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Sample records for unique u-shaped gas

  1. UNIQUENESS ON ZERO PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞敏; 王振

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a new idea, the authors prove the uniqueness of weak solution of pressureless gases with the large initial data. In particular, uniqueness theorem is obtained in the same functional space as the existence theorem.

  2. [Detubularized U-shaped enterocystoplasty after cystoprostatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Mrini, M; Aboutaieb, R; el Fatimi, A; Sarf, I; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Elmoussaoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed the charts of 58 patients who underwent orthotopic bladder replacement after total cystoprostatectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Mean age was 56 years. As described by Camey, 60 centimetres of small bowel, are isolated, detubularised then folded upon itself to form a U shaped reservoir, which is anastomosed to the urethra. Death occurred in 5%. Urologic complications observed were: urinary leakage (15%), ureteral reflux (6.8%), ureteral stenosis (8.6%) and stones of the neobladder (5.1%). 64.2% of the patients were immediately continent during the day. Nocturnal continence was obtained for 50% immediately and for 80% three months postoperatively. Detubularised and U shaped cystoplasty achieve a low pressure reservoir, with protection of the upper urinary tract, and a diurnal continence. Nocturnal continence is achieved later.

  3. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii

    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: both low and high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability of leaving thi...... theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers’ abilities....

  4. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane Naja; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii

    2015-01-01

    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: not only low but also high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability...... of leaving their occupation, and the low (high) earners tend to switch to new occupations with lower (higher) average wages. Exceptions to this pattern of two-sided selection are occupations with steeply rising (declining) productivity, where mainly the lower (higher) paid workers within this occupation tend...... to leave. The facts conflict with several existing theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of vertical sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers' abilities....

  5. U-Shaped Curves in Development: A PDP Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; Rakison, David H.; McClelland, James L.

    2004-01-01

    As the articles in this issue attest, U-shaped curves in development have stimulated a wide spectrum of research across disparate task domains and age groups and have provoked a variety of ideas about their origins and theoretical significance. In the authors' view, the ubiquity of the general pattern suggests that U-shaped curves can arise from…

  6. U-Shaped Curves in Development: A PDP Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; Rakison, David H.; McClelland, James L.

    2004-01-01

    As the articles in this issue attest, U-shaped curves in development have stimulated a wide spectrum of research across disparate task domains and age groups and have provoked a variety of ideas about their origins and theoretical significance. In the authors' view, the ubiquity of the general pattern suggests that U-shaped curves can arise from…

  7. Numerical Study of Mechanism of U-shaped Vortex Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ping; Liu, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the mechanism of U-shaped vortex formation which is found both by experiment and DNS. The main goal of this paper is to explain how the U-shaped vortex is formed and further develops. According to the results obtained by our direct numerical simulation with high order accuracy, the U-shaped vortex is part of the coherent vortex structure and is actually the tertiary streamwise vortices induced by the secondary vortices. The new finding is quite different from existing theories which describe that the U-shaped vortex is newly formed as the head of young turbulence spot and finally break down to small pieces. In addition, we find that the U-shaped vortex has the same vorticity sign as the original {\\lambda}-shaped vortex tube legs and serves as a second neck to supply vorticity to the ringlike vortex when the original vortex tube is stretched and multiple rings are generated.

  8. On the necessity of U-shaped learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Lorenzo; Case, John

    2013-01-01

    A U-shaped curve in a cognitive-developmental trajectory refers to a three-step process: good performance followed by bad performance followed by good performance once again. U-shaped curves have been observed in a wide variety of cognitive-developmental and learning contexts. U-shaped learning seems to contradict the idea that learning is a monotonic, cumulative process and thus constitutes a challenge for competing theories of cognitive development and learning. U-shaped behavior in language learning (in particular in learning English past tense) has become a central topic in the Cognitive Science debate about learning models. Antagonist models (e.g., connectionism versus nativism) are often judged on their ability of modeling or accounting for U-shaped behavior. The prior literature is mostly occupied with explaining how U-shaped behavior occurs. Instead, we are interested in the necessity of this kind of apparently inefficient strategy. We present and discuss a body of results in the abstract mathematical setting of (extensions of) Gold-style computational learning theory addressing a mathematically precise version of the following question: Are there learning tasks that require U-shaped behavior? All notions considered are learning in the limit from positive data. We present results about the necessity of U-shaped learning in classical models of learning as well as in models with bounds on the memory of the learner. The pattern emerges that, for parameterized, cognitively relevant learning criteria, beyond very few initial parameter values, U-shapes are necessary for full learning power! We discuss the possible relevance of the above results for the Cognitive Science debate about learning models as well as directions for future research.

  9. U-shaped Vortex Structures in Large Scale Cloud Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yantao; Peng, Xiaoxing; Xu, Lianghao; Hong, Fangwen

    2015-12-01

    The control of cloud cavitation, especially large scale cloud cavitation(LSCC), is always a hot issue in the field of cavitation research. However, there has been little knowledge on the evolution of cloud cavitation since it is associated with turbulence and vortex flow. In this article, the structure of cloud cavitation shed by sheet cavitation around different hydrofoils and a wedge were observed in detail with high speed camera (HSC). It was found that the U-shaped vortex structures always existed in the development process of LSCC. The results indicated that LSCC evolution was related to this kind of vortex structures, and it may be a universal character for LSCC. Then vortex strength of U-shaped vortex structures in a cycle was analyzed with numerical results.

  10. Preparation of U-Shape Carbon Stripper Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Rong; FAN; Qi-wen; DU; Ying-hui

    2012-01-01

    <正>In an experiment for the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility, the self-supportting U-shape carbon foils are strongly required to serve as the stripper foils. The preparation procedures are as following. First, the carbon foils with thickness of about 60 μg/cm2 were deposited by the CAA (Controlled AC Arc-discharge) method onto the glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent. The parameters in preparation are listed in Table 1.

  11. Contact resonances of U-shaped atomic force microscope probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, E.; Turner, J. A., E-mail: jaturner@unl.edu [Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, W342 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Recent approaches used to characterize the elastic or viscoelastic properties of materials with nanoscale resolution have focused on the contact resonances of atomic force microscope (CR-AFM) probes. The experiments for these CR-AFM methods involve measurement of several contact resonances from which the resonant frequency and peak width are found. The contact resonance values are then compared with the noncontact values in order for the sample properties to be evaluated. The data analysis requires vibration models associated with the probe during contact in order for the beam response to be deconvolved from the measured spectra. To date, the majority of CR-AFM research has used rectangular probes that have a relatively simple vibration response. Recently, U-shaped AFM probes have created much interest because they allow local sample heating. However, the vibration response of these probes is much more complex such that CR-AFM is still in its infancy. In this article, a simplified analytical model of U-shaped probes is evaluated for contact resonance applications relative to a more complex finite element (FE) computational model. The tip-sample contact is modeled using three orthogonal Kelvin-Voigt elements such that the resonant frequency and peak width of each mode are functions of the contact conditions. For the purely elastic case, the frequency results of the simple model are within 8% of the FE model for the lowest six modes over a wide range of contact stiffness values. Results for the viscoelastic contact problem for which the quality factor of the lowest six modes is compared show agreement to within 13%. These results suggest that this simple model can be used effectively to evaluate CR-AFM experimental results during AFM scanning such that quantitative mapping of viscoelastic properties may be possible using U-shaped probes.

  12. Learning under stress: the inverted-U-shape function revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Basira; Cordero, M Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2010-10-01

    Although the relationship between stress intensity and memory function is generally believed to follow an inverted-U-shaped curve, strikingly this phenomenon has not been demonstrated under the same experimental conditions. We investigated this phenomenon for rats' performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task, the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Variations in stress intensity were induced using different water temperatures (25°C, 19°C, and 16°C), which elicited increased plasma corticosterone levels. During spatial training over three consecutive days, an inverted-U shape was found, with animals trained at 19°C making fewer errors than animals trained at either higher (16°C) or lower (25°C) stress conditions. Interestingly, this function was already observed by the last trial of day 1 and maintained on the first day trial of day 2. A long-term recall probe test administered under equal temperature conditions (20°C) revealed differences in performance according to the animals' former training conditions; i.e., platform searching for rats trained at 25°C was less accurate than for rats trained at either 16°C or 19°C. In reversal learning, groups trained at both 19°C and 25°C showed better performance than the 16°C group. We also found an interaction between anxiety and exploration traits on how individuals were affected by stressors during spatial learning. In summary, our findings confirm, for the first time, the existence of an inverted-U-shape memory function according to stressor intensity during the early learning and memory phases in a hippocampus-dependent task, and indicate the existence of individual differences related to personality-like profiles for performance at either high or low stress conditions.

  13. Construction of Chiral Metamaterial with U-Shaped Resonator Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Xiang; Bao, Yong-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Sun, Cheng; Lu, Xiang; Shao, Jun; Li, Zhi-Feng; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2009-01-01

    Chiral structure can be applied to construct metamaterial with negative refractive index (NRI). In an assembly of double-layered metallic U-shaped resonators with two resonant frequencies wH and wL, the effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which are contributed by the specific surface current distributions, are collinear at the same frequency. Consequently, for left circularly polarized light, NRI occurs at wH, whereas for right circularly polarized light it occurs at wL. Our design provides a new example to apply chiral structures to tune electromagnetic properties, and could be enlightening in exploring chiral metamaterials.

  14. Dropping the Other U: An Alternative Approach to U-Shaped Developmental Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to introduce readers to an alternative way of applying U-shaped functions to understand development, especially cognitive development. In classical developmental applications, age is the abscissa; that is, in the fundamental equation B = f(A), some behavioral variable (B) plots as a U-shaped or inverted U-shaped function…

  15. Runup of tsunami waves in U-shaped bays

    CERN Document Server

    Didenkulova, Ira

    2010-01-01

    The problem of tsunami wave shoaling and runup in U-shaped bays (such as fjords) and underwater canyons is studied in the framework of shallow water theory. The wave shoaling in bays, when the depth varies smoothly along the channel axis, is studied with the use of asymptotic approach. In this case a weak reflection provides significant shoaling effects. The existence of traveling (progressive) waves, propagating in bays, when the water depth changes significantly along the channel axis, is studied. It is shown that traveling waves do exist for certain bay bathymetry configurations and may propagate over large distances without reflection. The tsunami runup in such bays is significantly larger than for a plane beach.

  16. Growth of tapered silica nanowires with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber: Growth mechanism and structural and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danqing; Zhang, Xi; Wei, Jianglin; Gu, Gangxu; Xiang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Traditional chemical vapor deposition method modified with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber has been used to synthesize tapered bamboo shoot-like (BS-like) amorphous SiO2 nanowires (NWs) on Si (100) substrates without catalyst. The key innovation of this approach lies in a creation of swirling flow of the reactant vapors during the growth, which leads to a harvest of tapered silica NWs with lengths up to several microns. The unique structures and corresponding luminescence properties of the BS-like NWs were studied and their relationship with the evaporated active reactants was explored. A thermodynamic model that considers the critical role of the vapor flow during the growth is proposed to understand the structural and optical features. The shallow U-shaped vapor chamber-aided approach may provide a viable way to tailor novel structure of NWs for potential applications in nano-devices.

  17. Growth of tapered silica nanowires with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber: Growth mechanism and structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Danqing; Zhang, Xi, E-mail: xizhang@scu.edu.cn; Wei, Jianglin; Gu, Gangxu; Xiang, Gang, E-mail: gxiang@scu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Traditional chemical vapor deposition method modified with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber has been used to synthesize tapered bamboo shoot-like (BS-like) amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) on Si (100) substrates without catalyst. The key innovation of this approach lies in a creation of swirling flow of the reactant vapors during the growth, which leads to a harvest of tapered silica NWs with lengths up to several microns. The unique structures and corresponding luminescence properties of the BS-like NWs were studied and their relationship with the evaporated active reactants was explored. A thermodynamic model that considers the critical role of the vapor flow during the growth is proposed to understand the structural and optical features. The shallow U-shaped vapor chamber-aided approach may provide a viable way to tailor novel structure of NWs for potential applications in nano-devices.

  18. Dynamic gas slippage: A unique dual-mechanism approach to the flow of gas in tight formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin; King, G.R.; Schwerer, F.C.

    1983-10-01

    A mathematical formulation, applicable to both numerical simulation and transient well analysis, describing the flow of gas in very tight (k < 0.1 md) porous media has been developed. Unique to this formulation is the dual-mechanism transport of gas. In this formulation gas is assumed to be traveling under the influence of two fields: a concentration field and a pressure field. Transport through the concentration field is a Knudsen flow process and is modeled with Fick's Law of diffusion. Transport through the pressure field is a laminar process and is modeled with Darcy's law (inertial-turbulent effects are ignored). The combination of these two flow mechanisms rigorously yields a composition, pressure and saturation dependent slippage factor. The pressure dependence arises from treating the gas as a real gas. The dynamic slippage derived from this formulation is found to be most applicable in reservoirs with permeabilities less than or equal to 0.01 md. The results from this study indicate that in reservoirs of this type, differences between recoveries after ten years of production using the dynamic slip described in this paper and constant slip approaches were as great as 10% depending on the initial gas saturation. If an economic production rate is considered, differences as great as 30 can be expected.

  19. Exploitation of Unique Properties of Zeolites in the Development of Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir K. Dutta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of microporous zeolites, including ion-exchange properties, adsorption, molecular sieving, catalysis, conductivity have been exploited in improving the performance of gas sensors. Zeolites have been employed as physical and chemical filters to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of gas sensors. In addition, direct interaction of gas molecules with the extraframework cations in the nanoconfined space of zeolites has been explored as a basis for developing new impedance-type gas/vapor sensors. In this review, we summarize how these properties of zeolites have been used to develop new sensing paradigms. There is a considerable breadth of transduction processes that have been used for zeolite incorporated sensors, including frequency measurements, optical and the entire gamut of electrochemical measurements. It is clear from the published literature that zeolites provide a route to enhance sensor performance, and it is expected that commercial manifestation of some of the approaches discussed here will take place. The future of zeolite-based sensors will continue to exploit its unique properties and use of other microporous frameworks, including metal organic frameworks. Zeolite composites with electronic materials, including metals will lead to new paradigms in sensing. Use of nano-sized zeolite crystals and zeolite membranes will enhance sensor properties and make possible new routes of miniaturized sensors.

  20. Evidence for a midlife crisis in great apes consistent with the U-shape in human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Oswald, Andrew J

    2012-12-04

    Recently, economists and behavioral scientists have studied the pattern of human well-being over the lifespan. In dozens of countries, and for a large range of well-being measures, including happiness and mental health, well-being is high in youth, falls to a nadir in midlife, and rises again in old age. The reasons for this U-shape are still unclear. Present theories emphasize sociological and economic forces. In this study we show that a similar U-shape exists in 508 great apes (two samples of chimpanzees and one sample of orangutans) whose well-being was assessed by raters familiar with the individual apes. This U-shaped pattern or "midlife crisis" emerges with or without use of parametric methods. Our results imply that human well-being's curved shape is not uniquely human and that, although it may be partly explained by aspects of human life and society, its origins may lie partly in the biology we share with great apes. These findings have implications across scientific and social-scientific disciplines, and may help to identify ways of enhancing human and ape well-being.

  1. Magnetic guide of cold atoms using a U-shaped current-carrying conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 印建平

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new scheme to magnetically guide cold neutral atoms using a U-shaped current carrying conductor.The spatial magnetic field distribution from the U-shaped current-carrying conductor and the relationship between the magnetic field and parameters of the U-shaped conductor are analysed.Our study shows that U-shaped current-carrying conductor can be used to realize single-or double-channel magnetic guiding of cold atoms in weak-field-seeking states and to construct wrious atom-optical elements.By using Monte Carlo simulations,the dynamic process of the guided atomic-beam splitting in an atomic-beam splitter composed by the U-shaped current-carrying conductor is studied,and some results are presented.

  2. Relativistic dynamics compels a thermalized Fermi gas to a unique intrinsic parity eigenstate

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Alex E

    2014-01-01

    Dirac equation describes the dynamics of a relativistic spin-1/2 particle regarding its spatial motion and intrinsic degrees of freedom. Here we adopt the point of view that the spinors describe the state of a massive particle carrying two qubits of information: helicity and intrinsic parity. We show that the density matrix for a gas of free fermions, in thermal equilibrium, correlates helicity and intrinsic parity. Our results introduce the basic elements for discussing the spin-parity correlation for a Fermi gas: (1) at the ultra-relativistic domains, when the temperature is quite high, $T > 10^{10}\\ K$, the fermions have no definite intrinsic parity (50% : 50%), which is maximally correlated with the helicity; (2) at very low temperature, $T \\approx 3 \\ K$, a unique parity dominates (conventionally chosen positive), by $10^{20}$ to $1$, while the helicity goes into a mixed state for spin up and down, and the quantum correlation decoheres. For the anti-fermions we get the opposite behavior. In the framework...

  3. Study on a Concentric Tube Bulb Manometer and its Performance Compared to U-shaped Manometer

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Muhammad A.; Aamir Ijaz; Daood, Syed S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents comparative study of a new type of manometer called concentric tube bulb (C.T.B) manometer. Its performance of measuring differential height is studied against conventional U-shaped manometer. Pressure drops and mass flow rates are calculated by taking various systems comprising of different flow measuring devices such as orifice and venturimeters using both U- shaped and C.T.B manometers. Comparison between the physically measured values of differential pressure drops and...

  4. A unique magnesium-based 3D MOF with nanoscale cages and temperature dependent selective gas sorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Liang; Gong, Yun-Nan; Jiang, Long; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2013-02-28

    A porous Mg-based 3D metal-organic framework with unique nanoscale cages and two-fold interpenetrating pcu nets has been synthesized and characterized. It shows gas-uptake capacities for N(2), H(2), O(2) and CO(2) at low temperatures and selective adsorption of CO(2) over O(2) and N(2) at room temperature.

  5. U-shape magnetostrictive vibration based power generator for universal use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, T.

    2016-04-01

    Vibrational power generator extracts electrical energy from ambient vibration. Author invented novel configuration using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beams of iron-gallium alloy and magnetic material, and features high efficiency, high robustness, and low electrical impedance. In this paper, author proposes U-shape generator for universal use. It consists of the parallel beams and fixed and free end beams forming U-shape frame flexibly modified for variety of mechanical input. Miniature U-shape prototype using Fe-Ga rod 6 by 0.5 by 13 mm3 exhibited average power of 3.7 mW under vibration of 166 Hz and 2.5 G. L-shape type was demonstrated to generate electromotive force by two directional vibrations. In switch type, maximum energy of 0.7 mJ was retrieved by one pushing force. The performances are sufficient to drive wireless module for heath monitoring and remote control.

  6. Inverted-U-shaped correlation between dopamine receptor availability in striatum and sensation seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Cumming, Paul;

    2010-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a core personality trait that declines with age in both men and women, as do also both density and availability of the dopamine D(2/3) receptors in striatum and cortical regions. In contrast, novelty seeking at a given age relates inversely to dopamine receptor availability....... The simplest explanation of these findings is an inverted-U-shaped correlation between ratings of sensation seeking on the Zuckerman scale and dopamine D(2/3) receptor availability. To test the claim of an inverted-U-shaped relation between ratings of the sensation-seeking personality and measures of dopamine...

  7. U-shaped sacral fractures: Surgical treatment and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.G. Gribnau; P. Boele van Hensbroek; R. Haverlag; K.J. Ponsen; H.D. Been; J.C. Goslings

    2009-01-01

    Background: U-shaped sacral fractures are rare and highly unstable pelvic ring fractures. They are not recognised in the standard classification systems of these fractures. The fracture pattern is associated with significant neurological injury and can lead to progressive deformity and chronic pain

  8. Is well-being U-shaped over the life cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchflower, David G; Oswald, Andrew J

    2008-04-01

    We present evidence that psychological well-being is U-shaped through life. A difficulty with research on this issue is that there are likely to be omitted cohort effects (earlier generations may have been born in, say, particularly good or bad times). First, using data on 500,000 randomly sampled Americans and West Europeans, the paper designs a test that can control for cohort effects. Holding other factors constant, we show that a typical individual's happiness reaches its minimum - on both sides of the Atlantic and for both males and females - in middle age. Second, evidence is provided for the existence of a similar U-shape through the life-course in East European, Latin American and Asian nations. Third, a U-shape in age is found in separate well-being regression equations in 72 developed and developing nations. Fourth, using measures that are closer to psychiatric scores, we document a comparable well-being curve across the life cycle in 2 other data sets (1) in GHQ-N6 mental health levels among a sample of 16,000 Europeans, and (2) in reported depression-and-anxiety levels among 1 million UK citizens. Fifth, we discuss some apparent exceptions, particularly in developing nations, to the U-shape. Sixth, we note that American male birth-cohorts seem to have become progressively less content with their lives. Our results are based on regression equations in which other influences, such as demographic variables and income, are held constant.

  9. A few simple classroom experiments with a permanent U-shaped magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babović, Miloš; Babović, Vukota

    2017-01-01

    A few simple experiments in the magnetic field of a permanent U-shaped magnet are described. Among them, pin oscillations inside the magnet are particularly interesting. These easy to perform and amusing measurements can help pupils understand magnetic phenomena and mutually connect knowledge of various physics branches.

  10. Is there a U-shaped association between physical activity and falling in older persons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.E.E. Peeters (Geeske); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); S. Pluijm (Saskia); D.J.H. Deeg (Dorly); P. Lips (Paul)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSummary: This study tests whether the relationship between physical activity and (recurrent) falling is U-shaped. Among 1,337 community-dwelling older persons, no evidence for a nonlinear association was found. If all older persons increase their physical activity level with 100 units, 4

  11. Robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukund Nilakantan, J.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    Automation in an assembly line can be achieved using robots. In robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing (RUALB), robots are assigned to workstations to perform the assembly tasks on a U-shaped assembly line. The robots are expected to perform multiple tasks, because of their capabilities. U-shaped assembly line problems are derived from traditional assembly line problems and are relatively new. Tasks are assigned to the workstations when either all of their predecessors or all of their successors have already been assigned to workstations. The objective function considered in this article is to maximize the cycle time of the assembly line, which in turn helps to maximize the production rate of the assembly line. RUALB aims at the optimal assignment of tasks to the workstations and selection of the best fit robot to the workstations in a manner such that the cycle time is minimized. To solve this problem, a particle swarm optimization algorithm embedded with a heuristic allocation (consecutive) procedure is proposed. The consecutive heuristic is used to allocate the tasks to the workstation and to assign a best fit robot to that workstation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a wide variety of data sets. The results indicate that robotic U-shaped assembly lines perform better than robotic straight assembly lines in terms of cycle time.

  12. Photoacoustic as a unique tool for studying multicomponent gas transport processes through rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    András Simon, Károly; Puskás, Sándor; Ricza, Tamás; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Improvement of natural gas extraction is one of the constant challenges of gas industry. Gas transport through the material of the reservoir is driven by two forces. Conventional diffusion driven by the concentration gradient and the Darcy flow driven by the differential pressure at the two ends of the material. Their segregated yield and their interrelation is largely influenced by the intrinsic structure of the sample so their measurement can yield important information There are multiple methods for measuring these parameters (Sander et al, 2017). We present a measurement set-up which uses photoacoustic spectroscopy for the detection of the transported components. It is a highly sensitive and selective measurement method (Bozóki et al., 2011) and can be used to measure concentration through 4-5 orders of magnitudes. Furthermore it can be operated fully automatically, has response time in the second range and outstanding long term stability. This allows us to perform measurements on a wide variety of samples either in static or in dynamic mode under different conditions and various analytes. Furthermore transport of several gas components can be measured simultaneously. Our set-up facilities measurements in a wide pressure, temperature and concentration range. Bozóki Z., Pogány A., Szabó G. (2011), Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 46, 1-37 Sander, R., Pan, Z. and Connell, Luke D. (2017), Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 37, 248-279.

  13. Gas Slug Microfluidics: A Unique Tool for Ultrafast, Highly Controlled Growth of Iron Oxide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Ane; Sebastian, Victor; Ibarra, Alfonso; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaria, Jesus

    2015-06-23

    The use of nanomaterials in real life applications is often hampered by our inability to produce them in large quantities while preserving their desired properties in terms of size, shape, and crystalline phase. Here we present a novel continuous method to synthesize nanostructures with an unprecedented degree of control regarding their properties. In particular, the excellent properties of microreactors for chemical synthesis are enhanced by the introduction of gas slugs of tailored composition. Slug dynamics accelerate mixing, reduce processing times (from hours in batch processes to minutes or even seconds), and, depending on the gas atmosphere used, allows one to accurately control the crystalline phase and shape of the resulting nanostructures. Inert (N2), oxidizing (O2), or reducing (CO, H2) gases were used, leading to different morphologies and crystalline structures in a high yield, highly reproducible fabrication process.

  14. Gas Slug Microfluidics: A Unique Tool for Ultrafast, Highly Controlled Growth of Iron Oxide Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Larrea, Ane; Sebastian, Victor; Ibarra, Alfonso; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaria, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials in real life applications is often hampered by our inability to produce them in large quantities while preserving their desired properties in terms of size, shape, and crystalline phase. Here we present a novel continuous method to synthesize nanostructures with an unprecedented degree of control regarding their properties. In particular, the excellent properties of microreactors for chemical synthesis are enhanced by the introduction of gas slugs of tailored composit...

  15. Transparency windows of the plasmonic nanostructure composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Ouyang, Min; Tang, Bin; Wang, Zhibing; He, Jun

    2017-02-01

    We in this study investigated numerically the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect on the plasmonic nanostructures composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The PIT effect in the nanosystem stemmed from the near field coupling between the bright and dark modes. The nanostructure composed of three resonators exhibited double PIT effect. And the PIT spectral response of the proposed nanostructures was demonstrated having a dependence on the parameters of the compound plasmonic system such as the widths of C-shaped resonator and U-shaped resonator, the resonators spatial arrangement and the edge-to-edge distance between the adjacent resonators. The electric and magnetic field distributions of certain resonance wavelengths were also given to discuss the underlying physics. The resonator design strategy opens up a rich pathway to develop the building block of systems for all optical switching, plasmonic sensing applications.

  16. Birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the U-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, D J; Jovanovic, L

    2001-08-01

    Recent findings have sparked intense interest in birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In some populations, there is an inverse association between birth size and disease; however, in the Pima Indians, a population with very high rates of gestational diabetes, high birth weight and low birth weight are associated with diabetes. This results in a U-shaped curve with higher diabetes rates in both tails of the distribution. Similarly, there are reports of an inverse association between stature and prevalence of gestational diabetes, but, in California Latina women with gestational diabetes, there is a positive association between stature and glucose concentration. Could these disparate findings also represent the two ends of a U-shaped curve? The disparities are likely due to differences in the environment, both in utero and postnatally, that different groups experience.

  17. A U-Shaped Slot UWB Antenna with Flexible and Wide Tunable Dual Notch Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed ultra-wideband (UWB antenna with flexible and wide tunable dual bandnotched characteristics is proposed in this paper. The dual band-notched function is achieved by using an U-shaped slot inserted into the ellipse radiation patch and by using an elliptic parasitic slit placed near the ground plane. The wide tunable band-notched characteristic is implemented by adjusting the length of U-shaped slot and by adjusting the length of ellipse parasitic slit. The design aims to achieve wide reconfigurable band-notched features on the UWB antenna. The simulated results indicate that the proposed antenna has a wide bandwidth (VSWR under 2 from 2.9GHz to 12.6GHz with fractional bandwidth of 125%, and has a wide tunable notch band center frequency from 4.5GHz to 12.4GHz.

  18. Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Jill. M.

    2008-01-01

    Adrenal hormones regulate glucose levels, responses to unpredictable stressors and modulate cognition. Glucocorticoids can have an inverted-U shape relationship with cognition, as very low or high levels impair, whereas moderate elevations facilitate, acquisition and retention of memories. To date these relationships have been tested with humans and rodents in laboratory settings rather than with wild animals in biologically relevant contexts. This study examined whether the elevated cortisol...

  19. Numerical Investigations on Characteristics of Stresses in U-Shaped Metal Expansion Bellows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal expansion bellows are a mechanical device for absorbing energy or displacement in structures. It is widely used to deal with vibrations, thermal expansion, and the angular, radial, and axial displacements of components. The main objective of this paper is to perform numerical analysis to find various characteristics of stresses in U-shaped metal expansion bellows as per the requirement of vendor and ASME standards. In this paper, extensive analytical and numerical study is carried out to calculate the different characteristics of stresses due to internal pressure varying from 1 MPa to 2 MPa in U-shaped bellows. Finite element analysis by using Ansys14 is performed to find the characteristics of U-shaped metal expansion bellows. Finally, the results of analytical analysis and finite element method (FEM show a very good agreement. The results of this research work could be used as a basis for designing a new type of the metal bellows.

  20. Unhooking dynamics of U-shaped DNA molecule undergoing gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L; Maestre, M F

    1991-08-01

    It has been found that DNA molecules are often hooked around obstacles in a U-shaped configuration in gel electrophoresis. To understand the dynamics of the unhooking of U-shaped DNA molecules undergoing gel electrophoresis, we have examined the length changes of the longer and shorter arms of the U-shape as a function of time. Two types of unhooking have been found. In one type, the length changes of both arms are expontential in time but with different time constants. In another type, the length changes of the shorter arm is exponential and that of the longer one is linear with time. The interpretation is that the extent of stretch of the spring-like DNA chain decreases as the length difference between the two arms increases during the unhooking processes, and that the frictions at the pivot point can be relatively large depending upon the local structure of the gel. The friction coefficient at the pivot point is estimated to be nu 0 = (2.98 +/- 1.42)x10(-5) g/sec.

  1. U-Shaped Association between Plasma Manganese Levels and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhilei; Chen, Sijing; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Guo, Yanjun; Yu, Xuefeng; Yang, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2016-12-01

    Manganese is both an essential element and a known toxicant, and it plays important roles in many mechanisms in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, epidemiological studies of this relationship are rare. We investigated the association between plasma manganese and newly diagnosed T2D as well as whether the association could be modified by manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphisms. We conducted a case-control study of 3,228 participants in China: 1,614 T2D patients and 1,614 controls. Concentrations of plasma magnesium were measured, and all participants were genotyped for the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880). A U-shaped association was observed between plasma manganese and T2D, with increased odds ratios (ORs) in relation to either low or high plasma manganese levels. Compared with the middle tertile, the multivariate-adjusted ORs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of T2D associated with the lowest tertile and the highest tertile of plasma manganese were 1.89 (1.53, 2.33) and 1.56 (1.23, 1.97), respectively. In spline analysis, the U-shaped association was consistently indicated, with the lowest odds of T2D at the plasma manganese concentration of 4.95 μg/L. Minor allele frequencies (C allele) of the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880) in the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the T2D groups were 13.57% and 14.50%, respectively. The MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism was not associated with T2D, and no interaction was found between plasma manganese and the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism in relation to T2D. Our results suggested a U-shaped association between plasma manganese and T2D; both low and high levels of plasma manganese were associated with higher odds of newly diagnosed T2D. The U-shaped association was not modified by the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism. Citation: Shan Z, Chen S, Sun T, Luo C, Guo Y, Yu X, Yang W, Hu FB, Liu L. 2016. U-shaped association between plasma manganese levels and type 2 diabetes. Environ Health Perspect 124:1876-1881;

  2. A unique 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework for efficient gas sorption applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader

    2016-10-03

    A novel 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework with high surface area (1050 m2 g−1) and thermal stability was synthesized. It exhibits relatively high CO2 (3.4 mmol g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar), H2 (7 mmol g−1 at 77 K and 1 bar), and olefin sorption capacity, good CO2/N2 (45) and CO2/CH4 (9.6) selectivity at 273 K and 1 bar, as well as promising C2H4/CH4 and C3H6/CH4 selectivities at 298 K, making it a potential candidate for CO2 capture, H2 storage, and hydrocarbon gas separation applications.

  3. U-shaped conformation of alkyl chains bound to a synthetic receptor cucurbit[8]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Youngkook; Kim, Hyunuk; Kim, Kimoon

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of a series of alkanes bound to the molecular host cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) has been systematically studied by 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). CB[8] and alkyltrimethylammonium (C(m) TA(+), (CH(3))(3)N(+)C(m)H(2m+1), m=6-16) form 1:1 host-guest complexes with a high binding constant (K≈10(6) m(-1)). The shortest hexyl chain of C(6)TA(+) can be fully encapsulated in an extended conformation inside the CB[8] cavity, which is driven by both enthalpy and entropy. However, for the longer aliphatic chains, C(8)-C(16), the long alkyl tails take a U-shaped conformation inside the cavity, and their complexation is dominantly or almost exclusively enthalpy-driven, owing to the increased van der Waals contact between the folded aliphatic chain and the inner wall of the host cavity. As the chain length increases from C(8) to C(16), the ammonium head group of the guests moves away from the portal of CB[8] while the long aliphatic tails maintain the U-shaped conformation inside the cavity. The complexation of C(m)TA(+) with CB[8] follows the enthalpy-entropy compensation rule commonly observed in molecular recognition systems. For example, among the guest molecules, C(12)TA(+) shows the highest enthalpic gain (most favorable), owing to the large van der Waals contact between the guest and the host cavity, and at the same time the most unfavorable entropic contribution, owing to the severe conformational restriction of the U-shaped alkyl chain inside the host. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plot for the complexation suggests large conformational changes of the long alkyl chains and extensive dehydration associated with the inclusion complex formation.

  4. The Relationship between Education and Foreign Direct Investment: Testing the Inverse U Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Seref Akin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zhang-Markusen (ZM theory hypothesizes an inverse U-shaped relationship between human capital and foreign direct investment (FDI. Therefore, low wage countries with low human capital cannot attract FDI. To test this hypothesis, we regress FDI on educational levels across countries while grouping them in different income cohorts. Our findings partly support ZM. Rich countries with high human capital and poor countries with low human capital demonstrate an inverse correlation between FDI and human capital proxies. However, for middle-income and upper middle-income countries, human capital (especially tertiary education has a positive relationship with FDI.

