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Sample records for unique trans-npc mechanism

  1. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  2. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture of extremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1) the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2) the thin films of austenite between the individual ferrite platelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale.Considering the nanometer grain sizes the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes), and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and "green" material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over altemative materials.

  3. Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  4. Growth Mechanism of a Unique Hierarchical Vaterite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guobin; Xu, Yifei; Wang, Mu

    2013-03-01

    Calcium carbonate is one of the most significant minerals in nature as well as in biogenic sources. Calcium carbonate occurs naturally in three crystalline polymorphs, i.e., calcite, aragonite, and vaterite. Although it has been attracted much research attention to understanding of the formation mechanisms of the material, the properties of the vaterite polymorph is not well known. Here we report synthesis and formation mechanism of a unique hierarchical structure of vaterite. The material is grown by a controlled diffusion method. The structure possesses a core and an outer part. The core is convex lens-like and is formed by vaterite nanocrystals that have small misorientations. The outer part is separated into six garlic clove-like segments. Each segment possesses piles of plate-like vaterite crystals, and the orientations of the plates continuously change from pile to pile. Based on real-time experimental results and the structural analysis, a growth mechanism is presented. Work supported by NSFC (Grant No. 51172104) and MOST of China (Grant No. 2101CB630705)

  5. Proposition of Unique Pumping System with Counter-Rotating Mechanism

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    Toshiaki Kanemoto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbo-pumps have weak points, such as when the pumping operation becomes unstable in the rising portion of the head characteristics and/or the cavitation occurs under the intolerably low suction head. To overcome both weak points simultaneously, this article proposes a unique pumping system with counter-rotating mechanism, which consists of two stage impellers and a peculiar motor with double rotors. The front and the rear impellers are driven by the inner and the outer rotors of the motor, respectively, keeping the relative rotational speed constant and counter-balancing the rotational torque. Such driving conditions not only smartly improve the unstable performance at lower discharge, but also suppress the cavitation at higher discharge, in the optimum cooperation with the impeller works and the rotor outputs.

  6. Unique Mechanism of Chance Fracture in a Young Adult Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports ofunique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicleaccidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall withthe mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering stylebackpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  7. Gelled Complex Fluids: Combining Unique Structures with Mechanical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Gießelmann, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Gelled complex fluids are soft materials in which the microstructure of the complex fluid is combined with the mechanical stability of a gel. To obtain a gelled complex fluid one either adds a gelator to a complex fluid or replaces the solvent in a gel by a complex fluid. The most prominent example of a "natural" gelled complex fluid is the cell. There are various strategies by which one can form a gelled complex fluid; one such strategy is orthogonal self-assembly, that is, the independent but simultaneous formation of two coexisting self-assembled structures within one system. The aim of this Review is to describe the structure and potential applications of various man-made gelled complex fluids and to clarify whether or not the respective system is formed by orthogonal self-assembly.

  8. Revised Proof of the Uniqueness Theorem for "No Collapse" Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bub, J; Goldstein, S; Bub, Jeffrey; Clifton, Rob; Goldstein, Sheldon

    1999-01-01

    We show that the Bub-Clifton uniqueness theorem for 'no collapse' interpretations of quantum mechanics (Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27, 181-219 (1996)) can be proved without the 'weak separability' assumption.

  9. Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Silicon Carbide-Silicon Carbide Composites at Elevated Temperatures Using a Unique Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-10

    F THERMO-MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICON CARBIDE - SILICON CARBIDE COMPOSITES AT ELEVATED...MECHANICAL CTERIZATION OF SILICON CARBIDE -SILIC BIDE COMPOSITES AT LEVATED TEMPER S USING A UNIQUE COMBUSTION FACILITY DISSERTATI N Ted T. Kim...THERMO-MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICON CARBIDE - SILICON CARBIDE COMPOSITES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES USING A UNIQUE COMBUSTION FACILITY

  10. Unique action mechanisms of tramadol in global cerebral ischemia-induced mechanical allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Wataru; Kageyama, Erika; Harada, Shinichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-06-15

    Central poststroke pain is associated with specific somatosensory abnormalities, such as neuropathic pain syndrome. Although central poststroke pain is a serious condition, details pertaining to underlying mechanisms are not well established, making current standard treatments only partially effective. Here, we assessed the effects of tramadol, an analgesic drug mediated by opioid receptors, using a mouse model of global cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion (30 min) in male ddY mice. Development of hind-paw mechanical allodynia was measured 3 days after bilateral carotid artery occlusion using the von Frey test. Mechanical allodynia was significantly and dose dependently suppressed by intraperitoneal tramadol (10 or 20 mg/kg). These effects, which peaked at 10 min and continued for at least 60 min, were inhibited by naloxone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Tramadol antinociception was significantly negated by β-funaltrexamine (selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist, 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), but not naltrindole (selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist, 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or nor-binaltorphimine (selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) after 5 min, by β-funaltrexamine and nor-binaltorphimine but not naltrindole after 10 min, and by all selective opioid receptor antagonists at 15 and 30 min after tramadol treatment. These results suggested that antinociception induced by tramadol through various opioid receptors was time dependent. Furthermore, it is possible that the opioid receptors involved in tramadol-induced antinociception change over time with the metabolism of this drug.

  11. Unique kinase catalytic mechanism of AceK with a single magnesium ion.

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    Quanjie Li

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (AceK is the founding member of the protein phosphorylation system in prokaryotes. Based on the novel and unique structural characteristics of AceK recently uncovered, we sought to understand its kinase reaction mechanism, along with other features involved in the phosphotransfer process. Herein we report density functional theory QM calculations of the mechanism of the phosphotransfer reaction catalysed by AceK. The transition states located by the QM calculations indicate that the phosphorylation reaction, catalysed by AceK, follows a dissociative mechanism with Asp457 serving as the catalytic base to accept the proton delivered by the substrate. Our results also revealed that AceK prefers a single Mg(2+-containing active site in the phosphotransfer reaction. The catalytic roles of conserved residues in the active site are discussed.

  12. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

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    Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  13. A unique bivalent binding and inhibition mechanism by the yatapoxvirus interleukin 18 binding protein.

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    Brian Krumm

    Full Text Available Interleukin 18 (IL18 is a cytokine that plays an important role in inflammation as well as host defense against microbes. Mammals encode a soluble inhibitor of IL18 termed IL18 binding protein (IL18BP that modulates IL18 activity through a negative feedback mechanism. Many poxviruses encode homologous IL18BPs, which contribute to virulence. Previous structural and functional studies on IL18 and IL18BPs revealed an essential binding hot spot involving a lysine on IL18 and two aromatic residues on IL18BPs. The aromatic residues are conserved among the very diverse mammalian and poxviruses IL18BPs with the notable exception of yatapoxvirus IL18BPs, which lack a critical phenylalanine residue. To understand the mechanism by which yatapoxvirus IL18BPs neutralize IL18, we solved the crystal structure of the Yaba-Like Disease Virus (YLDV IL18BP and IL18 complex at 1.75 Å resolution. YLDV-IL18BP forms a disulfide bonded homo-dimer engaging IL18 in a 2∶2 stoichiometry, in contrast to the 1∶1 complex of ectromelia virus (ECTV IL18BP and IL18. Disruption of the dimer interface resulted in a functional monomer, however with a 3-fold decrease in binding affinity. The overall architecture of the YLDV-IL18BP:IL18 complex is similar to that observed in the ECTV-IL18BP:IL18 complex, despite lacking the critical lysine-phenylalanine interaction. Through structural and mutagenesis studies, contact residues that are unique to the YLDV-IL18BP:IL18 binding interface were identified, including Q67, P116 of YLDV-IL18BP and Y1, S105 and D110 of IL18. Overall, our studies show that YLDV-IL18BP is unique among the diverse family of mammalian and poxvirus IL-18BPs in that it uses a bivalent binding mode and a unique set of interacting residues for binding IL18. However, despite this extensive divergence, YLDV-IL18BP binds to the same surface of IL18 used by other IL18BPs, suggesting that all IL18BPs use a conserved inhibitory mechanism by blocking a putative receptor

