs, a huge flow of operational data is produced in order to constantly monitor the system and allow proper detection of anomalies or misbehaviors. In the ATLAS TDAQ system, operational data are archived and made available to applications by the P-Beast (Persistent Back-End for the Atlas Information System of TDAQ) service, implementing a custom time-series database. The possibility to efficiently visualize both real-time and historical operational data is a great asset for the online identification of problems and for any post-mortem analysis. This paper will present a web-based solution developed to achieve such a goal: the solution leverages the flexibili...

  10. A web-based solution to visualize operational monitoring data in the Trigger and Data Acquisition system of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00210941; The ATLAS collaboration; D'Ascanio, Matteo; Lehmann-Miotto, Giovanna; Soloviev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is composed of a large number of distributed hardware and software components (about 3000 computers and more than 25000 applications) which, in a coordinated manner, provide the data-taking functionality of the overall system. During data taking runs, a huge flow of operational data is produced in order to constantly monitor the system and allow proper detection of anomalies or misbehaviours. In the ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system, operational data are archived and made available to applications by the P-BEAST (Persistent Back-End for the Atlas Information System of TDAQ) service, implementing a custom time-series database. The possibility to efficiently visualize both realtime and historical operational data is a great asset facilitating both online identification of problems and post-mortem analysis. This paper will present a web-based solution developed to achieve such a goal: the solution le...

  11. The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejka Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  13. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav

    2012-04-01

    Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  14. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  15. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  16. A unique theory of all forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    In discussing the construction of a consistent theory of quantum gravity unified with the gauge interactions we are naturally led to a string theory. We review its properties and the five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions. We finally discuss the evidence that these theories are actually special limits of a unique 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, and a recent conjecture for its explicit formulation as a supersymmetric Matrix theory

  17. Processing Visual Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litke, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

  18. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Visual agnosia and focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, O

    Visual agnosia encompasses all disorders of visual recognition within a selective visual modality not due to an impairment of elementary visual processing or other cognitive deficit. Based on a sequential dichotomy between the perceptual and memory systems, two different categories of visual object agnosia are usually considered: 'apperceptive agnosia' and 'associative agnosia'. Impaired visual recognition within a single category of stimuli is also reported in: (i) visual object agnosia of the ventral pathway, such as prosopagnosia (for faces), pure alexia (for words), or topographagnosia (for landmarks); (ii) visual spatial agnosia of the dorsal pathway, such as cerebral akinetopsia (for movement), or orientation agnosia (for the placement of objects in space). Focal brain injuries provide a unique opportunity to better understand regional brain function, particularly with the use of effective statistical approaches such as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). The aim of the present work was twofold: (i) to review the various agnosia categories according to the traditional visual dual-pathway model; and (ii) to better assess the anatomical network underlying visual recognition through lesion-mapping studies correlating neuroanatomical and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. THE ROLE OF VISUAL GRAMMAR AND PLAYER PERCEPTION IN AN ONLINE GAME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot

    principles and rules of a visual game landscape (the game territory and environment) for composing the forms of visual elements and structuring the meaning of perceptual experience. It creates the system of visual communication in a particular context’. This study employs two approaches which combine...... of visual grammar consists of the initial units named visual elements which are regulated by the visual operators under the visual syntactic rules; the player experience is count as part of these rules....

  1. Enhancing learning and comprehension through strengthening visual literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roux, Cheryl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Living in an image-rich world, as we currently do, does not mean that individuals naturally possess visual literacy skills. This article explores the concept of ‘visual literacy’, and the skills needed to develop visual literacy and visual intelligence. Developing visual literacy in educational environments is important because it can contribute to individual empowerment, and it is therefore necessary to take pedagogical advantage of visual literacy’s place across the disciplines. Doing this means tapping into experiences, expertise and interest in visual communication and building a new paradigm that takes visual education seriously.