  5. The Relationship between Education and Foreign Direct Investment: Testing the Inverse U Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Seref Akin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Zhang-Markusen (ZM theory hypothesizes an inverse U-shaped relationship between human capital and foreign direct investment (FDI. Therefore, low wage countries with low human capital cannot attract FDI. To test this hypothesis, we regress FDI on educational levels across countries while grouping them in different income cohorts. Our findings partly support ZM. Rich countries with high human capital and poor countries with low human capital demonstrate an inverse correlation between FDI and human capital proxies. However, for middle-income and upper middle-income countries, human capital (especially tertiary education has a positive relationship with FDI.

  6. Computer simulation of the classical entanglement of U-shaped particles in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Brian; Lindner, John

    2014-03-01

    Classical entanglement is important in a wide range of phenomena, such as velcro hook-and-loop-fasteners, seed dispersal by animal fur, and bent liquid crystal molecules. We present a computer simulation of the entanglement of U-shaped particles in three dimensions. We represent the particles by phenomenological potentials and evolve them by integrating Newton's laws of motion. We drop them into a virtual cylinder, shake them, and ultimately release the cylinder. As the particle piles relax, we quantify their entanglement by the exponential decay times of their heights, which we correlate to the particles' height-to-length ratios.

  7. Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Jill M

    2008-05-01

    Adrenal hormones regulate glucose levels, responses to unpredictable stressors and modulate cognition. Glucocorticoids can have an inverted-U shape relationship with cognition, as very low or high levels impair, whereas moderate elevations facilitate, acquisition and retention of memories. To date these relationships have been tested with humans and rodents in laboratory settings rather than with wild animals in biologically relevant contexts. This study examined whether the elevated cortisol observed in juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) at natal emergence might promote both acquisition of adaptive responses to this species' two alarm calls warning of predators and memory of the spatial configuration of mothers' territories. Both experimentally increased and decreased basal cortisol levels interfere with acquisition and retention of an association between a warning call and the appropriate response compared with naturally occurring moderately elevated cortisol. Further, decreased cortisol impairs learning of a novel, complex spatial maze. Thus in the field the brief elevation of cortisol at emergence might facilitate acquisition of spatial memory of a three-dimensional environment and responses to alarm calls during a sensitive period of learning. This novel demonstration of the inverted-U shape function in a wild animal suggests that natural selection has favored a hormonal profile facilitating rapid acquisition of important survival behaviors.

  8. Drop-Weight Impact Test on U-Shape Concrete Specimens with Statistical and Regression Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Chao Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the principle and method of drop-weight impact test, the impact resistance of concrete was measured using self-designed U-shape specimens and a newly designed drop-weight impact test apparatus. A series of drop-weight impact tests were carried out with four different masses of drop hammers (0.875, 0.8, 0.675 and 0.5 kg. The test results show that the impact resistance results fail to follow a normal distribution. As expected, U-shaped specimens can predetermine the location of the cracks very well. It is also easy to record the cracks propagation during the test. The maximum of coefficient of variation in this study is 31.2%; it is lower than the values obtained from the American Concrete Institute (ACI impact tests in the literature. By regression analysis, the linear relationship between the first-crack and ultimate failure impact resistance is good. It can suggested that a minimum number of specimens is required to reliably measure the properties of the material based on the observed levels of variation.

  9. A branch-and-bound feature selection algorithm for U-shaped cost functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ris, Marcelo; Martins, David C

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a combinatorial optimization problem with the following characteristics: i.the search space is the power set of a finite set structured as a Boolean lattice; ii.the cost function forms a U-shaped curve when applied to any lattice chain. This formulation applies for feature selection in the context of pattern recognition. The known approaches for this problem are branch-and-bound algorithms and heuristics, that explore partially the search space. Branch-and-bound algorithms are equivalent to the full search, while heuristics are not. This paper presents a branch-and-bound algorithm that differs from the others known by exploring the lattice structure and the U-shaped chain curves of the search space. The main contribution of this paper is the architecture of this algorithm that is based on the representation and exploration of the search space by new lattice properties proven here. Several experiments, with well known public data, indicate the superiority of the proposed ...

  10. Numerical analysis of dimension precision of U-shaped aluminium profile rotary stretch bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhong-qi; LIN Zhong-qin

    2007-01-01

    In order to enhance the dimension precision of bent part, advanced bending technologies is requested recently. Rotary stretch bending(RSB) is a suitable technology to realize high precision of bent part. The effect of processing parameters, namely the side pressure and the stretching force, on the dimension precision of aluminium profile RSB part was studied by finite element method. The numerical simulation of the U-shaped aluminium profile RSB was carried out, and the validity of the simulation was checked. Parametric analysis shows that the section distortion of the U-shaped profile LY12M bent part decreases with the increasing of the side pressure, whereas the springback of curvature increases, and that both of the section distortion and the springback of curvature decrease with the increasing of the stretching force, moreover, the uniformity of curvature of the bent part is clearly enhanced with the increasing of the stretching force. The results above prove that RSB technology can better improve the dimension precision of aluminium profile bent part.

  11. Coplanar UHF RFID tag antenna with U-shaped inductively coupled feed for metallic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Karrar Naji; Ismail, Alyani; Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Saeedi, Tale

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel compact, coplanar, tag antenna design for metallic objects. Electrically small antenna has designed for a UHF RFID (860-960 MHz) based on a proximity-coupled feed through. Furthermore, two symmetrical Via-loaded coplanar grounds fed by a U-shaped inductively coupled feed through an embedded transmission line. This configuration results in an antenna with dimensions of 31 × 19.5 × 3.065 mm3 at 915 MHz, and the total gain for the antenna is 0.12 dBi. The Via-loaded coplanar and U-shaped inductively coupled feeds allow the antenna to provide flexible tuning in terms of antenna impedance. In addition, a figure of merit is applied for the proposed tag antenna, and the results are presented. The read range is measured to be 4.2 m, which is very close to simulated values. This antenna measurement shows very good agreement with simulations.

  12. The Impact of Walking Time on U-Shaped Assembly Line Worker Allocation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parames Chutima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The one-piece flow manufacturing line of single and customized products is usually organized as a U-shaped assembly layout. In this study, the characteristics of a single U-line are described and modeled. The worker allocation problem is hierarchically concerned with the task assignment into a U-line and allocate task to workers in sequence. Several products are assembled in 7-task to 297-task problems, and each problem is performed with a given cycle time. The primary purpose is to identify the impact of walking time on both symmetrical and rectangular U-shaped assembly layouts. The minor purpose is to compare the number of workers between two fixed layouts. Coincidence algorithm demonstrates clarifying solutions. To respond to two previous aims, the primary objective function of a number of workers is used. Finally, with the Pareto-optimal frontier between the deviation of operation times of workers and the walking time, its computational study is exemplified to identify good task assignment and walking path.

  13. Explaining the U-shaped development of intent-based moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eMargoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When preschoolers evaluate actions and agents, they typically neglect agents’ intentions and focus on action outcomes instead. By contrast, intentions count much more than outcomes for older children and adults. This phenomenon has traditionally been seen as evidence of a developmental change in children’s concept of what is morally good and bad. However, a growing number of studies shows that infants are able to reason about agents’ intentions and take them into account in their spontaneous socio-moral evaluations. Here we argue that this puzzling U-shaped trajectory in children’s judgments is best accounted for by a model that posits developmental continuity in moral competence and emphasizes the effect of immature executive function skills on preschoolers’ performance.

  14. U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic sensor for effective biofilm growth monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Li, Yishan

    2016-01-01

    To monitor biofilm growth on polydimethylsiloxane in a photobioreactor effectively, the biofilm cells and liquids were separated and measured using a sensor with two U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic probes (Sen. and Ref. probes). The probes’ Au-coated hemispherical tips enabled double-pass evanescent field absorption. The Sen. probe sensed the cells and liquids inside the biofilm. The polyimide–silica hybrid-film-coated Ref. probe separated the liquids from the biofilm cells and analyzed the liquid concentration. The biofilm structure and active biomass were also examined to confirm the effectiveness of the measurement using a simulation model. The sensor was found to effectively respond to the biofilm growth in the adsorption through exponential phases at thicknesses of 0–536 μm. PMID:26977344

  15. CPW fed Inverted U-Shape Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW-fed planar monopole antenna for WiMAX and WLAN applications is presented. The antenna, which occupies a small size, is simply composed of an inverted U-shaped radiating patch with E-shape slot. By carefully selecting the positions of this slot, reasonable bandwidth of the antenna can be obtained so that operating bands covering 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN bands and the 2.5/3.5/5.5 GHz WiMAX bands. The measured results also demonstrate that the proposed antenna has appreciable bandwidth and is thus suitable to be integrated within the portable devices for WiMAX/WLAN applications. The various characteristics parameters like S-parameter, VSWR and radiation pattern are studied. The proposed antenna is simulated by using ANSOFT HFSS software

  16. Scalable nanofabrication of U-shaped nanowire resonators with tunable optical magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Wang, Chen; Dong, Biqin; Chen, Xiangfan; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Cheng

    2016-03-21

    Split ring resonators have been studied extensively in reconstituting the diminishing magnetism at high electromagnetic frequencies in nature. However, breakdown in the linear scaling of artificial magnetism is found to occur at the near-infrared frequency mainly due to the increasing contribution of self-inductance while reducing dimensions of the resonators. Although alternative designs have enabled artificial magnetism at optical frequencies, their sophisticated configurations and fabrication procedures do not lend themselves to easy implementation. Here, we report scalable nanofabrication of U-shaped nanowire resonators (UNWRs) using the high-throughput nanotransfer printing method. By providing ample area for conducting oscillating electric current, UNWRs overcome the saturation of the geometric scaling of the artificial magnetism. We experimentally demonstrated coarse and fine tuning of LC resonances over a wide wavelength range from 748 nm to 1600 nm. The added flexibility in transferring to other substrates makes UNWR a versatile building block for creating functional metamaterials in three dimensions.

  17. Volvulus U-Shaped transverse colonic duplication: Report of a case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruankha Bilommi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tubular duplication of the colon is very rare especially in adulthood, because it is frequently symptomatic earlier in newborn life, so only few cases are reported in literature. Several theories are proposed to explain the onset and the evolution of gut malformations as the aberrant lumen recanalization or the diverticular theory, the alteration of the lateral closure of the embryonal disk or finally the dorsal protrusion of the yolk-sac for herniation or adhesion to the ectoderm for an abnormality of the longitudinal line, but none clarifies the exact genesis of duplication [1–3]. U Shaped transverse colonic duplication with volvulus has never been reported before and very rare in condition in gastrointestinal duplication.

  18. Millipede-inspired locomotion through novel U-shaped piezoelectric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avirovik, Dragan; Butenhoff, Bryan; Priya, Shashank

    2014-03-01

    We report a novel piezoelectric motor that operates at a resonance frequency of 144 Hz, much lower than that of conventional ultrasonic motors, and meets the displacement and gait requirements for designing the locomotion mechanism of a millipede-inspired robot (millibot). The motor structure consists of two piezoelectric bimorphs arranged in a U-shaped configuration. Using the first bending mode for both the piezoelectric bimorphs an elliptical motion was obtained at the tip which led to the successful implementation of millipede inspired locomotion. At an input voltage of 70.7 Vrms, the piezoelectric motor operating at resonance frequency was able to generate torque of 0.03 mN m, mechanical power of 0.84 mW and maximum velocity of 62 rad s-1. Detailed discussion is provided about the principle of operation of the millibot.

  19. Compact U-shape radiating patch with rectangular ground planar monopole antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kisanrao Sambhe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A compact U-shape radiating patch with rectangular ground planar monopole antenna is proposed. Antenna is fabricated on FR4 substrate with permittivity 4.4 and loss tangent 0.02 with dimension 75(LR × 48(WR × 1.6(h mm^3. Measured return loss is ≤ −10 dB for the entire impedance bandwidth (800–3500 MHz. In addition, different key parameters which affect the impedance bandwidth are analysed and results discussed. Moreover, antennas have acceptable gain flatness with good omnidirectional radiation patterns. Its ease of fabrication, compatibility with other electronic devices, and radiation pattern make it a competent candidate for global system of mobile (890–960 MHz, digital communication system (1700–1900 MHz and Bluetooth (2.45 GHz cellular communication applications.

  20. U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic sensor for effective biofilm growth monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Zhao, Mingfu; Li, Yishan

    2016-02-01

    To monitor biofilm growth on polydimethylsiloxane in a photobioreactor effectively, the biofilm cells and liquids were separated and measured using a sensor with two U-shaped, double-tapered, fiber-optic probes (Sen. and Ref. probes). The probes' Au-coated hemispherical tips enabled double-pass evanescent field absorption. The Sen. probe sensed the cells and liquids inside the biofilm. The polyimide-silica hybrid-film-coated Ref. probe separated the liquids from the biofilm cells and analyzed the liquid concentration. The biofilm structure and active biomass were also examined to confirm the effectiveness of the measurement using a simulation model. The sensor was found to effectively respond to the biofilm growth in the adsorption through exponential phases at thicknesses of 0-536 μm.

  1. Three-dimensional investigation of velocity skin effect in U-shaped solid armature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Chunsheng Weng

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional transient computational model is applied to investigate the velocity skin effect (VSE) in a U-shaped solid arma-ture.With this model,current and heat transport in the armature can be evaluated accurately.The results show a local concentration of current and joule heating at the interface,and significant damage occurs at the edges of the armature.It is also observed that there is significant enhanced heating at sharp corners because of the armature geometry.The three-dimensional model can efficiently capture the salient features of the physical phenomena at the rail-armature interface,and contribute to the development of the armature design.

  2. U-shaped relationship between depression and body mass index in the Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-H; Park, S K; Ryoo, J-H; Oh, C-M; Choi, J-M; McIntyre, R S; Mansur, R B; Kim, H; Hales, S; Jung, J Y

    2017-06-03

    Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30kg/m(2)). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D)≥16 and≥25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age. When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14-1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85-1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91-1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05-1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in women and 23kg/m(2) to 25kg/m(2) in men. There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical and experimental study on atmospheric pressure ionization waves propagating through a U-shape channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Song, Ying; Wang, Dezhen; Sosnin, Eduard A.; Skakun, Victor S.; Liu, Dongping

    2017-08-01

    A 2D computational study of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels at atmospheric pressure was performed, with emphasis on the effect of voltage polarity and the curvature of the bend. The discharge was ignited by a HV needle electrode inside the channel, and power was applied in the form of a trapezoidal pulse lasting 2 µs. We have shown that behavior of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels was quite different with that in straight tubes. For positive polarity of applied voltage, the ionization waves tended to propagate along one side of walls rather than filling the channel. The propagation velocity of ionization waves predicted by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment results; the velocity was first increasing rapidly in the vicinity of the needle tip and then decreasing with the increment of propagation distance. Then we have studied the influence of voltage polarity on discharge characteristics. For negative polarity, the ionization waves tended to propagate along the opposite side of the wall, while the discharge was more diffusive and volume-filling compared with the positive case. It was found that the propagation velocity for the negative ionization wave was higher than that for the positive one. Meanwhile, the propagation of the negative ionization wave depended less on the pre-ionization level than the positive ionization wave. Finally, the effect of the radius of curvature was studied. Simulations have shown that the propagation speeds were sensitive to the radii of the curvature of the channels for both polarities. Higher radii of curvature tended to have higher speed and longer length of plasma. The simulation results were supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions.

  4. A U-shaped Association Between Blood Pressure and Cognitive Impairment in Chinese Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yue-Bin; Zhu, Peng-Fei; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Threapleton, Diane; Chei, Choy-Lye; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; Zhang, Juan; Qian, Han-Zhu; Mao, Chen; Matchar, David Bruce; Luo, Jie-Si; Zeng, Yi; Shi, Xiao-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Higher or lower blood pressure may relate to cognitive impairment, whereas the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive impairment among the elderly is not well-studied. The study objective was to determine whether blood pressure is associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly, and, if so, to accurately describe the association. Cross-sectional data from the sixth wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in 2011. Community-based setting in longevity areas in China. A total of 7144 Chinese elderly aged 65 years and older were included in the sample. Systolic blood pressures (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were measured, pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as (SBP) - (DBP) and mean arterial pressures (MAP) was calculated as 1/3(SBP) + 2/3(DBP). Cognitive function was assessed via a validated Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Based on the results of generalized additive models (GAMs), U-shaped associations were identified between cognitive impairment and SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP. The cutpoints at which risk for cognitive impairment (MMSE blood pressure corresponded to 0.7%, 1.1%, and 1.1% greater risk in the risk of cognitive impairment, respectively. Above the cutpoints, each 1-mm Hg increase in blood pressure corresponded to 1.2%, 1.8%, and 2.1% greater risk of cognitive impairment for SBP, DBP, and MAP, respectively. A U-shaped association between blood pressure and cognitive function in an elderly Chinese population was found. Recognition of these instances is important in identifying the high-risk population for cognitive impairment and to individualize blood pressure management for cognitive impairment prevention. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooperative Reformable Channel System with Unique Recognition of Small Gas Molecules in a two-dimensional ZIF-membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Liu, Zhe

    We report a cooperative reformable channel system in a coordination porous polymer, named as ZIF-L. Three types of local flexible ligands coexist in the crystal structure of this polymer, resulting in ultra-flexibility. The reformable channel is able to regulate permeation of a nonspherical guest molecule, such as N2 or CO2, based on its longer molecular dimension, which is in a striking contrast to conventional molecular sieves that regulate the shorter cross-sectional dimension of the guest molecules. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the guest molecule induces dynamic motion of the flexible ligands, leading to the channel reformation, and then the guest molecule reorientates itself to fit in the reformed channel. Such a unique ``induced fit-in'' mechanism causes the gas molecule to pass through 6 membered-ring windows in the c- crystal direction of ZIF-L with its longer axis parallel to the window plane. Our experimental permeance of N2 through the ZIF-L membranes is about three times greater than that of CO2, supporting the DFT simulation predictions.

  6. Theoretical modelling of a bi-dimensional U-shaped surface plasmon resonance based fibre optic sensor for sensitivity enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, R K; Gupta, B D [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)], E-mail: bdgupta@physics.iitd.ernet.in

    2008-05-07

    Theoretical analysis of a surface plasmon resonance based fibre optic sensor with a uniform semi-metal coated U-shaped probe is carried out using a bi-dimensional model. All the rays of the p-polarized light launched in the fibre and their electric vectors are assumed to be confined in the plane of bending of the U-shaped probe. The effect of the bending radius of the probe on the sensitivity of the sensor is studied. The study shows that as the bending radius of the probe decreases the sensitivity of the sensor increases. For the light launching conditions used, the maximum sensitivity achieved is several times more than that reported for a fibre optic tapered probe. In addition to high sensitivity, the most advantageous feature of a U-shaped probe is that it can be used as a point sensor.

  7. Research of Effective Width of FRP U-shaped Hoop Reinforcement Properties of Concrete Beams by Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baokun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paste fiber reinforced composite material (hereinafter referred to as FRP U-shaped hoop of reinforced concrete beams interfacial debonding is an important reinforcement technology research. For the effective width of the CFRP U-shaped hoop reinforcement, it is still a lack of in-depth research, only relying on the test research huge workload, this article (ANSYS and the numerical simulation in the whole process of the shear load release properties of finite element calculation software. According to the results of finite element analysis, the author studied the CFRP U-shaped hoop to increase the width of the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams by the impact.

  8. Weight Status and Psychological Distress in a Mediterranean Spanish Population: A Symmetric U-Shaped Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Villalobos Martínez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain. Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2, Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.99 Kg/m2, Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.99 Kg/m2 and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2. Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R. We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001 for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress.

  9. Silver square nanospirals mimic optical properties of U-shaped metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, B; Robbie, K; Abdeddaïm, R; Guida, G; Yang, J; Rivory, J; Priou, A

    2010-08-02

    We present a study of the optical properties of three-armed square nanospirals made of silver and realized as nanostructured thin films with Glancing Angle Deposition. Calculation of current flows in the nanospirals show excited resonant modes resembling those observed in U-shaped resonators. Four principal resonances were determined: near 200 THz and 480 THz for one polarization and 250 THz and 650 THz for the polarization orthogonal to the first one. In particular, a mode with anti-parallel current flow in opposite arms, associated with the observed resonance near 650 THz, indicates the existence of a magnetic-like resonance in the square nanospiral arrays. The robustness of the resonances against variations in the structural parameters of the nanospirals was investigated. This study revealed that the main parameter driving the position of the resonances was the overall dimension of the nanospiral, directly related to the length of their arms. Optical properties of a sample were measured by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry at near-normal incidence, and evidence conversion between polarization states even for light polarized in the plane containing one of the arms in agreement with the numerical study. The measurements compared favorably to the results of the numerical simulations taking into account the disorder in the sample.

  10. Hetero-gate-Dielectric Symmetric U-shaped gate tunnel FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajally, Mohammad Bagher; Karami, Mohammad Azim

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneous gate dielectric is used in a nanoscale symmetric U-shaped gate tunnel FET (SUTFET), which resulted in ION, IOFF, subthreshold swing (SS), and Iambipolar enhancement. ION of 1.5 × 10-5 A/μm, IOFF of 6 × 10-12 A/μm, average subthreshold swing of (SS) 19.83 mV/decade from 0 V high-k dielectric close to the source and low-k dielectric in the vicinity of drain. The gate dielectric engineering shows characteristic enhancement in compare to SUTFET with single gate dielectric material. The strong coupling between the gate and transistor channel near the source results in reduced potential barrier width in tunnel junction, which leads to higher ION and lower subthreshold swing. Moreover, the presence of low-k dielectric near the drain reduces ambipolar current by increasing potential barrier height. This improved SUTFET characteristics makes it suitable for the usage in digital circuits due to reduced ambipolar response.

  11. Water behavior in a u-shaped flow channel of PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, P.; Zhou, B.; Sobiesiak, A. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering; Liu, Z.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to find a practical approach for predicting liquid water distribution in the U-shaped flow channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Computational fluid dynamics modeling with the FLUENT software package was used to demonstrate the two-phase flow of the air-water transport process inside the channel. It was noted that no chemical reaction occurs inside the flow channels and the liquid water is formed either on the surfaces of the flow channels or inside the flow channels. The problem can therefore be simplified as a fluid mechanics problem with water sources inside its physical domain or on its boundaries. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) model was used to track dynamic air-water interactions. Three cases with a range of initial water phase distributions corresponding to different fuel cell operating conditions were simulated numerically to gain a better understanding of water behaviour inside the serpentine channel. It was concluded that the bend area in the serpentine flow field affects the fuel cell performance. This is because it influences the flow field which in turn influences the air-water flow and water liquid distribution inside the channel or along the inside channel surfaces. 15 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  12. Professional development for nurses: mentoring along the u-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joyce E; Billingsley, Molly; Crichlow, Tori; Ferrell, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Shortages of nurses are expected to continue throughout the coming decade. To meet the demand, nursing leaders must develop creative approaches for nurturing and sustaining nursing talent. Traditionally, nursing has embraced a variety of development strategies to enhance the leadership abilities of nurses and to fill the leadership ranks with top talent. We describe the rationale, design, and impact of a 3-pronged organizational approach to mentoring nursing talent at Georgetown University Hospital, the first Magnet hospital in Washington, District of Columbia. The design of these programs was driven by the demographics of our nursing staff. Analysis of length of tenure revealed a modified "U-shaped curve" with the majority of new nurses with tenure less than 5 years, few in the middle between 5 and 15 years, and a moderate number with 15 or more years. Investment in all our nurses' leadership development required integrating a diverse developmental process into our organizational culture, which values personal growth and mastery. A strong mentoring program makes good business sense in terms of employee job satisfaction, improved cost control, and better patient outcomes. Our experience suggests that voluntary mentoring programs work synergistically to further the development of a mentoring culture in today's hospitals.

  13. Do studies reporting 'U'-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-health outcome relationships reflect adverse effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B; Karras, Spyridon N; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Annweiler, Cedric; Boucher, Barbara J; Juzeniene, Asta; Garland, Cedric F; Holick, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Several reports describe U-shaped 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration-health outcomes, including musculo-skeletal disorders such as falls and fractures, several cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive function, all-cause mortality rates, birth outcomes, allergic reactions, frailty, and some other disorders. This paper reviews reports of U-shaped outcome associations with vitamin D status for evidence of underlying pathophysiological processes, or of confounding, finding that some U-shaped associations appear to be biologically meaningful, but that many could well reflect confounding by factors such as lifestyle, or hypovitaminosis D-related disease onset being masked by self-supplementation that was begun too late to correct developing health problems but before baseline vitamin D status assessment. However, the various U-shaped associations for allergic reactions may be due to vitamin D modulation of the phenotype of the immune response, shifting the Th1-Th2 balance toward Th2 formation. For prostate cancer, there seems to be little effect of 25(OH)D concentration on incidence; however, there is an inverse correlation between 25(OH)D concentration and mortality rates. Future observational studies, and randomized controlled trial data analyses, should include adjustment for data collected on prior long-term vitamin D supplementation and solar UVB exposure, as well as other potential confounders.

  14. Patterns of Alliance Development and the Rupture-Repair Hypothesis: Are Productive Relationships U-Shaped or V-Shaped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B.; Glick, Meredith J.; Osatuke, Katerine; Hardy, Gillian E.; Shapiro, David A.; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Rees, Anne; Barkham, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors attempted to replicate and extend D. M. Kivlighan and P. Shaughnessy's (2000) findings of (a) 3 distinctive patterns of alliance development across sessions and (b) a differential association of one of these, a U-shaped quadratic growth pattern, with positive treatment outcome. In data drawn from a clinical trial of brief…

  15. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY WORK OF U-SHAPE BOREHOLE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Filatau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady numerical model of borehole heat exchanger heat regime was developed. General numerical modeling results are borehole heat flux, heat carrier inlet temperature and average soil temperature distribution. Proposed model is based on solution of heat conduction equation in transient plane axially symmetric formulation with boundary conditions for borehole heat exchanger and undisturbed soil domain. Solution method is finite difference method. Numerical model is verified with comparisons numerical results and experimental data from developed laboratory installation for simulation unsteady heat regime of horizontal positioned U-shape ground heat exchanger in sand medium.Cooling of water is organized in ground exchanger in experiment. Experiment includes two steps. Thermal properties of sand is determined at the first stage. Thermal conductivity of sand is determined by stationary plate method, thermal diffusivity is determined by regular regime method using cylindrical calorimeter. Determined properties are used further in processing of experimental results at second step for analysis of transient work of ground heat exchanger. Results of four experiments are analyzed with different duration and time behavior of mass flow and heat carrier temperature. Divergences of experimental and simulated results for temperature of heat carrier changes in the range 0,5–1,8 %, for sand temperature in the range 1,0–2,3 %, for heat flux in the range 3,6–5,4 %. Experimental results can be used for validation of other simulation methods of ground heat exchangers. Presented numerical model can be used for analyzing of heat supply systems with heat pumps.

  16. Correction of incomplete cleft palate by u-shaped flap palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Amin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: During cleft palate repair, velopharyngeal sphincter reconstruction is still a challenge to plastic surgeons. To improve results of surgical treatment of cleft palate and secondary velopharyngeal incompetence, a carefully designed modified procedure for palatoplasty is presented. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with incomplete cleft palate corrected by this procedure from April 2003 to October 2007 were included. A u-shaped incision was made in the anterior palate to separate bipedicle flap based on the greater palatine arteries of both sides. After complete dissection of the nasal and palatal mucosa, palatal muscles were carefully dissected from the posterior edge of the bones of the hard palate, wherein the well-mobilised flap receded backward spontaneously and elongated the soft palate. After suturing the nasal mucosa in the midline, the dissected palatal muscles of both sides were sutured together in the anterior third of the soft palate. On suturing the nasal mucosa and the palatal muscles, the soft palate became elongated and the oral mucosa was seen receding backward spontaneously to cover the anterior part of the soft palate. Results: All corrected patients showed good results, with no recurrence, no post-operative fistulae, with accepted speech pattern and no need for further pharyngoplasty. The line of the sutured nasal mucosa and the palatal muscles became covered by the healthy non-sutured oral mucosa and the soft palate became elongated, with narrowing of the vellopharyngeal isthmus after this technique. Conclusion: The designed flap allows covering of sutured nasal mucosa and palatal muscles with a healthy unsutured oral mucosa and elongates the soft palate. Thus, there was no incidence of post-operative fistula and no need for further pharyngoplasties.

  17. U-SHAPE HIGH-TEMPERATURE RECLAMATION INCINERATOR OF ELECTRONICAL SALVAGE%U形废弃物高温资源化处置炉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾元方; 胡菁菁; 孙超; 何世科; 孙彦文; 王威平

    2011-01-01

    A new incinerator of waste printed circuit boards, U-shape High-temperature Reclamation Incinerator where the organic powder is combusted in swirl-flow mode in high temperature, the metal is smelted and the slag is formed and impoverished efficiently, and the toxic flue gas is oxidized enough in swirl-flow mode in high temperature, has been put forward. The incinerator is of U-shape structure, composed of combustion tower, smelting pool and disinfection tower, and integrates the technology advantages of multiple hearth furnace, reverberatory furnace, cyclone furnace and flash smelting furnace. There is thrice swirl-flow combustion and high-temperature incineration inside the incinerator. The incinerator has the advantage of high metallic recovery rate, no tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin precursor in the flue outlet of incinerator and self heating smelting.%研发一种基于有机废料高温旋流燃烧、金属高温熔化并高效造渣贫化、有毒有害废气高温旋流燃烧氧化等原理的U形废弃物高温资源化处置炉.处置炉呈“U形”,包括燃烧塔、熔炼池和消毒塔,集成多膛炉、反射炉、旋风炉和闪速炉的结构特点,组织三次旋流燃烧和高温燃烧,具有金属回收率高、从源头上抑制二噁英生成和自热冶炼等优势.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic modeling and analysis of spool valve with sloping U-shape notch by bond graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄磊; 吴万荣; 王兆强; 梁向京

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency and reliability of the thermodynamics analysis of the spool valve, the precise function expression of the flow area for the sloping U-shape notch orifice versus the spool stroke and thermal-hydraulic bond graph based on the conservation of mass and energy were introduced. Subsequently, the connection rule for the bond graph elements and the method to construct the complete thermal-hydraulic system model were proposed. On the basis of heat transfer analysis of a typical hydraulic circuit containing the spool valve, the lumped parameter for mathematical model of the system was given. At last, the reliability of the mathematical model of the flow area and the thermal-hydraulic system for the sloping U-shape notch orifice on the spool were demonstrated by the test. The good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data demonstrates the validity of the modeling method.

  19. U-shaped development in math: 7-year-olds outperform 9-year-olds on equivalence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Nicole M

    2007-05-01

    What is the nature of the association between age (7-11 years) and performance on mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 7+4+5+7+_)? Many prevailing theories suggest that there should be a positive association. However, change-resistance accounts (e.g., N. M. McNeil & M. W. Alibali, 2005b) predict a U-shaped association. The purpose of the present research was to test these differing predictions. Results from two studies supported a change-resistance account. In the first study (N=87), performance on equivalence problems declined between the ages of 7 and 9 and improved between the ages of 9 and 11. The decrements in performance between the ages of 7 and 9 were then replicated in a second study (N=35). Results suggest that the association between age and performance on equivalence problems is U-shaped.

  20. How does the U-shaped potential close above the acceleration region? A study using Polar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study of Polar electric field observations using auroral oval passes over Scandinavia above the acceleration region. We are especially interested in seeing whether we can find large perpendicular electric fields associated with an upward extended classical U-shaped potential drop for these passes, during which Polar is in the northern hemisphere usually at about 4 RE altitude. We also use Polar magnetic field data to infer the existence of a field-aligned current (FAC and conjugate ground-based magnetometers (the IMAGE magnetometer network to check whether the event is substorm-related or not. We find several events with a FAC but only weak perpendicular electric fields at Polar. In those rare cases where the Polar electric field was large, its direction was mostly found to be incompatible with the U-shaped potential model, or it was associated with disturbed conditions (substorms, where one cannot easily distinguish between inductive and static perpendicular electric fields. We found only two cases which are compatible with the upward extended U-shaped potential picture, and even in those cases the potential value is quite small (1-2 kV. To check the validity of the analysis method we also estimate the perpendicular electric field on the southern hemisphere, where Polar flies within or below the acceleration region, and we found a large number of inverted-V-type signatures as expected from previous studies. To explain the lack of perpendicular electric fields at high altitudes we suggest an O-shaped potential model instead of the U-shaped one.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle acceleration · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions

  1. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance and optimization of heat sink with U-shape heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Tian Shen [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Hung, Yew Mun [School of Engineering, Monash University, 46150 Bandar Sunway (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Experimental investigation is carried out to study the thermal performance of a heat sink with finned U-shape heat pipes which is a contemporary central processing unit (CPU) cooler compatible for a wide range of high-frequency microprocessors. The optimum range of operating heat load based on thermal resistance analysis of the heat sink is characterized. The convection heat transfer coefficient between the fins and the ambient air is estimated by using Bessel's modified equation in conjunction with the results obtained through the experimental investigation. The thermal optimization of the heat sink involves the determination of the optimized L-ratio (ratio of the evaporator section length to the condenser section length) of the U-shape heat pipe, by evaluating the minima of the thermal resistance function, in which case the empirical convection heat transfer coefficient is applied in the calculation. In conjunction with this, the optimal L-ratio of a U-shape heat pipe is found to be dependent on other geometrical parameters such as the heat pipe diameter and the fin spacing, which are of practical engineering importance in the optimum design of the heat sink. (author)

  2. Laboratory observations of saline and turbidity currents flowing in U-shaped flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, M.; Bolla Pittaluga, M.