  14. Conserved and plant-unique mechanisms regulating plant post-Golgi traffic

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    Masaru eFujimoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane traffic plays crucial roles in diverse aspects of cellular and organelle functions in eukaryotic cells. Molecular machineries regulating each step of membrane traffic including the formation, tethering, and fusion of membrane carriers are largely conserved among various organisms, which suggests that the framework of membrane traffic is commonly shared among eukaryotic lineages. However, in addition to the common components, each organism has also acquired lineage-specific regulatory molecules that may be associated with the lineage-specific diversification of membrane trafficking events. In plants, comparative genomic analyses also indicate that some key machineries of membrane traffic are significantly and specifically diversified. In this review, we summarize recent progress regarding plant-unique regulatory mechanisms for membrane traffic, with a special focus on vesicle formation and fusion components in the post-Golgi trafficking pathway.

  15. Structural insights into the unique inhibitory mechanism of the silkworm protease inhibitor serpin18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-Chao; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhao, Ping; Zhang, Yan; He, Huawei; Tan, Xiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Serpins generally serve as inhibitors that utilize a mobile reactive center loop (RCL) as bait to trap protease targets. Here, we present the crystal structure of serpin18 from Bombyx mori at 1.65 Å resolution, which has a very short and stable RCL. Activity analysis showed that the inhibitory target of serpin18 is a cysteine protease rather than a serine protease. Notably, this inhibitiory reaction results from the formation of an intermediate complex, which then follows for the digestion of protease and inhibitor into small fragments. This activity differs from previously reported modes of inhibition for serpins. Our findings have thus provided novel structural insights into the unique inhibitory mechanism of serpin18. Furthermore, one physiological target of serpin18, fibroinase, was identified, which enables us to better define the potential role for serpin18 in regulating fibroinase activity during B. mori development. PMID:26148664

  16. Unice cogito, ergo quantum sum (I think uniquely, therefore I am quantum mechanical)

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, Karl

    2011-01-01

    If the unitary quantum mechanical state evolution is universally valid, quantized systems evolve uniformly, deterministically, and reversible; that is, one-to-one. Hence, what is considered an irreversible measurement might be a purely subjective, conventional, and convenient abstraction of the situation that, although in principal totally reversible, for all practical purposes (fapp), measurements cannot be undone. If this is granted, then Schroedinger's "quantum jellification" arises because of the inevitability of the physical co-existence of classically mutually exclusive states through quantum coherence. It is suggested to take the rather unique human cognitive and perceptive experience as evidence that, at least at the level of apperception, quantum jellification does not exist at all. Otherwise the problems of how to characterize the ambivalence of perception and cognition induced by quantum coherence on a fundamental level of cognition, and why this ambivalence appears to be rather weak and can be ign...

  17. DIM (3,3′-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Brown, Milton L.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M.

    2013-01-01

    DIM (3,3′-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-κB activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-κB survival signaling. PMID:24127581

  18. DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane) confers protection against ionizing radiation by a unique mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Saijun; Meng, Qinghui; Xu, Jiaying; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Brown, Milton L; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Rosen, Eliot M

    2013-11-12

    DIM (3,3'-diindolylmethane), a small molecule compound, is a proposed cancer preventive agent that can be safely administered to humans in repeated doses. We report that administration of DIM in a multidose schedule protected rodents against lethal doses of total body irradiation up to 13 Gy, whether DIM dosing was initiated before or up to 24 h after radiation. Physiologic submicromolar concentrations of DIM protected cultured cells against radiation by a unique mechanism: DIM caused rapid activation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a nuclear kinase that regulates responses to DNA damage (DDR) and oxidative stress. Subsequently, multiple ATM substrates were phosphorylated, suggesting that DIM induces an ATM-dependent DDR-like response, and DIM enhanced radiation-induced ATM signaling and NF-κB activation. DIM also caused activation of ATM in rodent tissues. Activation of ATM by DIM may be due, in part, to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, an upstream regulator of ATM. In contrast, DIM did not protect human breast cancer xenograft tumors against radiation under the conditions tested. In tumors, ATM was constitutively phosphorylated and was not further stimulated by radiation and/or DIM. Our findings suggest that DIM is a potent radioprotector and mitigator that functions by stimulating an ATM-driven DDR-like response and NF-κB survival signaling.

  19. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. (Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (USA)); Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  20. On the uniqueness of paths for spin-0 and spin-1 quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, W.; De Baere, W.; De Neve, J.; De Weirdt, S.

    2004-02-01

    The uniqueness of the Bohmian particle interpretation of the Kemmer equation, which describes massive spin-0 and spin-1 particles, is discussed. Recently the same problem for spin-(1/2) was dealt with by Holland. It appears that the uniqueness of boson paths can be enforced under well determined conditions. This in turn fixes the nonrelativistic particle equations of the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation, which appear to correspond with the original definitions given by de Broglie and Bohm only in the spin-0 case. Similar to the spin-(1/2) case, there appears an additional spin-dependent term in the guidance equation in the spin-1 case. We also discuss the ambiguity associated with the introduction of an electromagnetic coupling in the Kemmer theory. We argue that when the minimal coupling is correctly introduced, then the current constructed from the energy-momentum tensor is no longer conserved. Hence this current cannot serve as a particle probability four-vector.

  1. Singular characteristics and unique chemical bond activation mechanisms of photocatalytic reactions on plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Phillip; Xin, Hongliang; Marimuthu, Andiappan; Linic, Suljo

    2012-12-01

    The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has almost exclusively focused on semiconductor photocatalysts. Herein, we show that plasmonic metallic nanostructures represent a new family of photocatalysts. We demonstrate that these photocatalysts exhibit fundamentally different behaviour compared with semiconductors. First, we show that photocatalytic reaction rates on excited plasmonic metallic nanostructures exhibit a super-linear power law dependence on light intensity (rate ∝intensityn, with n > 1), at significantly lower intensity than required for super-linear behaviour on extended metal surfaces. We also demonstrate that, in sharp contrast to semiconductor photocatalysts, photocatalytic quantum efficiencies on plasmonic metallic nanostructures increase with light intensity and operating temperature. These unique characteristics of plasmonic metallic nanostructures suggest that this new family of photocatalysts could prove useful for many heterogeneous catalytic processes that cannot be activated using conventional thermal processes on metals or photocatalytic processes on semiconductors.

  2. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIQUE MECHANISM OF SURVEILLANCE AND THE REDUCTION OF NON-PERFORMING LOANS

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    Nicoleta Georgeta PANAIT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a harmonized framework for financial supervision allows the minimizing of tax consequences and possible systemic bank failures. Banking union project will have impact on both the micro-prudential supervisory practices and the prudential supervision framework in the euro area and in the state members that will decide to participate in this project. The non-performing loans (NPL trend in the countries of Southeastern Europe further shows that nonperforming loans will increase in some of the states of Eastern Europe affecting credit flows and profits made by the banks. The activities conducted by the banks cannot be estimated, quantified and especially eliminate all risk, lending generates NPL even lending procedures were followed in accordance with the laws and regulations in force. Romania has the highest rate of non-performing loans in the region and the fact is generated because of difficulties in removing non performing loans from banks' balance sheets. In order to increase the volume of loans it is necessary to decrease of nonperforming loans from banks' balance sheets. To identify the optimal strategy for managing non-performing loans is necessary to continually monitor the performance and providing rapid adaptation to the dynamic environmental factors and changes in the characteristics of the loan portfolio. European Central Bank will consistently enforce a set of unique rules apply to the group of euro area credit institutions will directly supervise credit large institutions and will monitor supervisory practices of credit institutions less significant conducted by competent national authorities.