  2. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  3. Garis dan Titik Berdasarkan Riset Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Kurniawati Homan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A design may not be created instantly, without going through a process of creation. At the beginning it all starts from nothing, blank. It requires a visual research to make a visual communication. Without a visual research, the design will not have a strong meaning to be communicated. When an idea is created, the next step is to generate the idea to become a design. The first thing a designer to do is drawing a line. Line is one of the design basic elements. In the journey to make a good design, a designer requires a visual record to assist her/him in remembering what is important. A visual record contains not only visual things seen by eyes, but also the perceived things. What is felt at the moment is important because it is easier to forget than visual memory. Sense is an important element in design. A good work will easily be communicated not only by visuals but also from senses. The study was conducted as an insight into the process of making a visual record of nirmana using visual recording method in the exploration of dots and dashes. This method was used to sharpen the sensitivity of students to dots and lines. Initially, the students visited a traditional market to do the visual research. After that, they created a visual record in the form of the composition of dots and lines in nirmana to remember the taste, smell, and visual experiences

  4. How visual working memory contents influence priming of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Nancy B; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-04-12

    Recent evidence shows that when the contents of visual working memory overlap with targets and distractors in a pop-out search task, intertrial priming is inhibited (Kristjánsson, Sævarsson & Driver, Psychon Bull Rev 20(3):514-521, 2013, Experiment 2, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review). This may reflect an interesting interaction between implicit short-term memory-thought to underlie intertrial priming-and explicit visual working memory. Evidence from a non-pop-out search task suggests that it may specifically be holding distractors in visual working memory that disrupts intertrial priming (Cunningham & Egeth, Psychol Sci 27(4):476-485, 2016, Experiment 2, Psychological Science). We examined whether the inhibition of priming depends on whether feature values in visual working memory overlap with targets or distractors in the pop-out search, and we found that the inhibition of priming resulted from holding distractors in visual working memory. These results are consistent with separate mechanisms of target and distractor effects in intertrial priming, and support the notion that the impact of implicit short-term memory and explicit visual working memory can interact when each provides conflicting attentional signals.

  5. Optimization of Visual Information Presentation for Visual Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual prosthesis applying electrical stimulation to restore visual function for the blind has promising prospects. However, due to the low resolution, limited visual field, and the low dynamic range of the visual perception, huge loss of information occurred when presenting daily scenes. The ability of object recognition in real-life scenarios is severely restricted for prosthetic users. To overcome the limitations, optimizing the visual information in the simulated prosthetic vision has been the focus of research. This paper proposes two image processing strategies based on a salient object detection technique. The two processing strategies enable the prosthetic implants to focus on the object of interest and suppress the background clutter. Psychophysical experiments show that techniques such as foreground zooming with background clutter removal and foreground edge detection with background reduction have positive impacts on the task of object recognition in simulated prosthetic vision. By using edge detection and zooming technique, the two processing strategies significantly improve the recognition accuracy of objects. We can conclude that the visual prosthesis using our proposed strategy can assist the blind to improve their ability to recognize objects. The results will provide effective solutions for the further development of visual prosthesis.

  6. Optimization of Visual Information Presentation for Visual Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Visual prosthesis applying electrical stimulation to restore visual function for the blind has promising prospects. However, due to the low resolution, limited visual field, and the low dynamic range of the visual perception, huge loss of information occurred when presenting daily scenes. The ability of object recognition in real-life scenarios is severely restricted for prosthetic users. To overcome the limitations, optimizing the visual information in the simulated prosthetic vision has been the focus of research. This paper proposes two image processing strategies based on a salient object detection technique. The two processing strategies enable the prosthetic implants to focus on the object of interest and suppress the background clutter. Psychophysical experiments show that techniques such as foreground zooming with background clutter removal and foreground edge detection with background reduction have positive impacts on the task of object recognition in simulated prosthetic vision. By using edge detection and zooming technique, the two processing strategies significantly improve the recognition accuracy of objects. We can conclude that the visual prosthesis using our proposed strategy can assist the blind to improve their ability to recognize objects. The results will provide effective solutions for the further development of visual prosthesis. PMID:29731769

  7. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  8. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  9. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A; Braun, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  10. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Grau-Moya

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects' choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects' choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain.