    2013-12-01

    Saline and turbidity currents belong to the large family of gravity currents. Due to the difficulties to predict and observe these kinds of phenomena, especially turbidity currents, we developed an experimental apparatus able to reproduce these currents in our Marchi Environmental Laboratory (Genova, Italy). The experiments were performed in a large U-shaped flume, 30 m long, characterized by a constant curvature bend (radius of 2.5 m) joining two straight reaches approximately 12 m long. The flume has a rectangular cross section 0.6 m wide and 0.5 m deep. Inside the flume we made a uniform concrete bottom slope (0.005), which proceeds from the inlet section along the first straight track and finishes 3 m after the bend exit. For each experiment we have been able to measure density distribution and velocity profiles along the vertical in different cross section. Density measurements were obtained using two ranks of siphons that sample the currents at different heights. Velocity was acquired with the DOP2000 ultrasound velocimeter; we measured longitudinal component in the straight reach of the flume, and both longitudinal and transversal velocity in the curved reach. We performed 30 experiments by changing the inlet conditions: primary defining the nature of the currents, saline or sediment laden, then varying two of the main parameters governing the currents: the density of the mixture and the flow discharge. The former covered a range between 1003 and 1023 kg/m^3 and the flow discharge ranged between 0.5 to 4.0 l/s. Both of these parameters influence the densimetric Froude Number, and allowed us to reproduce both subcritical and supercritical flow. In each experiment water entrainment from above was negligible hence the current was able to attain a quasi-uniform configuration in the first straight reach, whereby the longitudinal velocity and the thickness of the current were approximately constant. By varying the inlet conditions, it was possible to observe the

  3. Performance analysis and comparison of ITO- and FTO-based optically transparent terahertz U-shaped patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampy, Anand Sreekantan; Dhamodharan, Sriram Kumar

    2015-02-01

    An indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based optically transparent U-shaped patch antennas are designed to resonate at 750 GHz and their performances are analyzed. Impedance bandwidth, radiation efficiency, directivity and gain of the proposed antennas are investigated. The proposed transparent antenna's characteristics are compared with the copper-based non-transparent U-shaped patch antenna, which is also designed to resonate at 750 GHz. Terahertz antennas are essential for inter-satellite communications systems to enable the adequate spatial resolution, broad bandwidth, higher data rates and highly directional beam with secured data transfer. The proposed ITO- and FTO-based transparent antennas have yielded impedance bandwidth of 9.54% and 11.49%, respectively, in the band 719-791 GHz and 714-801 GHz, respectively. The peak gain for ITO and FTO based transparent antennas is 3.35 dB and 2.26 dB at 732 GHz and 801 GHz, respectively. The proposed antennas are designed and simulated by using a finite element method based electromagnetic solver, Ansys - HFSS.

  4. Inverted U-Shaped Curvilinear Relationship between Challenge and One's Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Meng, Liang

    2017-01-01

    The balance between task demand and one's competence is critical for the maintenance of intrinsic motivation. According to Flow theory and Self-determination theory, optimal challenge gives rise to the maximum intrinsic motivation, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation is suggested. In order to provide direct experimental evidences for predictions of these theories, in this study, we employed the two-player StopWatch game that we previously designed, which made references to the game format of a badminton tournament. According to our manipulation, a male participant was defeated by the same-sex player paired with him (played by a well-trained confederate of the experimenter) in two matches, one with a wide margin (the complete defeat condition) and another with a narrow one (the near miss condition). Participants performed better and reported to enjoy the near miss match to a greater extent. Besides, an enlarged Stimulus-preceding negativity was elicited when participants were actively anticipating outcomes in the near miss condition, suggesting greater anticipatory attention toward the outcome and an enhanced intrinsic motivation to win. Thus, converging electrophysiological evidences from this study and our former study confirmed the inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation.

  5. Prediction of Heat Transfer Performance on Horizontal U-Shaped Heat Exchanger in Passive Safety System Using MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The design and the safety analysis of the passive safety systems are performed mainly using the best-estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5 and MARS. This study developed the heat transfer model package for the horizontal U-shaped HX submerged in a pool by improving the horizontal in-tube condensation model and developing the outside-tube natural convective nucleate boiling model. This paper presents the HX model package and the validation results against the passive safety system-related experimental data of PASCAL and ATLAS-PAFS. This study developed the heat transfer model package of the horizontal U-shaped HX submerged in a pool in order to obtain a reliable prediction of the HX heat removal performance of the passive safety system, especially PAFS, using MARS. From the validation results, the proposed model package provided the improved prediction of HX performance (condensation, natural convective nucleate boiling, and heat removal rate of the HX) compared to the default model in MARS.

  6. Inverted U-Shaped Curvilinear Relationship between Challenge and One's Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Meng, Liang

    2017-01-01

    The balance between task demand and one's competence is critical for the maintenance of intrinsic motivation. According to Flow theory and Self-determination theory, optimal challenge gives rise to the maximum intrinsic motivation, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation is suggested. In order to provide direct experimental evidences for predictions of these theories, in this study, we employed the two-player StopWatch game that we previously designed, which made references to the game format of a badminton tournament. According to our manipulation, a male participant was defeated by the same-sex player paired with him (played by a well-trained confederate of the experimenter) in two matches, one with a wide margin (the complete defeat condition) and another with a narrow one (the near miss condition). Participants performed better and reported to enjoy the near miss match to a greater extent. Besides, an enlarged Stimulus-preceding negativity was elicited when participants were actively anticipating outcomes in the near miss condition, suggesting greater anticipatory attention toward the outcome and an enhanced intrinsic motivation to win. Thus, converging electrophysiological evidences from this study and our former study confirmed the inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation. PMID:28400712

  7. A Small U-Shaped Bending-Induced Interference Optical Fiber Sensor for the Measurement of Glucose Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Chen-Tung; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2016-09-09

    The study proposes a small U-shaped bending-induced interference optical fiber sensor; this novel sensor is a probe-type sensor manufactured using a mechanical device, a heat source, optical fiber and a packaging module. This probe-type sensor overcomes the shortcomings of conventional optical fibers, including being difficult to repair and a tendency to be influenced by external forces. We manufactured three types of sensors with different curvature radiuses. Specifically, sensors with three radiuses (1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm) were used to measure common water and glucose solutions with concentrations of between 6% and 30% (the interval between concentrations was 4%). The results show that the maximal sensitivity was 0.85 dB/% and that the linearly-dependent coefficient was 0.925. The results further show that not only can the small U-shaped bending-induced interference optical fiber sensor achieve high sensitivity in the measurement of glucose solutions, but that it can also achieve great stability and repeatability.

  8. High efficiency a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem solar cells fabricated with the combination of V- and U-shaped band gap profiling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthisang, Sorapong; Krajangsang, Taweewat; Hongsingthong, Aswin; Limmanee, Amornrat; Kittisontirak, Songkiate; Jaroensathainchok, Suttinan; Moolakorn, Apichan; Dousse, Adrien; Sritharathikhun, Jaran; Sriprapha, Kobsak

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium (a-SiGe:H) films prepared by very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) using a mixture of SiH4, H2, and GeH4 were investigated for their use as the bottom cell of amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon germanium (a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H) tandem solar cell structures. Narrow optical band gaps (Eopt) in the range of 1.5 to 1.6 eV were obtained by varying the GeH4/(SiH4 + GeH4) gas flow rate ratio in low-temperature deposition. The a-SiGe:H films deposited with various GeH4/(SiH4 + GeH4) gas flow rate ratios were used as intrinsic layers for the a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem solar cells with different graded band gaps: V-, VU-, and U-shapes. It was found that using the VU-shape improves the solar cell efficiency owing to a higher Jsc when compared with using V-shape. The VU-shape’s Voc and FF are also improved when compared with the U-shape’s Voc and FF. As a result, a high efficiency of 11.0% (Voc = 1.74 V, Jsc = 9.07 mA/cm2, and FF = 0.70) was successfully achieved with the solar cells fabricated using the VU-shape graded band gap technique.

  9. Water behavior in a U-shaped flow channel of PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-036

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, P.; Zhou, B.; Sobiesiak, A. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: bzhou@uwindsor.ca; Liu, Z.-S. [National Research Council Canada, Inst. for Fuel Cell innovation, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The behavior of liquid water inside a U-shaped channel for a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell was investigated through CFD modeling with the FLUENT software package. The Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) model was adopted to track dynamic air-water interfaces. Three cases with varying initial water phase distributions corresponding to different fuel cell operating conditions were numerically simulated to obtain a better understanding of water behavior inside the serpentine channel. The results show that the bend area in the serpentine flow channel has significant effects on the flow field, which in turn affects the air-water flow and water liquid distribution inside the channel or along the interior channel surfaces, thus affecting fuel cell performance. (author)

  10. A NEW DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF MICROSTRIP U-SHAPE ANTENNA FOR BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT USING EBG STRUCTURE DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHAKAR SRIVASTAVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design a low profile, conformal, small size antenna with high bandwidth along with good compromise in other factors like gain, directivity, efficiency etc. A U-shape patch antenna with suitable geometry is taken to provide good response of bandwidth about 30 % at centre frequency 2.025 GHz.using FR-4 glass epoxy material, on insertion of EBG structure, creating deformities at ground plane side, the band width of the antenna is improved tremendously about 49.36 % at centre frequency 2.35 GHz. The new design of antenna is found suitable for various wireless communications for S-band. The design approach & Simulation results are shown with the help of MOM based full wave simulator IE3D.

  11. Inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency of torsional eye movement responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Klaus; Naessl, Andrea; Schneider, Erich; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2003-07-01

    To investigate age dependent changes we analysed torsional eye movement responses to binaural and monaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in 57 healthy subjects (20-69 years old). GVS (1-3 mA) induced torsional eye movements consisting of static torsion toward the anode (amplitude 1-6 degrees ) and superimposed torsional nystagmus (slow phase velocity 0.5-3 degrees /s, quick phase amplitude 0.5-2 degrees, nystagmus frequency 0.75-1.5 s-1). Static ocular torsion and torsional nystagmus increased from the third to the sixth decade and decreased in older subjects, e.g. slow phase velocity increased from 1.5 degrees /s (20-29 years) to 2.9 degrees /s (50-59 years) and decreased to 2.5 degrees /s for the seventh decade (60-69 years). Thus, an inverse U-shaped curve was found for the dependence of torsional eye movement responses on age. All structures relevant for vestibular function degenerate with age, but at varying times. Since hair cell loss precedes those seen in the vestibular nerve and Scarpa's ganglion, the decrease in hair cell counts could be compensated for by increased sensitivity of afferent nerve fibres or central mechanisms. Increased sensitivity could thus maintain normal function despite reduced peripheral input. As GVS acts at the vestibular nerve (thereby bypassing the hair cells), electrical stimulation should be more efficient in subjects with the beginning of hair cell degeneration, as seen in our data up to the sixth decade. The degeneration of nerve fibres, ganglion cells and central neurons becomes evident at older ages. Thus, the compensatory increase in sensitivity breaks down and GVS-induced eye movements decline-a finding that is reflected by the inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency presented in this study.

  12. Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio W. Zuardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol (CBD in humans follows the same pattern of an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve observed in many animal studies. Sixty healthy subjects of both sexes aged between 18 and 35 years were randomly assigned to five groups that received placebo, clonazepam (1 mg, and CBD (100, 300, and 900 mg. The subjects were underwent a test of public speaking in a real situation (TPSRS where each subject had to speak in front of a group formed by the remaining participants. Each subject completed the anxiety and sedation factors of the Visual Analog Mood Scale and had their blood pressure and heart rate recorded. These measures were obtained in five experimental sessions with 12 volunteers each. Each session had four steps at the following times (minutes after administration of the drug/placebo, as time 0: -5 (baseline, 80 (pre-test, 153 (speech, and 216 (post-speech. Repeated-measures analyses of variance showed that the TPSRS increased the subjective measures of anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure. Student-Newman-Keuls test comparisons among the groups in each phase showed significant attenuation in anxiety scores relative to the placebo group in the group treated with clonazepam during the speech phase, and in the clonazepam and CBD 300 mg groups in the post-speech phase. Clonazepam was more sedative than CBD 300 and 900 mg and induced a smaller increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than CBD 300 mg. The results confirmed that the acute administration of CBD induced anxiolytic effects with a dose-dependent inverted U-shaped curve in healthy subjects, since the subjective anxiety measures were reduced with CBD 300 mg, but not with CBD 100 and 900 mg, in the post-speech phase.

  13. Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio W; Rodrigues, Natália P; Silva, Angélica L; Bernardo, Sandra A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Guimarães, Francisco S; Crippa, José A S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in humans follows the same pattern of an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve observed in many animal studies. Sixty healthy subjects of both sexes aged between 18 and 35 years were randomly assigned to five groups that received placebo, clonazepam (1 mg), and CBD (100, 300, and 900 mg). The subjects were underwent a test of public speaking in a real situation (TPSRS) where each subject had to speak in front of a group formed by the remaining participants. Each subject completed the anxiety and sedation factors of the Visual Analog Mood Scale and had their blood pressure and heart rate recorded. These measures were obtained in five experimental sessions with 12 volunteers each. Each session had four steps at the following times (minutes) after administration of the drug/placebo, as time 0: -5 (baseline), 80 (pre-test), 153 (speech), and 216 (post-speech). Repeated-measures analyses of variance showed that the TPSRS increased the subjective measures of anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure. Student-Newman-Keuls test comparisons among the groups in each phase showed significant attenuation in anxiety scores relative to the placebo group in the group treated with clonazepam during the speech phase, and in the clonazepam and CBD 300 mg groups in the post-speech phase. Clonazepam was more sedative than CBD 300 and 900 mg and induced a smaller increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure than CBD 300 mg. The results confirmed that the acute administration of CBD induced anxiolytic effects with a dose-dependent inverted U-shaped curve in healthy subjects, since the subjective anxiety measures were reduced with CBD 300 mg, but not with CBD 100 and 900 mg, in the post-speech phase.

  14. Flow field simulation and establishment for mathematical models of flow area of spool valve with sloping U-shape notch machined by different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆强; 顾临怡; 冀宏; 陈家旺; 李林

    2014-01-01

    Precise function expression of the flow area for the sloping U-shape notch orifice versus the spool stroke was derived. The computational fluid dynamics was used to analyze the flow features of the sloping U-shape notch on the spool, such as mass flow rates, flow coefficients, efflux angles and steady state flow forces under different operating conditions. At last, the reliability of the mathematical model of the flow area for the sloping U-shape notch orifice on the spool was demonstrated by the comparison between the orifice area curve derived and the corresponding experimental data provided by the test. It is presented that the bottom arc of sloping U-shape notch (ABU) should not be omitted when it is required to accurately calculate the orifice area of ABU. Although the theoretical flow area of plain bottom sloping U-shape notch (PBU) is larger than that of ABU at the same opening, the simulated mass flow and experimental flow area of ABU are both larger than these of PBU at the same opening, while the simulated flow force of PBU is larger than that of ABU at the same opening. Therefore, it should be prior to adapt the ABU when designing the spool with proportional character.

  15. Selective gas adsorption and unique structural topology of a highly stable guest-free zeolite-type MOF material with N-rich chiral open channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Rong; Tao, Ying; Yu, Qun; Bu, Xian-He; Sakamoto, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    A new multifunctional di-topic tetrazolate-based ligand, 2,3-di-1H-tetrazol-5-ylpyrazine (H(2)dtp) has been designed and synthesized. The solvothermal reaction of this ligand with ZnCl(2) gave a robust guest-free three-dimensional zeolite-like chiral metal-organic framework (MOF) complex, [Zn(dtp)], which crystallized in chiral space group P6(1) and possessed chiral open channels with nitrogen-rich walls and the diameter of approximately 4.1 A. This framework presents a unique uniform etd (8,3) topology, is the first example of its type in MOFs, and exhibits high thermal stability with the decomposition temperature above 380 degrees C and permanent porosity. It is interesting that this material is able to selectively adsorb O(2) and CO(2) over N(2) gas, being a rare example in MOFs. In addition, C(2)H(2) and MeOH adsorption results show that although the framework channel holds nitrogen-rich walls that may provide H-bonding sites, no NH H-bond effect between the guest molecules and microporous surface was observed.

  16. Photoelectric characteristics of an inverse U-shape buried doping design for crosstalk suppression in pinned photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Chen; Zhang Bing; Li Xin; Wu Longsheng; Wang Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    A design of an inverse U-shape buried doping in a pinned photodiode (PPD) of CMOS image sensors is proposed for electrical crosstalk suppression between adjacent pixels.The architecture achieves no extra fill factor consumption,and proper built-in electric fields can be established according to the doping gradient created by the injections of the extremely low P-type doping buried regions in the epitaxial layer,causing the excess electrons to easily drift back to the photosensitive area rarely with a diffusion probability; the overall junction capacitance and photosensitive area extensions for a full well capacity (FWC) and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) improving are achieved by the injection of a buried N-type doping.By considering the image lag issue,the process parameters of all the injections have been precisely optimized.Optical simulation results based on the finite difference time domain method show that compared to the conventional PPD,the electrical crosstalk rate of the proposed architecture can be decreased by 60%-80% at an incident wavelength beyond 450 nm,IQE can be clearly improved at an incident wavelength between 400 and 600 nm,and the FWC can be enhanced by 107.5%.Furthermore,the image lag performance is sustained to a perfect low level.The present study provides important guidance on the design of ultra high resolution image sensors.

  17. Determination of As in tree-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D M; Novović, I; Vilotić, D; Ignjatović, Lj

    2009-04-01

    An argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with a system for aerosol introduction was used for determination of As in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. After optimization of the operating parameters and selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (30 s), the limit of detection for As was reduced to 15.0 ng/mL. This detection limit obtained with the optimal integration time was compared with those for other methods: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) and improved thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS). Arsenic is toxic trace element which can adversely affect plant, animal and human health. As an indicator of environment pollution we collected poplar tree-rings from two locations. The first area was close to the "Nikola Tesla" (TENT-A) power plant, Obrenovac, while the other was in the urban area of Novi Sad. In all cases elevated average concentrations of As were registered in poplar tree-rings from the Obrenovac location.

  18. Effect of phase transition on quantum transport in group-IV two-dimensional U-shape device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadi, Mohammad Abdullah; Gupta, Gaurav, E-mail: a0089293@nus.edu.sg; Liang, Gengchiau [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-10-21

    The effect of phase-transition from the quantum-spin-hall to the band-insulator phase on the transport through a three-terminal U-shape spin-separator has been computationally investigated via non-equilibrium green function formalism. Two-dimensional group-IV elements have been comprehensively appraised as the device material. The device separates the unpolarized current injected at the source-terminal into nearly 100% spin-polarized currents of the opposite polarities at the two drain terminals. The phase-transition activated by the electric-field orthogonal to the device is shown to extensively influence the current magnitude and its spin-polarization, and the effect is stronger for materials with smaller intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, the device length and the area under field are shown to critically affect the device characteristics on phase change. It is shown that the same device can be operated as a spin-filter by inducing phase-transition selectively in the channel. The results are important for designing spin-devices from Group-IV monolayers.

  19. Interactions between the amnioserosa and the epidermis revealed by the function of the u-shaped gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Lada

    2012-02-01

    Dorsal closure (DC is an essential step during Drosophila development whereby a hole is sealed in the dorsal epidermis and serves as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis and wound healing. It involves the orchestrated interplay of transcriptional networks and dynamic regulation of cell machinery to bring about shape changes, mechanical forces, and emergent properties. Here we provide insight into the regulation of dorsal closure by describing novel autonomous and non-autonomous roles for U-shaped (Ush in the amnioserosa, the epidermis, and in mediation of communication between the tissues. We identified Ush by gene expression microarray analysis of Dpp signaling targets and show that Ush mediates some DC functions of Dpp. By selectively restoring Ush function in either the AS or the epidermis in ush mutants, we show that the AS makes a greater (Ush-dependent contribution to closure than the epidermis. A signal from the AS induces epidermal cell elongation and JNK activation in the DME, while cable formation requires Ush on both sides of the leading edge, i.e. in both the AS and epidermis. Our study demonstrates that the amnioserosa and epidermis communicate at several steps during the process: sometimes the epidermis instructs the amnioserosa, other times the AS instructs the epidermis, and still other times they appear to collaborate.

  20. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2011, 2 September). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Poster presented at the the 14th biannual EARLI conference, Exeter, Unit

  1. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2012). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 86(3), 113-117. doi:10.1016/

  2. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2012, May). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Paper presented at the 10th Congress of the International Society for the Study

  3. Experimental investigation on the effect of nanofluid on the thermal performance of symmetric sintered U shaped heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarimanesh, Meysam; Yousefi, Tooraj; Ashjaee, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the impact of Entrance Power and Silver nanofluid concentration (with base fluid ethanol and DI-water) on heat pipe thermal performance are considered. In order to reach the aim a U-shaped sintered heat pipe is utilized which causes occupied space to decline. The length of the heat pipe is 135 mm in each branch. On account of recognition the effect of working fluid on heat pipe thermal performance, thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient in base working fluid and nano-colloidal silver are measured in the shape of thermosyphon. The working fluid is with volume percentages of 70 ethanol and 30 distilled water. The average size pertaining to the nanoparticle applied is 40 nm. In addition, the influences of nanofluid concentrations are measured by comparing three concentrations 0.001, 0.005, 0.1 vol%. The range of entrance power is from 10 to 40 W and the temperature of coolant has been changed from 20 to 40 °C. The results of the experiment indicate that by increasing entrance power, the temperatures of the condenser, evaporator and working temperature experience a rise. Furthermore, this causes a decrease of thermal resistance and an increase of overall heat transfer coefficient. A comparison of three concentrations reveals that in concentration of 50 ppm, thermal resistance compared to the base fluid has decreased to 42.26 % and overall heat transfer coefficient has gone up to 1883 (W/m2·°K) . Also, due to unexpected changes in concentration of 1000 ppm, the existence of an optimized concentration for the silver nanofluid in this heat pipe with this geometry has been clear.

  4. A U-shaped bioartificial pancreas with rapid glucose-insulin kinetics. In vitro evaluation and kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reach, G; Jaffrin, M Y; Desjeux, J F

    1984-08-01

    The lag in insulin release in response to glucose is an obstacle to the development of hybrid pancreatic devices, in which an artificial membrane protects transplanted islets against immune rejection. We designed a U-shaped bioartificial pancreas, in which the blood channel surrounds the islet chamber consisting of two flat membranes; blood circulates successively above the first membrane and then in the reverse direction, below the second membrane. Isolated rat islets were introduced into the chamber, which was perfused with Krebs buffer, and the kinetics of insulin release in response to glucose was determined. During a 20-min, 2.8-20-mM, square-wave glucose stimulation, insulin release in the effluent of the device rose from 0.7 +/- 0.2 to 3.2 +/- 1.0 ng/100 islets/min (P less than 0.05) within 3 min, and reached a maximal level of 12.8 +/- 3.3 ng/100 islets/min at 10 min; 5 min after the return of the glucose concentration to substimulatory level, insulin release dropped from 11.3 +/- 1.5 to 8.0 +/- 1.7 ng/100 islets/min (P less than 0.05), and reached basal value (1.0 +/- 0.2 ng/100 islets/min) 40 min after the end of the stimulation. A 0.1-mM/L/min ramp increase in glucose concentration triggered a significant rise in insulin release (P less than 0.02) when the glucose concentration reached 5.3 +/- 0.2 mM; islets concomitantly perifused within a chamber set up without membrane responded to the same glucose stimulation 5 min earlier. For up to 1000 islets, insulin release in response to glucose was linearly correlated to the number of islets (N = 12, P less than 0.01), indicating that insulin did not significantly inhibit its own secretion in this system. Finally, during glucose stimulation, the insulin concentration in the effluent from the chamber was found to be four times the concentration present at the turning point of the blood channel, suggesting that insulin was transferred into the perfusing medium in part by a countercurrent flux of ultrafiltrate

  5. The effect of reconnection electric field on crescent and U-shaped distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection with no guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L.-J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-07-01

    Electron distribution functions in the electron diffusion region in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field are studied by means of theory and 2-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The effect of the reconnection electric field on crescent-shaped distribution functions is to broaden the thickness of the crescent. We express the thickness of the crescent as a function of field strengths, the distance from the X-line, and the time electrons spend executing meandering orbits. The electron distribution at the reconnection X-line exhibits a U-shaped structure with an opening angle in the direction of the reconnection electric field. We predict the opening angle of the U-shaped distribution by considering acceleration of the meandering electrons by the reconnection electric field. Results from particle tracing in PIC simulations and theoretical analysis agree. The above predictions provide guidance to interpret measurements by spacecraft from electron diffusion regions in asymmetric reconnection.

  6. Flight metabolism in relation to speed in Chiroptera: testing the U-shape paradigm in the short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat.

  7. Arthroscopic repair of large U-shaped rotator cuff tears without margin convergence versus repair of crescent- or L-shaped tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Jung, Seok Won; Jeon, Seung-Hyub; Cho, Hyoung-Weon; Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    For large-sized tears of the rotator cuff, data according to the tear shape have not yet been reported for repair methodology, configuration, and subsequent integrity. The retear rate after the repair of large mobile tears, such as crescent- or L-shaped tears, is believed to be lower compared with retear rates after the repair of large U-shaped tears that are accompanied by anterior or posterior leaves of the rotator cuff. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected and analyzed from 95 consecutive patients with a large-sized rotator cuff tear who underwent arthroscopic suture-bridge repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those having crescent- or L-shaped tears (mobile tear group, 53 patients) and those having U-shaped tears (U-shaped tear group, 42 patients). The integrity of the repaired constructs was determined by ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months. Moreover, clinical evaluations were performed by using the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and muscle strength at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. On ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months, a retear was detected in 6, 2, and 1 patients in the mobile tear group and in 5, 2, and 1 patients in the U-shaped tear group, respectively. Significant differences in retear rates were not detected between the groups overall or at each time point. Moreover, clinical scores were similar between groups, except for the presence of a temporarily higher Constant score at 12 months in the mobile tear group. With regard to shoulder strength, between-group comparisons indicated no statistically significant difference, either in abduction or external rotation, except for the presence of temporarily higher external rotation strength at 3 months in the mobile tear group. Arthroscopic repair of large-sized rotator cuff tears yielded substantial improvements in shoulder function, regardless of tear retraction, during midterm follow-up. Moreover, the

  8. Prediction of nucleate boiling heat transfer on horizontal U-shaped heat exchanger submerged in a pool of water using MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su [Department of Nuclear Thermal-hydraulic Research, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., 46, Tapsil-ro, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si 446-902, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Joon [Department of Nuclear Thermal-hydraulic Research, FNC Technology Co., Ltd., 46, Tapsil-ro, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si 446-902, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • PAFS has a horizontal U-shaped heat exchanger submerged in a pool. • PASCAL and ATLAS-PAFS experiments were simulated using MARS code. • This study assessed the predictive capability of 15 nucleate boiling correlations on horizontal tubes. • This study investigated heat transfer mechanisms of the heat exchanger and proposed new boiling model. • The proposed boiling model predicted the experimental heat transfer coefficients well. - Abstract: In advanced nuclear power plants, a horizontal U-shaped heat exchanger submerged in a pool is under development as a key equipment of a passive safety system. For the successful design of the heat exchanger and the safety analysis of the nuclear power plant incorporating this passive safety system, the reliable prediction of the nucleate boiling heat transfer on the horizontal parts of the U-shaped tubes is one of the important factors. At present, the best estimate thermal hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5 and MARS are used to analyze the nucleate boiling heat transfer on the horizontal U-shaped heat exchanger submerged in a pool; however, it is still not known how to physically model the heat exchanger pool, and which correlations are suitable among the pool boiling and forced convective boiling correlations. To secure the applicable correlation for the heat exchanger, this study assessed 15 nucleate boiling correlations using MARS. To improve the prediction capability of the best estimate code, this study investigated the main heat transfer mechanisms on the horizontal U-shaped heat exchanger submerged in a pool, then proposed a prediction method, and finally developed a nucleate boiling model. From the validation of the proposed model against PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system)-related experimental data of PASCAL and ATLAS-PAFS, the proposed boiling model predicted the experimental heat transfer coefficients much better than the default nucleate boiling model by Chen (1966, Ind. Eng. Chem

  9. 一种新结构U型脉冲管制冷机%A New Structural U-Shape Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹传林; 陈厚磊; 蔡京辉

    2012-01-01

    在U型脉冲管制冷机结构基础上,研制了一台带有一个蓄冷器和两个相同脉管的新结构U型脉冲管制冷机,并进行了实验研究和分析。制冷机采用惯性管调相,在压缩机输入电功率80w,运行频率52Hz下,获得了120K@6W的制冷量。重点对两种惯性管调相方法进行研究和分析,得出了对新结构U型脉冲管制冷机调相有益的结论,并对惯性管调相过程中产生的直流现象进行了验证分析。%A new structural U-shape pulse tube cryocooler based on the U-shape pulse tube cryocooler, with one regenerator and the same two pulse tubes, has been designed and manufactured. The pulse cryocooler is able to gain 120 K@6 W cooling power with 80 W electric power at the operating frequency of 52 Hz. The method of the inertance tube phase-shifting is investigated and the useful conclusion is obtained for the pahse-shifting of new structural U-shape pulse tube cryocooler. The DC flow that occures in the inertance tube phase-shifting is also tested and analysed.

  10. Solution strategies for finite elements and finite volumes methods applied to flow and heat transfer problem in U-shaped geothermal exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Nadaniela; Giacomini, Josephin; Maponi, Pierluigi

    2016-06-01

    Matter of this paper is the study of the flow and the corresponding heat transfer in a U-shaped heat exchanger. We propose a mathematical model that is formulated as a forced convection problem for incompressible and Newtonian fluids and results in the unsteady Navier-Stokes problem. In order to get a solution, we discretise the equations with both the Finite Elements Method and the Finite Volumes Method. These procedures give rise to a non-symmetric indefinite quadratic system of equations. Thus, three regularisation techniques are proposed to make approximations effective and ideas to compare their results are provided.

  11. Data acquisition techniques for exploiting the uniqueness of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer: Application to sampling pulsed gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Mass spectra are produced in most mass spectrometers by sweeping some parameter within the instrument as the sampled gases flow into the ion source. It is evident that any fluctuation in the gas during the sweep (mass scan) of the instrument causes the output spectrum to be skewed in its mass peak intensities. The time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) with its fast, repetitive mode of operation produces spectra without skewing or varying instrument parameters and because all ion species are ejected from the ion source simultaneously, the spectra are inherently not skewed despite rapidly changing gas pressure or composition in the source. Methods of exploiting this feature by utilizing fast digital data acquisition systems, such as transient recorders and signal averagers which are commercially available are described. Applications of this technique are presented including TOFMS sampling of vapors produced by both pulsed and continuous laser heating of materials.

  12. For whom the bell (curve) tolls: cortisol rapidly affects memory retrieval by an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Thomas M; Kölsch, Monika; Larra, Mauro F; Zech, Carina M; Blumenthal, Terry D; Frings, Christian; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    Stress and cortisol are generally considered to impair declarative memory retrieval, although opposite results have also been reported. Dose-dependent effects and differences between genomic and non-genomic cortisol effects are possible reasons for these discrepancies. The aim of the current experiment was to assess the non-genomic effects of escalating doses of intravenous cortisol on cued recall of socially relevant information in humans. 40 participants (age range 20-30 years; 20 females) learned associations between male faces with a neutral facial expression and descriptions of either positive or negative social behaviors and were tested one week later in a cued recall paradigm. Escalating doses of cortisol (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 mg) were administered 8 min before testing according to a between-subjects design. An inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between salivary cortisol levels and recall performance was observed, with moderate elevation of salivary cortisol resulting in the best recall performance. This is the first study in humans demonstrating that cortisol rapidly modulates declarative memory retrieval via a dose-dependent, non-genomic mechanism that follows an inverted U-shaped curve. Our result further emphasizes the importance of fast cortisol effects for human cognition.

  13. A combined study of gas geochemistry, petrology, and lava effusion at Bagana, a unique persistently active lava cone in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, B. T.; Salem, L. C.; Edmonds, M.; D'Aleo, R. N. M.; Aiuppa, A.; Arellano, S. R.; Wallius, J.; Galle, B.; Barry, P. H.; Ballentine, C. J.; Mulina, K.; Sindang, M.; Itikarai, I.; Wadge, G.; Lopez, T. M.; Fischer, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bagana volcano (Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea) has exhibited nearly continuous extrusion of andesitic lava for over a century, but has largely been studied by satellite remote sensing. Satellite UV spectroscopy has revealed Bagana to be among the largest volcanic sources of sulfur dioxide worldwide. Satellite radar measurements of lava extrusion rate suggest that the entire edifice could have been built in only a few centuries. Bagana is dominantly constructed from lava flows, but also exhibits violent PDC-forming explosive eruptions, which threaten local populations.We present new multi-parameter data from fieldwork on Bagana in September 2016. UV spectrometers were deployed to ground-truth satellite observations of SO2 emissions, and track sub-daily variations in gas output. In situ measurements and sampling of emissions provide the first gas composition data for this volcano. Aerial imagery filmed by UAV was obtained to generate a high resolution DEM of the edifice for use in calibrating ongoing satellite radar studies of deformation and extrusion rate. Lava and tephra samples were gathered, with the aim of comparing melt composition and volatile content between eruptions of different style. The combination of gas geochemistry, geophysical monitoring from space, and petrology will be used to build a model framework to understand the pulsatory nature of Bagana's lava extrusion, and transitions to explosive activity.A campaign to a continuously active but poorly-studied volcano affords many opportunities for education and outreach. The campaign participants included early career scientists from five countries, who planned and carried out the fieldwork and exchanged expertise in a range of techniques. All work was undertaken in close collaboration with Rabaul Volcano Observatory, and was informed by their strategic monitoring goals, a valuable experience for the field team of synergising research activities with more operational concerns. Footage obtained

  14. GENERAL SOLUTION OF THE OVERALL BENDING OF FLEXIBLE CIRCULAR RING SHELLS WITH MODERATELY SLENDER RATIO AND APPLICATIONS TO THE BELLOWS ( Ⅳ )- CALCULATION FOR U-SHAPED BELLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫平; 黄黔

    2002-01-01

    This is one of the applications of Part (Ⅰ), in which the angular stiffness, and the corresponding stress distributions of U- shaped bellows were discussed.The bellows was divided into protruding sections, concave sections and ring plates for the calculation that the general solution (Ⅰ) with its reduced form to ring plates were used respectively, but the continuity of the surface stresses and the meridian rotations at each joint of the sections were entirely satisfied.The present results were compared with those of the slender ring shell solution proposed earlier by the authors, the standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association (EJMA), the experiment and the finite element method.It is shown that the governing equation and the general solution (Ⅰ) are very effective.