  3. Crystal structure of an invertebrate cytolysin pore reveals unique properties and mechanism of assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Savory, Peter; Rojko, Nejc; Kisovec, Matic; Wood, Neil; Hambley, Richard; Pugh, Jonathan; Wallace, E. Jayne; McNeill, Luke; Bruce, Mark; Liko, Idlir; Allison, Timothy M.; Mehmood, Shahid; Yilmaz, Neval; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; Robinson, Carol V.; Jayasinghe, Lakmal; Anderluh, Gregor

    2016-05-01

    The invertebrate cytolysin lysenin is a member of the aerolysin family of pore-forming toxins that includes many representatives from pathogenic bacteria. Here we report the crystal structure of the lysenin pore and provide insights into its assembly mechanism. The lysenin pore is assembled from nine monomers via dramatic reorganization of almost half of the monomeric subunit structure leading to a β-barrel pore ~10 nm long and 1.6-2.5 nm wide. The lysenin pore is devoid of additional luminal compartments as commonly found in other toxin pores. Mutagenic analysis and atomic force microscopy imaging, together with these structural insights, suggest a mechanism for pore assembly for lysenin. These insights are relevant to the understanding of pore formation by other aerolysin-like pore-forming toxins, which often represent crucial virulence factors in bacteria.

  4. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen.

  5. Swarming populations of Salmonella represent a unique physiological state coupled to multiple mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

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    Kim Wook

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is capable of swarming over semi-solid surfaces. Although its swarming behavior shares many readily observable similarities with other swarming bacteria, the phenomenon remains somewhat of an enigma in this bacterium since some attributes skew away from the better characterized systems. Swarming is quite distinct from the classic swimming motility, as there is a prerequisite for cells to first undergo a morphological transformation into swarmer cells. In some organisms, swarming is controlled by quorum sensing, and in others, swarming has been shown to be coupled to increased expression of important virulence factors. Swarming in serovar Typhimurium is coupled to elevated resistance to a wide variety of structurally and functionally distinct classes of antimicrobial compounds. As serovar Typhimurium differentiates into swarm cells, the pmrHFIJKLM operon is up-regulated, resulting in a more positively charged LPS core. Furthermore, as swarm cells begin to de-differentiate, the pmr operon expression is down-regulated, rapidly reaching the levels observed in swim cells. This is one potential mechanism which confers swarm cells increased resistance to antibiotics such as the cationic antimicrobial peptides. However, additional mechanisms are likely associated with the cells in the swarm state that confer elevated resistance to such a broad spectrum of antimicrobial agents.

  6. Algebraic roots of Newtonian mechanics: correlated dynamics of particles on a unique worldline

    CERN Document Server

    Kassandrov, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    In development of the old ideas of Stueckelberg-Wheeler-Feynman on "one-electron Universe", we study purely algebraic dynamics of (two kinds of) identical pointlike particles. These are represented by (real and complex conjugate) roots of a generic polynomial system of equations that implicitly defines a single "Worldline". The dynamics includes, in particular, events of "merging" of some two particles modelling the processes of annihilation/creation and the "exchange of quantum" as well. Correlations in the location and motion of the particles-roots relate, in particular, to the Vieta's formulas. After special choice of the inertial-like reference frame, the linear Vieta's formula ensures satisfaction of the law of (non-relativistic) momentum conservation and reproduces thus general structure of the Newtonian mechanics. Some considerations on relativization of the scheme are presented.

  7. Unique mechanical properties of nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Tiecheng; Chang, Xianghui; Wei, Nian; Qi, Jianqi

    2013-06-01

    Nanoindentation tests were performed on nanostructured transparent magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) ceramics to determine their mechanical properties. These tests were carried out on samples at different applied loads ranging from 300 to 9,000 μN. The elastic recovery for nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics at different applied loads was derived from the force-depth data. The results reveal a remarkable enhancement in plastic deformation as the applied load increases from 300 to 9,000 μN. After the nanoindetation tests, scanning probe microscope images show no cracking in nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics, which confirms the absence of any cracks and fractures around the indentation. Interestingly, the flow of the material along the edges of indent impressions is clearly presented, which is attributed to the dislocation introduced. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation indicates the presence of dislocations along the grain boundary, suggesting that the generation and interaction of dislocations play an important role in the plastic deformation of nanostructured transparent ceramics. Finally, the experimentally measured hardness and Young's modulus, as derived from the load-displacement data, are as high as 31.7 and 314 GPa, respectively.

  8. Algebraic roots of Newtonian mechanics: correlated dynamics of particles on a unique worldline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassandrov, Vladimir V.; Khasanov, Ildus Sh

    2013-05-01

    In the development of the old ideas of Stueckelberg-Wheeler-Feynman on the ‘one-electron Universe’, we study the purely algebraic dynamics of the ensemble of (two kinds of) identical point-like particles. These are represented by the (real and complex conjugate) roots of a generic polynomial system of equations that implicitly defines a single ‘worldline’. The dynamics includes events of ‘merging’ of a pair of particles modelling the annihilation/creation processes. Correlations in the location and motion of the particles-roots relate, in particular, to the Vieta formulas. After a special choice of the inertial-like reference frame, the linear Vieta formulas guarantee that, for any worldline, the law of (non-relativistic) momentum conservation is identically satisfied. Thus, the general structure of Newtonian mechanics follows from the algebraic properties of a worldline alone. A simple example of, unexpectedly rich, ‘polynomial dynamics’ is retraced in detail and illustrated via an animation (available from stacks.iop.org/JPhysA/46/175206/mmedia).

  9. Sapacitabine, the prodrug of CNDAC, is a nucleoside analog with a unique action mechanism of inducing DNA strand breaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jun Liu; Billie Nowak; Ya-Qing Wang; William Plunkett

    2012-01-01

    Sapacitabine is an orally bioavailable prodrug of the nucleoside analog 2'-C-cyano-2'-deoxy-1-β-D-arabino-pentofuranosylcytosine (CNDAC).Both the prodrug and active metabolite are in clinical trials for hematologic malignancies and/or solid tumors.CNDAC has a unique mechanism of action:after incorporation into DNA,it induces single-strand breaks (SSBs) that are converted into double-strand breaks (DSBs) when cells go through a second S phase.In our previous studies,we demonstrated that CNDAC-induced SSBs can be repaired by the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair pathway,whereas lethal DSBs are mainly repaired through homologous recombination.In the current work,we used clonogenic assays to compare the DNA damage repair mechanism of CNDAC with two other deoxycytidine analogs:cytarabine,which is used in hematologic malignacies,and gemcitabine,which shows activity in solid tumors.Deficiency in two Rad51 paralogs,Rad51D and XRCC3,greatly sensitized cells to CNDAC,but not to cytarabine or gemcitabine,indicating that homologous recombination is not a major mechanism for repairing damage caused by the latter two analogs.This study further suggests clinical activity and application of sapacitabine that is distinct from that of cytarabine or gemcitabine.

  10. Dynamic gas slippage: A unique dual-mechanism approach to the flow of gas in tight formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin; King, G.R.; Schwerer, F.C.