  11. Decision-Making under Ambiguity Is Modulated by Visual Framing, but Not by Motor vs. Non-Motor Context. Experiments and an Information-Theoretic Ambiguity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Moya, Jordi; Ortega, Pedro A.; Braun, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated differences in human choice behavior depending on task framing, especially comparing economic decision-making to choice behavior in equivalent sensorimotor tasks. Here we test whether decision-making under ambiguity exhibits effects of task framing in motor vs. non-motor context. In a first experiment, we designed an experience-based urn task with varying degrees of ambiguity and an equivalent motor task where subjects chose between hitting partially occluded targets. In a second experiment, we controlled for the different stimulus design in the two tasks by introducing an urn task with bar stimuli matching those in the motor task. We found ambiguity attitudes to be mainly influenced by stimulus design. In particular, we found that the same subjects tended to be ambiguity-preferring when choosing between ambiguous bar stimuli, but ambiguity-avoiding when choosing between ambiguous urn sample stimuli. In contrast, subjects’ choice pattern was not affected by changing from a target hitting task to a non-motor context when keeping the stimulus design unchanged. In both tasks subjects’ choice behavior was continuously modulated by the degree of ambiguity. We show that this modulation of behavior can be explained by an information-theoretic model of ambiguity that generalizes Bayes-optimal decision-making by combining Bayesian inference with robust decision-making under model uncertainty. Our results demonstrate the benefits of information-theoretic models of decision-making under varying degrees of ambiguity for a given context, but also demonstrate the sensitivity of ambiguity attitudes across contexts that theoretical models struggle to explain. PMID:27124723

  12. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  13. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  14. Honeybees in a virtual reality environment learn unique combinations of colour and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Claire; Roth, Eatai; Vinauger, Clément; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2017-10-01

    Honeybees are well-known models for the study of visual learning and memory. Whereas most of our knowledge of learned responses comes from experiments using free-flying bees, a tethered preparation would allow fine-scale control of the visual stimuli as well as accurate characterization of the learned responses. Unfortunately, conditioning procedures using visual stimuli in tethered bees have been limited in their efficacy. In this study, using a novel virtual reality environment and a differential training protocol in tethered walking bees, we show that the majority of honeybees learn visual stimuli, and need only six paired training trials to learn the stimulus. We found that bees readily learn visual stimuli that differ in both shape and colour. However, bees learn certain components over others (colour versus shape), and visual stimuli are learned in a non-additive manner with the interaction of specific colour and shape combinations being crucial for learned responses. To better understand which components of the visual stimuli the bees learned, the shape-colour association of the stimuli was reversed either during or after training. Results showed that maintaining the visual stimuli in training and testing phases was necessary to elicit visual learning, suggesting that bees learn multiple components of the visual stimuli. Together, our results demonstrate a protocol for visual learning in restrained bees that provides a powerful tool for understanding how components of a visual stimulus elicit learned responses as well as elucidating how visual information is processed in the honeybee brain. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  16. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

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    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  17. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  18. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  19. Visualizing Gaia Data with Science Teachers at AMNH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Desir, Deion; Coker, Kristina; Nelson, Olivia; Vasquez, Chelsea; Smithka, Iliya

    2018-01-01

    The American Museum of Natural History is an accredited graduate school and offers an innovative Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree that leverages its unique scientific resources and long history of leadership in teacher education and professional development. The MAT program consists of 15-months of intensive mentoring, classroom experience, lab work, and professional development with AMNH scientists and educators. It is then followed by a 4 year commitment by all degree awardees to teach at an in needs New York high school. During the second summer of their first 15 months of the program, students are paired with a scientific mentor to obtain an REU like experience in Astronomy, Geology or Paleontology. During the summer of 2017 five teachers worked on incorporating a subset of the Tycho Gaia Astrometric Survey into the Partiview open source software. The result is an interactive experience where we can fly live through all of TGAS and highlight nearby clusters and associations. The tool is (1) a demonstration of the power of Partiview at visualizing a vast dataset such as Gaia, and (2) an extremely powerful instrument for teaching science through visualization.

  20. Think Visual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    Photographs tell a story and illustrate an experience more profoundly than words alone. Real-time, text-based communication is an increasingly normal part of daily life as mobile devices and social networks proliferate. Yet, in the steady stream of tweets, comments, status updates, notifications, and e-mail, the details are easily lost in the…