  15. Applied Research on Motor based on U-shaped Linear%基于U型直线电动机的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴育春; 王庭有; 张华

    2012-01-01

    简单介绍了直线电动机的概念、发展以及按照结构形式、功能用途和工作原理的分类.重点介绍了一种U型无刷无齿槽效应永磁交流伺服直线电动机的结构、性能特点及其主要的应用行业.该U型直线电动机具有行程不受限制、结构简单、动态响应快、精度高、速度和加(减)速度大、使用寿命长、基本不需要维护、振动和噪声小等一系列优点,是各类超高速、超高精密加工行业中理想的传动方式.%This paper briefly introduced the concept and development of linear motor, and all kinds of classification of linear motor according to its structure type, function application and working principle. Spend more sentences in presenting the structure of a kind of U-shaped brushless Cog-free AC servo linear motor and its characteristics of performance. Because the U-shaped linear motor has the advantages of unlimited stroke, simple structure, rapid dynamic response, high accuracy, speed, big acceleration and deceleration, long service life, virtually free maintenance, lower vibration and noise and so on, it is a good transmission mode in various super high speed and precision processing industry. It is the ideal kind of drive in the industry like the super high speed, and the super high accuracy.

  16. A U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Middtun, Øivind; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Clavel-Chapelon, Franςoise; Teucher, Brigit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Naska, Androniki; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Michaud, Dominique S.; Palli, Domenico; Sabina, Sieri; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Skeie, Guri; Duell, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José Marí; Larrañaga, Nerea; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Johansen, Dorthe; Manjer, Jonas; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Peeters, Petra HM; Jeumink, Suzanne; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Crowe, Francesca; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Folate intake has shown an inverse association with pancreatic cancer; nevertheless, results from plasma measurements were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to examine the association between plasma total homocysteine, methionine, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, riboflavin, and flavin mononucleotide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We conducted a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort, which has an average of 9.6 years of follow-up (1992–2006), using 463 incident pancreatic cancer cases. Controls were matched to each case by center, sex, age (+/−1y), date (+/−1y) and time (+/−3h) at blood collection, and fasting status. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for education, smoking status, plasma cotinine concentration, alcohol drinking, body mass index and diabetes status. We observed a U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk The ORs for plasma folate ≤5, 5–10, 10–15 (reference), 15–20, and >20 nmol/L were 1.6 (95% CI=0.7–3.5), 1.4 (0.9–2.1), 1.0 (reference), 0.8 (0.5–1.2), and 1.3 (0.9–2.0), respectively. Methionine was associated with an increased risk in men (per quintile increment: OR=1.2 95% CI=1.0–1.4) but not in women (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.8–1.1; p for heterogeneity<0.01). Our results suggest a U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in both men and women. The positive association that we observed between methionine and pancreatic cancer may be sex dependent and may differ by time of follow-up. However, the mechanisms behind the observed associations warrant further investigation. PMID:21411310

  17. 中国城镇化的“U”型传导影响及拐点识别分析%An Analysis on the Influence of the "U" Shape Transmission of China's Urbanization and the Turning Point Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 潘鹤思

    2014-01-01

    筛选出3类资源消耗指标和4类污染排放指标,分别与城镇化水平以及相关传导控制变量建立计量模型,并基于1996~2011年全国30个省(市、自治区)的面板数据进行检验。实证结论显示:城市供水总量、建成区面积分别与人口城镇化水平间存在正“U”型关系,拐点分别为64.38%和81.55%;能源消费总量、工业废气排放总量、工业废水排放总量、工业固体废物产生量和城市生活垃圾清运量分别与人口城镇化水平间存在倒“U”型关系,拐点分别为81.28%、66.57%、76.02%、63.61%和72.37%。通过与当前实际城镇化率比较,全国仅有北京、天津、上海和广东4个省区超过相关拐点,进入城镇化发展集约型阶段,而其余省区城镇化率离拐点均存在不同程度的距离。最后,围绕研究结论提出了推进新型城镇化的建议。%The authors match three types of resource consumption indexes and four types of pollution emission indexes respectively with urbanization level and the relative transmission control variables to construct measurement models,and tests are made by using panel data of 30 provinces ( cities or autonomous regions) from 1996 to 2011. Empirical results show that the total water sup-ply and the construction area of a city has positive"U" shape relationship with population urbani-zation level respectively,and the turning points are 64. 38% and 81. 55% respectively; total ener-gy consumption,total emission of industrial waste gas and waste water,total output of solid waste, and urban garbage disposal have reversed "U" shape relationships with population urbanization level respectively,with the turning points of 81. 28%,66. 57%,76. 02%,63. 61% and 72. 37%. By comparing with actual urbanization rate,the authors find out that only the four cities in-cluding Beijing,Tianjin,Shanghai and Guangzhou surpass the relative turning points and have en-tered into the phase

  18. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  19. Does conflict help or hurt cognitive control? Initial evidence for an inverted U-shape relationship between perceived task difficulty and conflict adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sequential modulation of congruency effects in conflict tasks indicates that cognitive control quickly adapts to changing task demands. We investigated in four experiments how this behavioral congruency-sequence effect relates to different levels of perceived task difficulty in a flanker and a Stroop task. In addition, online measures of pupil diameter were used as a physiological index of effort mobilization. Consistent with motivational accounts predicting that increased levels of perceived task difficulty will increase effort mobilization only up to a certain limit, reliable dynamic conflict-driven adjustment in cognitive control was only observed when task difficulty was relatively low. Instead, tasks tentatively associated with high levels of difficulty showed no or reversed conflict adaptation. Although the effects could not be linked consistently to effects in self-reported task difficulty in all experiments, regression analyses showed associations between perceived task difficulty and conflict adaptation in some of the experiments, which provides some initial evidence for an inverted U-shape relationship between perceived difficulty and adaptations in cognitive control. Furthermore, high levels of task difficulty were associated with a conflict-driven reduction in pupil dilation, suggesting that pupil dilation can be used as a physiological marker of mental overload. Our findings underscore the importance of developing models that are grounded in motivational accounts of cognitive control.

  20. A high performance Ge/Si0.5Ge0.5/Si heterojunction dual sources tunneling transistor with a U-shaped channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Shulong; Wang, Qianqiong; Chen, Shupeng

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a new Ge/Si0.5Ge0.5/Si heterojunction dual sources tunneling transistor with a U-shaped channel (Ge_DUTFET) is proposed and investigated by Silvaco-Atlas simulation. The line tunneling perpendicular to channel and point tunneling parallel to channel simultaneously occur on both sides of the gate. The Ge is chosen as the source region material to increase the line tunneling current. The designed heterojunction between the Ge source and Si channel decreases the point tunneling barrier width to enhance the point tunneling current. And this heterojunction can also promote the Ge_DUTFET to occur point tunneling at the small gate voltage, which makes it obtain the smaller turn-on voltage. Furthermore, the Si0.5Ge0.5 buffer layer is also helpful for the enhancement of performance. The simulation results reveal that Ge_DUTFET has the better performance compared with the Si_DUTFET. The on-state current and average subthreshold swing of Ge_DUTFET are 1.11 × 10-5A/μm and 35.1mV/dec respectively. The max cut-off frequency (fT) and gain bandwidth product (GBW) are 26.6 GHz and 16.6 GHz respectively. The fT and GBW of the Ge_DUTFET are respectively increased by ∼27.4% and ∼84.3% compared with the Si_DUTFET.

  1. Analog/RF performance of L- and U-shaped channel tunneling field-effect transistors and their application as digital inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqiong; Wang, Shulong; Liu, Hongxia; Li, Wei; Chen, Shupeng

    2017-06-01

    The inverter performance comparisons of L- and U-shaped channel tunneling field-effect transistors (LTFET and UTFET) are investigated by using Sentaurus TCAD tool. The RF figures of merit for these two TFETs are analyzed in terms of transconductance (g m), output conductance (g ds), gate capacitance (C gg), gate-to-source capacitance (C gs), gate-to-drain capacitance (C gd), unit-gain cut-off frequency (f T), the maximum frequency of oscillation (f MAX) and gain bandwidth product (GBW). The simulation results reveal that LTFET and UTFET have the similar DC characteristic due to the identical tunneling process. And the better RF performance LTFET provides due to it has the much smaller C gd than UTFET. Meanwhile, this work uses mixed device-circuit simulations to predict the performance of inverter circuit implemented with LTFET and UTFET for the first time. And the calculated results demonstrate LTFET is more optimization for inverter circuit design in the novel generation transistors. And all the simulation results in this paper can be used as a reference to choose the characteristic parameters of novel TFETs for inverter applications.

  2. Antioxidants reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between reactive oxygen species levels and the rate of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, David; Cacho-Valadez, Briseida; Liu, Ju-Ling; Wang, Ying; Yee, Callista; Bernard, Kristine; Khaki, Arman; Breton, Lionel; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potentially toxic, but they are also signaling molecules that modulate aging. Recent observations that ROS can promote longevity have to be reconciled with the numerous claims about the benefits of antioxidants on lifespan. Here, three antioxidants [N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, and resveratrol (RSV)] were tested on Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that alter drug uptake, mitochondrial function, and ROS metabolism. We observed that like pro-oxidants, antioxidants can both lengthen and shorten lifespan, dependent on concentration, genotypes, and conditions. The effects of antioxidants thus reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between ROS levels and lifespan. In addition, we observed that RSV can act additively to both NAC and paraquat, to dramatically increase lifespan. This suggests that the effect of compounds that modulate ROS levels can be additive when their loci of action or mechanisms of action are sufficiently distinct. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. U形结构楼房向内坍塌爆破拆除%Demolition Method of U-shaped Anbuilding by Introverted Collapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩传伟; 王洪刚; 刘昌邦

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal delay and segment by segment directional demolition blasting of a U-shaped frame building was introduced. Through this technology,the building was divided into a number of small unite from both ends to middle in space and the units collapse orderly one by one through the blasting delay-time. The structure of the building was disaggregated adequately and the pressure displacement of the building was effective controlled due to the interaction among the units. The technique reduce the explosive charge effectively which controlled the blasting vibration and collapse vibration.%介绍了采用纵横向都有延时的逐段定向倾倒技术成功拆除1栋U形框架结构楼房的爆破拆除工程实例.该技术将U形结构楼房自两端向中间划分为若干个倒塌单元,通过爆破时差实现各单元有序逐段倒塌.楼房各相邻单元在倒塌过程中存在相互剪切拉伸等作用,既实现了楼房结构的充分解体,又有效控制了楼房倒塌的侧向位移.同时,采用上述爆破技术有效的控制了爆破时的单响药量,达到了控制爆破振动与塌落振动效应的目的.

  4. The Friend of GATA Transcriptional Co-Regulator, U-Shaped, Is a Downstream Antagonist of Dorsal-Driven Prohemocyte Differentiation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjuan; Baldeosingh, Rajkumar; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that mammalian hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) respond directly to infection and inflammatory signaling. These signaling pathways also regulate HSPCs during steady-state conditions (absence of infection), and dysregulation may lead to cancer or age-related loss of progenitor repopulation capacity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of pathogen recognition receptors, and are expressed on the surface of immune effector cells and HSPCs. TLR/NF-κB activation promotes HSPCs differentiation; however, the mechanisms by which this signaling pathway alters the intrinsic transcriptional landscape are not well understood. Although Drosophila prohemocytes are the functional equivalent of mammalian HSPCs, a prohemocyte-specific function for Toll signaling has not been reported. Using Drosophila transgenics, we identified prohemocyte-specific roles for Toll pathway members, Dorsal and Cactus. We showed that Dorsal is required to limit the size of the progenitor pool. Additionally, we showed that activation of Toll signaling in prohemocytes drives differentiation in a manner that is analogous to TLR/NF-κB-driven HSPC differentiation. This was accomplished by showing that over-expression of Dorsal, or knockdown of Cactus, promotes differentiation. We also investigated whether Dorsal and Cactus control prohemocyte differentiation by regulating a key intrinsic prohemocyte factor, U-shaped (Ush), which is known to promote multipotency and block differentiation. We showed that Dorsal repressed Ush expression levels to promote differentiation, whereas Cactus maintained Ush levels to block differentiation. Additionally, we showed that another Toll antagonist, Lesswright, also maintained the level of Ush to block differentiation and promote proliferative quiescence. Collectively, these results identify a novel role for Ush as a downstream target of Toll signaling. PMID:27163255

  5. The in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion obtained during electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A unique intramolecular mechanism involving an ion-molecule reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoub, Joseph H; Demian, Wael L L; Piazzetta, Paolo; Sarkis, George; Kanawati, Basem; Lafont, Dominique; Laurent, Nicolas; Vaillant, Celine; Randell, Edward; Giorgi, Gianluca; Fridgen, Travis D

    2015-10-15

    This study examines the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation and low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) of a synthetic pair of β- and α-anomers of the amphiphilic cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing the 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-galactosyl-D-GalN3 moiety. We describe the novel and unique in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion formed during all these gas-phase processes and propose a reasonable mechanism for its formation. The synthetic amphiphilic glycolipids were composed of the 2-deoxy-2-azido-D-galactosyl moiety (GalN3, the hydrophilic part) covalently attached to a polyethoxy spacer which is covalently linked to the cholesteryl moiety (hydrophobic part). The 2-azido-2-deoxy-α- and β-D-galactosyl-containing glycolipids were studied by in-time and in-space ESI-MS and CID-MS/MS in positive ion mode, with quadrupole ion trap (QIT), quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) instruments. Conventional single-stage ESI-MS analysis showed the formation of the protonated molecule. During the single-stage ESI-MS analysis and the CID-MS/MS of the [M+H](+) and [M+NH4](+) adducts obtained from both glycolipid anomers, the presence of a series of specific product ions with different intensities was observed, consistent with the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+), [cholestadiene+H](+), 2-deoxy-2-D-azido-galactosyl [GalN3](+), [GalNH](+) and [sugar-Spacer+H](+) ions. The gas-phase formation of the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+) ion isolated from the glycolipid anomers was observed during both the ESI-MS of the glycolipids and the CID-MS/MS analyses of the [M+H](+) ions and it was found to occur by an intramolecular rearrangement involving an ion-molecule complex. CID-QqTOF-MS/MS and CID-FTICR-MS(2) analysis allowed the differentiation of the two glycolipid anomers and showed noticeable variation in the

  6. Lumbopelvic fixation for unstable U-shaped sacral fractures:4 cases report%髂腰内固定治疗不稳定型骶骨U型骨折四例报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超华; 蔡林

    2013-01-01

    U-shaped sacral fractures usually occur in multiply injured patients after falling from height. However, it is often missed or delayed in diagnosis because of other severe associated injuries. Due to its low incidence, the experience of the diagnosis and treatment of U-shaped sacral fractures is very limited. In this article, the treatment outcomes of lumbopelvic fixation for unstable U-shaped sacral fractures were retrospectively studied. From 2008 to the present, 4 patients with U-shaped sacral fractures were treated by lumbopelvic fixation, among whom there were 3 males and 1 female, with an average age of 30 years old (range;20-45 years). According to the Roy-Camille system, there were 2 cases of Type 2 and 2 cases of Type 3. All patients underwent the bone chip removal, sacral canal decompression and lumbopelvic pedicle screw fixation. 3 patients with cauda equina injuries underwent cauda equina release after decompression. All patients were followed up with a mean period of 2 years and 6 months (range;2-4 years). In 2 patients, the bladder and bowel function was restored about 3 months postoperatively, with gradually normal ambulation 6 months postoperatively. Only paresthesia or numbness remained in some areas in lower limbs 2 years postoperatively. In 1 patient, the bladder and bowel function was restored 1 month postoperatively, with gradually normal ambulation and improved muscle weakness 3 months postoperatively. He entirely got recovered 2 years postoperatively. 1 patient with U-shaped sacrum fractures, combined with no neurological damage could gradually move around 1 month postoperatively, and the sensory-motor of lower limbs was completely normal during the 4-year follow-up. In summary, for patients with U-shaped sacral fractures, combined with obvious fracture displacement and neurological damage, lumbopelvic pedicle screw fixation can significantly correct the displaced and deformed fractures during the surgery and is in favor of adequate nerve

  7. The ratio of U-shaped inverted between competition and innovation, evidence for the Spanish case; La relacion en forma de U-Invertida entre competencia e innovacion. Evidencia para el caso espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneito, P.; Coscolla, P.; Rochina, M. E.; Sanchis, A.

    2012-07-01

    Following the approach of Aghion et al. (2005), this paper analyses the empirical relationship between competition and innovation at the industry level, using Spanish manufacturing firm level data from the Survey of Business Strategies (ESEE) for the period 1991-2006. Our results report the existence of an inverted U-shape relationship between competition and innovation incentives, although the industrial sectors in our sample are located mainly in the negative sloping part of the curve. (Author) 22 refs.

  8. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  9. Direct calculation formula for normal depth of U-shaped channel%U形渠道正常水深的直接水力计算公式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新燕; 吕宏兴※; 朱德兰

    2013-01-01

      针对水力性能优良的U形渠道,依据明渠均匀流基本原理,以过水断面水深恰好等于U形底弧弓高时断面过流量作为分界流量Qb,引入断面特征参数和无量纲相对正常水深,采用麦考特优化法,以离差平方和最小为目标,利用SAS软件编程,通过最优化拟合建立了U形渠道正常水深直接水力计算公式。通过误差分析表明,所建公式在渠道过流量Q小于分界流量Qb时,计算相对误差绝对值均小于0.44%;渠道过流量Q大于分界流量Qb时,计算相对误差绝对值均不超过1%,可见公式具有较高的精度,且物理概念清晰、计算方便快捷;该公式不仅可用于解决宽浅式渠道正常水深水力计算,也适用于窄深式渠道正常水深的水力计算,具有较强的通用性,可为渠道工程设计和运行管理提供理论依据和有益参考。%  The normal depth is an important hydraulic element for channel design, operation and management. U-shaped channel has excellent hydraulic performance and strong ability of anti-frost heave, while the normal depth in the governing equations of the current common methods is implicit and have no analytical solutions. We introduced cross section characteristic parameter and dimensionless relative normal depth and took the actual flow rate in channel as the transitional flow rate when the flow depth is exactly equal to the bottom arc height. The direct calculation formula for the normal depth in U-shaped channel was presented by Marquardt method based on the NLIN procedure using SAS software. Marquardt method was used to assess whether the fitting formula reaches the best fitting result by using the iterative program to calculate the residual sum of squares. Fitting formula is the best one when the minimum residual sum of squares exists, having the characteristics of well adaptable to formula, low requirement to iterative initial value and easy to convergence

  10. 负弯矩作用下钢筋混凝土U型叠合梁受力性能研究%Performance of reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beams subjected to negative moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 薛伟辰

    2012-01-01

    The reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam which is composed of precast U-shaped beam,precast slabs and cast-in-place ( CIP) concrete, is investigated in this paper. The performance of the reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam and the cast-in-place concrete control specimen subjected to negative moment was evaluated in terms of failure pattern, flexural strength,ductility and slips based on the monotonic static loading tests. The results showed that both specimens behaved in ductile manner. The flexural strength of reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam was about 1% lower than that of the control specimen. The displacement ductility of tbe precast specimen were about 17% higher than that of corresponding control specimen. The slip between precast beam and precast slab and the slip between precast slab and CIP concrete were less than 0. 5 mm under the peak load. The results in this paper are useful to expand the application of reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam.%针对一种由预制U型梁、预制板和现浇板组成的新型钢筋混凝土叠合梁,开展了负弯矩作用下钢筋混凝土U型叠合梁与现浇对比梁的足尺模型试验,对其破坏形态、截面承载力、位移延性和滑移等进行了较为系统的研究.研究表明:负弯矩作用下叠合梁和现浇梁均发生了受弯破坏;达到峰值荷载时叠合梁中预制板与现浇层之间、预制梁与预制板之间和预制梁与现浇层之间的最大滑移值均不大于0.5mm;叠合梁的负弯矩截面抗弯承载力较现浇梁约低1%;叠合梁的位移延性系数为8.16,较现浇梁的位移延性系数高17%.本文研究成果可为这种新型钢筋混凝土U型叠合梁的工程应用提供技术依据和参考.

  11. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  12. The structural innovative design of DN400 experimental facility with inversed U-shaped twin tower for uranium ion exchange%倒U型双塔式高效铀离子交换试验装置DN400结构上的创新设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚; 雷泽勇; 刘清

    2012-01-01

    A DN400 experimental facility with inversed U-shaped twin towers for uranium ion exchange is designed and developed to solve the existing problems in ion exchange equipment, such as easy agglomeration on the upper layer of resin bed, much resin abrasion, high sensitiveness for mud and sand, and difficulty in producing ideal plug flow in back-wash process. The facility combined with the valve control principle,cross flow type sieve plate and the unique inlet and outlet structures can solve the above problems,and the efficiency of uranium extraction can be improved significantly.%倒U型双塔式高效铀吸附试验装置DN400的设计和研发,克服了目前离子交换设备在树脂床层上部易发生板结、树脂磨损大、对泥沙敏感度高、反冲操作无法形成理想的柱塞流的缺陷.该装置与阀门顺序控制、穿流式筛板、独特的进(出)液装置相结合,大大提高了铀的提取效率.

  13. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Theoretical Study and Test on Noise Reduction Effect of the U-shaped Beams on Urban Rail Transit Elevated Lines%城市轨道交通高架线U型梁降噪理论与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕然

    2013-01-01

    By comparing the characteristics of traditional box beams with U-shaped beams,analysis was carried out for noise control problems of the traditional box beams,and basic principles and specific measures of noise control for U-shaped beams were put forward.Different methods were adopted to calculate,analyse and simulate the noise reduction effect of Ushaped beams,which was verified by noise tests in construction.In order to promote the urban rail transit elevated lines which have low construction and operation costs and safety risks,the research on the environment-friendly technology of elevated lines becomes very important.%通过对比传统箱型梁与U型梁的特点,分析传统箱型梁噪声治理存在的问题,提出U型梁降噪的基本原理及具体措施.同时,采用不同的方法对U型梁的降噪效果进行计算分析与模拟预测,并通过工程噪声测试进行验证.在城市轨道交通建设中,推广应用建设与运营成本低、安全风险小、环保的高架线路及高架技术成为一个重要的研究方向.

  15. Different structural preference of Ag(I) and Au(I) in neutral and cationic luminescent heteropolynuclear platinum(II) complexes: Z (U)-shaped Pt2M2 type vs. trinuclear PtM2 type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Kazuki; Ueda, Misa; Higashitani, Ami; Nakao, Yoshihide; Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Shinnosuke; Sakuda, Eri; Umakoshi, Keisuke

    2016-03-28

    The reactions of monocationic Pt(II) complexes bearing N^C chelate ligands and Me2pzH, [Pt(N^C)(Me2pzH)2]PF6 (N^C = 2-phenylpyridinate (ppy(-)), 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridinate (dfppy(-)), benzo[h]quinolinate (bzq(-)); Me2pzH = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole), with Ag(I) ions gave Z (or U)-shaped neutral tetranuclear Pt2Ag2 complexes [Pt2Ag2(N^C)2(Me2pz)4], while those with Au(I) ions gave neutral trinuclear PtAu2 complexes [PtAu2(N^C)(Me2pz)3]. On the contrary, the reactions of the dicationic Pt(II) complex bearing a N^N chelate ligand and Me2pzH, [Pt(bpy)(Me2pzH)2](PF6)2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), with Ag(I) and Au(I) ions both gave Z (or U)-shaped dicationic tetranuclear Pt2M2 complexes, [Pt2M2(bpy)2(Me2pz)4](PF6)2 (M = Ag, Au). The structures of heteropolynuclear Pt(II) complexes were dominated by the nature of incorporated group 11 metal ions and the charge of complexes.

  16. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  17. Approximate formulas of number of transfer unit of U shaped fin-tube heat exchangers%U型翅片管换热器传热单元数计算式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小舟; 赵加宁

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the formulas of number of transfer unit (NTU) of U shaped fin-tube heat exchangers, a U shaped fin-tube heat exchanger is taked as research object. Approximate NTU formulas of number of transfer unit are derived by establishing heat transfer model of U shaped fin-tube when the trend of two flows in fin-tube heat exchanger is counter and parallel, respectively. Subsequently, the heat transfer coefficients of fin-tube are com- pared and analyzed by effectiveness-number of transfer unit method (e-NTU method) and logarithm mean tem- perature difference method ( LMTD method) when inlet water temperature is from 45 ℃ to 60℃ and water flow rate is from 30 kg/h to 110 kg/h. The results show that, the differenbe of the heat transfer coefficients respectively calculated by 6-NTU method and LMTD method is so small that these NTU formulas are valid.%为了得到U型翅片管换热器传热单元数计算式,以U型翅片管换热器为研究对象,通过建立翅片管换热模型,推导出了逆流和顺流2种流体流动趋势的传热单元数计算式(NTU计算式).分别采用推导出的传热单元数计算式(F—NTU法)和前人推导出的平均温差关系式(LMTD法)计算U型翅片管传热系数,并进行对比分析.结果表明,当进水温度为45~60℃,热水流量为30~110kg/h时,由ε-NTU法和LMTD法计算出来的翅片管传热系数相差很小.所推导出来的U型翅片管换热器传热单元数计算式是合理的.

  18. Influence of easily ionised elements on the delayed responses of the emission intensities of an analyte in a power modulated U-shaped argon stabilised DC arc plasma with an aerosol supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV KUZMANOVIC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The current of a U-shaped argon stabilised DC arc was square modulated with a 40 Hz repetition frequency between 6 and 3 A. The delayed line intensity responses to the modulation of the arc current were investigated using calcium as a representative analyte. The intensities of both the atomic and ionic lines were monitored at different distances from the arc axis in the presence of various concentrations of the easily ionised element. Temporal evolutions were monitored on a millisecond time scale. It was found that the responses of the line intesity to the arc current change strongly depended on the observed radial position, especially in the vicinity of the arc axis. The obtained results showed a significant influence of even small amounts of the easily ionised element on the excitation and transport of the analyte and indicated a way of possibly improving the analytical capabilities of the excitation source.

  19. U 型现浇配筋混凝土薄壁空心装饰柱施工技术%On construction technique of U-shaped cast-in-place reinforced concrete thin-wall hollow decoration columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国荣

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the craft features for the U-shaped cast-in-place reinforced concrete thin-wall hollow decoration columns,illus-trates the construction craft procedure and material requirements by combining with its construction craft principle,and researches the construc-tion quality,safety and environment protection control measures,so as to achieve better economic and social benefits.%描述了 U 型现浇配筋混凝土薄壁空心装饰柱施工的工艺特点,结合其施工工艺原理,阐述了施工工艺流程及材料要求,并对施工质量、安全、环保控制措施进行了研究,以取得良好的经济、社会效益。

  20. Discussion on Influence of Layer Gap to Performance of Multi - layer U - shape Expansion Joint%层间间隙对多层U形膨胀节结构性能影响的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周林; 贺小华

    2011-01-01

    U - shaped expansion joint is used in fixed tube sheet heat exchanger when the axial stress is overlarge due to the temperature difference of shell side and tube side. With the widely application of high - parameter and large - size heat exchangers, it is developing towards the tendency of large diameter and multilayer for the U - shaped expansion joint subjected to large load. In the present paper, numerical simulation was made regarding the influence of layer gap for double expansion joint to the axial element method. The comparison was made for the monolayer and double expansion joint with the same parameters. The mechanical properties of multi - layer expansion joint and its reasonable application were indicated final-ly-%对于固定管板式换热器,当管、壳间温差引起轴向力太大时,需要引入U形膨胀节以改善其应力状况.随着高参数、大尺寸换热器的广泛应用,承受较高载荷的U形膨胀节也必然向着大直径、多层化方向发展.利用ANSYS程序接触有限元法,将双层膨胀节层间间隙对膨胀节轴向刚度及承载能力的影响情况进行了数值计算,并与相同参数单层结构进行比较,指出了多层膨胀节的结构力学性能及其合理应用.

  1. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  2. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  3. Is the Pale Blue Dot unique? Optimized photometric bands for identifying Earth-like exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Charnay, Benjamin; Arney, Giada; Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01

    The next generation of ground and space-based telescopes will image habitable planets around nearby stars. A growing literature describes how to characterize such planets with spectroscopy, but less consideration has been given to the usefulness of planet colors. Here, we investigate whether potentially Earth-like exoplanets could be identified using UV-visible-to-NIR wavelength broadband photometry (350-1000 nm). Specifically, we calculate optimal photometric bins for identifying an exo-Earth and distinguishing it from uninhabitable planets including both Solar System objects and model exoplanets. The color of some hypothetical exoplanets - particularly icy terrestrial worlds with thick atmospheres - is similar to Earth's because of Rayleigh scattering in the blue region of the spectrum. Nevertheless, subtle features in Earth's reflectance spectrum appear to be unique. In particular, Earth's reflectance spectrum has a 'U-shape' unlike all our hypothetical, uninhabitable planets. This shape is partly biogenic...

  4. Biomechanic comparision between the "U" shape lumbar dynamic fixation system and traditional fixation system%腰椎弹性内固定与刚性内固定的应力对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于博; 靳安民; 方国芳; 闵少雄; 刘成龙; 田京; 敖俊

    2009-01-01

    目的:通过有限元的方法评价自行研制的腰椎"U"型弹性内固定器的力学特性,并与传统的刚性内固定器进行比较.方法:选择一名成年患者腰椎标本,以L4~5节段为研究对象,采用64排螺旋CT对其进行层厚1.0 mm的连续水平扫描,将所得图像进行轮廓提取和阈值分割后,借助三维重建软件Mimics11.1、Simpleware和有限元软件Abaqus 6.51软件,建立L4~5节段三维非线性有限元模型.同时根据椎弓根螺钉、连接棒的几何尺寸,力学参数,分别建立两种不同内固定器的有限元模型.然后分别施加压缩、前屈、后伸、侧屈及旋转等各种生理载荷,观察各模型不同载荷下螺钉、连接棒的应力分布.结果:两种内固定器的椎弓根螺钉前、中部的应力差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);刚性固定的椎弓根螺钉与棒连接处是应立集中的部位,该部位的应力远大于弹性固定器,而弹性内固定应力集中的部位均匀的分布于整个U型连接棒上,两模型固定节段螺钉及棒的最大有效应力均出现于前屈时.结论:在加载相同的纵向载荷条件下,刚性内固定器应力主要集中在螺钉与棒交界处,容易易发生螺钉断裂,U型弹性内固定器的应力均匀分布在U型连接棒上,可以减少断钉的现象发生.%Objective: To compare biomechanical features between the new "U" shape lumbar dynamic fixation system and traditional rigid fixation system. Methods: Finite element analysis of the two fixation systems were performed on the basis of a three-dimensional model reconstructed from the images of CT scanning of an adult cadaveric lumbar with the interval of 1 mm. The stress and displacement of every nodule and element in the course of deformation of the internal fixation were tested and analyzed. Results: In the same shearing load of 500 N,The force of the dynamic fixation system concentrated on the "U" shape elastic zone,however,the force of the rigid

  5. U 形振动管法测定原油密度的影响因素%Influencing Factors for Determination of Crude Oil Density by U-shaped Vibrating Tube Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晨新; 马德起; 石岩

    2016-01-01

    在采用 U 形振动管法测定原油密度时,原油黏度会对密度测定结果产生影响,导致原油贸易结算产生偏差。笔者主要分析了 U 形振动管法测试原油密度的原理和标准,并对不同种类原油黏度对于密度测定结果的影响进行了研究。结果表明:在使用不带黏度修正功能的数字密度计测试时,应注意严格按标准要求提高测试温度,减少黏度的影响;在使用带黏度修正功能的数字密度计测试时,应注意按仪器厂商说明书校准仪器,使测定结果更加合理。%When measuring the density of crude oil by U-shaped vibrating tube method,the crude oil viscosity would affect the density test results,which would lead to the deviation of crude oil trade settlement.The principle and standard of U-shaped vibrating tube method measuring crude oil density were introduced,and the effects of viscosity of different types of crude oil on the density test results were studied.The results show that when using the digital density meter without viscosity correction function,it should be strictly in accordance with the requirements of the standard,improve the test temperature and reduce the effects of viscosity.When using the digital density meter with viscosity correction function,it should pay attention to instrument calibration according to the manufacturer’s specifications to make test results more reasonable.

  6. Composite GFRP U-Shaped Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chróścielewski Jacek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents proposals for the use of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites for the construction of engineering objects, known and commonly used in the shipbuilding industry. An example of a pedestrian footbridge was used in this case, which, despite the considerable thickness of the structural material, was made using infusion technology in one production cycle. The designed and produced footbridge span is durable, dynamically resistant, incombustible, easy to install and maintain, resistant to weather conditions and also aesthetically interesting. For footbridge production environmentally friendly PET foam core may be used. It may come from recycling of used plastic packages and which is produced with less energy consumption process and much less CO2 emission. The load bearing part of the structure (skin is made of polymer laminate reinforced with glass fabrics (GFRP.

  7. The research of sport injury for land training of Chinese U-shaped veneer skiing athlete%我国单板滑雪U型场地运动员陆训运动损伤调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢贵胜; 卢贵林

    2014-01-01

    Using interview method, literature method, questionnaire survey, field observation to investigate U-shaped veneer skiing athletes injuries during the land training period. Research reveals that the injured areas are more focus on waist, knees and ankles. Sports injury is closely related to daily special training. Inadequate prepara⁃tion, insufficient knowledge of sports injury and facilities condition are the main three reasons for sports injury. Sports injury is mainly because of sprain, contusion and accidental injury.%运用访谈法、文献资料法、问卷调查法、实地观察法,对国家单板U型场地滑雪运动员陆训期间的伤病情况进行调查,结果显示:运动损伤受伤部位主要集中在腰、膝、踝关节;准备活动不充分、缺乏运动损伤知识和场地设施原因是造成运动损伤的三大因素;损伤多以扭伤、挫伤和突发性损伤为主。

  8. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  9. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  10. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  11. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  12. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  13. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  14. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  15. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  16. Computational Transition at the Uniqueness Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Sly, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The hardcore model is a model of lattice gas systems which has received much attention in statistical physics, probability theory and theoretical computer science. It is the probability distribution over independent sets $I$ of a graph weighted proportionally to $\\lambda^{|I|}$ with fugacity parameter $\\lambda$. We prove that at the uniqueness threshold of the hardcore model on the $d$-regular tree, approximating the partition function becomes computationally hard on graphs of maximum degree $d$. Specifically, we show that unless NP$=$RP there is no polynomial time approximation scheme for the partition function (the sum of such weighted independent sets) on graphs of maximum degree $d$ for fugacity $\\lambda_c(d) 0$. Weitz produced an FPTAS for approximating the partition function when $0<\\lambda < \\lambda_c(d)$ so this result demonstrates that the computational threshold exactly coincides with the statistical physics phase transition thus confirming the main conjecture of [28]. We further analyze the s...