    1983-10-01

    A mathematical formulation, applicable to both numerical simulation and transient well analysis, describing the flow of gas in very tight (k < 0.1 md) porous media has been developed. Unique to this formulation is the dual-mechanism transport of gas. In this formulation gas is assumed to be traveling under the influence of two fields: a concentration field and a pressure field. Transport through the concentration field is a Knudsen flow process and is modeled with Fick's Law of diffusion. Transport through the pressure field is a laminar process and is modeled with Darcy's law (inertial-turbulent effects are ignored). The combination of these two flow mechanisms rigorously yields a composition, pressure and saturation dependent slippage factor. The pressure dependence arises from treating the gas as a real gas. The dynamic slippage derived from this formulation is found to be most applicable in reservoirs with permeabilities less than or equal to 0.01 md. The results from this study indicate that in reservoirs of this type, differences between recoveries after ten years of production using the dynamic slip described in this paper and constant slip approaches were as great as 10% depending on the initial gas saturation. If an economic production rate is considered, differences as great as 30 can be expected.

  11. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  12. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basant Repswal; Anuj Jain; Sunil Gupta; Aditya Aggarwal; Tushar Kohli; Devendra Pathrot

    2014-01-01

    Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths,usually from head injury.We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason.A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a balcony.He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft,right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2),right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fibula,and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia.There were no head,abdominal or spinal injuries.The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fluids,blood transfusion,and splintage of both lower limbs.Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails.Distal femoral physeal injury required open reduction and fixation with K wires.Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs.All the fractures united in four weeks.At the last follow-up,the child had no disability and was able to perform daily activities comfortably.We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report.

  13. Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures in a 2-year-old child: previously unreported injury with a unique mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fall from height is a common cause of unintentional injuries in children and accounts for 6% of all trauma-related childhood deaths, usually from head injury. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with multiple fractures of the bilateral lower limbs due to this reason. A child fell from a height of around 15 feet after toppling from a alcony. He developed multiple fractures involving the right femoral shaft, right distal femoral epiphysis (Salter Harris type 2, right distal metaphysis of the tibia and fi bula, and undisplaced Salter Harris type 2 epiphyseal injury of the left distal tibia. There were no head, abdominal or spinal injuries. The patient was taken into emergency operation theatre after initial management which consisted of intravenous fl uids, blood transfusion, and splintage of both lower limbs. Fracture of the femoral shaft was treated by closed reduction and fixation using two titanium elastic nails. Distal femoral physeal injury required open eduction and fixation with K wires. Distal tibia fractures were closely reduced and managed nonoperatively in both the lower limbs. All the fractures united in four weeks. At the last follow-up, the child had no disability and was able to perform daily ctivities comfortably. We also proposed the unique mechanism of injury in this report. Key words: Multiple bilateral lower limb fractures; Fall; Child

  14. Tubuliform silk protein: A protein with unique molecular characteristics and mechanical properties in the spider silk fibroin family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Lewis, R. V.

    2006-02-01

    Orb-web weavers can produce up to six different types of silk and a glue for various functions. Tubuliform silk is unique among them due to its distinct amino acid composition, specific time of production, and atypical mechanical properties. To study the protein composing this silk, tubuliform gland cDNA libraries were constructed from three orb-weaving spiders Argiope aurantia, Araneus gemmoides, and Nephila clavipes. Amino acid composition comparison between the predicted tubuliform silk protein sequence (TuSp1) and the corresponding gland protein confirms that TuSp1 is the major component in tubuliform gland in three spiders. Sequence analysis suggests that TuSp1 shares no significant similarity with its paralogues, while it has conserved sequence motifs with the most primitive spider, Euagrus chisoseus silk protein. The presence of large side-chain amino acids in TuSp1 sequence is consistent with the frustrated β-sheet crystalline structure of tubuliform silk observed in transmission electron microscopy. Repeat unit comparison within species as well as among three spiders exhibits high sequence conservation. Parsimony analysis based on carboxy terminal sequence shows that Argiope and Araneus are more closely related than either is to Nephila which is consistent with phylogenetic analysis based on morphological evidence.

  15. Unique lasing mechanism of localized dispersive nanostructures in InAs/InGaAlAs quantum dash broad interband laser

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, C. L.

    2010-02-11

    The authors report on the nanowires-like and nanodots-like lasing behaviors in addition to multiple-wavelength interband transitions from InAs/InAlGaAs quantum dash (Qdash) lasers in the range of ~1550 nm. The presence of lasing actions simultaneously from two different dash ensembles, after postgrowth intermixing for crystalline quality improvement, indicate the absence of optical phonon emission due to the small variation in quantized interband transition energies. This effect is reproducible and shows different lasing characteristics from its quantum dot and quantum wire laser counterparts. Furthermore, the small energy spacing of only 25 nm (at center lasing wavelength of ~1550 nm) and the subsequent quenching of higher energy transition states at higher bias level in Qdash lasers suggest the absence of excited-state transition in highly inhomogeneous self-assembled Qdash structures. However, the appearance of a second lasing line in a certain range of high injection level, which is due to the presence of different sizes of dash assembles, corresponds to the transition from smaller size of Qdash ensembles in different planar active medium. This unique transition mechanism will affect the carrier dynamics, relaxation process in particular and further indicates localized finite carrier lifetime in all sizes of Qdash ensembles. These phenomena will lead to important consequences for the ground-state lasing efficiency and frequency modulation response of Qdash devices. In addition, these imply that proper manipulation of the Qdash ensembles will potentially result in localized nanolasers from individual ensemble and thus contributing towards enormously large envelope lasing coverage from semiconductor devices.

  16. Expanding Newton Mechanics with Neutrosophy and Quadstage Method ──New Newton Mechanics Taking Law of Conservation of Energy as Unique Source Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal

  17. Mechanism of unique hardening of dental Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys in relation with constitutional phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonghwan [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aoba, Aramaki Aza, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Niinomi, Mitsuo, E-mail: niinomi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakai, Masaaki; Akahori, Toshikazu [Department of Biomaterials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kanno, Toru [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aoba, Aramaki Aza, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Fukui, Hisao [Department of Dental Materials Science, School of Dentistry, Aichi-Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan)

    2012-04-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The unique hardening behavior on Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloys by solution treatment was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 1} phase and Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 2} phase decomposed by solution treatment contributed weakly to the change of hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fine {beta} phases precipitated by aging treatment caused great increase in hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fine L1{sub 0}-type ordered {beta} Prime phase precipitated by solution treatment may contribute to the unique hardening behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of constitutional phases on the unique hardening behavior of as-solutionized dental Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy fabricated by cold rolling. The commercial dental Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy fabricated by cold rolling consists of Cu-rich {alpha}{sub 1}, Ag-rich {alpha}{sub 2}, and {beta} phases. On the other hand, the Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy fabricated by the liquid rapid solidification (LRS) method consists of single {alpha} phase. They were subjected to various heat treatments, respectively. The microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The hardness was evaluated by a Vickers micro-hardness tester. In the Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy fabricated by cold rolling, the fine L1{sub 0}-type-ordered {beta} Prime phase is precipitated and the coarse {beta} phase is remained after solution treatment at 1123 K. The hardness increases drastically. On the other hand, in the Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy fabricated by LRS method, the single {alpha} phase was decomposed into the {alpha}{sub 1} phase and the {alpha}{sub 2} phase after solution treatment at 1023 K and its hardness change was small. However, after aging treatment at 673 K, the fine {beta} phase is precipitated in the {alpha} phase and the hardness increases greatly even in the Ag-Pd-Au-Cu alloy fabricated by LRS method. It is considered

  18. p53 hypersensitivity is the predominant mechanism of the unique responsiveness of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT cells to cisplatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Gutekunst

    Full Text Available Consistent with the excellent clinical results in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT, most cell lines derived from this cancer show an exquisite sensitivity to Cisplatin. It is well accepted that the high susceptibility of TGCT cells to apoptosis plays a central role in this hypersensitive phenotype. The role of the tumor suppressor p53 in this response, however, remains controversial. Here we show that siRNA-mediated silencing of p53 is sufficient to completely abrogate hypersensitivity not only to Cisplatin but also to non-genotoxic inducers of p53 such as the Mdm2 antagonist Nutlin-3 and the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib. The close relationship between p53 protein levels and induction of apoptosis is lost upon short-term differentiation, indicating that this predominant pro-apoptotic function of p53 is unique in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (EC cells. RNA interference experiments as well as microarray analysis demonstrated a central role of the pro-apoptotic p53 target gene NOXA in the p53-dependent apoptotic response of these cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that the hypersensitivity of TGCT cells is a result of their unique sensitivity to p53 activation. Furthermore, in the very specific cellular context of germ cell-derived pluripotent EC cells, p53 function appears to be limited to induction of apoptosis.

  19. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Martinez; Jean Challacombe; Ingo Morgenstern; David Hibbett; Monika Schmoll; Christian P. Kubicek; Patricia Ferreira; Francisco J. Ruiz-Duenas; Angel T. Martinez; Philip J. Kersten; Kenneth E. Hammel; Jill A. Gaskell; Daniel Cullen

    2009-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome,...

  20. Additively manufactured metallic porous biomaterials based on minimal surfaces: A unique combination of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, F S L; Lietaert, K; Eftekhari, A A; Pouran, B; Ahmadi, S M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2017-04-15

    Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The topology, quasi-static mechanical properties, fatigue resistance, and permeability of the developed biomaterials were then characterized. In terms of topology, the biomaterials resembled the morphological properties of trabecular bone including mean surface curvatures close to zero. The biomaterials showed a favorable but rare combination of relatively low elastic properties in the range of those observed for trabecular bone and high yield strengths exceeding those reported for cortical bone. This combination allows for simultaneously avoiding stress shielding, while providing ample mechanical support for bone tissue regeneration and osseointegration. Furthermore, as opposed to other AM porous biomaterials developed to date for which the fatigue endurance limit has been found to be ≈20% of their yield (or plateau) stress, some of the biomaterials developed in the current study show extremely high fatigue resistance with endurance limits up to 60% of their yield stress. It was also found that the permeability values measured for the developed biomaterials were in the range of values reported for trabecular bone. In summary, the developed porous metallic biomaterials based on TPMS mimic the topological, mechanical, and physical properties of trabecular bone to a great degree. These properties make them potential candidates to be applied as parts of orthopedic implants and/or as bone

  1. Novel high-throughput screen identifies an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Chih-Wei; Alptürk, Onur; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2014-09-15

    HIV-1 resistance to zidovudine [AZT (azidothymidine)] is associated with selection of the mutations M41L, D67N, K70R, L210W, T215F/Y and K219Q/E in RT (reverse transcriptase). These mutations decrease HIV-1 susceptibility to AZT by augmenting RT's ability to excise the chain-terminating AZT-MP (AZT-monophosphate) moiety from the chain-terminated DNA primer. Although AZT-MP excision occurs at the enzyme's polymerase active site, it is mechanistically distinct from the DNA polymerase reaction. Consequently, this activity represents a novel target for drug discovery, and inhibitors that target this activity may increase the efficacy of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues, and may help to delay the onset of drug resistance. In the present study, we have developed a FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer)-based high-throughput screening assay for the AZT-MP excision activity of RT. This assay is sensitive and robust, and demonstrates a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.3 and a Z' factor of 0.69. We screened three chemical libraries (7265 compounds) using this assay, and identified APEX57219 {3,3'-[(3-carboxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)methylene]bis[6-hydroxybenzoic acid]} as the most promising hit. APEX57219 displays a unique activity profile against wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 RT, and was found to inhibit virus replication at the level of reverse transcription. Mechanistic analyses revealed that APEX57219 blocked the interaction between RT and the nucleic acid substrate.

  2. Ipsilateral simultaneous fracture of the trochlea involving the lateral end clavicle and distal end radius: a rare combination and a unique mechanism of injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta RK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Isolated trochlea fracture in adults is a rare surgical entity as compared to its capitellar counterpart. It has been only mentioned sporadically in the literature as case reports. Fracture of the trochlea is accompanied by other elbow injuries like elbow dislocation, capitellum fracture, ulnar fracture and extraarticular condylar fracture. Here we report a unique case of isolated displaced trochlea fracture associated with fractures of the lateral end clavicle and the distal end radius. We propose a unique mechanism for this rare combination of injuries: typical triad of injury, i.e. fracture of the distal end radius with trochlea and fracture of the lateral end of the clavicle. Nonoperative treatment is recommended for undisplaced humeral trochlea fractures; but for displaced ones, anatomical reduction and internal fixation are essential to maintain the congruous trochleacoronoid articulation and hence to maintain the intrinsic stability of the elbow. Key words: Isolated trochlea fracture; Clavicle; Radius fractures

  3. Unique Aeolian Transport Mechanisms on Mars: Respective Roles of Percussive and Repercussive Grain Populations in the Sediment Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments show that when sand-size grains impact a sediment surface with energy levels commensurate for Mars, small craters are formed by the ejection of several hundred grains from the bed. The experiments were conducted with a modified crossbow in which a sand-impelling sabot replaced the bolt-firing mechanism. Individual grains of sand could be fired at loose sand targets to observe ballistic effects unhindered by aerodynamic mobilization of the bed. Impact trajectories simulated the saltation process on dune surfaces. Impact craters were not elongated despite glancing (15 deg.) bed impact; the craters were very close to being circular. High-speed photography showed them to grow in both diameter and depth after the impactor had ricochetted from the crater site. The delayed response of the bed was "explosive" in nature, and created a miniature ejecta curtain spreading upward and outward for many centimeters for impact of 100-300 um-diameter grains into similar material. This behavior is explained by deposition of elastic energy in the bed by the "percussive" grain. Impact creates a subsurface stress regime or "quasi-Boussinesq" compression field. Elastic recovery of the bed occurs by dilatancy; shear stresses suddenly convert the grains to open packing and they consequently become forcefully ejected from the site. Random jostling of the grains causes radial homogenization of stress vectors and a resulting circular crater. A stress model based on repercussive bed dilatancy and interparticle adhesive forces (for smaller grains) predicts, to first order, the observed crater volumes for various impact conditions. On earth, only a few grains are mobilized by a percussive saltating grain; some grains are "knudged" along the ground, and some are partly expelled on short trajectories. These motions constitute reptation transport. On Mars, saltation and reptation become indistinct: secondary or "repercussive" trajectories have sufficient vertical impulse to create a

  4. The Interferon-signature of Sjögren’s Syndrome: How Unique Biomarkers Can Identify Underlying Inflammatory and Immunopathological Mechanisms of Specific Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong eNguyen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses direct the nature and specificity of downstream adaptive responses in autoimmune diseases. One of the strongest markers of innate immunity is the up-regulated expression of interferon (IFN and IFN-responsive/stimulated genes (IRGs/ISGs. While multiple IRGs are induced during the innate phase of host responses, transcriptome data suggest unique IRG-signatures for different diseases. Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS is characterized by chronic immune attacks against exocrine glands leading to exocrine dysfunction, plus strong up-regulated expressions of IFN IRG transcripts. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses indicate that differentially-expressed IRGs are restricted during disease development and therefore define underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Here we review the innate immune-associated IFN-signature of SjS and show how differential gene expressions of IRG/ISG sets interact molecularly and biologically to identify critical details of SjS etiopathogenesis.