  17. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  18. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  19. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  1. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  2. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  3. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  4. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  5. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  6. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  7. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  8. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  9. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  10. On the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniya Mandal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity theories coupled to n vector multiplets. We prove that for a given charge configuration the supersymmetry preserving axion free attractors are unique. We generalise the analysis to axionic attractors and state the conditions for uniqueness explicitly. We consider the example of a two-parameter model and find all solutions to the supersymmetric attractor equations and discuss their uniqueness.

  11. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 801 RIN 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification... unique device identification system as required by recent amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and..., FDA published a proposed rule to establish a unique device identification system, as required by...

  12. On chromatic and flow polynomial unique graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Yinghua; Wu, Haidong; Yu, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    ... research on graphs uniquely determined by their chromatic polynomials and more recently on their Tutte polynomials, but rather spotty research on graphs uniquely determined by their flow polynomials or the combination of both chromatic and flow polynomials. This article is an initiation of investigation on graphs uniquely determin...

  13. Prognosis, prospecting and development of gas fields in the far north of Siberia - as a single methodological approach to an optimal development of the territorial resources; Prevision, prospection et developpement des champs de gaz naturel du grand nord Siberien - approche methodologique unique pour un developpement optimal des ressources du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remizov, V.V.; Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Ermilov, O.M.; Neelov, Y.V.; Chugunov, L.S.; Gurari, F.G.; Goldin, S.V.; Karagodin, Y.N. [OJSC Gaprom, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    This presentation realizes a systems approach to the study of the oil and gas complex of the Far North of Siberia as a single sophisticated system starting from prognosis and prospecting of fields to their development at different stages of operation. This paper shows for the first time the whole complex of studies, including the methodology of systems studies of the structure, evolution and genesis of oil and gas reservoirs, the model of geologic structure and the evaluation of oil and gas resources, the technique of prospecting and surveys of oil and gas fields, techniques and methods of an effective system of prospecting and development, particularly at the stage of achieving maximum and the onset of production decrease. (authors)

  14. Dusty plasma as a unique object of plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G. E.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The self-consistency and basic openness of dusty plasma, charge fluctuations, high dissipation and other features of dusty plasma system lead to the appearance of a number of unusual and unique properties of dusty plasma. “Anomalous” heating of dusty particles, anisotropy of temperatures and other features, parametric resonance, charge fluctuations and interaction potential are among these unique properties. Study is based on analytical approach and numerical simulation. Mechanisms of “anomalous” heating and energy transfer are proposed. Influence of charge fluctuations on the system properties is discussed. The self-consistent, many-particle, fluctuation and anisotropic interparticle interaction potential is studied for a significant range of gas temperature. These properties are interconnected and necessary for a full description of dusty plasmas physics.

  15. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  16. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems with gas if you: Are lactose or gluten intolerant Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes Drink carbonated beverages Have a chronic intestinal condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease Neither age nor sex ...

  17. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  18. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  19. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  20. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 16, 801, 803, et al. Unique Device Identification System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... will substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in...

  1. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LONGITUDINAL SUBMERGED ARC WELDED STEEL PIPES USED FOR GAS PIPELINE OF OFFSHORE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Z. Yang; W. Tian; Q.R. Ma; Y.L. Li; J.K. Li; J.Z. Gao; H.B. Zhang; Y.H. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Since the development of offshore oil and gas, increased submarine oil and gas pipelines were installed. All the early steel pipes of submarine pipelines depended on importing because of the strict requirements of comprehensive properties, such as,anti-corrosion, resistance to pressure and so on. To research and develop domestic steel pipes used for the submarine pipeline, the Longitudinal-seam Submerged Arc Welded (LSAW) pipes were made of steel plates cut from leveled hot rolled coils by both the JCOE and UOE (the forming process in which the plate like the letter "J", "C", "O" or "U" shape, then expansion) forming processes. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the pipe base metal and weld metal were tested, and the results were in accordance with the corresponding pipe specification API SPEC 5L or DNV-OS-F101, which showed that domestic LSAW pipes could be used for submarine oil and gas pipelines.

  3. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

  4. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  5. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  6. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Opalak

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions.

  7. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  8. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  9. Low-temperature gas from marine shales: wet gas to dry gas over experimental time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvie Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine shales exhibit unusual behavior at low temperatures under anoxic gas flow. They generate catalytic gas 300° below thermal cracking temperatures, discontinuously in aperiodic episodes, and lose these properties on exposure to trace amounts of oxygen. Here we report a surprising reversal in hydrocarbon generation. Heavy hydrocarbons are formed before light hydrocarbons resulting in wet gas at the onset of generation grading to dryer gas over time. The effect is moderate under gas flow and substantial in closed reactions. In sequential closed reactions at 100°C, gas from a Cretaceous Mowry shale progresses from predominately heavy hydrocarbons (66% C5, 2% C1 to predominantly light hydrocarbons (56% C1, 8% C5, the opposite of that expected from desorption of preexisting hydrocarbons. Differences in catalyst substrate composition explain these dynamics. Gas flow should carry heavier hydrocarbons to catalytic sites, in contrast to static conditions where catalytic sites are limited to in-place hydrocarbons. In-place hydrocarbons and their products should become lighter with conversion thus generating lighter hydrocarbon over time, consistent with our experimental results. We recognize the similarities between low-temperature gas generation reported here and the natural progression of wet gas to dry gas over geologic time. There is now substantial evidence for natural catalytic activity in source rocks. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium and the results reported here add to that evidence. Natural catalysis provides a plausible and unique explanation for the origin and evolution of gas in sedimentary basins.

  10. Ultra-Low-Power MEMS Selective Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a system for gas sensing that includes an ultra-low-power MEMS (microelectromechanical system) gas sensor, combined with unique electronic circuitry and a proprietary algorithm for operating the sensor. The electronics were created from scratch, and represent a novel design capable of low-power operation of the proprietary MEMS gas sensor platform. The algorithm is used to identify a specific target gas in a gas mixture, making the sensor selective to that target gas.

  11. Research and application of U-shaped steel plate-concrete composite open-web sandwich slab structure with high strength bolts%U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖结构研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡岚; 马克俭

    2012-01-01

    提出一种多层大跨度结构体系——U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖,该结构体系由U形钢板-混凝土组合下肋、钢筋混凝土上肋和上下肋间设置的钢筋混凝土剪力键形成的需考虑夹芯层剪切变形的空间楼盖。介绍了该楼盖结构体系的简化计算模型、弹性连续化理论分析方法和实用分析方法,通过仿真模型试验及实际工程应用,验证了弹性连续化理论分析方法与实用分析方法的正确性。研究结果表明:采用由上、下表层薄膜刚度和具有一定抗剪刚度的剪力键夹芯层组成的U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖简化计算模型进行弹性连续化理论分析,其分析结果与仿真模型试验结果基本相符,相对误差最大不超过5%;按等强和等刚度原则将U形钢板-混凝土组合空腹夹层板折算成钢筋混凝土实腹梁的实用分析方法,其计算结果与仿真模型试验结果基本相符,相对误差最大不超过4%。以黑龙江中医药大学文体中心B区57 m×39 m+57 m×36 m双跨多层(地下1层、地上3层)工程为算例,并与原位测试结果进行比较,说明U形钢板-混凝土高强螺栓连接组合空腹夹层板楼盖安全可靠,且具有较好的经济性。%A system of multilayer large span structure, the U-shaped steel plate and concrete composite open-web sandwich slab floor with high strength bolts was put forward. The structural system is composed of the U-shaped steel plate and concrete composite upper rib, the reinforced concrete bottom rib and the reinforced concrete shear keys between upper and bottom ribs, resulting in a sandwich layer of shear deformation of space floor. This paper comprehensively introduced the simplified calculation model of the structural system using the elastic continuum theory method and the practical analysis method, and verified the effectiveness of the model through the simulation

  12. Use of U-shaped Retractor to Reduce Traction Injury of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in Video-assisted Thyroidectomy%U 型拉钩降低腔镜辅助甲状腺腺叶切除术的喉返神经牵拉损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建业; 贺晨宇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the home-made U-shaped retractor ’ s effect on reducing the traction injury of recurrent laryngeal nerve in the video-assistance thyroidectomy . Methods The patients with unilateral and unifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma , which were diagnosed by ultrasound preparation and by pathological postoperation , were enrolled .They all underwent the ipdilateral lobectomy , isthmus resection and the clearance of central lymph nodes with video-assistance technology .From January 2013 to June 2014, 79 cases ( control group ) were received conventional method , by which the thyroid lobe was elevated onto the trachea surface.From January 2015 to March 2016, 71 cases (U-shaped group) accepted the procedure which adopted home-made U-shaped retractor to pull the thyroid lobe to carotid artery horizontally .The operations were completed by the same surgeon .There were no significant differences between the two groups in age , gender and lesion size , which is comparable .The incidence rate of hoarseness was compared postoperation . Results Postoperative hoarseness of the U-shaped group occurred in 6 cases (8.5%) and the control group in 17 cases (21.5%), which show a significantly statistical difference (χ2 =4.919, P=0.027).And there was no significant difference in voice recovery time [median:16.5 d (8-31 d) vs.18 d (4-50 d), Z=-0.246, P=0.806]. Conclusion In the video-assisted thyroidectomy , using the U-shaped retractor to pull the thyroid lobe laterally and horizontally will be beneficial to reduce the recurrent laryngeal nerve tension and the incidence of the retract injury .%目的:探讨自制U型拉钩在腔镜辅助甲状腺叶切除术中降低喉返神经牵拉性损伤的作用。方法选择术前超声检查和术后病理确认为单侧单病灶甲状腺微小乳头状癌,行腔镜辅助病侧腺叶+峡部切除+病侧中央区淋巴结清扫术,2013年1月~2014年6月79例用常规方法将甲状腺叶向气管前

  13. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  14. Numerical Simulation Analysis on the Protective Performance of U-shape Folded Sandwich Panel Subjected to Underwater Non-Contact Explosion%U型折叠式夹层板抗水下非接触爆炸性能数值计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敌; 吴广明

    2016-01-01

    金属折叠式夹层板在舰船结构的应用逐渐增多,对其抗水下非接触爆炸冲击性能的研究具有实际工程意义。以U型折叠式夹层板为研究对象,基于ABAQUS计算传统加筋板和夹层板在典型水下非接触爆炸工况下的响应,对变形模式、速度加速度响应及吸能模式进行对比分析,最后分别改变夹层板结构参数,研究夹层板结构参数对抗爆性能的影响。结果表明:U型夹层板的抗爆性能优于加筋板结构;增加夹层板面板厚度和芯层板厚能增强其抗爆性能,但吸能效率降低;芯层-面板夹角>60°时,抗爆性能相对优秀;在不超过特定尺寸时,芯层单元宽度影响较小。%As more and more metal folded sandwich panel are used in ship structures, the study on the protective performance of the panel subjected to the underwater non-contact explosion becomes practically important for engineering. When U-shape folded sandwich panel is taken as the research object, both the responses of conventional stiffened panel and sandwich panel subjected to typical underwater non-contact explosion are computed with ABAQUS to analyze and compare the deformation, velocity and acceleration responses as well as energy absorption modes. Finally, the structural parameters of the sandwich panel are changed to study the influence on the panel protective performance against explosion. The result shows that U-shape sandwich panel has better anti-explosion performance than the stiffened structure. Increasing the thickness of plate layer and sandwich layer can enhance the anti-explosion performance, but it will reduce the energy absorption efficiency. When the angle between the sandwich layer and the plate layer is larger than 60°, the anti-explosion performance is relatively good. In case the specific dimension is not exceeded, there is little influence on the width of the sandwich layer unit.

  15. Existence and Uniqueness in Shape from Shading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雁萍; 李价谷

    1997-01-01

    For the image of a smooth surface object fully contained within the field of view and illuminated in and arbitrary direction,this paper discusses the existence and uniqueness o the conditions for solving a shape-from-shading problem under the conditions that the Fourier series expansion of the image intensity contains only zero and first order terms in a polar coordinate system.Three theorems are established,one for the existence and two for the uniqueness of z-axis symmetric shape from shading.

  16. Uniqueness vs non-uniqueness in complete connections with modified majority rules

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, J. C. A.; Friedli, S.

    2013-01-01

    We take a closer look at a class of chains with complete connections introduced by Berger, Hoffman and Sidoravicius. Besides giving a sharper description of the uniqueness and non-uniqueness regimes, we show that if the pure majority rule used to fix the dependence on the past is replaced with a function that is Lipschitz at the origin, then uniqueness always holds, even with arbitrarily slow decaying variation.

  17. Micromolded U-shaped PDMS optical waveguide for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Nirmal; Khatri, Anjali; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2013-09-01

    Integrated optical waveguide sensors are usually fabricated using materials like silicon, silica, SU-8, etc. Their fabrication requires clean room processes which are expensive and time-consuming. We demonstrated the fabrication of PDMS based optical waveguide in non-cleanroom environment using soft lithography technique. A master-mold was fabricated using Acralyn. PDMS polymer was chosen for waveguide fabrication, as it provides low refractive index contrast in the sensing region. These PDMS waveguides were found to be 5-times more sensitive than SU-8 waveguides. High sensitivity along with mechanical robustness and ease of fabrication of PDMS waveguides provides a promising and versatile platform for biosensor application.

  18. Ozone as u-shaped dose responses molecules (hormetins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, G; Pérez-Davison, G; Re, L; Giuliani, A

    2010-05-10

    Redox environment involves a broad network of pro-oxidant and antioxidant components. Health benefit or damage can be induced as a consequence of an adaptive cellular stress response. A consequence of hormetic amplification is an increase in the homeodynamic space of a living system in terms of an increased defense capacity and a reduced load of damaged macromolecules. Ozone, when used at appropriate doses, promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides allows them to become late and long-lasting messengers. Healthy aging may be achieved by hormesis through mild and periodic, but not severe or chronic, physical and mental challenges, and by the use of nutritional hormesis incorporating mild stress-inducing molecules called hormetins. The paradoxical concept that ozone eventually induces an antioxidant response capable of reversing a chronic oxidative stress is common in the animal and vegetal kingdom; it is already supported by findings of an increased level of antioxidant enzymes during ozone therapy. Those facts can include ozone as a hormetin. The established scientific foundations of hormesis are ready to pave the way for new and effective approaches in redox-related disease research and intervention; ozone therapy can be a good candidate.

  19. Ozone as U-Shaped Dose Responses Molecules (Hormetins)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez- Sánchez, G.; Pérez-Davison, G.; Re, L.; Giuliani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Redox environment involves a broad network of pro-oxidant and antioxidant components. Health benefit or damage can be induced as a consequence of an adaptive cellular stress response. A consequence of hormetic amplification is an increase in the homeodynamic space of a living system in terms of an increased defense capacity and a reduced load of damaged macromolecules. Ozone, when used at appropriate doses, promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides allows them to b...

  20. A U-Shaped Relative Clause Attachment Preference in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Edson T.; Gibson, Edward; Pearlmutter, Neal J.; Aikawa, Takako; Miyagawa, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    Presents results from a self-paced reading experiment in Japanese investigating attachment preferences for relative clauses to three ensuing potential nominal heads. Results are discussed in light of two types of parsing models. (Author/VWL)

  1. In a unique position or squeezed out?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Christensen, Inge

    2009-01-01

    language, they experience that their patients disappear, they are seldom involved, and they lack knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: GPs have few experiences with YA cancer patients, but they have a potentially unique role in general primary cancer care if they develop their vocational vocabulary, relate more...

  2. Uniqueness of meromorphic functions concerning differential polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lei

    2007-01-01

    Based on a unicity theorem for entire funcitions concerning differential polynomials proposed by M. L. Fang and W. Hong, we studied the uniqueness problem of two meromorphic functions whose differential polynomials share the same 1-point by proving two theorems and their related lemmas. The results extend and improve given by Fang and Hong's theorem.

  3. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  4. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor questionnaire, a…

  5. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  6. Multicultural Poetry: Voices Unique, yet Universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    As teachers gravitate more and more to the use of literature and strive to include a range of cultural experiences in their classrooms, the use of poetry from various cultural groups should be considered. Poetry is a very real means of having children see themselves and others as being both unique and yet the same. In considering poetry across…

  7. Tulane Student Designs Unique Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A Louisiana architect has created plans for a unique supplementary learning environment consisting of five circular buildings featuring a planetarium, an indoor display of small animals in their native habitat, an indoor pond, a library, a media center, and an auditorium. (Author/MLF)

  8. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  9. UNIQUENESS OF DIFFERENCE POLYNOMIALS OF MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 祁晓光

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the uniqueness problems of difference polynomials of meromorphic functions and obtain some results which can be viewed as discrete analogues of the results given by Shibazaki. Some examples are given to show the results in this article are best possible.

  10. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  11. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  12. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  13. 创业失败经验与新产品开发绩效的倒U形关系:创业导向的多重中介作用%An Inverted U-Shape Relationship between Entrepreneurial Failure Experiences and New Product Development Performance:The Multiple Mediating Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓宇; 陶向明

    2015-01-01

    Prior empirical studies on the relationship between entrepreneur′s prior experience and the new venture performance are mixed.Some scholars argue that entrepreneur′s prior experience may enhance new venture performance primarily based on the human-capital theory.However, many scholars hold the viewpoint that more prior experience may not guarantee better new ven-ture performance, since prior experience can shape his/her cognitive profile and lead to his/her bias in thinking, which may re-tard the entrepreneurs′learning behaviors and thus negatively affect performance of new ventures.Previous studies failed to con-jointly consider both the positive and negative effects of entrepreneurial failure experience on new venture performance, and have not addressed whether and how entrepreneurial failure experience influences the New Product Development( NPD) performance of new ventures.To address these research gaps, this study provides fresh insights into the relationship between entrepreneurial fail-ure experience and NPD performance.This study integrates experience learning theory and cognitive theories and builds a con-ceptual model to explore an inverted U-shaped relationship between entrepreneurial failure experience and NPD performance and the underlying mechanism. Hypotheses were tested using data from 231 habitual entrepreneurs of high-technology new ventures.The study results, based on hierarchical regression analysis and bootstrapping method, showed that:①There was an inverted U-shaped relationship between entrepreneurial failure experience and the NPD performance; ②There were inverted U-shaped relationships between entrepre-neurial failure experience and the three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation, namely, proactiveness, innovativeness and risk-taking;③proactiveness, innovativeness and risk-taking partially mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial failure ex-perience and NPD performance respectively. The study demonstrates a nonlinear

  14. Unique device identification system. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use.

  15. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  16. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  17. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  18. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  19. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  20. Metalworking Techniques Unlock a Unique Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Approached by West Hartford, Connecticut-based Abbot Ball Company, Glenn Research Center agreed to test an intriguing alloy called Nitinol 60 that had been largely unused for a half century. Using powdered metallurgy, the partners developed a method for manufacturing and working with the material, which Abbott Ball has now commercialized. Nitinol 60 provides a unique combination of qualities that make it an excellent material for ball bearings, among other applications.

  1. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main e...

  2. A unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khizar

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year-old Asian girl was referred to the nephrology unit with rapidly progressive renal failure. At the age of 15 she was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus but had defaulted treatment. Her renal functions improved with cyclophosphamide pulse treatment but she continued to have central nervous system vasculitis, gastrointestinal vasculitis and opportunistic infections making her a unique and challenging case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  3. Uniqueness from locality and BCFW shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodina, Laurentiu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a BCFW shift which can be used to recursively build the full Yang-Mills amplitude as a function of polarization vectors. Furthermore, in line with the recent results of arXiv:1612.02797, we conjecture that the Yang-Mills scattering amplitude is uniquely fixed by locality and demanding the usual asymptotic behavior under a sufficient number of shifts. Unitarity therefore emerges from locality and constructability. We prove this statement at the leading order in the soft expansion.

  4. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  5. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. Gas magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  7. Gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiochon, Georges; Guillemin, Claude L.

    1990-11-01

    Gas chromatography is a powerful separation technique for gas and vapor mixtures. Combining separation and on-line detection permits accurate quantitative analysis of complex mixtures, including traces of compounds down to parts per trillions in some particular cases. The importance of gas chromatography in quality control and process control in the chemical and drug industry, in environmental pollution investigations and in clinical analysis is critical. The principles of the technique are discussed, the main components of a gas chromatograph are described and some idea of the importance of the applications is given.

  8. Unique signatures for QGP in strangeness sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, V. K.; Singh, C. P.

    1998-03-01

    We suggest that the variations of certain strange particle ratios either with the energy density or with the baryon density constitute a significant signal for identification of the QGP formation in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. We use realistic equations of state (EOS) for the QGP as well as for dense, hot hadron gas (HG) scenarios. We suggest that a direct comparison of the ratios obtained in the QGP and HG scenarios will be immensely helpful in identifying the QGP formation.

  9. Deep Panuke : uniquely positioned for future success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, L. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An overview of PanCanadian's involvement in east coast activities and the Deep Panuke Project was presented with focus on regional developments. A map depicting oil and gas fields in eastern Canada's offshore was included. PanCanadian holds 100 per cent interest in the Deep Panuke gas field which is located in the Scotian Basin and is expected to produce 400 MMcf/d by 2005. The master schedule for the Deep Panuke for 2000 to 2004 was presented. A map depicting PanCanadian land holdings interests in the Scotian Shelf was also included. Different types of gravity based structures and their installations were presented along with the construction status of the Eirik Raude deep water drilling rig. Maps depicting drilling location and coal bed methane zones were also included and means by which acid gas (H2S) will be disposed were illustrated. The Deep Panuke project has obtained approvals from the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, the National Energy Board, the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environment Canada and Industry Canada. The next step in the development process is to present a front-end engineering design and to show development plans for environmental assessment, socio-economic assessments and a Nova Scotia benefits plan. tabs., figs.

  10. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  11. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  12. Unique double recurrence of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Surgically treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered cured when the postoperative angiogram proves complete resection. However, despite no residual nidus or early draining vein on postoperative angiogram, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in adults. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old woman with asymptomatic double recurrence of her cerebral AVM after angiographically proven complete resection. To the authors' knowledge, this patient represents the first case with double de novo asymptomatic recurrence of Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Also, she represents the first case with unique AVM criteria in each recurrence.

  13. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  14. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  15. Uniqueness of Centauro-type events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Beggio, P.C.; Carvalho, A.O. de; Menon, M.J.; Navia, C.E.; Oliveira, R. de; Shibuya, E.H

    2003-07-01

    Analysis to discriminate Centauro events from normal events is made without previous identification of secondary emitted particles. For this purpose their energy and derived quantities like distance from the center of momenta it were mainly used. As a result we found in a sample of (280+87) experimental events only 3 were compatible with 5 Centauro events, but none of them dad a high content of hadrons, characteristic of Centauro events. With this result we are confident about the uniqueness of Centauro events, especially for two events that have vertex directly determined. Comparing with some interaction models features we depict a possible scenario to explain Centauro events.

  16. Uniqueness of the Trautman-Bondi mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T; MacCallum, M A H; Chru\\'sciel, Piotr T.; Jezierski, Jacek; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the only functionals, within a natural class, which are monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri, are those depending on the metric only through a specific combination of the Bondi `mass aspect' and other next--to--leading order terms in the metric. Under the extra condition of passive BMS invariance, the unique such functional (up to a multiplicative factor) is the Trautman--Bondi energy. It is also shown that this energy remains well-defined for a wide class of `polyhomogeneous' metrics.

  17. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Paer [Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  18. [Celiac disease: an unique autoinmune model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sáez, Luis Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a unique autoimmune disorder, because the environmental precipitant factor is known. It is gluten, the major storage protein of wheat and similar grains. Originally was considered a rare malabsorption syndrome of childhood, but nowadays is recognized a common condition, that affects to 1% of the general population, all over the world', involves to all different races, may be diagnosed at any age, and affects to many organ systems. Therapy for the disease is a gluten-free-diet that must be strict and long-term. This diet cause a total recovery clinical and analytical, with excellent quality of life of patients.

  19. Uniqueness, Self belonging and Intercourse in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Dr. Marvin / E.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript has ensued from my past studies in biochemistry (PhD, CUNY 1986) and my current endeavors in graduate study in philosophy and anthropology. The current research project began during my period as a graduate student in biochemistry with a professor of classical genetics comment that DNA was unique in the physical world. The paradox presented to relate this notion to existing natural law lead me to evolve and communicate a view that the world itself is a special case of a general...

  20. Treatment of senile femoral neck fractures using bipolar hemiarthroplasty with enhanced repair of a U-shaped capsular flap via a modified posterior mini-incision%改良后路微创切口并强化修复“U”形关节囊瓣的双极头置换治疗高龄股骨颈骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪明; 刘彬; 吴润柏; 王智; 莫新发; 刘先银

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of bipolar hemiarthroplasty with cnhanced repair of a U-shaped capsular flap via a modified posterior mini-incision for senile femoral neck fractures.Methods Between June 2008 and June 2013,86 senile patients with femoral neck fracture were treated operatively.They were 20 males and 66 females,80 to 95 years of age (mean,84.6 years).There were 70 cases of Garden type Ⅲ and 16 cases of Garden type Ⅳ.They all underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty via a modified posterior mini-incision.A U-shaped posterior capsular flap with its base close to the acetabulum was made before exposure of the hip joint.Next this flap and short external rotators were repaired particularly after the bipolar prostheses were implanted.Incision length,surgical time,iotra-operative loss of blood,and length of lower limb were measured.Malposition of prosthesis,hip dislocation and other complications were monitored.The outcomes were assessed according to Harris hip score at the last follow-up.Results The mean incision length was 9.2 cm (range,8 to 12 cm).The mean surgical time was 75.2 min (range,55 to 130 min).The mean intra-operative loss of blood was 250.1 mL (range,120 to 620 mL).The proximal skin margin of the incision was bruised in 3 cases,deep venous thrombosis occurred at the lower limb 3 weeks postoperatively in one case,and length discrepancy between bilateral lower limbs was observed in 6 cases.No dislocation,incision infection,sciatic nerve injury,or component malpositioning happened in this group.All patients were evaluated after a mean follow-up period of 14 months(from 12 to 35 months).One patient died from lung cancer one year postoperatively.According to the Harris hip scores at the last follow-up,68 cases were excellent,15 good and 3 fair,giving an excellent to good rate of 96.5%.Conclusions The modified posterior mini-incision for localization of body surface is accurate,reliable and simple for senile femoral neck fractures.The bipolar

  1. 完全腹腔镜下根治性膀胱切除及原位U形回肠新膀胱术19例报告%Pure laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic U-shape ileal neobladder: report of 19 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锋; 王帅; 祁小龙; 郑珉; 张琦; 毛祖杰; 张大宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the surgical methods and results of pure laparoscopic radical cystectomy with orthotopic U-shape ileal neobladder.Methods From August 2010 to April 2014,19 patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (cT2-3 N0-2 M0) underwent pure laparoscopic radical cystectomy and Endo-GIA assisted orthotopic U-shape ileal neobladder reconstruction.Perioperative and follow-up data were collected.Results The surgeries were successful in all 19 cases with the operating time ranging from 261 to 380 min,blood loss of 100 to 350 ml.Postoperative hospital stay was 21±4 (15-26) days,postoperative intestinal function recovery time at 1.9±0.4 (1.5-2.3) days.Surgical margins were all negative.Lymph node positive rate was 32% (6/19).Complications were including 1 case of lymphatic leakage; 3 cases of new bladder and urethra anastomotic fistula.There were 17 cases of urinary incontinence,all these cases were improved after 3 months,but there were still 8 cases of night-time incontinence.Three cases had unilateral ureteral reflux,ureter mild hydrocephalus,1 of the cases had recurrent infections within 1 month after surgery.After the anti-inflammatory and catheterization treatment,the symptoms were improved.Two cases had unilateral ureteral anastomotic stricture,one underwent percutaneous nephrostomy and cystoscope-assisted double J tube placement,another underwent laparoscopic ureteral neobladder reimplantation.One case had bilateral ureteral stenosis due to recurrent infections,and underwent bilateral laparoscopic ureteral-new bladder reimplantation.Patients were followed up for 8-42 months,no recurrence or distant metastasis was found.Conclusion Pure laparoscopic radical cystectomy with endo-GIA assisted orthotopic U-shape ileal neobladder can reduce surgical trauma and help patient's postoperative recovery.%目的 探讨完全腹腔镜下根治性膀胱切除及原位U形回肠新膀胱术的手术方法及效果.方法 2010年8月至2014年4月,19例临床诊断

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  3. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  4. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  5. An experiment on Lowest Unique Integer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Hanaki, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally study Lowest Unique Integer Games (LUIGs) to determine if and how subjects self-organize into different behavioral classes. In a LUIG, N(≥ 3) players submit a positive integer up to M and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. LUIGs are simplified versions of real systems such as Lowest/Highest Unique Bid Auctions that have been attracting attention from scholars, yet experimental studies are scarce. Furthermore, LUIGs offer insights into choice patterns that can shed light on the alleviation of congestion problems. Here, we consider four LUIGs with N = { 3 , 4 } and M = { 3 , 4 } . We find that (a) choices made by more than 1/3 of subjects were not significantly different from what a symmetric mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) predicts; however, (b) subjects who behaved significantly differently from what the MSE predicts won the game more frequently. What distinguishes subjects was their tendencies to change their choices following losses.

  6. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  8. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    and the role it plays in the global climate and the future of fuels. Russia, Japan, Nigeria, Peru, Chile, Pakistan, Indonesia, Korea, etc are various countries who are perusing the gas hydrates studies as a future resource for fuel. Indian Initiative..., 1993, Free gas at the base of the gas hydrate zone in the vicinity of the Chile Triple junction: Geology, v. 21, pp. 905-908. Borowski, W.S., C.K. Paull, and U. William, III, 1999, Global and local variations of interstitial sulfate gradients...

  9. The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capes Melinda D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs. We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs, of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs, the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all

  10. Conditional and Unique Coloring of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2011-01-01

    For integers $k, r > 0$, a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper $k$-coloring of the vertices of $G$ such that every vertex $v$ of degree $d(v)$ in $G$ is adjacent to at least $\\min\\{r, d(v)\\}$ differently colored vertices. Given $r$, the smallest integer $k$ for which $G$ has a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring is called the $r$th order conditional chromatic number $\\chi_r(G)$ of $G$. We give results (exact values or bounds for $\\chi_r(G)$, depending on $r$) related to the conditional coloring of some graphs. We introduce \\emph{unique conditional colorability} and give some related results. (Keywords. cartesian product of graphs; conditional chromatic number; gear graph; join of graphs.)

  11. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M

    1994-12-01

    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  12. Organizing the spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic activity is quickly changing the hydrosphere. Panta Rhei calls for improved understanding of changing hydrosphere dynamics in their connection with human systems. I argue that progress within the Panta Rhei initiative is strongly limited by the absence of hydrological principles that help to organise our spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere; without guiding principles (e.g. classification systems) hydrology will continue to be a case study dominated science that will have a hard time to efficiently improve understanding, estimation and prediction of human affected systems. Exposing such organising principles should not be considered as a step backwards into the recent PUB decade. Instead, it should be regarded as an exciting scientific challenge that is becoming increasingly relevant now the hydrosphere is quickly changing.

  13. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Trikha; Tarun Goyal; Amit K Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant dislocation of the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury.Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously.We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient.These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient.These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be quite severe.This case is presented in view of its uniqueness along with possible mechanism of injury,the sequence of reduction and follow-up.Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons.

  14. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  15. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  16. Fullerenes as unique nanopharmaceuticals for disease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As unique nanoparticles,fullerenes have attracted much attention due to their unparalleled physical,chemical and biological properties.Various functionalized fullerenes with OH,NH2,COOH,and peptide modifications were developed.It summarized the biological activities of fullerenes derivatives in cancer therapy with high efficiency and low toxicity,as reactive oxygen species scavenger and lipid peroxidation inhibitor,to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus and to suppress bacteria and microbial at low concentration.In addition,the mechanism for fullerene to enter cells and biodistribution of fullerene in vivo was also discussed.This research focuses on the current understanding of fullerenes-based nanomaterials in the potential clinical application as well as biological mechanism of fullerenes and its derivatives in disease therapy.

  17. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  18. The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular

  19. Gas gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also can be caused by group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio vulnificus . Clostridium is found nearly everywhere. As the bacteria grow inside the body, it makes gas and harmful substances (toxins) that can damage body tissues, cells, and blood ...

  20. Monolithic supports with unique geometries and enhanced mass transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of natural gas has been the topic of much research over the past decade. Interest in this technology results from a desire to decrease or eliminate the emissions of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOX) from gas turbine power plants. A low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic monolith, is ideal for this high-temperature, high-flow application. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. 'Robocasting' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low pressure drops. This report details the mass transfer effects for novel 3-dimensional robocast monoliths, traditional honeycomb-type monoliths, and ceramic foams. The mass transfer limit is experimentally determined using the probe reaction of CO oxidation over a Pt / {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, and the pressure drop is measured for each monolith sample. Conversion versus temperature data is analyzed quantitatively using well-known dimensionless mass transfer parameters. The results show that, relative to the honeycomb monolith support, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application.

  1. Émission de photons uniques par un atome unique piégé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquié, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2006-10-01

    En illuminant un atome unique piégé dans une pince optique de taille micrométrique à l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses résonantes d'une durée de 4 ns, nous avons réalisé une source efficace de photons uniques déclenchés, de polarisation bien définie. Nous avons mesuré la fonction d'autocorrélation temporelle en intensité qui met en évidence un dégroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possède des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

  2. Natural gas origins of large and medium-scale gas fields in China sedimentary basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China sedimentary basins present abundant natural gas resource thanks to its unique geological settings.Marine highly-matured hydrocarbon source rocks,widespread coal-measure strata and low temperature Quaternary saline strata,etc.,indicate the wide foreground of China natural gas resources. Up to now,most of the petroliferous basins have been discovered to have wholesale natural gas accumulation from Precambrian,Paleozoic,Mesozoic to Cenozoic in the east,the central,the west and the coast of China.These large and medium-scale gas reservoirs are mainly composed of hydrocarbon gas with big dry coefficient,tiny non-hydrocarbon,wide carbon isotope distribution and varying origin types,the hydrocarbon gas includes coal-formed gas,oil-formed gas,biogenic gas and inorganic gas, etc.Coal-formed gas is the main type of China natural gas resources,in particular several explored large-scale gas fields(>100 billion cubic meter)of Kela 2,Sulige and Daniudi,etc.,they all belong to coal-formed gas fields or the gas fields consisting mostly of coal-formed gas.Oil-formed gas is also abundant in China marine basins,for example marine natural gas of Sichuan Basin generated from crude oil cracking gas.Primary and secondary biogenic gas fields were discovered respectively in the Qaidam Basin and Western Slope of Songliao Basin.In addition,inorganic gases are mainly distributed in the eastern China,in particular the Songliao Basin with abundant carbon dioxide accumulation,indicating that the eastern China present large exploration potential of inorganic gas.