  5. Bat-Derived Influenza Hemagglutinin H17 Does Not Bind Canonical Avian or Human Receptors and Most Likely Uses a Unique Entry Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman Sun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new influenza-like virus genome (H17N10 was recently discovered in bats and offers a new perspective about the origin and evolution of influenza viruses. The viral envelope glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA is responsible for influenza virus receptor binding, fusion, and entry into the cell; therefore, the structure and function of HA H17 was characterized. The 2.70 Å resolution crystal structure revealed that H17 has a typical influenza A virus HA fold, but with some special features, including a distorted putative sialic acid (SA binding site and low thermostability. No binding to either the canonical human α2,6 SA-linkage or avian α2,3 SA-linkage receptor was observed. Furthermore, H17 glycan binding was not detected using a chip covering more than 600 glycans. Our results demonstrate that H17 is unique among characterized HAs and that the bat-derived influenza virus may use a different entry mechanism compared to canonical influenza viruses.

  6. Structures of the Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase dodecamer reveal large intersubunit catalytic conformational changes linked to a unique feedback inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David S; Chinnam, Nagababu; Tonthat, Nam Ky; Whitfill, Travis; Wray, Lewis V; Fisher, Susan H; Schumacher, Maria A

    2013-12-13

    Glutamine synthetase (GS), which catalyzes the production of glutamine, plays essential roles in nitrogen metabolism. There are two main bacterial GS isoenzymes, GSI-α and GSI-β. GSI-α enzymes, which have not been structurally characterized, are uniquely feedback-inhibited by Gln. To gain insight into GSI-α function, we performed biochemical and cellular studies and obtained structures for all GSI-α catalytic and regulatory states. GSI-α forms a massive 600-kDa dodecameric machine. Unlike other characterized GS, the Bacillus subtilis enzyme undergoes dramatic intersubunit conformational alterations during formation of the transition state. Remarkably, these changes are required for active site construction. Feedback inhibition arises from a hydrogen bond network between Gln, the catalytic glutamate, and the GSI-α-specific residue, Arg(62), from an adjacent subunit. Notably, Arg(62) must be ejected for proper active site reorganization. Consistent with these findings, an R62A mutation abrogates Gln feedback inhibition but does not affect catalysis. Thus, these data reveal a heretofore unseen restructuring of an enzyme active site that is coupled with an isoenzyme-specific regulatory mechanism. This GSI-α-specific regulatory network could be exploited for inhibitor design against Gram-positive pathogens.

  7. Unique effect of mechanical crushing on the electrochemical intercalation of lithium in carbons of different morphologies; Effet unique du broyage mecanique sur l`intercalation electrochimique du lithium dans des carbones de morphologies differentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salver-Disma, F.; Tarascon, J.M. [Universite de Picardie, 80 - Amiens (France)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium ion batteries use an oxide as a positive electrode and a carbon material as a negative electrode. The performances of carbon electrodes have rapidly evolved during the last years thanks to the substitution of soft carbons of Conoco or MCMB-2510 type by graphites (F-399, MCMB-2528) and then by hard carbons. These high capacity carbons (700 mAh/g) have higher service life and volume capacity than graphites but their irreversible losses are greater (>20%). In this work, materials with similar electrochemical performances are prepared by mechanical crushing. Mechanical crushing allows to obtain a wide range of carbon materials with various morphologies, specific surfaces and levels of disorder. The formation of the passivation film is directly linked with the surface of materials. A reaction scheme of the reversible and irreversible capacities has been defined and has permitted to obtain compounds with reversible capacities of 720 mAh/g (2 lithium for 6 carbon). (J.S.)

  8. Disruption of long-range gene regulation in human genetic disease: a kaleidoscope of general principles, diverse mechanisms and unique phenotypic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shipra; Kleinjan, Dirk A

    2014-07-01

    The precise control of gene expression programs is crucial for the establishment of the diverse gene activity patterns required for the correct development, patterning and differentiation of the myriad of cell types within an organism. The crucial importance of non-coding regions of the genome in the control of gene regulation is well established and depends on a diverse group of sequence fragments called cis-regulatory elements that reside in these regions. Advances in novel genome-wide techniques have greatly increased the ability to identify potential regulatory elements. In contrast, their functional characterisation and the determination of their diverse modes of action remain a major bottleneck. Greater knowledge of gene expression control is of major importance for human health as disruption of gene regulation has become recognised as a significant cause of human disease. Appreciation of the role of cis-regulatory polymorphism in natural variation and susceptibility to common disease is also growing. While novel techniques such as GWAS and NGS provide the ability to collect large genomic datasets, the challenge for the twenty-first century will be to extract the relevant sequences and how to investigate the functional consequences of disease-associated changes. Here, we review how studies of transcriptional control at selected paradigm disease gene loci have revealed general principles of cis-regulatory logic and regulatory genome organisation, yet also demonstrate how the variety of mechanisms can combine to result in unique phenotypic outcomes. Integration of these principles with the emerging wealth of genome-wide data will provide enhanced insight into the workings of our regulatory genome.

  9. T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL): New insights into the cellular origins and infiltration mechanisms common and unique among hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Eduardo; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa; Pelayo, Rosana; Schnoor, Michael

    2017-08-15

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) accounts for 15% and 25% of total childhood and adult ALL cases, respectively. During T-ALL, patients are at risk of organ infiltration by leukemic T-cells. Infiltration is a major consequence of disease relapse and correlates with poor prognosis. Transendothelial migration of leukemic cells is required to exit the blood stream into target organs. While mechanisms of normal T-cell transmigration are well known, the mechanisms of leukemic T-cell extravasation remain elusive; but involvement of chemokines, integrins and Notch signaling play critical roles. Here, we summarize current knowledge about molecular mechanisms of leukemic T-cell infiltration with special emphasis on the newly identified subtype early T-cell-progenitor (ETP)-ALL. Furthermore, we compare the extravasation potential of T-ALL cells with that of other hematologic malignancies such as B-ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A unique growth mechanism of donut-shaped Mg–Al layered double hydroxides crystals revealed by AFM and STEM–EDX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhysutanto, W.N.; Van Den Bruele, F.J.; Rossenaar, B.D.; Van Agterveld, D.; Van Enckevort, W.J.P.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Donut-like crystals of Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) are synthesized using a hydrothermal method with microwave heating. This morphology provides enlargement of the specific surface area of the {h k 0} faces, needed for adsorption application. The growth mechanism for donut-shaped crystals i

  11. Antitumor Effects and Related Mechanisms of Penicitrinine A, a Novel Alkaloid with a Unique Spiro Skeleton from the Marine Fungus Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Ying Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penicitrinine A, a novel alkaloid with a unique spiro skeleton, was isolated from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum. In this study, the isolation, structure and biosynthetic pathway elucidation of the new compound were described. This new compound showed anti-proliferative activity on multiple tumor types. Among them, the human malignant melanoma cell A-375 was confirmed to be the most sensitive. Morphologic evaluation, apoptosis rate analysis, Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR results showed penicitrinine A could significantly induce A-375 cell apoptosis by decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of Bax. Moreover, we investigated the anti-metastatic effects of penicitrinine A in A-375 cells by wound healing assay, trans-well assay, Western blot and RT-qPCR. The results showed penicitrinine A significantly suppressed metastatic activity of A-375 cells by regulating the expression of MMP-9 and its specific inhibitor TIMP-1. These findings suggested that penicitrinine A might serve as a potential antitumor agent, which could inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells.

  12. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  13. Inhibition of glutathione production by L-S,R-buthionine sulfoximine activates hepatic ascorbate synthesis - A unique anti-oxidative stress mechanism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Ying; Duan, Yajun; Chen, Yuanli; Han, Jihong; Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao

    2017-02-26

    Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate, the cytoplasmic antioxidants, can regenerate and replace each other in scavenging reactive oxygen species reaction. Mice, but not guinea pigs, produce ascorbate endogenously. l-Buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (L-S,R-BSO) substantially inhibited GSH production at a greater degree and caused a higher toxicity to guinea pigs than mice, implying that mice may have an additional protective mechanism against oxidative stress injury. Indeed, administration of L-S,R-BSO to mice inhibited tissue GSH production while increasing ascorbate levels. L-S,R-BSO also increased tissue ascorbate levels in mice fed a ascorbate and dehydroascorbate-free diet suggesting activation of ascorbate synthesis, which was further confirmed by increased urinary ascorbate excretion. Other reagents inhibiting GSH production also increased tissue ascorbate levels. The results of Northern blot and promoter assay showed that L-S,R-BSO increased mRNA expression and promoter activity of mouse liver L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase, the critical enzyme for ascorbate synthesis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that inhibition of GSH production activates ascorbate synthesis to protect mice against oxidative stress injury, the mechanism which is not present in guinea pigs or humans.

  14. Cytoplasmic retention of Xenopus nuclear factor 7 before the mid blastula transition uses a unique anchoring mechanism involving a retention domain and several phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Shou, W; Kloc, M; Reddy, B A; Etkin, L D

    1994-01-01

    Xenopus nuclear factor 7 (xnf7) is a maternally expressed protein that belongs to the B-box zinc finger gene family consisting of transcription factors, protooncogenes, and ribonucleoproteins. Its function is regulated by retention in the cytoplasm from oocyte maturation until the mid blastula transition (MBT) when it reenters the nucleus. We defined a 22-amino acid cytoplasmic retention domain (CRD) in xnf7 that functioned cooperatively with two phosphorylation sites within the xnf7 molecule to retain the protein in the cytoplasm until the MBT. Deletion of this region or mutations in the phosphorylation sites resulted in the early entry of xnf7 into the nucleus. A mutation changing one of the phosphorylation sites to a glutamic acid resulted in the prolonged retention of the xnf7 protein in the cytoplasm until stages 9-10, well past the MBT. Additionally, a mutant form of xnf7 possessing a second nuclear localization signal at the COOH terminus was retained in the cytoplasm. This suggests that retention of xnf7 was not due to the masking of its NLS as is the case with NFkB and dorsal but was due to a novel anchoring mechanism in which the CRD interacts with an anchor protein. The CRD sequence is also found in another B-box zinc finger protein that is also retained in the cytoplasm until the MBT in the newt. Therefore, we believe that this may be an important mechanism whereby the function of a number of nuclear proteins is regulated during development.

  15. Unique Mechanisms of Sheng Yu Decoction (聖愈湯 Shèng Yù Tang on Ischemic Stroke Mice Revealed by an Integrated Neurofunctional and Transcriptome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Hou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheng Yu Decoction (聖愈湯 Shèng Yù Tang; SYD is a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM remedy used in treating cardiovascular and brain-related dysfunction clinically; yet, its neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. Here, mice were subjected to an acute ischemic stroke to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of action of SYD by an integrated neurofunctional and transcriptome analysis. More than 80% of the mice died within 2 days after ischemic stroke with vehicle treatment. Treatments with SYD (1.0 g/kg, twice daily, orally or p.o. and recombinant thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; 10 mg/kg, once daily, intravenously or i.v. both significantly extended the lifespan as compared to that of the vehicle-treated stroke group. SYD successfully restored brain function, ameliorated cerebral infarction and oxidative stress, and significantly improved neurological deficits in mice with stroke. Molecular impact of SYD by a genome-wide transcriptome analysis using brains from stroke mice showed a total of 162 out of 2081 ischemia-induced probe sets were significantly influenced by SYD. Mining the functional modules and genetic networks of these 162 genes revealed a significant upregulation of neuroprotective genes in Wnt receptor signaling pathway (3 genes and regulation of cell communication (7 genes and downregulation of destructive genes in response to stress (13 genes and in the induction of inflammation (5 genes, cytokine production (4 genes, angiogenesis (3 genes, vasculature (6 genes and blood vessel (5 genes development, wound healing (7 genes, defense response (7 genes, chemotaxis (4 genes, immune response (7 genes, antigen processing and presenting (3 genes, and leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (2 genes by SYD. Our results suggest that SYD could protect mice against ischemic stroke primarily through significantly downregulating the damaging genes involved in stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, blood vessel

  16. Schisandra chinensis peptidoglycan-assisted transmembrane transport of lignans uniquely altered the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms in human HepG2 cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill (S. chinensis (SC fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2 was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w. In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a "Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism".

  17. Core-Shell Fibers Electrospun from Phase-Separated Blend Solutions: Fiber Formation Mechanism and Unique Energy Dissipation for Synergistic Fiber Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Hsiue, Ting-Ting

    2017-09-11

    Through single-tube electrospinning, the biodegradable core-shell fibers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PDLLA) were obtained from blend solutions with different compositions at a total polymer concentration of 7 wt %. Regardless whether PHB is the major or minor component (PHB/PDLLA = 90/10, 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 wt. ratio), these phase-separated solutions all yielded core-shell fibers with PHB as core and PDLLA as shell. A new scenario of core-shell fiber formation was proposed on the basis of the relative magnitude of the intrinsic relaxation rate of fluids and external extension rate during electrospinning. The effects of blend compositions on the morphologies of the Taylor cone, whipping jet, and as-spun fibers were investigated. The diameters of core-shell fibers can be tailored by simply varying the PHB/PDLLA ratios. Two scaling laws describing the apparent viscosity (ηo) dependence of the outer fiber diameter (dfo) and core fiber diameter (dfc) were derived. That is, dfo ∼ ηo(0.38) and dfc ∼ ηo(0.86). The microstructures of the as-spun fibers were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchrotron wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scatterings. Results showed that the PDLLA component was in the amorphous state, and the crystallizability of PHB component remained unchanged, except the amorphous 10/90 fibers electrospun from a miscible solution state. The synergistic mechanical properties of the core-shell fibers were obtained, along with the ductile PDLLA shell enclosing the brittle PHB core. The enhanced toughness was attributed to the fragmentation of the brittle PHB core and necking fracture of the ductile PDLLA shell, which served as an effective route for energy dissipation. Compared with the neat PHB fiber, the 90/10 and 75/25 core-shell fibers possessed larger elastic moduli, which was attributed to the high PHB crystal orientation in their core sections despite

  18. Molecular modeling and computational analyses suggests that the Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic regulator protein ExoR adopts a superhelical fold and is controlled by a unique mechanism of proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Eliza M; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Singh, Shaneen M

    2015-03-01

    The Sinorhizobium meliloti periplasmic ExoR protein and the ExoS/ChvI two-component system form a regulatory mechanism that directly controls the transformation of free-living to host-invading cells. In the absence of crystal structures, understanding the molecular mechanism of interaction between ExoR and the ExoS sensor, which is believed to drive the key regulatory step in the invasion process, remains a major challenge. In this study, we present a theoretical structural model of the active form of ExoR protein, ExoRm , generated using computational methods. Our model suggests that ExoR possesses a super-helical fold comprising 12 α-helices forming six Sel1-like repeats, including two that were unidentified in previous studies. This fold is highly conducive to mediating protein-protein interactions and this is corroborated by the identification of putative protein binding sites on the surface of the ExoRm protein. Our studies reveal two novel insights: (a) an extended conformation of the third Sel1-like repeat that might be important for ExoR regulatory function and (b) a buried proteolytic site that implies a unique proteolytic mechanism. This study provides new and interesting insights into the structure of S. meliloti ExoR, lays the groundwork for elaborating the molecular mechanism of ExoRm cleavage, ExoRm -ExoS interactions, and studies of ExoR homologs in other bacterial host interactions.