  3. The Homunculus: a Unique Astrophysical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.

    η Car is surrounded by bipolar shells, the Homunculus and the internal Little Homunculus, that are observed in both emission and absorption. Thin disks, located between the bipolar lobes, include the very bright Weigelt blobs and the neutral emission structure called the Strontium filament. All are affected by changes in UV and X-Ray flux of the binary system. For example, the normally ionized Little Homunculus recombines during the few month long spectroscopic minimum and then reionizes. Spectral data, obtained with Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and with Very Large Telescope UltraViolet Echelle Spectrograph (VLT/UVES), provide a wealth of information on spectroscopic properties of neutral and singly-ionized metals and on chemistry of nitrogen rich, carbon, oxygen poor, dense, warm gas. This information is important to understand gamma ray bursters (GRB) that reveal red-shifted near-UV metallic absorptions from pre-GRB stellar ejecta.

  4. 14 CFR 221.203 - Unique rule numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unique rule numbers required. 221.203... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.203 Unique rule numbers required... bear a unique rule number. (b) The unique rule numbers for the fares specified in this section shall...

  5. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  6. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  7. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  8. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  9. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  10. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  11. Unique biosynthesis of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To the best of my knowledge, only 19 cyclic and 8 linear C35 terpenes have been identified to date, and no family name was assigned to this terpene class until recently. In 2011, it was proposed that these C35 terpenes should be called sesquarterpenes. This review highlights the biosynthesis of two kinds of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) that are produced via cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid in Bacillus and Mycobacterium species. In Bacillus species, a new type of terpene cyclase that has no sequence homology with any known terpene synthases, as well as a bifunctional terpene cyclase that biosynthesizes two classes of cyclic terpenes with different numbers of carbons as natural products, have been identified. On the other hand, in Mycobacterium species, the first bifunctional Z-prenyltransferase has been found, but a novel terpene cyclase and a unique polyprenyl reductase remain unidentified. The identification of novel enzyme types should lead to the discovery of many homologous enzymes and their products including novel natural compounds. On the other hand, many enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products have low substrate specificities in vitro. Therefore, to find novel natural products present in organisms, the multifunctionality of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of natural products should be analyzed.

  12. Condition evaluation of a unique mining site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junsheng; Chen Frank Y.; Ma Yan; Zhang Siya

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the existing conditions and the stability of a mining site in which the unique features of seismicity, mining activity, hydrological conditions, geological con-ditions, environmental conditions, and future development plans were considered. In particular, the potential subsidence locations near the proposed construction site, the effects of mining boundary profile, and the influence scope of the mining activity on the neighboring areas were investigated using the finite element method. The study results indicate:(1) the overlying sandstone layer to the coal layer is the key to the stability of the mining roof; (2) the broken boundary has the most effect, followed by the arc boundary and linear boundary; (3) the safe distance from the mining boundary should be at least 400 m if the proposed structure is to be built near an active mining site. Other relevant engineering rec-ommendations are also proposed. The concluded results from this study may serve as a guide to other similar sites in the world.

  13. Sensitive Analysis on Seismic Response of Simply Supported Box Girder Bridge on High Speed Railway Using Friction Pendulum Bearings and U-shaped Steel Combined Earthquake Protection Device%采用摩擦摆支座及U型钢防落梁装置的高速铁路简支箱梁桥地震响应敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧晓秋; 曹志峰; 吴成亮

    2016-01-01

    以高速铁路简支箱梁桥隔震研究为例,建立了采用摩擦摆支座与 U 型钢防落梁装置组合地震保护方案的全桥地震响应分析模型,针对支座位移、墩底剪力、墩底弯矩等地震响应,考虑了场地类别、桥墩高度、桥梁跨数、桥梁跨度、激励方向等影响因素,并根据各因素选定的水平级别,实施了混合正交试验,再应用极差分析方法对支座位移、墩底剪力、墩底弯矩等地震响应进行了影响因素的敏感性分析,明确了各因素对相关响应量影响的主次情况,为高速铁路简支箱梁桥隔震研究及优化设计奠定了基础。%In this paper,the seismic isolation of simply supported box girder bridges on high speed railway was studied. A bridge model with friction pendulum bearings and a U-shaped steel combined earthquake protection device was built for seismic response analysis,including the seismic response of bearing displacement,and shear and moment at the pier bottom. Multiple factors including site types,pier height,number of bridge spans,bridge span length and excitation direction were considered. A mixed orthogonal test was carried out according to the selected level of each factor. Using range analysis method,sensitivity analysis of each factor was carried out on the seismic response of bearing displacement,and shear and moment at the pier bottom. The primary and secondary cases of the impact of various factors on the relevant response were analyzed. It may provide guidelines for seismic isolation and design optimization of simply supported box girder bridges on high speed railway.

  14. Experiments and numerical analysis of a control method for natural circulation through helium gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuaki, E-mail: ttakeda@yamanashi.ac.jp; Hatori, Hirofumi; Funatani, Shumpei

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated a control method for natural circulation of air by helium gas injection. A depressurization accident is a design-basis accident of a very high temperature reactor. When a primary pipe rupture accident occurs, air is expected to enter the reactor pressure vessel from the breach. Thus, in-core graphite structures are oxidized. In order to predict and analyze the phenomena of air ingress during a depressurization accident, numerical analysis was carried out using a one-dimensional (1D) analysis code and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD). An experiment was carried out regarding natural circulation using a circular pipe consisting of a reverse U-shaped channel. The channel consisted of two vertical heated and cooled pipes. The temperature difference between the vertical pipes was maintained at 40–80 K, and a small amount of helium gas was injected into the channel. The injected volume of helium was about 3.1–12.5% of the total channel volume. After injecting helium gas, each component gas moved through molecular diffusion and very weak natural circulation. After approximately 1180 s, ordinary natural circulation of air was suddenly produced. The numerical results of the 3D CFD code were in good agreement with the experimental results. The numerical results also showed that the natural circulation of air can be controlled by helium gas injection.

  15. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  16. Some unique superconductive Properties of Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K. A.

    2013-04-01

    Copper oxides are the only materials that show transition temperatures, Tc, above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, with a maximum Tmc of 162 K under pressure. Their structure is layered, with one to several CuO2 planes, and upon hole doping, their transition temperature follows a dome-shaped curve with a maximum at Tmc. In the underdoped regime, i.e., below Tmc, a pseudogap T* is found, with T* always being larger than Tc, a property unique to the copper oxides [1]. In the superconducting state, Cooper pairs (two holes with antiparallel spins) are formed that exhibit coherence lengths on the order of a lattice distance in the CuO2 plane and one order of magnitude less perpendicular to it. Their macroscopic wave function is parallel to the CuO2 plane near 100% d at their surface, but only 75% d and 25 % s in the bulk, and near 100% s perpendicular to the plane in YBCO. There are two gaps with the same Tc [2]. As function of doping, the oxygen isotope effect is novel and can be quantitatively accounted for by a two-band vibronic theory [3] near Tmc, and underdoped below it till Tc = 0 with by a formula valid for (bi)polarons [4]. These cuprates are intrinsically heterogeneous in a dynamic way. In terms of quasiparticles, Jahn-Teller bipolarons are present at low doping, and aggregate upon cooling [1], so that probably ramified clusters and/or stripes are formed, leading over to a more Fermi-liquid-type behavior at large carrier concentrations above Tmc.

  17. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  18. The Einstein constraints: uniqueness and non-uniqueness in the conformal thin sandwich approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarte, T W; Pfeiffer, H P; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Murchadha, Niall \\'{O}; Pfeiffer, Harald P.

    2006-01-01

    We study the appearance of multiple solutions to certain decompositions of Einstein's constraint equations. Pfeiffer and York recently reported the existence of two branches of solutions for identical background data in the extended conformal thin-sandwich decomposition. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint alone, when expressed in a certain way, admits two branches of solutions with properties very similar to those found by Pfeiffer and York. We construct these two branches analytically for a constant-density star in spherical symmetry, but argue that this behavior is more general. In the case of the Hamiltonian constraint this non-uniqueness is well known to be related to the sign of one particular term, and we argue that the extended conformal thin-sandwich equations contain a similar term that causes the breakdown of uniqueness.

  19. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  20. Characterizing the unique photochemical environment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gu, D.; Zhao, C.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R.; Liao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the atmospheric chemical system over China could be more complex than expected, possibly as a result of the rapid increasing anthropogenic emissions. During the CAREBeijing-2007 Experiment in August of 2007, up to 14 ppbv of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) and 4.5 ppbv of glyoxal (CHOCHO) were observed, among the highest levels observed in the world in recent years. Elevated nitrous acid (HNO2) (~1.0 ppbv on average) was also observed in the early afternoon despite of the moderate amount of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO + NO2). We employ a 1-D photochemical model (REAM) to analyze the observations. The results indicate that reactive aromatics are the dominating source of PAN (55%-75%) and glyoxal (90%), and methylglyoxal is the major precursor of peroxy acetyl radical (50%). Downward transport from boundary layer is found to contribute ~50% of the PAN observed at surface. Photolysis of HNO2 is by far the largest primary OH source (more than 50%) throughout the daytime, and yet the fast formation rate of HNO2 inferred from the observations could not be explained by current known mechanisms. Detailed photochemical analysis is conducted to understand the controlling factors for O3 formation. O3 formation chemistry is strongly affected by aromatics and HNO2. By providing a large primary OH source, HNO2 leads to ~25% enhancement of the average O3 production rate, and aromatics contribute ~40% by serving as a major source of RO2 and HO2 radicals. Due to the large abundance of reactive hydrocarbons, O3 formation is generally NOx limited, although the sensitivity is low that a 50% reduction of NOx could only result in less than 25% reduction of the O3 production rate. Future research targeting HNO2 formation mechanism and emission sources of aromatics is necessary for better understanding the unique photochemical environment in China under significant anthropogenic impacts and the regional pollution

  1. Shale Gas Play Screening and Evaluation Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael D. Burnaman; Wenwu Xia; John Shelton

    2009-01-01

    The uniqueness of shale gas plays is contrasted with conventional oil and gas exploration. Based on our ten year history in shale gas exploration, a practical 17 point list of criteria to use for screening shale gas projects and ranking that encompasses geoscience, geochemistry, reservoir engineering, drilling, completions and production operations is developed and explained. Other considerations that will impact shale gas development are identified and discussed. Some key methodologies to incorporate in the evaluation process are also proposed. The outcome of this proposed screening process, if rigorously applied,should quickly identify the projects that have the most likely chance for success for recommendation to management. Examples from active shale gas plays in the United States are used to support these criteria and references to relevant recent publications and presentations are provided.

  2. SEVERAL UNIQUENESS THEOREMS OF ALGEBROID FUNCTIONS ON ANNULI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang TAN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the uniqueness problem of algebroid functions on an-nuli, we get several uniqueness theorems of algebroid functions on annuli, which extend the Nevanlinna value distribution theory for algebroid functions on annuli.

  3. Existence and uniqueness of positive eigenfunctions for certain eigenvalue systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ru-Ying; Yang, Yi-Min

    2004-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions for some quasilinear elliptic systems are considered. Some necessary and sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions are given.

  4. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF POSITIVE EIGENVALUES FOR CERTAIN EIGENVALUE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Ruying; QIN Yuchun

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we consider certain eigenvalue systems.Imposing some reasonable hypotheses, we prove that theeigenvalue system has a unique eigenvalue with positiveeigenfunctions, and that the eigenfunction is unique upto a scalar multiple.

  5. Uniqueness Problems for Meromorphic Functions that Share Three Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigate the uniqueness problems for meromorphic functions that share three values CM and proves a uniqueness theorem on this topic which can be used to improve some previous related results.

  6. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  7. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  8. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Claudia

    2011-06-17

    Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

  9. Volcanic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.

    1995-01-01

    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.

  10. On the Uniqueness of the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition of third-order tensors --- Part II: Uniqueness of the overall decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Polyadic (also known as Candecomp/Parafac) Decomposition (CPD) of a higher-order tensor is decomposition in a minimal number of rank-1 tensors. In Part I, we gave an overview of existing results concerning uniqueness and presented new, relaxed, conditions that guarantee uniqueness of one factor matrix. In Part II we use these results for establishing overall CPD uniqueness in cases where none of the factor matrices has full column rank. We obtain uniqueness conditions involving Khat...

  11. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  12. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  13. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  14. Thermal stability of gas phase magnesium nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George; Pivak, Yevheniy; Dam, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a unique transmission electron microscopy study of the thermal stability of gas phase synthesized Mg nanoparticles, which have attracted strong interest as high capacity hydrogen storage materials. Indeed, Mg nanoparticles with a MgO shell (similar to 3 nm thick) annealed at

  15. Thermal stability of gas phase magnesium nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, G.; Kooi, B.J.; Palasantzas, G.; Pivak, Y.; Dam, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a unique transmission electron microscopy study of the thermal stability of gas phase synthesized Mg nanoparticles, which have attracted strong interest as high capacity hydrogen storage materials. Indeed, Mg nanoparticles with a MgO shell ( ∼ 3 nm thick) annealed at 300 °C

  16. Thermal stability of gas phase magnesium nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, G.; Kooi, B.J.; Palasantzas, G.; Pivak, Y.; Dam, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a unique transmission electron microscopy study of the thermal stability of gas phase synthesized Mg nanoparticles, which have attracted strong interest as high capacity hydrogen storage materials. Indeed, Mg nanoparticles with a MgO shell ( ∼ 3 nm thick) annealed at 300 °C s

  17. Sweet gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    When poisonous hydrogen sulfide contaminates a natural gas deposit, the drilling company usually caps the well and moves on to other areas that may contain larger reserves and offer stronger economic incentives. Chemical and biological methods exist to purify these wells, but most are complex and costly. However, a group of scientists now is developing what could be a cheaper, easier method to clean up and utilize this polluted natural gas.The technique—which involves growing “enrichment” cultures of bacteria that metabolize the hydrogen sulfide into harmless compounds—could be particularly useful to poor and energy-starved developing nations, says Norman Wainwright, a senior scientist at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory. “We're hoping the technique can be robust enough and inexpensive enough to be used in a developing country,” Wainwright says. Other scientists involved with the project are Porter Anderson, a University of Rochester professor emeritus associated with the lab and Ben Ebenhack, also of Rochester.

  18. Multiobjective optimization of water distribution systems accounting for economic cost, hydraulic reliability, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyan; Maier, Holger R.; Simpson, Angus R.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, three objectives are considered for the optimization of water distribution systems (WDSs): the traditional objectives of minimizing economic cost and maximizing hydraulic reliability and the recently proposed objective of minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is particularly important to include the GHG minimization objective for WDSs involving pumping into storages or water transmission systems (WTSs), as these systems are the main contributors of GHG emissions in the water industry. In order to better understand the nature of tradeoffs among these three objectives, the shape of the solution space and the location of the Pareto-optimal front in the solution space are investigated for WTSs and WDSs that include pumping into storages, and the implications of the interaction between the three objectives are explored from a practical design perspective. Through three case studies, it is found that the solution space is a U-shaped curve rather than a surface, as the tradeoffs among the three objectives are dominated by the hydraulic reliability objective. The Pareto-optimal front of real-world systems is often located at the "elbow" section and lower "arm" of the solution space (i.e., the U-shaped curve), indicating that it is more economic to increase the hydraulic reliability of these systems by increasing pipe capacity (i.e., pipe diameter) compared to increasing pumping power. Solutions having the same GHG emission level but different cost-reliability tradeoffs often exist. Therefore, the final decision needs to be made in conjunction with expert knowledge and the specific budget and reliability requirements of the system.

  19. Uniqueness of the differential Mueller matrix of uniform homogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlaminck, Vincent; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2014-06-01

    We show that the differential matrix of a uniform homogeneous medium containing birefringence may not be uniquely determined from its Mueller matrix, resulting in the potential existence of an infinite set of elementary polarization properties parameterized by an integer parameter. The uniqueness depends on the symmetry properties of a special differential matrix derived from the eigenvalue decomposition of the Mueller matrix. The conditions for the uniqueness of the differential matrix are identified, physically discussed, and illustrated in examples from the literature.

  20. Existence and uniqueness theorem for ODE: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poria, Swarup; Dhiman, Aman

    2016-01-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solutions became important due to the lack of general formula for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Compact form of existence and uniqueness theory appeared nearly 200 years after the development of the theory of differential equation. In the article, we shall discuss briefly the differences between linear and nonlinear first order ODE in context of existence and uniqueness of solutions. Special emphasis is given on the Lipschit...

  1. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Laurberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. We have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors.

  2. GAS-SOLIDS FLOW BEHAVIOR WITH A GAS VELOCITY CLOSE TO ZERO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.; Zhang; J.-X.; Zhu

    2006-01-01

    In a 9.3 m high and 0.10 m i.d. gas-solids downflow fluidized bed (downer), the radial and axial distributions of the local solids holdups and particle velocities along the downer column were measured with the superficial gas velocity set to zero. A unique gas-solids flow structure was found in the downer system with zero gas velocity, which is completely different from that under conditions with higher gas velocities, in terms of its radial and axial flow structures as well as its micro flow structure. The gas-solids flow pattern under zero gas velocity conditions, together with that under low gas velocity conditions, can be considered as a special regime which differs from that under higher gas velocity conditions. According to the hydrodynamic properties of the two regimes, they can be named the "dense annulus" regime for the flow pattern under zero or low gas velocity conditions and the "dense core" regime for that under higher gas velocity conditions.

  3. Performance Evaluations and Quality Validation System for Optical Gas Imaging Cameras That Visualize Fugitive Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical gas imaging (OGI) cameras have the unique ability to exploit the electromagnetic properties of fugitive chemical vapors to make invisible gases visible. This ability is extremely useful for industrial facilities trying to mitigate product losses from escaping gas and fac...

  4. Genome comparison without alignment using shortest unique substrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller Friedrich

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparison by alignment is a fundamental tool of molecular biology. In this paper we show how a number of sequence comparison tasks, including the detection of unique genomic regions, can be accomplished efficiently without an alignment step. Our procedure for nucleotide sequence comparison is based on shortest unique substrings. These are substrings which occur only once within the sequence or set of sequences analysed and which cannot be further reduced in length without losing the property of uniqueness. Such substrings can be detected using generalized suffix trees. Results We find that the shortest unique substrings in Caenorhabditis elegans, human and mouse are no longer than 11 bp in the autosomes of these organisms. In mouse and human these unique substrings are significantly clustered in upstream regions of known genes. Moreover, the probability of finding such short unique substrings in the genomes of human or mouse by chance is extremely small. We derive an analytical expression for the null distribution of shortest unique substrings, given the GC-content of the query sequences. Furthermore, we apply our method to rapidly detect unique genomic regions in the genome of Staphylococcus aureus strain MSSA476 compared to four other staphylococcal genomes. Conclusion We combine a method to rapidly search for shortest unique substrings in DNA sequences and a derivation of their null distribution. We show that unique regions in an arbitrary sample of genomes can be efficiently detected with this method. The corresponding programs shustring (SHortest Unique subSTRING and shulen are written in C and available at http://adenine.biz.fh-weihenstephan.de/shustring/.

  5. Outer-disk reddening and gas-phase metallicities: The CALIFA connection

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, R A; Sánchez, S F; Sánchez-Blazquez, P; Cardiel, N; Castillo-Morales, A; Pascual, S; Vílchez, J; Kehrig, C; Mollá, M; Mendez-Abreu, J; Catalán-Torrecilla, C; Florido, E; Perez, I; Ruiz-Lara, T; Ellis, S; López-Sánchez, A R; Delgado, R M González; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; García-Benito, R; Galbany, L; Zibetti, S; Cortijo, C; Kalinova, V; Mast, D; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Papaderos, P; Walcher, C J; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2016-01-01

    We study, for the first time in a statistically significant and well-defined sample, the relation between the outer-disk ionized-gas metallicity gradients and the presence of breaks in the surface brightness profiles of disk galaxies. SDSS g'- and r'-band surface brightness, (g'- r') color, and ionized-gas oxygen abundance profiles for 324 galaxies within the CALIFA survey are used for this purpose. We perform a detailed light-profile classification finding that 84% of our disks show down- or up-bending profiles (Type II and Type III, respectively) while the remaining 16% are well fitted by one single exponential (Type I). The analysis of the color gradients at both sides of this break shows a U-shaped profile for most Type II galaxies with an average minimum (g'- r') color of ~0.5 mag and a ionized-gas metallicity flattening associated to it only in the case of low-mass galaxies. More massive systems show a rather uniform negative metallicity gradient. The correlation between metallicity flattening and stell...

  6. Uniqueness and existence for bounded boundary value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehme, J.; Lanz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of solutions for the boundary value problems with general linear point evaluation boundary conditions is established. We assume that f is bounded and that there is uniqueness on a homogeneous problem and on the linear variational problems. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All righ

  7. Existence and Uniqueness of Solution to ODEs: Lipschitz Continuity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Poria; Aman Dhiman

    2017-05-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solution of ordinarydifferential equation (ODE) became important due to the lack ofgeneral formula for solving nonlinear ODEs. In this article, weshall discuss briefly about the existence and uniqueness of solutionof a first order ODE. A special emphasis is given on theLipschitz continuous functions in the discussion.

  8. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauerberg, Hans; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Pumbley, Mark;

    2008-01-01

    have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors....

  9. Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

  10. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  11. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  12. Uniqueness of limiting solution to a strongly competing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetik Arakelyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove a uniqueness for the positive solution to a strongly competing system of Lotka-Volterra type problem in the limiting configuration, when the competition rate tends to infinity. We give an alternate proof of uniqueness based on properties of limiting solutions.

  13. The Uniqueness of Optimal Solution for Linear Programming Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanlingWei; HongYan; JunWang

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates an old problem in operations research, the uniqueness of the optimal solution to a linear programming problem. We discuss the problem on a general polyhedron, give some equivalent conditions for uniqueness testing. In addition, we discuss the implementation issues for linear programming based decision making procedures,which motivated this research.

  14. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  15. Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Michael C.

    Gas chromatography (GC) has many applications in the analysis of food products. GC has been used for the determination of fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, gases, water, alcohols, pesticides, flavor compounds, and many more. While GC has been used for other food components such as sugars, oligosaccharides, amino acids, peptides, and vitamins, these substances are more suited to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. GC is ideally suited to the analysis of volatile substances that are thermally stable. Substances such as pesticides and flavor compounds that meet these criteria can be isolated from a food and directly injected into the GC. For compounds that are thermally unstable, too low in volatility, or yield poor chromatographic separation due to polarity, a derivatization step must be done before GC analysis. The two parts of the experiment described here include the analysis of alcohols that requires no derivatization step, and the analysis of fatty acids which requires derivatization. The experiments specify the use of capillary columns, but the first experiment includes conditions for a packed column.

  16. Prospecting for marine gas hydrate resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Shipp, Craig; Reichel, Thomas; Shelander, Dianna; Saeki, Tetsuo; Frye, Matthew; Shedd, William; Collett, Timothy S.; McConnell, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    As gas hydrate energy assessment matures worldwide, emphasis has evolved away from confirmation of the mere presence of gas hydrate to the more complex issue of prospecting for those specific accumulations that are viable resource targets. Gas hydrate exploration now integrates the unique pressure and temperature preconditions for gas hydrate occurrence with those concepts and practices that are the basis for conventional oil and gas exploration. We have aimed to assimilate the lessons learned to date in global gas hydrate exploration to outline a generalized prospecting approach as follows: (1) use existing well and geophysical data to delineate the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), (2) identify and evaluate potential direct indications of hydrate occurrence through evaluation of interval of elevated acoustic velocity and/or seismic events of prospective amplitude and polarity, (3) mitigate geologic risk via regional seismic and stratigraphic facies analysis as well as seismic mapping of amplitude distribution along prospective horizons, and (4) mitigate further prospect risk through assessment of the evidence of gas presence and migration into the GHSZ. Although a wide range of occurrence types might ultimately become viable energy supply options, this approach, which has been tested in only a small number of locations worldwide, has directed prospect evaluation toward those sand-hosted, high-saturation occurrences that were presently considered to have the greatest future commercial potential.

  17. Accelerated Gas Carburizing (URX Gas Carburizing)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshikazu Shimosato; Mamoru Kamitani; Hiroyuki Nakatsu

    2004-01-01

    URX gas carburizing is an accelerated gas carburizing method with 50% CO + 50% H2 gas which comes from CH4 gas + CO2 gas. By using this gas composition, the carburizing reaction rate increases to the maximum and the controllability of carbon potential improves. A carbon mass flow rate is the product of the carburizing reaction rate multiplied by the difference of carbon percent between carbon potential of the gas and the carbon content of the surface of treated steel parts. We have obtained excellent results from the experimental tests at our laboratory as mentioned bellow. 1)Carburizing time can be shortened by 40% for 0.5 - 0.9 mm effective case depth. 2) Uniform carburizing case depth 3) Less internal oxidation with the same case depth. We have already developed the new roller hearth type continuous carburizing furnace and the new URX gas generator.

  18. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence,uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations.A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given.We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations,then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit.As consequences,some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  19. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-yi DAI; Yu-xia FU; Yong-geng GU

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence, uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given. We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations, then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit. As consequences, some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  20. The Unique Destination Proposition of Eskisehir: Industrial Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Unique Sales Proposition (USP concept which is one of the most important strategies of advertising history, to the Unique Destination Proposition (UDP for the case of Eskisehir. This study aims to propose industrial heritage as the UDP of Eskisehir by a descriptive approach. Industrial heritage helps Eskisehir destination brand to attain a meaningful, sustainable and distinctive dimension from its competitors. The current industrial heritage samples of Eskisehir were initially evaluated in this context. Subsequently, in the focus of the relation between industrial heritage and tourism, an excursion route and a tour program is suggested including the unique industrial heritage values of Eskisehir.

  1. Noble gas fractionation during subsurface gas migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Larson, Toti E.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of shale gas production and geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage requires identification of subsurface gas sources. Noble gases provide a powerful tool to distinguish different sources if the modifications of the gas composition during transport can be accounted for. Despite the recognition of compositional changes due to gas migration in the subsurface, the interpretation of geochemical data relies largely on zero-dimensional mixing and fractionation models. Here we present two-phase flow column experiments that demonstrate these changes. Water containing a dissolved noble gas is displaced by gas comprised of CO2 and argon. We observe a characteristic pattern of initial co-enrichment of noble gases from both phases in banks at the gas front, followed by a depletion of the dissolved noble gas. The enrichment of the co-injected noble gas is due to the dissolution of the more soluble major gas component, while the enrichment of the dissolved noble gas is due to stripping from the groundwater. These processes amount to chromatographic separations that occur during two-phase flow and can be predicted by the theory of gas injection. This theory provides a mechanistic basis for noble gas fractionation during gas migration and improves our ability to identify subsurface gas sources after post-genetic modification. Finally, we show that compositional changes due to two-phase flow can qualitatively explain the spatial compositional trends observed within the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir and some regional compositional trends observed in drinking water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett shale regions. In both cases, only the migration of a gas with constant source composition is required, rather than multi-stage mixing and fractionation models previously proposed.

  2. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Membrane gas absorption is a new, efficient and flexible way to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations with hollow fibre membranes. Advantages of gas absorption membranes over conventional G-L contactors are: -High specific surface area and rapid mass transfer resulting in very compact and low w

  3. A gas laser design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syudzo, Y.; Nooya, Kh.

    1984-05-28

    A gas laser design that excludes direct contact between the gas medium and the atmosphere is proposed. The laser operates at a reduced gas pressure. After shutdown, a special system is used to increase the gas pressure inside the discharge chamber, which approaches atmospheric pressure. The laser employs an internal optical resonator. The electrical discharge which excites the gas medium originates from three electrodes located within the gas discharge tube.

  4. Nonlinear independent component analysis: Existence and uniqueness results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Aapo; Pajunen, Petteri

    1999-04-01

    The question of existence and uniqueness of solutions for nonlinear independent component analysis is addressed. It is shown that if the space of mixing functions is not limited there exists always an infinity of solutions. In particular, it is shown how to construct parameterized families of solutions. The indeterminacies involved are not trivial, as in the linear case. Next, it is shown how to utilize some results of complex analysis to obtain uniqueness of solutions. We show that for two dimensions, the solution is unique up to a rotation, if the mixing function is constrained to be a conformal mapping together with some other assumptions. We also conjecture that the solution is strictly unique except in some degenerate cases, as the indeterminacy implied by the rotation is essentially similar to estimating the model of linear ICA.

  5. Uniqueness and existence results for ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, J. Angel; Heikkila, Seppo; Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2006-04-01

    We establish some uniqueness and existence results for first-order ordinary differential equations with constant-signed discontinuous nonlinear parts. Several examples are given to illustrate the applicability of our work.

  6. Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet The Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand Hand therapy, a specialty practice area of occupational ... are treated by occupational therapy practitioners specializing in hand rehabilitation. Practitioners who treat clients with conditions of the ...

  7. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  8. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to Random Impulsive Differential Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jin Wu; Xiao-lin Guo; Song-qing Lin

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness in mean square of solutions to certain random impulsive differential systems is discussed in this paper. Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, Lipschtiz condition and techniques in stochastic analysis are employed in achieve the desired results.

  9. On the development of uniquely African management theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the development of uniquely African management theory. ... Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ...

  10. AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO GENERATE UNIQUE SONG SIGNAL (AUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedding uniqueness in characteristics of song signal and accustoming changes of environment is one of the challenging issues for researchers with maintaining its audible quality. Researchers are modifying or manipulating audio signal properties for generating uniqueness in content such a manner that will not vary so much in changed environment or changes can be easily defined due to unique structure of song signal. In this paper, an approach has been made based on defining a symmetric structure of song signal, followed by some secret code embedding in a specified manner will not alter the trade off ratio of embedding/modifying data but provide uniqueness in properties, even retain the properties in changing environment/ format. Therefore, authentication of song signal is easily achieved with these self manipulated properties. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  11. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  12. UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR EQUATIONS WITH AVALANCHE TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jiasheng; Wang Yuanming

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the initial and mixed boundary value problems for the semiconductor equations with avalanche term, the uniqueness of the weak solution for the semiconductor equation has been proved.

  13. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  14. Euler equation existence, non-uniqueness and mesh converged statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Lim, Hyunkyung; Kaufman, Ryan; Hu, Wenlin

    2015-09-13

    We review existence and non-uniqueness results for the Euler equation of fluid flow. These results are placed in the context of physical models and their solutions. Non-uniqueness is in direct conflict with the purpose of practical simulations, so that a mitigating strategy, outlined here, is important. We illustrate these issues in an examination of mesh converged turbulent statistics, with comparison to laboratory experiments.

  15. Limit theorem and uniqueness theorem of backward stochastic differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Long

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a limit theorem for solutions of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). By this limit theorem, this paper proves that, under the standard assumption g(t,y,0)≡0, the generator g of a BSDE can be uniquely determined by the corresponding g-expectation εg; this paper also proves that if a filtration consistent expectation ε can be represented as a g-expectation εg, then the corresponding generator g must be unique.

  16. Generic uniqueness conditions for the canonical polyadic decomposition and INDSCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    We find conditions that guarantee that a decomposition of a generic third-order tensor in a minimal number of rank-$1$ tensors (canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD)) is unique up to permutation of rank-$1$ tensors. Then we consider the case when the tensor and all its rank-$1$ terms have symmetric frontal slices (INDSCAL). Our results complement the existing bounds for generic uniqueness of the CPD and relax the existing bounds for INDSCAL. The derivation makes use of algebraic geometry. We...

  17. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation.

  18. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient′s unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient′s Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  19. Unique Measure for Time-Dependent Random Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Varner, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This paper proves the uniqueness of measure for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations under a random kick-force and a time-dependent deterministic force. By extending a result for uniqueness of measure for time-homogeneous Markov processes to the time-inhomogeneous case, it is shown that the measures are exponentially mixing for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere.

  20. Fractured shale gas potential in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G.; Lombardi, T.E. [Ticora Geosciences Inc., Arvada, CO (United States); Martin, J.P. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The history of gas production in the Devonian and Silurian age shales of New York dates back 180 years with the discovery of hundreds of shallow shale wells along the Lake Erie shoreline. Although the resource potential for shale gas in New York is large, ranging from 163-313 trillion cubic feet, it has not been a major contributor to natural gas production in the state. Ordovician Utica shale may also hold potential as a new commercial shale gas reservoir. More than 20,000 Devonian shale wells are currently producing in the Appalachian Basin. Experience has shown that each shale play is unique and requires solutions to problems associated with commercial production that are unique to each play. The authors note that continued examination of the shale potential in New York is warranted, although more information is needed to address geological and reservoir properties in the shale, including resource distribution, natural fracture patterns, and limitations of the reservoir. Devonian shales have been recognized as a major gas resource that require advanced production methods for recovery. This paper described the depositional environment and thickness of black shale sequences in the Appalachian Basin, which consists of an alluvial plain, a shelf-delta front, the base of the slope, and the deep basin. The extensive natural fractures which are oriented in an east-north direction are considered to be potential conduits for hydrocarbon flow. The amount of organic carbon in the rock also contributes to the natural gas storage through either adsorption or solution within the reservoir system. This paper also outlines strategies for exploration and development of fractured gas shale reservoirs. It was suggested that exploration strategies should focus on finding areas that have significant natural gas resources as well as sufficient permeability for economic production. 94 refs., 21 tabs., 24 figs.

  1. Control of the geomorphology and gas hydrate extent on widespread gas emissions offshore Romania (Black Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboulot, V.; Cattaneo, A.; Sultan, N.; Ker, S.; Scalabrin, C.; Gaillot, A.; Jouet, G.; Marsset, B.; Thomas, Y.; Ballas, G.; Marsset, T.; Garziglia, S.; Ruffine, L.; Boulart, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Romanian sector of the Black Sea deserves attention because the Danube deep-sea fan is one of the largest sediment depositional systems worldwide and is considered the world's most isolated sea, the largest anoxic water body on the planet and a unique energy-rich sea. Due to the high sediment accumulation rate, presence of organic matter and anoxic conditions, the Black sea sediment offshore the Danube delta is rich in gas and thus show BSR. The cartography of the BSR over the last 20 years, exhibits its widespread occurrence, indicative of extensive development of hydrate accumulations and a huge gas hydrate potential. By combining old and new datasets acquired in 2015 during the GHASS expedition, we performed a geomorphological analysis of the continental slope north-east of the Danube canyon that reveals the presence of several landslides inside and outside several canyons incising the seafloor. It is a complex study area presenting sedimentary processes such as seafloor erosion and instability, mass wasting, formation of gas hydrates, fluid migration, gas escape, where the imprint of geomorphology seems to dictate the location where gas seep occurs. . Some 1409 gas seeps within the water column acoustic records are observed between 200 m and 800 m water depth. No gas flares were detected in deeper areas where gas hydrates are stable. Overall, 93% of the all gas seeps observed are above geomorphological structures. 78% are right above escarpment induced by sedimentary destabilizations inside or outside canyons. The results suggest a geomorphological control of degassing at the seafloor and gas seeps are thus constrained by the gas hydrates stability zone. The stability of the gas hydrates is dependent on the salinity gradient through the sedimentary column and thus on the Black Sea recent geological history. The extent and the dynamics of gas hydrates have a probable impact on the sedimentary destabilization observed at the seafloor.

  2. Photons uniques indiscernables à partir d'une boîte quantique unique dans un cristal photonique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, S.; Varoutsis, S.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Raineri, F.; Levenson, A.; Robert-Philip, I.; Abram, I.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons développé et caractérisé une source de photons uniques basée sur l'émission spontanée d'une boîte quantique unique insérée dans une cavité à bande interdite photonique bidimensionnelle. Ce système nous a d'abord permis de produire des photons uniques, puis des photons uniques indiscernables avec une indiscernabilité supérieure à 70%. L'observation de l'indiscernabilité des photons, impossible sans un raccourcissement important de la durée de vie, met en évidence un effet Purcell supérieur à 25 dans ce système.

  3. Space-time evolution of ejected plasma for the triggering of gas switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanhong; Liu, Xuandong; Shen, Xi; Feng, Lei; Tie, Weihao; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2016-06-01

    Ejected plasma has been widely applied to the discharge process of gas spark switches as a trigger technology, and the development process of ejected plasma has a direct and important effect on the discharge characteristics of gas switches. In this paper, both the injection characteristics and space-time evolution of ejected plasma for the triggering of gas spark switch with different stored energies, pulse polarities, and pressures are studied. The discharge characteristics and breakdown process of a gas switch ignited by ejected plasma under different working coefficients are also discussed briefly. The results show that stored energy has significant influence on the characteristics of ejected plasma. With the increase of stored energy, the propulsion mode of ejected plasma in the axial direction transforms from "plasmoid" to "plasma flow," and the distribution of the ejected plasma goes through "cloud," "core-cloud," and "branch" in sequence. The velocity of ejected plasma under negative pulse polarity is obviously higher than that under positive pulse polarity, especially at the very beginning time. The radial dimensions of ejected plasma under two kinds of pulse polarities follow the similar varying pattern over time, which increase first and then decrease, assuming an inverted "U"-shaped curve. With the increase of pressure, the velocity of ejected plasma significantly decreases and the "branch" channels droop earlier. Applying the ejected plasma to the triggering of a gas switch, the switch can be triggered reliably in a much wide working coefficient range of 10%-90%. With the increase of working coefficient, the breakdown process of the switch translates from slow working mode to fast working mode, and the delay time reduces from tens of μs to hundreds of ns.

  4. Optical fiber gas sensing system based on FBG filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shutao

    2008-10-01

    An optical fiber gas sensing system based on the law of Beer-Lambert is designed to determine the concentration of gas. This technique relies on the fact that the target gas has a unique, well-defined absorption characteristic within the infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. The narrow-band filtering characteristic of optical fiber Bragg grating is used to produce the narrow spectrum light signal. An aspheric objective optical fiber collimator is used in the system as an optical fiber gas sensing detector to improve the sensitivity and stability. Experimental results show there is a high measuring sensitivity at 0.01%, and the measuring range goes beyond 5%.

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Gas Sensors Using Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Il; Lee, Young-Seak

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, interest in carbon materials for use in gas sensors has increased. Carbon materials have unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties, making these materials very interesting. In this review, the properties of carbon materials are first introduced. Surface modification for carbon materials, fabrication for gas sensors, and the gas-sensing conditions and mechanisms according to the different types of carbon materials are chiefly described. In particular, this review focuses on the enhancement of the gas-sensing properties of carbon materials depending on the modification methods used and its mechanism.

  6. Unique Signal mathematical analysis task group FY03 status report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Roy Stuart (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Anna Marie; Hart, Elizabeth (Utah State University, Logan, UT); White, Allan (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA); Cooper, James Arlin

    2003-12-01

    The Unique Signal is a key constituent of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety (ENDS). Although the Unique Signal approach is well prescribed and mathematically assured, there are numerous unsolved mathematical problems that could help assess the risk of deviations from the ideal approach. Some of the mathematics-based results shown in this report are: 1. The risk that two patterns with poor characteristics (easily generated by inadvertent processes) could be combined through exclusive-or mixing to generate an actual Unique Signal pattern has been investigated and found to be minimal (not significant when compared to the incompatibility metric of actual Unique Signal patterns used in nuclear weapons). 2. The risk of generating actual Unique Signal patterns with linear feedback shift registers is minimal, but the patterns in use are not as invulnerable to inadvertent generation by dependent processes as previously thought. 3. New methods of testing pair-wise incompatibility threats have resulted in no significant problems found for the set of Unique Signal patterns currently used. Any new patterns introduced would have to be carefully assessed for compatibility with existing patterns, since some new patterns under consideration were found to be deficient when associated with other patterns in use. 4. Markov models were shown to correspond to some of the engineered properties of Unique Signal sequences. This gives new support for the original design objectives. 5. Potential dependence among events (caused by a variety of communication protocols) has been studied. New evidence has been derived of the risk associated with combined communication of multiple events, and of the improvement in abnormal-environment safety that can be achieved through separate-event communication.

  7. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  8. Scenario of gas-charged sediments and gas hydrates in the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; SubbaRaju, L.V.

    of acoustic masking are seen extending from the seafloor down to 5-10 m. Some are dome-shaped extending tot he seafloor as observed off Coondapur and south of Mumbai. Others are inverted U-shaped acoustic masking with rounded edges discernible off Karwar...

  9. Gas sensing in 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengxue; Jiang, Chengbao; Wei, Su-huai

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered inorganic nanomaterials have attracted huge attention due to their unique electronic structures, as well as extraordinary physical and chemical properties for use in electronics, optoelectronics, spintronics, catalysts, energy generation and storage, and chemical sensors. Graphene and related layered inorganic analogues have shown great potential for gas-sensing applications because of their large specific surface areas and strong surface activities. This review aims to discuss the latest advancements in the 2D layered inorganic materials for gas sensors. We first elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms and introduce various types of gas-sensing devices. Then, we describe the basic parameters and influence factors of the gas sensors to further enhance their performance. Moreover, we systematically present the current gas-sensing applications based on graphene, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), functionalized GO or rGO, transition metal dichalcogenides, layered III-VI semiconductors, layered metal oxides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, etc. Finally, we conclude the future prospects of these layered inorganic materials in gas-sensing applications.

  10. Compressed gas manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  11. Numerical simulation on submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in impingement water bath dust removers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijie; WU Xuan; ZHAO Yuxiang; WU Wenfei; LI Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The VOF interface tracking method was adopted to simulate the two-dimensional submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in an impingement water bath dust remover.The interaction of gas/liquid two-phase was obtained by force balance and momentum exchange.On the self-designed impingement water bath dust remover test bench,the submerged gas jet flushing with different gas velocities was simulated. The results show that,the gas inlet velocity is one of the main factors affecting the submerged gas jet scou-ring pit characteristics.The unique nature of gas/liquid two-phase determines their unique way of move-ment,thus affects the morphological character of the scouring pit in the expansion lag phase.Within the study range,the characteristic radius and impact depth of the scouring pit increases with the gas velocity, and so are their growth rates.

  12. On existence and uniqueness of solutions for variational data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a term from the geosciences and refers to methods for estimating orbits of dynamical models from observations. Variational techniques for data assimilation estimate these orbits by minimising an appropriate cost functional which takes the error with respect to the observations but also deviations of the orbits from the model equations into account. Such techniques are very important in practice. In this contribution, the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions to variational data assimilation is investigated. Under mild hypotheses a solution to this problem exists. The problem of uniqueness is investigated as well, and several results (which all have analogues in optimal control) are established in the present context. The value function is introduced as the cost of an optimal trajectory starting from a given initial condition. The necessary conditions in combination with an envelope theorem can be used to demonstrate that the solution is unique if and only if the value function is differentiable at the given initial condition. This occurs for all initial conditions except maybe on a set of Lebesgue measure zero. Several examples are studied which demonstrate that non-uniqueness of solutions cannot be ruled out altogether though, which has important consequences in practice. References: J. Bröcker, "Existence and Uniqueness For Four Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation in Discrete Time.", SIAM Journal of Applied Dynamical Systems (accepted).

  13. A Mathematical Model of Coupled Gas Flow and Coal Deformation with Gas Diffusion and Klinkenberg Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingquan; Cheng, Yuanping; Zhou, Hongxing; Guo, Pinkun; An, Fenghua; Chen, Haidong

    2015-05-01

    The influence of gas diffusion behavior on gas flow and permeability evolution in coal seams is evaluated in this paper. Coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs differ from conventional porous media and fractured gas reservoirs due to certain unique features, which lead to two distinct gas pressures: one in fractures and the other in the coal matrix. The latter pressure, also known as the sorption pressure, will be used in calculating sorption-based volume changes. The effective stress laws for single-porosity media is not suitable for CBM reservoirs, and the effective stress laws for multi-porosity media need to be applied. The realization of the above two points is based on the study of the two-phase state of gas migration (involving Fickian diffusion and Darcy flow) in a coal seam. Then, a general porosity and permeability model based on the P-M model is proposed to fit this phenomenon. Moreover, the Klinkenberg effect has been taken into account and set as a reference object. Finally, a coupled gas flow and coal deformation model is proposed and solved by using a finite element method. The numerical results indicate that the effects of gas diffusion behavior and Klinkenberg behavior can have a critical influence on the gas pressure, residual gas content, and permeability evolution during the entire methane degasification period, and the impacts of the two effects are of the same order of magnitude. Without considering the gas diffusion effect, the gas pressure and residual gas content will be underestimated, and the permeability will be overestimated.

  14. Uniqueness Domains in the Workspace of Parallel Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    This work investigates new kinematic features of parallel manipulators. It is well known that parallel manipulators admit generally several direct kinematic solutions for a given set of input joint values. The aim of this paper is to characterize the uniqueness domains in the workspace of parallel manipulators, as well as their image in the joint space. The study focuses on the most usual case of parallel manipulators with only one inverse kinematic solution. The notion of aspect introduced for serial manipulators in [Borrel 86] is redefined for such parallel manipulators. Then, it is shown that it is possible to link several solutions to the forward kinematic problem without meeting a singularity, thus meaning that the aspects are not uniqueness domains. An additional set of surfaces, namely the characteristic surfaces, are characterized which divide the workspace into basic regions and yield new uniqueness domains. This study is illustrated all along the paper with a 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator. An oc...

  15. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.

  16. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  17. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  18. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  19. Uniqueness of form extensions and domination of semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Daniel; Schmidt, Marcel; Wirth, Melchior

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present a new method to treat uniqueness of form extensions in a rather general setting including various magnetic Schr\\"odinger forms. The method is based on the theory of ordered Hilbert spaces and the concept of domination of semigroups. We review this concept in an abstract setting and give a characterization in terms of the associated forms. Then we use it to prove a theorem that transfers uniqueness of form extension of a dominating form to that of a dominated form. ...

  20. Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-08

    AD-A243 365’ l!1111iLI[li In M aR C ’ PHASE I FINAL REPORT Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks DARPA SBIR 90-115 Contract # DAAH01-91...Contents Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks Acknowledgments Table of Contents Abstract i 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 The NGO-VRP Solver 2...34 solution is thus obtained through analogy. Because of this activity, artificial neural networks have emerged as a primary artificial intelligence

  1. Unique cardiac and cerebral anomalies with chondrodysplasia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciske, D J; Waggoner, D J; Dowton, S B

    1998-01-06

    Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is associated with a variety of genetic and nongenetic conditions. We report a girl with CDP, complex congenital cardiac disease, central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, and clinical findings that resemble those of the sibs described by Toriello et al. [1993, Am J Med Genet 47:797-799]. The cardiac defects and CNS abnormalities reported are unique in the context of CDP and may serve to expand the phenotypic spectrum of the unique form of CDP described by Toriello et al. [1993].

  2. THE VACUUM IN NONISENTROPIC GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Chen; Robin Young

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the vacuum in noniscntropic gas dynamics in one space variable,with the most general equation of states allowed by thermodynamics. Wc recall physical constraints on the equations of state and give explicit and easily checkable conditions under which vacuums occur in the solution of the Riemanu problem.We then present a class of models for which the Riemann problen admits unique global solutions without vacuums.

  3. What's unique about unique entities? An fMRI investigation of the semantics of famous faces and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lars A; Olson, Ingrid R

    2012-09-01

    Famous people and artifacts are referred to as "unique entities" (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing.

  4. Optimization techniques for the secondary development of old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshuang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After nearly 60 years of development, many old gas fields in the Sichuan Basin have come to middle–late development stages with low pressure and low yield, and some are even on the verge of abandonment, but there are plenty remaining gas resources still undeveloped. Analysis shows that gas fields which have the conditions for the secondary development are faced with many difficulties. For example, it is difficult to produce low permeable reserves and to unset the hydraulic seal which is formed by active formation water. In this paper, therefore, the technical route and selection conditions of old gas fields for the secondary development were comprehensively elaborated with its definition as the beginning. Firstly, geological model forward modeling and production performance inversion characteristic curve diagnosis are performed by using the pressure normalization curve and the identification and quantitative description method for multiple sets of storage–seepage body of complex karst fracture–cavity systems is put forward, after the multiple storage–seepage body mode of fracture–cavity systems is established. Combined with the new occurrence mode of gas and water in U-shape pipes, a new calculation technology for natural gas reserves of multiple fracture–cavity systems with strong water invasion is developed. Secondly, a numerical model of pore–cavity–fracture triple media is built, and simulation and result evaluation technology for the production pattern of “drainage by horizontal wells + gas production by vertical wells” in bottom-water fracture and cavity gas reservoirs with strong water invasion is developed. Thirdly, the geological model of gas reservoirs is reconstructed with the support of the integration technologies which are formed based on fine gas reservoir description. Low permeable reserves of gas reservoirs are evaluated based on each classification. The effective producing ratio is increased further by

  5. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  6. The truncated Second Main Theorem and uniqueness theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first establish a truncated Second Main Theorem for algebraically nondegenerate holomorphic mappings from the complex plane into a complex projective variety V intersecting hypersurfaces. We then prove some uniqueness results for meromorphic mappings. The result of Demailly about a partial solution to the Fujita’s conjecture is used.

  7. Uniqueness Result in the Cauchy Dirichlet Problem via Mehler Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Bishnu P.

    2014-09-01

    Using the Mehler kernel, a uniqueness theorem in the Cauchy Dirichlet problem for the Hermite heat equation with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions on a class P of bounded functions U( x, t) with certain growth on U x ( x, t) is established.

  8. Three Unique Implementations of Processes for PyCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we motivate and describe three unique implementations of processes for PyCSP: process, thread and greenlet based. The overall purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of Communicating Sequential Processes as a framework for different application types and target platforms. The resul...

  9. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and non-uniqueness of superpotentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARTHA MANDAL; ABHIJIT BANERJEE

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a family of periodic quantum Hamiltonians, that is subject to a closure condition is considered. In the context of the factorization method, we address the question of non-uniqueness of the governing superpotentials and study an alternative factorization to generate new hierarchies of potentials.

  10. Solutions of fractional nabla difference equations - existence and uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Mohan Jonnalagadda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss existence, uniqueness and dependency of solutions of nonlinear fractional nabla difference equations in a Banach space equipped with a suitable norm, using the contractive mapping approach. As an application of the established results we present and analyse a few examples.

  11. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guérékata GastonM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations , , , in a Banach space , where . New results are obtained by fixed point theorem. An application of the abstract results is also given.

  12. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elschner, Johannes [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Yamamoto, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  13. MSI's unique, multi-functional contract sterilization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern, Kennard H.

    Medical Sterilization Inc. is a unique company supplying sterilization services to regional hospitals in the New York area and also providing contract sterilization and radiation processing services to industry. The evolution from a concept to an operational entity is reviewed in this report.

  14. Unique Factorization in Cyclotomic Integers of Degree Seven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, W. Ethan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a survey of some basic results in algebraic number theory and applies this material to prove that the cyclotomic integers generated by a seventh root of unity are a unique factorization domain. Part of the proof uses the computer algebra system Maple to find and verify factorizations. The proofs use a combination of historic…

  15. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciepliński Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the functional equation , , where are closed intervals, and , are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  16. On the uniqueness of minimal projections in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szlachtowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(X\\ be a uniformly convex Banach space with a continuous semi-inner product. We investigate the relation of orthogonality in \\(X\\ and generalized projections acting on \\(X\\. We prove uniqueness of orthogonal and co-orthogonal projections.

  17. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  18. Uniqueness of group-measure space Cartan subalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kyed, David

    2011-01-01

    These notes provide an account on four lectures given by Adrian Ioana at the Institut Henri Poincare in May 2011, regarding a number of "uniqueness of Cartan" type results obtained in a recent series of papers by Chifan-Peterson and Popa-Vaes. The text is purely expository.

  19. The stereochemistry of baishouwubenzophenone, a unique atropisomer from C. wilfordii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Linwei; Zhang, Ke; Peng, Qing; Wang, Shuyun; Wang, Jinhui; Huang, Jian; Sun, Tiemin

    2016-12-01

    Baishouwubenzophenone (1), possessing a unique atropisomeric feature, has been isolated from the roots of Cynanchum wilfordii. The congested structure makes it showing optical activity and consequently the absolute configuration was identified by experimental CD and computational approaches. Configurational assignment was further confirmed by exciton chirality method. The structural features in baishouwubenzophenone molecule allow it to be a potential atropisomeric ligand in asymmetric synthesis.

  20. Unique Issues in Rural Couple and Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Baker, Brad G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding rural couple and family counseling, in conjunction with the findings of research in closely related fields. This review is conducted in an effort to identify unique practice issues facing rural couple and family counselors. (Contains 77 references.) (GCP)

  1. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  2. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  3. The quantum unique ergodicity conjecture for thin sets

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    We consider some analogs of the quantum unique ergodicity conjecture for geodesics, horocycles, or ``shrinking'' families of sets. In particular, we prove the analog of the QUE conjecture for Eisenstein series restricted to the infinite geodesic connecting 0 and infinity inside the modular surface.

  4. THE UNIQUENESS OF BIFURCATION TO SEPARATRIX LOOPS IN SUPERCRITICAL CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIANHUA

    1994-01-01

    In paper[4] the existence of bifurcation to separatrix loops in supercritical cases on the plane is studied.This note is a continuation of [4].The author proves the uniqueness of limit cycles in a neighb-orhood of the separatrix loop,and the results strengthen the relevant conclusions in[1-6].

  5. Unique Characteristics of a Graduate Program in Applied Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stuart M.; Mills, Kim White; Dick, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Addresses one Communication Department's sojourn in designing, developing, and proposing a unique Master of Arts in Applied Communication. Discusses steps in developing an applied graduate program, the mission statement for the program, the curriculum, the expected impact of the graduate program on the undergraduate program, and program strengths.…

  6. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  7. Plant tolerance: A unique approach to control hemipteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through g...

  8. Minimal fusion systems with a unique maximal parabolic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    We define minimal fusion systems in a way that every non-solvable fusion system has a section which is minimal. Minimal fusion systems can also be seen as analogs of Thompson's N-groups. In this paper, we consider a minimal fusion system F on a finite p-group S that has a unique maximal p-local s...

  9. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  10. DECISIONS ET COMPETITIVITE SUR LE MARCHE UNIQUE EUROPEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits importants du marché unique européen, a comme source le męme énoncé du principal objectif de l’intégration européenne ainsi que: l’harmonisation des niveaux du développement des Etats Membres et l’augmentation du niveau de vie dans l’ensemble de la communauté. Pour le marché unique européen, cet aspect se traduit par une permanente et soutenue augmentation de la demande. Cet ouvrage présente au début une analyse des éléments spécifiques du marché européen. Ensuite on identifie les opportunités et les risques au niveau macroéconomique adjointes aux perspectives du marché unique européen. Comme fondement on présente des stratégies du développement réalisables au niveau microéconomique que puissent assurer l’augmentation du niveau sur la compétitivité des sociétés sur le marché unique européen.

  11. Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vil' danova, V F [Bashkir State Pedagogical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Mukminov, F Kh [Bashkir State University, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  12. On the Uniqueness Result for the Dirichlet Problem and Invexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Płócienniczak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide an existence and uniqueness theorem for the Dirichlet problem div Hz(y,Ñx(y=ÑxF(y,x(y.The assumption that both H and F are invex with respect to the second variable is imposed and the direct variational method is applied. The applicationis also shown.

  13. Uniquely D-colourable digraphs with large girth

    CERN Document Server

    Harutyunyan, Ararat; Mohar, Bojan; Rafferty, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Let C and D be digraphs. A mapping $f:V(D)\\to V(C)$ is a C-colouring if for every arc $uv$ of D, either $f(u)f(v)$ is an arc of C or $f(u)=f(v)$, and the preimage of every vertex of C induces an acyclic subdigraph in D. We say that D is C-colourable if it admits a C-colouring and that D is uniquely C-colourable if it is surjectively C-colourable and any two C-colourings of D differ by an automorphism of C. We prove that if a digraph D is not C-colourable, then there exist digraphs of arbitrarily large girth that are D-colourable but not C-colourable. Moreover, for every digraph D that is uniquely D-colourable, there exists a uniquely D-colourable digraph of arbitrarily large girth. In particular, this implies that for every rational number $r\\geq 1$, there are uniquely circularly r-colourable digraphs with arbitrarily large girth.

  14. Variable leak gas source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  15. Flue gas treatment with membrane gas absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    Dutch researchers from the TN0 Institute have developed a technique to carry out gas-liquid contacting operations using hollow fibre membranes in combination with an absorption liquid. The method known as membrane gas absorption, aims to combine the advantages of membrane technology (compactness, fl

  16. Gas purification using membrane gas absorption processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the increasing energy demand and the abundance of low quality natural gas reservoirs containing high percentages of CO2, considerable attention is given to the bulk removal of CO2 and upgrading of low quality natural gas. The main goal in doing so is to increase the heating value of natural

  17. Separative power of an optimised concurrent gas centrifuge

    CERN Document Server

    Bogovalov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The problem of separation of uranium isotopes in a concurrent gas centrifuge is solved analytically. Separative power of the optimized concurrent gas centrifuges equals to $\\delta U=12.7(V/700~{\\rm m/s})^2 (300 ~{\\rm K}/T)L, ~{\\rm kg ~SWU/yr}$, where $L$ and $V$ are the length and linear velocity of the rotor of the gas centrifuge, $T$ is the temperature. This formula well agrees with an empirical separative power of counter current gas centrifuges. The optimal value of the separative power is not unique on the plane $(p_w,v_z)$, where $p_w$ is pressure at the wall of the rotor and $v_z$ is axial velocity of the gas. This value is constant on a line defined by the equation $p_wv_z=constant$. Equations defining the mass flux and the electric power necessary to support the rotation of the gas centrifuge are obtained.

  18. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based on a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.

  19. Preanalytical considerations in blood gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Blood gas testing is a commonly ordered test in hospital settings, where the results almost always have the potential to dictate an immediate or urgent response. The preanalytical steps in testing, from choosing the correct tests to ensuring the specimen is introduced into the instrument correctly, must be perfectly coordinated to ensure that the patient receives appropriate and timely therapy in response to the analytical results. While many of the preanalytical steps in blood gas testing are common to all laboratory tests, such as accurate specimen labeling, some are unique to this testing because of the physicochemical properties of the analytes being measured. The common sources of preanalytical variation in blood gas testing are reviewed here. PMID:23457763

  20. Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, S K; Lawson, S A

    2013-08-01

    An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples.

  1. Natural gas annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  2. Sulphur hexafluoride gas detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster describes the development process of an electro-optical based solution for detecting and locating SF6 gas leaks at gas insulated switch gear. The principal technologies that were researched are explained with their advantages...

  3. Phase change events of volatile liquid perfluorocarbon contrast agents produce unique acoustic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Matsunaga, Terry O.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide a dynamic platform to approach problems in medical ultrasound (US). Upon US-mediated activation, the liquid core vaporizes and expands to produce a gas bubble ideal for US imaging and therapy. In this study, we demonstrate through high-speed video microscopy and US interrogation that PCCAs composed of highly volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs) exhibit unique acoustic behavior that can be detected and differentiated from standard microbubble contrast agents. Experimental results show that when activated with short pulses PCCAs will over-expand and undergo unforced radial oscillation while settling to a final bubble diameter. The size-dependent oscillation phenomenon generates a unique acoustic signal that can be passively detected in both time and frequency domain using confocal piston transducers with an ‘activate high’ (8 MHz, 2 cycles), ‘listen low’ (1 MHz) scheme. Results show that the magnitude of the acoustic ‘signature’ increases as PFC boiling point decreases. By using a band-limited spectral processing technique, the droplet signals can be isolated from controls and used to build experimental relationships between concentration and vaporization pressure. The techniques shown here may be useful for physical studies as well as development of droplet-specific imaging techniques.

  4. Sir Robert Boyle and his unique case report on depressed cranial fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengachary, Setti S; Ashan, Sidra

    2007-09-01

    Sir Robert Boyle is one of the foremost English scientists in history. He received his inspiration from the scientific approaches initiated by Galileo and his disciple, Torricelli. Through rigorous experimentation, Boyle established the fundamental gas laws as we know them today. Although not a physician himself, he contributed enormously to the practice of medical sciences. His voluminous observations and writings represent a landmark in the history of human thought. This article summarizes the scientific contributions of Robert Boyle, with particular emphasis on his contributions to medicine. Boyle wrote a unique case report describing in detail a patient with depressed cranial fracture who underwent successful surgery. Although on only a single case report, it provides us with a unique and rare opportunity to look at the practice of neurosurgery in the mid-17th century. Also presented in this article is Boyle's accurate description of a horse with holoprosencephaly, which was perhaps the first in history. The oft-quoted axiom in clinical medicine "First, do no harm (primum non nocere)" attributed to Sydenham, may be partially credited to Robert Boyle as well.

  5. Unique Testing Capabilities of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, an Exercise in Aeroelastic Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is the world's most capable aeroelastic test facility. Its large size, transonic speed range, variable pressure capability, and use of either air or R-134a heavy gas as a test medium enable unparalleled manipulation of flow-dependent scaling quantities. Matching these scaling quantities enables dynamic similitude of a full-scale vehicle with a sub-scale model, a requirement for proper characterization of any dynamic phenomenon, and many static elastic phenomena. Select scaling parameters are presented in order to quantify the scaling advantages of TDT and the consequence of testing in other facilities. In addition to dynamic testing, the TDT is uniquely well-suited for high risk testing or for those tests that require unusual model mount or support systems. Examples of recently conducted dynamic tests requiring unusual model support are presented. In addition to its unique dynamic test capabilities, the TDT is also evaluated in its capability to conduct aerodynamic performance tests as a result of its flow quality. Results of flow quality studies and a comparison to a many other transonic facilities are presented. Finally, the ability of the TDT to support future NASA research thrusts and likely vehicle designs is discussed.

  6. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  7. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-08

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  8. Natural Gas Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Natural gas powers about 150,000 vehicles in the United States and roughly 22 million vehicles worldwide. Natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are a good choice for high-mileage fleets -- such as buses, taxis, and refuse vehicles -- that are centrally fueled or operate within a limited area or along a route with natural gas fueling stations. This brochure highlights the advantages of natural gas as an alternative fuel, including its domestic availability, established distribution network, relatively low cost, and emissions benefits.

  9. CHINA'S GAS MARKET TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Haihong

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to JPMorgan's review 2003 of China's gas market,China's household gas price was one of the lowest in the world, 20% below the global average. Despite the increase in recent years, China's domestic gas price is still relatively low in the global context. It is safe to say that the low gas price is one of the keys attracting keen investments currently from overseas and domestic private capitals.

  10. Natural gas annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  11. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  12. Natural gas annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  13. Liquid propellant gas generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design of gas generators intended to provide hot gases for turbine drive is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the design and operation of bipropellant gas generators because of their wider use. Problems and limitations involved in turbine operation due to temperature effects are analyzed. Methods of temperature control of gas turbines and combustion products are examined. Drawings of critical sections of gas turbines to show their operation and areas of stress are included.

  14. Heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler operating at liquid hydrogen temperature with a unique coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Luo, E. C.; Li, S. F.; Yu, B.; Dai, W.

    2008-05-01

    A heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler is constructed. A unique coupler composed of a tube, reservoir, and elastic diaphragm is introduced to couple a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine (TE) and two-stage pulse tube refrigerator (PTR). The amplitude of the pressure wave generated in the engine is first amplified in the coupler and the wave then passes into the refrigerator to pump heat. The TE uses nitrogen as its working gas and the PTR still uses helium as its working gas. With this coupler, the efficiency of the system is doubled. The engine and coupler match at a much lower operating frequency, which is of great benefit for the PTR to obtain a lower cooling temperature. The coupling place between the coupler and engine is also optimized. The onset problem is effectively solved. With these improvements, the heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler reaches a lowest temperature of 18.1K, which is the demonstration of heat-driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology used for cooling at liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  15. Microscale Gas Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…

  16. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  17. Boundary Unique Continuation Properties for Elliptic Operators With Singular Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥兴

    2006-01-01

    @@ 0 Introduction Because of applications to control theory, see Schmit and Weck's work in [1], the following unique continuation question (UCP) was raised in [2-3]: if u is a harmonic function in a connected Lipschitz domainΩ, vanishing continuously on an open subset Г of the boundary ( )Ω and whose normal derivative vanishes on a subset of Г of positive surface measure, does it follows that u is identically zero in Ω? On the other hand, the unique continuation problem has been focusing on second order equations in which the coefficients of the lower-order terms are allowed to be singular, which is suggested by situations of physical interest; see for instance the extensive survey papers [4-6].

  18. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  19. Uniqueness of system response time for transient condensing flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, G.L.; Bhatt, B.L. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)); Beck, B.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States)); Roslund, G.L. (General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States))

    1989-11-01

    The unique characteristics under consideration in this paper are encountered in condensing flows, and have to do with a system's response time for various degrees of outlet flow quality. Specifically, the system response time for condensing flows appears to increase monotonically with decreasing outlet flow quality, reaching a maximum for systems having an outlet flow quality of between 10 and 20%. The system response time then decreases for outlet flow qualities that are less than that value. These unique characteristics are predicted theoretically by system mean void fraction model. The purpose of this paper is to develop analytically the characteristics, explain the physics of the phenomena responsible, and discuss the experimental verification efforts that have thus far been carried out.

  20. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  1. A general Lipschitz uniqueness criterion for scalar ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Diblik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical Lipschitz-type criteria guarantee unique solvability of the scalar initial value problem $\\dot x=f(t,x$, $x(t_0=x_0,$ by putting restrictions on $|f(t,x-f(t,y|$ in dependence of $|x-y|$. Geometrically it means that the field differences are estimated in the direction of the $x$-axis. In 1989, Stettner and the second author could establish a generalized Lipschitz condition in both arguments by showing that the field differences can be measured in a suitably chosen direction $v=(d_{t},d_{x}$, provided that it does not coincide with the directional vector $(1,f(t_{0},x_{0}$. Considering the vector $v$ depending on $t$, a new general uniqueness result is derived and a short proof based on the implicit function theorem is developed. The advantage of the new criterion is shown by an example. A comparison with known results is given as well.

  2. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  3. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2014-08-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  4. Medians and means in Riemannian geometry: existence, uniqueness and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc; Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short summary of our recent work on the medians and means of probability measures in Riemannian manifolds. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness results of local medians are given. In order to compute medians in practical cases, we propose a subgradient algorithm and prove its convergence. After that, Fr\\'echet medians are considered. We prove their statistical consistency and give some quantitative estimations of their robustness with the aid of upper curvature bounds. We also show that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet medians of generic data points are always unique. Stochastic and deterministic algorithms are proposed for computing Riemannian p-means. The rate of convergence and error estimates of these algorithms are also obtained. Finally, we apply the medians and the Riemannian geometry of Toeplitz covariance matrices to radar target detection.

  5. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lim Chee Liew; Mohan B.Singh; Prem L.Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmo-spheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  6. Uniqueness of Black Holes with Bubbles in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We generalise uniqueness theorems for non-extremal black holes with three mutually independent Killing vector fields in five-dimensional minimal supergravity in order to account for the existence of non-trivial 2-cycles in the domain of outer communication. The black hole space-times we consider may contain multiple disconnected horizons and be asymptotically flat or asymptotically Kaluza-Klein. We show that in order to uniquely specify the black hole space-time, besides providing its domain structure and a set of asymptotic and local charges, it is necessary to measure the magnetic fluxes that support the 2-cycles as well as fluxes in the two semi-infinite rotation planes of the domain diagram.

  7. A Unique Case of Allogeneic Fat Grafting Between Brothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Edelson, Richard L.; Sumpio, Brandon; Kwei, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old man with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy and an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from his human leukocyte antigen-matched brother. Engraftment was successful, but the patient went on to develop painful, radiation-induced ulcers. The ulcers were fat-allografted using liposuctioned fat from his brother because of the patient’s unique chimeric state. Postprocedure follow-up revealed epithelialization of the ulcer sites and significant improvement in neuropathic pain. Our unique case study supports the use of fat grafting for its restorative purposes and for its ability to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Additionally, it appears that our case provides a basis of a general approach to the treatment of radiation-induced ulcers in chimeric patients with lymphoid malignancies.

  8. The unique chemical reactivity of a graphene nanoribbon's zigzag edge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, D; Sumpter, B G; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2007-01-01

    The zigzag edge of a graphene nanoribbon possesses a unique electronic state that is near the Fermi level and localized at the edge carbon atoms. We investigate the chemical reactivity of these zigzag edge sites by examining their reaction energetics with common radicals from first principles. A "partial radical" concept for the edge carbon atoms is introduced to characterize their chemical reactivity, and the validity of this concept is verified by comparing the dissociation energies of edge-radical bonds with similar bonds in molecules. In addition, the uniqueness of the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon is further demonstrated by comparing it with other forms of sp2 carbons, including a graphene sheet, nanotubes, and an armchair-edged graphene nanoribbon.

  9. Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B R; Hartigan, J A; Mikulas, W L

    1999-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha, 8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness "meditations" may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.

  10. [International progress of unique device identification for medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanjuan; Li, Jun; Li, Jingli

    2014-09-01

    Unique Device Identification (UDI) is a hot spot research area in the medical device administration. It comes a breakthrough from International Medical Device Regulators Forum (IMDRF) and government implementation recently. The article reviewed the advancement of IMDRF UDI program, discussed the framework for UDI system, analyzed the implementation of UDI in other countries, put forward some suggestions on the development of medical device coding system in our country.

  11. Recurrent intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis: A unique combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an 11-month-old female child, who presented with recurrent episodes of colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea. An abdominal ultrasound revealed small bowel intussusception. She was also noted to have a thick walled gall bladder and a solitary gallstone. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The combination of small bowel intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis is unique and has not been reported in the literature.

  12. Unique Aspects of Flight Testing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    High Altitude Endurance HCI Human Computer Interface INS Inertial Navigation System IR Infrared JITC Joint Interoperability Testing Command...highlighting some of the unique aspects of flight testing unmanned air vehicle systems. It is intended to provide a practical set of guidelines in support of...of unmanned aviation systems, it is especially important that even minor changes to the baseline code be carefully reviewed, and that regression

  13. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  14. On Unique Ergodicity in Nonlinear Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt-Holtz, Nathan; Mattingly, Jonathan C.; Richards, Geordie

    2017-02-01

    We illustrate how the notion of asymptotic coupling provides a flexible and intuitive framework for proving the uniqueness of invariant measures for a variety of stochastic partial differential equations whose deterministic counterpart possesses a finite number of determining modes. Examples exhibiting parabolic and hyperbolic structure are studied in detail. In the later situation we also present a simple framework for establishing the existence of invariant measures when the usual approach relying on the Krylov-Bogolyubov procedure and compactness fails.

  15. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ciepliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions φ:I→J of the functional equation φ(f(x=F(φ(x, x∈I, where I,J are closed intervals, and f:I→I, F:J→J are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  16. Tamponade by an expanding left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: A unique presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir

    2015-10-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture.

  17. Osteomyelitis variolosa with fracture: A unique case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox has been eradicated completely but its unique pathology and sequlae are still found in routine clinical practice. We present a report of a patient having osteomyelitis variolosa in both elbow joints and wrist with fracture of humerus. The condyles were typically elongated as central portion of distal humerus absorbed. The fracture united uneventfully following stabilization with dynamic compression plate and bone grafting. Patient had satisfactory elbow function at the end of the last follow-up.

  18. A uniqueness theorem for higher order anharmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Soren; Sundqvist, Mikael Persson

    2015-01-01

    We study for alpha is an element of R, k is an element of N \\ {0} the family of self-adjoint operators -d(2)/dt(2) + (t(k+1)/k+1 - alpha)(2) in L-2(R) and show that if k is even then alpha = 0 gives the unique minimum of the lowest eigenvalue of this family of operators. Combined with earlier res...

  19. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations dqu(t/dtq+Au(t=f(t,u(t+∫0ta(t−sg(s,u(sds, t∈[0,T], u(0=u0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  20. On Unique Ergodicity in Nonlinear Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt-Holtz, Nathan; Mattingly, Jonathan C.; Richards, Geordie

    2016-08-01

    We illustrate how the notion of asymptotic coupling provides a flexible and intuitive framework for proving the uniqueness of invariant measures for a variety of stochastic partial differential equations whose deterministic counterpart possesses a finite number of determining modes. Examples exhibiting parabolic and hyperbolic structure are studied in detail. In the later situation we also present a simple framework for establishing the existence of invariant measures when the usual approach relying on the Krylov-Bogolyubov procedure and compactness fails.

  1. A unique case of isolated, spontaneous, symptomatic celiac trunk dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Ferguson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of isolated spontaneous celiac trunk dissections have been appearing in the literature more recently with the increased availability of high-resolution computerized tomography angiograms. We report a unique case of this entity. A 48-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain that radiated to the back and worsened with breathing. This was diagnosed as a celiac trunk dissection by computerized tomography angiogram. She was treated conservatively with antihypertensive medications, anticoagulants, and opioid medication for pain control.

  2. [I, Robot: artificial intelligence, uniqueness and self-consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Martín

    2008-01-01

    The cinematographic version of the science fiction classical book by Isaac Asimov (I, Robot) is used as a starting point, from the Artificial Intelligence perspective, in order to analyze what it is to have a self. Uniqueness or the exchange impossibility and the continuity of being one self are put forward to understand the movie's characters as well as the possibilities of feeling self conscious.

  3. On the stability of unique range sets for meromorphic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ha Huy Khoai

    2003-01-01

    For a set S we construct a complex space Z sub S such that S is a unique range set for meromorphic functions (URS) if and only if Z sub S is hyperbolic. A consequence of this result is that the set of URS with n elements (considered as a subset of C sup n) is open, and then the small deformations of Yi's and Frank-Reinders' sets are URS.

  4. Existence and Uniqueness of Fixed Point in Partially Ordered Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J. NIETO; Rosana RODR(I)GUEZ-L(O)PEZ

    2007-01-01

    We prove some fixed point theorems in partially ordered sets, providing an extension of theBanach contractive mapping theorem. Having studied previously the nondecreasing case, we considerin this paper nonincreasing mappings as well as non monotone mappings. We also present someapplications to first-order ordinary differential equations with periodic boundary conditions, provingthe existence of a unique solution admitting the existence of a lower solution.

  5. On Integers, Primes and UniqueFactorization in Quadratic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenlund, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. This thesis will deal with quadratic elds. The prob- lem is to study such elds and their properties including, but not limited to, determining integers, nding primes and deciding which quadratic elds have unique factorization. The goal is to get famil- iar with these concepts and to provide a starting point for students with an interest in algebra to explore eld extensions and inte- gral closures in relation to elementary number theory. The reader will be assumed to have a basic kn...

  6. Unique factorization of tensor products for Kac-Moody algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, R.; Viswanath, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    We consider integrable, category O-modules of indecomposable symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebras. We prove that unique factorization of tensor products of irreducible modules holds in this category, upto twisting by one dimensional modules. This generalizes a fundamental theorem of Rajan for finite dimensional simple Lie algebras over C. Our proof is new even for the finite dimensional case, and uses an interplay of representation theory and combinatorics to analyze the Kac-Weyl character formula.

  7. The uniqueness-of-norm problem for Calkin algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Skillicorn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We examine the question of whether the Calkin algebra of a Banach space must have a unique complete algebra norm. We present a survey of known results, and make the observation that a recent Banach space construction of Argyros and Motakis (preprint, 2015) provides the first negative answer. The parallel question for the weak Calkin algebra also has a negative answer; we demonstrate this using a Banach space of Read (J. London Math. Soc. 1989).

  8. A Tandem Valve, a unique complication of TAVR

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Sattiraju; Sanjay Mehta; Mathew Gibb; Scott Cook; Michael Colla; Emil Missov

    2016-01-01

    , MD1*,, MD1,, MD1,, MD2, MD2,, MD, PhD3 1. Division of Cardiology, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 2. Cardiovascular Surgery, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 3. Division of Cardiology, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Received: 11-1-16, Reviewed: 22-1-16, Accepted: 26-1-16 Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement, TAVR, Valve embolisation DOI: ABSTRACT We report a unique complica...

  9. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nectaria A. B. Gizani; M. A. Garrett; J. P. Leahy

    2002-03-01

    We present the usage of multi-frequency and multi-band radio, VLA, observations as well as X-ray observations in order to study the environment around two powerful radio galaxies, namely Hercules A and 3 C310. We study their environment both in pc- and kpc-scales. We have chosen these two radio galaxies as they present similar and unique characteristics, compared to the ones from our general knowledge about double radio galaxies associated with active galactic nuclei.

  10. A note on the uniqueness of global static decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Miguel [Departamento de GeometrIa y TopologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Senovilla, Jose M M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Historia de la Ciencia, Facultad de Ciencia y TecnologIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-12-07

    We discuss when static Killing vector fields are standard, that is, leading to a global orthogonal splitting of the spacetime. We prove that such an orthogonal splitting is unique whenever the natural space is compact. This is carried out by proving that many notable spacelike submanifolds must be contained in an orthogonal slice. Possible obstructions to the global splitting are also considered. (comments, replies and notes)

  11. Unique Properties of Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利玲

    2011-01-01

    We study tie unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks. A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dot-lead coupling. The relation of Q o I (I is the system current) fails in nanosystems, while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias. As a result, one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one, the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.%We study the unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks.A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dotlead coupling.The relation of Q o I(I is the system current)fails in nanosystems,while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias.As a result,one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one,the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.

  12. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.

  13. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  14. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  15. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  16. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture of extremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1) the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2) the thin films of austenite between the individual ferrite platelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale.Considering the nanometer grain sizes the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes), and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and "green" material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over altemative materials.

  17. Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berla, Bertram M; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M; Maranas, Costas D; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as "chassis" strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a "green E. coli." In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  18. Study on control method of natural circulation by injection of helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuaki, E-mail: ttakeda@yamanashi.ac.jp; Nomura, Masashi; Yanagawa, Naoto; Funatani, Shumpei

    2014-05-01

    This study is to investigate a control method of natural circulation of air by injection of helium gas. A depressurization accident is one of the design-basis accidents of a very high temperature reactor (VHTR). When the primary pipe rupture accident occurs in the VHTR, air is expected to enter into the reactor pressure vessel from the breach and oxidize in-core graphite structures. Finally, it seems to be probable that the natural circulation flow of air in the reactor pressure vessel produce continuously. In order to predict or analyze the air ingress phenomena during the depressurization accident of the VHTR, therefore, it is important to develop the method for prevention of air ingress during the accident. The experiment has been carried out regarding natural circulation using a circular tube consisting of a reverse U-shaped type. The vertical channel consists of the one side heated tube and the other side cooled tube. The experimental procedure is as follows. Firstly, the apparatus is filled with air and one vertical tube is heated. Then, natural circulation of air will be produced in the channel. After the steady state is established, a very small amount of helium gas injects from the top of the channel. The velocity, temperature of gas, and temperature of the tube wall are measured during the experiment. The analysis also has been carried out regarding natural circulation. The results were obtained as follows. The temperature difference between the vertical pipes was 50–130 K, and a small amount of helium gas injected to the channel. The volume of injected helium gas is about 3.5–10% of the total volume of the channel. When the temperature difference between the vertical tubes was kept at 52 K, the velocity of natural circulation flow became about 0.12 m/s. During a steady state, a small amount of helium gas injected into the channel. Then, the flow velocity of natural circulation suddenly decreased. The volume of injected helium gas is about 3% of the

  19. Natural Gas Gathering and Purification in Sichuan Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhilin

    1996-01-01

    @@ Natural Gas Gathering and Transmission Technology The construction of gas gathering & transmission lines and stations is an important part of the surface construction of gas fields, whose investment accounts for about half of the total in gas field's development.

  20. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  1. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality.Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  2. Applications for unique identifiers in the geological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Even though geology has always been a generalist discipline in many parts, approaches towards questions about Earth's past have become increasingly interdisciplinary. At the same time, a wealth of samples has been collected, the resulting data have been stored in in disciplinary databases, the interpretations published in scientific literature. In the past these resources have existed alongside each other, semantically linked only by the knowledge of the researcher and his peers. One of the main drivers towards the inception of the world wide web was the ability to link scientific sources over the internet. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to locate resources on the web soon turned out to be ephemeral in nature. A more reliable way of addressing objects was needed, a way of persistent identification to make digital objects, or digital representations of objects, part of the record of science. With their high degree of centralisation the scientific publishing houses were quick to implement and adopt a system for unique and persistent identification, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ®. At the same time other identifier systems exist alongside DOI, e.g. URN, ARK, handle ®, and others. There many uses for persistent identification in science, other than the identification of journal articles. DOI are already used for the identification of data, thus making data citable. There are several initiatives to assign identifiers to authors and institutions to allow unique identification. A recent development is the application of persistent identifiers for geological samples. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central

  3. Marketing mix - commercial gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.F.

    1975-07-01

    British Gas Corp. points out that a substantial increase in the use of gas in Great Britain's commercial energy market has occurred in the past 6 yr. Some of the newest applications of gas are in the areas of the cook/freeze system of preparing frozen foods in commercial catering, commissariats preparing in-flight food, and heating/cooling systems of large buildings. The variety of buildings and institutions using gas-fired systems indicates that, with the sensible pricing policies and the security of an indigenous fuel, the commercial market for gas will continue to develop for several years in Britain.

  4. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  5. Gas utilisation developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Fantom, I.R.; Laughlin, K.M.; King, R.J.; Watkins, C.J.; Williams, J.D.H.; Blenkin, P. [British Coal Corporation (United Kingdom). Coal Technology Development Division

    1995-08-01

    Advanced coal based power generation systems such as the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), formerly known as the CTDD Topping Cycle, offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with low environmental impact. An important component of the ABGC development programme has been the determination of alkali metal compounds, dust and other trace contaminant species concentrations that would be contained in the combusted fuel gas presented to the gas turbine. These species are an important factor in the prediction of gas turbine component lifetimes when firing coal derived fuel gas. A project supported under the UK Department of Trade and Industry`s Coal Research and Development programme and the European Communities Commission THERMIE programme, was therefore devised to measure these contaminant species in a purpose built gas cleaning and combustion facility (Gas Utilisation Facility). This facility contained gas cleaning and combustion sytems representative of those that would be used in an ABGC utility application. The objective of this project was therefore to provide data on the level of certain contaminants present in the turbine expansion gas after passing through a low calorific value fuel gas, gas turbine combustor. This fuel gas was produced by the CTDD spouted fluidised bed gasifier and cleaned by filtration at up to 600{degree}C in the purpose built Gas Utilisation Facility. The data has been related to an existing materials test programme associated with the Grimethorpe Topping Cycle Project, which had the objective of predicting gas turbine component lifetimes in utility gas turbine machines. 22 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. VLT Observations of the Gas Cloud G2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillessen, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, we discovered a small, compact gas cloud G2 that is falling on a near-radial orbit toward the massive black hole in the Galactic Center. The orbit is well-constrained and the pericenter passage will occur in early 2014. Our data beautifully show that G2 gets tidally sheared apart due to the massive black hole's force. We expect that in addition to the tidal effects, hydrodynamics will become important when G2 collides with the hot ambient gas around Sgr A*. This might be a unique opportunity in the next years to observe how gas feeds a massive black hole.

  7. A Novel Infrared Gas Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingding; Zhong, Hongjie

    2000-03-01

    In the paper a novel non-dispersive infrared(IR) gas monitor is described.It is based on the principle that certain gases absorb IR radiation at specific(and often unique) wavelengths.Conventional devices typically include several primary components:a broadband source, usually an incandescent filament,a rotating chopper shutter,a narrow-band filter,a sample tube and a detector. We have developed a number of IR light emitting diodes(LED) having narrow optical bandwidths and which can be intensity modulated by electrical means,for example InAsSbP(4.2 micron)LED.The IR LED can thus replace the thermal source,narrow-band filter and chopper assembly of the conventional IR gas monitor,yielding a solid state,low- powered,compact and almost maintenance-free instrument with high sensitivity and stability and which free of the effects of mechanical vibration too. The detector used in the IR gas monitor is the solid-state detector,such as PbS,PbSe, InSb,HgCdTe,TGS,LT and PZT detector etc. The different configuration of the IR gas monitor is designed.For example,two-path version for measuring methane concentration by monitoring the 3.31 micron absorption band,it can eliminate the interference effects,such as to compensate for LED intensity changes caused by power and temperature variations,and for signal fluctuations due to changes in detector bias. we also have designed portable single-beam version without the sample tube.Its most primary advantage is very cheap(about cost USD 30 ).It measures carbon dioxide concentration by monitoring the 4.25 micron absorption band.Thought its precisions is low,it is used to control carbon dioxide concentration in the air in the green houses and plastic houses(there are about twenty millon one in the China).Because more carbon dioxide will increase the quanity of vegetable and flower production to a greatextent. It also is used in medical,sanitary and antiepidemic applications,such as hospital, store,hotel,cabin and ballroom etc. Key words

  8. Unconventional gas resources in the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Jon; Vossoughi, Shapour

    2012-05-01

    Unconventional gas accounts for more than 40% of U.S. domestic gas production and more than 10% of world output. The amount of resources available is still uncertain and estimates vary to a large degree. In this paper, unconventional gas resources within the United States will be examined. This paper will take a brief look at all types of unconventional gas resources (there have been 6 identified) but will concentrate on shale gas and coal-bed methane, as they are the resources receiving the most attention. This paper will also delve into the technology in unconventional gas production and exploration, including recent innovations in the industry. Finally, environmental concerns unique to unconventional gas production will be addressed. Natural gas refers to naturally occurring hydrocarbons found trapped underground. It occurs as mixtures of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights (methane, butane, etc.) and was formed millions of years ago from fossilized organic matter. Natural gas can be used as a cleaner burning alternative to other fossil fuels for power generation. It produces half the amount of carbon dioxide as coal and roughly 25 percent less carbon dioxide than gasoline. Consequently, it is becoming more popular in today's environmentally conscious world. Worldwide demand is expected to increase at twice the rate of oil until at least 2030. Interest in natural gas is at an all-time high in the United States. Only recently have we learned about the vast unconventional resources that exist within our borders. The implications for reduced dependence on foreign sources of gas are promising for the future of this country. There may be sufficient resources within the United States to allow this energy source to thrive for many years to come. Natural gas can be divided into two categories: 1) Conventional gas which is found in reservoirs where the gas has been trapped by a layer of rock. Usually conventional gas refers to that which exists on top of crude oil

  9. The CALIFA connection between outer-disk reddening and gas-phase metallicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cardiel, N.; Pascual, S.; Vílchez, J.; Califa, T.

    2017-03-01

    In Marino et al. 2016 we investigate, for the first time in a statistically significant and well- defined sample, the behavior of the colors and of the oxygen abundance from H II regions located within and beyond the break radius in the surface brightness profiles. We perform a detailed light-profile classification using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g'- and r'-band surface brightness, (g'- r') color, as well we characterize the ionized-gas oxygen abundance profiles for 350 galaxies within Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) Survey. Our main results are: (i) We find that about 84% of our disks show clear down - or up-bending profiles (Type II and Type III, respectively) while the remaining 16% are well fitted by one single exponential law (Type I); (ii) The analysis of the color gradients reveals a U-shape profile for the Type II galaxies with a minimum (g'- r') color of ˜0.5 mag; (iii) We find a statistically significant signal of flattening in the outer ionized-gas metallicities, associated with the difference in the outer-to-inner disk gradient distribution. We discuss the relation between the outer-disk ionized-gas metallicity gradients and the presence of breaks in the surface brightness profiles of disk galaxies in the context of the evolution of galaxy disks and we propose different mechanism(s) that could have driven the formation and evolution of the galaxies' outskirts and, in particular, the reddening of the stellar colors found in these peripherical regions.

  10. Uniqueness, scale, and resolution issues in groundwater model parameter identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-chyi J. Yeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper first visits uniqueness, scale, and resolution issues in groundwater flow forward modeling problems. It then makes the point that non-unique solutions to groundwater flow inverse problems arise from a lack of information necessary to make the problems well defined. Subsequently, it presents the necessary conditions for a well-defined inverse problem. They are full specifications of (1 flux boundaries and sources/sinks, and (2 heads everywhere in the domain at at least three times (one of which is t = 0, with head change everywhere at those times must being nonzero for transient flow. Numerical experiments are presented to corroborate the fact that, once the necessary conditions are met, the inverse problem has a unique solution. We also demonstrate that measurement noise, instability, and sensitivity are issues related to solution techniques rather than the inverse problems themselves. In addition, we show that a mathematically well-defined inverse problem, based on an equivalent homogeneous or a layered conceptual model, may yield physically incorrect and scenario-dependent parameter values. These issues are attributed to inconsistency between the scale of the head observed and that implied by these models. Such issues can be reduced only if a sufficiently large number of observation wells are used in the equivalent homogeneous domain or each layer. With a large number of wells, we then show that increase in parameterization can lead to a higher-resolution depiction of heterogeneity if an appropriate inverse methodology is used. Furthermore, we illustrate that, using the same number of wells, a highly parameterized model in conjunction with hydraulic tomography can yield better characterization of the aquifer and minimize the scale and scenario-dependent problems. Lastly, benefits of the highly parameterized model and hydraulic tomography are tested according to their ability to improve predictions of aquifer responses induced by

  11. ROMANIA'S MACROECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS FOR JOINING THE UNIQUE EUROPEAN CURENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government has announced plans to join the eurozone by 2015. Currently, the leu is not yet part of ERM II but plans to join in 2010-2012. The economic advantages of the monetary union grow with expansion of the Euro zone. There is also a high level of skepticism; the main fear about the Euro is the inflation –that is considerable promoted by the Euro currency’s exchange rate in comparison with 2002; another restraint is due to member states inability to establish their own interest rates. The IMF arose the option of joining the Euro zone criteria relaxing. A one-sided Euro’s joining was suggested by International Monetary Fund on March-April 2009, in a confidential report mentioned by The Financial Times as the emergent states in Central and Eastern Europe to be able to pass to the unique currency, but not being represented in the Central European Bank Board. By its side, CEB considers that emergent states of the European Union must not pass to the unique currency unilaterally, because such a fact could under-mine the trust in Euro currency worldwide. This option would hardly deepen the macroeconomic controversies inside the Euro zone and would contradict the previous conditions already imposed. An acceptable solution could be the fastening of emergent countries joining the Exchange Rate Mechanism 2, after they are aware of risks arisen by such a step. The European Commission endorses in the Convergence Report on 2010 that Romania doesn’t meet any criteria needed by passing to the unique European currency, respectively: prices stability; budget position of the government; stability of exchange rate; interest convergence on long run and there are also law impediments. Our paper discusses arguments for a faster passing to the Euro currency versus arguments for a late joining the Euro currency in Romania.

  12. Inventory non-conventional gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Ter Heege, J.H.; Van Bergen, F.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Van Gessel, S.F.; De Jong, M.L.; Nelskamp, S.; Van Thienen-Visser, K.; Guasti, E.; Van den Belt; Marges, V.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the results of the inventory for each non-conventional gas resource expected to be present in the Netherlands, which are: Tight Gas, Shallow gas, Coal bed Methane (CBM), Shale gas, Basin Centered Gas, Aquifer Gas and Stratigraphic traps.

  13. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leshen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is an unusual congenital herniation of abdominal content through the triangular parasternal gaps of the anterior diaphragm. They are commonly asymptomatic and right-sided. We present a case of a bilateral Morgagni hernia resulting in delayed growth in a 10-month-old boy. The presentation was unique due to its bilateral nature and its symptomatic compression of the mediastinum. Diagnosis was made by 3D reconstructed CT angiogram. The patient underwent medical optimization until he was safely able to tolerate laparoscopic surgical repair of his hernia. Upon laparoscopy, the CT findings were confirmed and the hernia was repaired.

  14. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshen, Michael; Richardson, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is an unusual congenital herniation of abdominal content through the triangular parasternal gaps of the anterior diaphragm. They are commonly asymptomatic and right-sided. We present a case of a bilateral Morgagni hernia resulting in delayed growth in a 10-month-old boy. The presentation was unique due to its bilateral nature and its symptomatic compression of the mediastinum. Diagnosis was made by 3D reconstructed CT angiogram. The patient underwent medical optimization until he was safely able to tolerate laparoscopic surgical repair of his hernia. Upon laparoscopy, the CT findings were confirmed and the hernia was repaired.

  15. 3-branes and uniqueness of the Salam-Sezgin vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Gueven, R.; Pope, C.N

    2004-08-12

    We prove the uniqueness of the supersymmetric Salam-Sezgin (Minkowski){sub 4}xS{sup 2} ground state among all non-singular solutions with a four-dimensional Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter symmetry. We construct the most general solutions with an axial symmetry in the two-dimensional internal space, and show that included amongst these is a family that is non-singular away from a conical defect at one pole of a distorted 2-sphere. These solutions admit the interpretation of 3-branes with negative tension.

  16. Hypertension in the elderly: unique challenges and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Faruk; Yesil, Yusuf; Balogun, Rasheed A; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M

    2013-08-01

    Elderly individuals, worldwide, are on the rise, posing new challenges to care providers. Hypertension is highly prevalent in elderly individuals, and multiple challenges face care providers while managing it. In addition to treating hypertension, the physician must treat other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with or without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality. This review discusses some of the unique characteristics of high blood pressure in the elderly and provides an overview of the challenges facing care providers, as well as the current recommendations for management of hypertension in the elderly.

  17. Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhroha, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC) induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1) CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2) Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis. PMID:25610672

  18. A Spectroscopically Unique Main Belt Asteroid: 10537 (1991 RY16)

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Jedicke, Robert; Willman, Mark; Haghighipour, Nader; Bus, Schelte J; Gaidos, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We present visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra and interpreted surface mineralogy for asteroid 10537 (1991 RY16). The spectrum of this object is without precedent amongst the Main Belt asteroids. A unique absorption band centered at 0.63 microns could be attributed to one of several mineralogies. Pronounced 1- and 2-micron absorption bands suggest that the composition of 10537 is a mixture of pyroxenes and olivine and that it originated from a parent body that was partially or fully differentiated. The closest available analog is the large Main Belt asteroid 349 Dembowska but 10537 may be an isolated fragment from a completely eroded parent body.

  19. Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral.

  20. Acausality and Non-Unique Evolution in Generalized Teleparallel Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Keisuke; Ong, Yen Chin

    2013-01-01

    We show the existence of physical superluminal modes and acausality in the Brans-Dicke type extension of teleparallel gravity that includes F(T) gravity and teleparallel dark energy as special cases. We derive the characteristic hypersurface for the extra degrees of freedom in the theory, thereby showing that the time evolution is not unique and closed causal curves can appear. Furthermore, we present a concrete disastrous solution in Bianchi type-I spacetime, in which the anisotropy in expansion can be any function of time and thus anisotropy can emerge suddenly, a simple demonstration that the theory is physically problematic.

  1. Existence and uniqueness in anisotropic conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-03-18

    We show that three sets of internal current densities are the right amount of data that give the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in reconstructing an anisotropic conductivity in two space dimensions. The curl free equation of Faraday’s law is taken instead of the usual divergence free equation of the electrical impedance to- mography. Boundary conditions related to given current densities are introduced which complete a well determined problem for conductivity reconstruction together with Fara- day’s law.

  2. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a unique presentation in a pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, Michael V.; Monson, Matthew [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Infection by the Aspergillus species of fungus can result in a variety of clinically and radiographically unique pulmonary diseases. The specific disease manifested is most dependent upon the immunocompetency of the infected individual. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is most commonly seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since its original description in 1952, much has been published describing the radiographic manifestations of this disease. In this article, we present the unusual case of a 13-year-old whose initial radiographic presentation was that of a dense lobar consolidation. Additionally, we highlight the contributory role of the radiologist in guiding the appropriate clinical work-up and treatment of this disease. (orig.)

  3. Bimaxillary presentation of central ossifying fibroma: a unique aggressive entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kiran; Gupta, Kavita; Manjunatha, B S; Palan, Soniya

    2013-01-01

    Central ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm, having slow growing nature. Some rare lesions show very aggressive nature, multifocal appearance and reach up to a very massive size. So, these kinds of cases require special attention for their treatment. A unique case of central ossifying fibroma with aggressive nature, multifocal appearance is reported. This case shows growth both in maxilla and mandible with maxillary lesion massive in size involving maxillary sinus. There have not been any such cases reported so far in the literature showing bimaxillary growth of ossifying fibroma. PMID:23774709

  4. On the Uniqueness of Ghost-Free Special Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dong; Xing, Yu-Hang

    2017-09-01

    Special gravity refers to interacting theories of massless gravitons in Minkowski space-time which are invariant under the abelian gauge invariance {h}ab\\to {h}ab+{\\partial }(a{χ }b) only. In this article we determine the most general form of special gravity free of Ostrogradski ghosts, meaning its equation of motion is of at most second order. Together with the recent works, this result could be helpful in formulating proofs of General Relativity as the unique physical theory of self-interacting massless gravitons. We also study how to construct gauge invariant couplings to matter fields.

  5. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  6. Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  7. On the Uniqueness of the Standard Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Gabriel S; José, Marco V

    2017-02-13

    In this work, we determine the biological and mathematical properties that are sufficient and necessary to uniquely determine both the primeval RNY (purine-any base-pyrimidine) code and the standard genetic code (SGC). These properties are: the evolution of the SGC from the RNY code; the degeneracy of both codes, and the non-degeneracy of the assignments of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) to amino acids; the wobbling property; the consideration that glycine was the first amino acid; the topological and symmetrical properties of both codes.

  8. Idiopathic Fenestrated Complex Syndactyly in a Unique Crisscross Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Van Heest, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    This case presents surgical treatment of a unique form of syndactyly: an isolated fenestrated, complex, crisscross syndactyly of the right middle and ring fingers. A 2-year-old boy presented with the ring finger lying dorsal and the middle finger lying volar, with the middle phalanges syndactylized. A surgical release was performed with a subsequent z-plasty, 2 years later, for scar elongation. At the age of 4, he has essentially full function of his hand with minimal limitations. This case demonstrates that 2 digits that were syndactylized in a coronal plane (ring finger dorsal and middle finger volar) can be successfully surgically separated.

  9. Protostylid: As never reported before! A unique case with variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela D Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human jaw and teeth display a high degree of morphological individuality as they represent personal, familial, and population characteristics and one among them are cuspal variations. A protostylid is a supernumerary or accessory cusp located on the mesiobuccal surface of the mandibular molars that seldom pose problems. A forensic odontologist may find significant interest in its classification and identification among victims of mass causalties and bite marks on living and nonliving objects. The authors here are reporting a case of protostylid with a unique presentation which, to best of our knowledge is not reported so far.

  10. Unique interaction pattern for a functionally biased ghrelin receptor agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Bjørn Behrens; Lang, Manja; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    /13) pathway. The recognition pattern of wFw-Isn-NH(2) with the ghrelin receptor also differed significantly from that of all previously characterized unbiased agonists. Most importantly, wFw-Isn-NH(2) was not dependent on GluIII:09 (Glu3.33), which otherwise is an obligatory TM III anchor point residue...... orientation as compared with, for example, the wFw peptide agonists. It is concluded that the novel peptide-mimetic ligand wFw-Isn-NH(2) is a biased ghrelin receptor agonist and that the selective signaling pattern presumably is due to its unique receptor recognition pattern lacking interaction with key...

  11. Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Moroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1 CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2 Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis.

  12. Uniqueness of the mass in the radiating regime

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T; MacCallum, M A H; Chrusciel, Piotr T.; Jezierski, Jacek; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac

    1998-01-01

    The usual approaches to the definition of energy give an ambiguous result for the energy of fields in the radiating regime. We show that for a massless scalar field in Minkowski space-time the definition may be rendered unambiguous by adding the requirement that the energy cannot increase in retarded time. We present a similar theorem for the gravitational field, proved elsewhere, which establishes that the Trautman-Bondi energy is the unique (up to a multiplicative factor) functional, within a natural class, which is monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri.

  13. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  14. On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, Octavian G

    2011-01-01

    We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

  15. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on multipliers cannot generate a unique clearing price. Although such situations are rare, they can cause significant uncertainties and complexities in market dispatch. In practice, this situation is solved through simple empirical methods, which may cause additional operations or biased allocation. Based...... the results of the theoretical analysis, and further demonstrate that the method performs effectively in both uniform-pricing and nodalpricing markets....

  16. 78 FR 58545 - Global Unique Device Identification Database; Draft Guidance for Industry; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Global Unique Device Identification Database; Draft Guidance... ``Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID).'' FDA is issuing this draft guidance to communicate... unique device identification system for medical devices along with implementation timeframes for certain...

  17. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S.

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  18. Energy from gas hydrates - assessing the opportunities and challenges for Canada: report of the expert panel on gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    significant safety issues, unique to the production of gas from gas hydrate, that were not already encountered and addressed in the course of more conventional natural gas production, both onshore and offshore. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  20. Questions of uniqueness and resolution in reconstruction from projections

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Myron Bernard

    1978-01-01

    Reconstruction from projections has revolutionized radiology and as now become one of the most important tools of medical diagnosi- he E. M. I. Scanner is one example. In this text, some fundamental heoretical and practical questions are resolved. Despite recent research activity in the area, the crucial subject ·f the uniqueness of the reconstruction and the effect of noise in the ata posed some unsettled fundamental questions. In particular, Kennan mith proved that if we describe an object by a C~ function, i. e. , nfinitely differentiable with compact support, then there are other bjects with the same shape, i. e. , support, which can differ almost rhitrarily and still have the same projections in finitely many direc­ ions. On the other hand, he proved that objects in finite dimensional unction spaces are uniquely determined by a single projection for almost 11 angles, i. e. , except on a set of measure zero. Along these lines, erman and Rowland in [41) showed that reconstructions obtained from he common...