  19. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  20. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  1. Research progress on the mechanism of formation and evolution of unique industries at county level%县域特色产业形成和演化机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岱; 蔺雪芹; 司月芳; 余建辉

    2013-01-01

    Among the strategic priorities of urban and rural development in China,fostering unique industries at county level has become a hot topic in the research of regional sustainable development.In this article,we critically summarize and evaluate the key studies on unique industries at county level at home and abroad in this century from three perspectives:theoretical development,main issues and research methodologies.Theoretically,the related researches are under the umbrella of human-environmental relationship discussion,since local unique industries are deeply influenced by the regional advantage and industrial characteristics.Moreover,the theoretical framework and studies in the fields of biology and systematology provide additional enlightening perspectives to the analysis of the interaction between,and co-evolvement of,the unique industries and the influencing factors.Among them,the scholars from actor-network-theory,political ecology,industrial ecology and regional ecology provide resourceful evidence and sound arguments.The main issues in unique industries discussion expand from the local economic development to global production network,from traditional factors to new factors.However,the mismatch and disconnection between the macro-level and micro-level research have limited further development and practices of these studies to some extent.The methods applied in the unique industry research have changed from qualitative description only to the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis.Nevertheless,due to the limitation of data collection,the research methods need to be further developed to better analyze the motivations and dynamics of unique industry development.We also find out the differences between the domestic and foreign researches.In western countries,the researches highlight the co-evolution between unique industries and regional functions from the perspectives of systematology and ecology,and focus on integration and dynamic system

  2. Unique mechanism of the interaction between honey bee toxin TPNQ and rKir1.1 potassium channel explored by computational simulations: insights into the relative insensitivity of channel towards animal toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 21-residue compact tertiapin-Q (TPNQ toxin, a derivative of honey bee toxin tertiapin (TPN, is a potent blocker of inward-rectifier K(+ channel subtype, rat Kir1.1 (rKir1.1 channel, and their interaction mechanism remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the flexible feature of potassium channel turrets, a good starting rKir1.1 channel structure was modeled for the accessibility of rKir1.1 channel turrets to TPNQ toxin. In combination with experimental alanine scanning mutagenesis data, computational approaches were further used to obtain a reasonable TPNQ toxin-rKir1.1 channel complex structure, which was completely different from the known binding modes between animal toxins and potassium channels. TPNQ toxin mainly adopted its helical domain as the channel-interacting surface together with His12 as the pore-blocking residue. The important Gln13 residue mainly contacted channel residues near the selectivity filter, and Lys20 residue was surrounded by a polar "groove" formed by Arg118, Thr119, Glu123, and Asn124 in the channel turret. On the other hand, four turrets of rKir1.1 channel gathered to form a narrow pore entryway for TPNQ toxin recognition. The Phe146 and Phe148 residues in the channel pore region formed strong hydrophobic protrusions, and produced dominant nonpolar interactions with toxin residues. These specific structure features of rKir1.1 channel vestibule well matched the binding of potent TPNQ toxin, and likely restricted the binding of the classical animal toxins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The TPNQ toxin-rKir1.1 channel complex structure not only revealed their unique interaction mechanism, but also would highlight the diverse animal toxin-potassium channel interactions, and elucidate the relative insensitivity of rKir1.1 channel towards animal toxins.

  3. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  4. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  5. The in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion obtained during electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A unique intramolecular mechanism involving an ion-molecule reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoub, Joseph H; Demian, Wael L L; Piazzetta, Paolo; Sarkis, George; Kanawati, Basem; Lafont, Dominique; Laurent, Nicolas; Vaillant, Celine; Randell, Edward; Giorgi, Gianluca; Fridgen, Travis D

    2015-10-15

    This study examines the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation and low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) of a synthetic pair of β- and α-anomers of the amphiphilic cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing the 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-galactosyl-D-GalN3 moiety. We describe the novel and unique in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion formed during all these gas-phase processes and propose a reasonable mechanism for its formation. The synthetic amphiphilic glycolipids were composed of the 2-deoxy-2-azido-D-galactosyl moiety (GalN3, the hydrophilic part) covalently attached to a polyethoxy spacer which is covalently linked to the cholesteryl moiety (hydrophobic part). The 2-azido-2-deoxy-α- and β-D-galactosyl-containing glycolipids were studied by in-time and in-space ESI-MS and CID-MS/MS in positive ion mode, with quadrupole ion trap (QIT), quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) instruments. Conventional single-stage ESI-MS analysis showed the formation of the protonated molecule. During the single-stage ESI-MS analysis and the CID-MS/MS of the [M+H](+) and [M+NH4](+) adducts obtained from both glycolipid anomers, the presence of a series of specific product ions with different intensities was observed, consistent with the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+), [cholestadiene+H](+), 2-deoxy-2-D-azido-galactosyl [GalN3](+), [GalNH](+) and [sugar-Spacer+H](+) ions. The gas-phase formation of the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+) ion isolated from the glycolipid anomers was observed during both the ESI-MS of the glycolipids and the CID-MS/MS analyses of the [M+H](+) ions and it was found to occur by an intramolecular rearrangement involving an ion-molecule complex. CID-QqTOF-MS/MS and CID-FTICR-MS(2) analysis allowed the differentiation of the two glycolipid anomers and showed noticeable variation in the

  6. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  7. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  8. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  9. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  10. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  11. Mechanism on How Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence Works on Chinese Consumers' Need for Uniqueness%人际间影响敏感性对中国消费者独特性需求的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚海峰

    2012-01-01

    以本土消费者为样本,采用实证研究方法就消费者的人际间影响敏感性与独特性需求之间的作用关系进行了分析.通过分析发现,从总体来看本土消费者对人际间影响所持有的敏感性对独特性需求产生了促进作用,这种因果关系在一定程度上解释了中国消费者在消费过程中所体现出的从众、攀比、好面子等独特现象的产生机理.%Based on the previous works, some hypotheses are put forward and the relationship between consumers' need for uniqueness and interpersonal influence is analyzed through empirical research methods by sampling local consumers. It is concluded that local consumers' susceptibility to interpersonal influence is positively related to the need for uniqueness. Accordingly, this causality makes it understandable for us to some extent many particular phenomena including conformity, keeping up with the Joneses and keeping face of Chinese consumers during the process of consumption.

  12. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  13. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  14. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  15. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  16. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  17. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  18. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  19. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  20. Fullerenes as unique nanopharmaceuticals for disease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As unique nanoparticles,fullerenes have attracted much attention due to their unparalleled physical,chemical and biological properties.Various functionalized fullerenes with OH,NH2,COOH,and peptide modifications were developed.It summarized the biological activities of fullerenes derivatives in cancer therapy with high efficiency and low toxicity,as reactive oxygen species scavenger and lipid peroxidation inhibitor,to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus and to suppress bacteria and microbial at low concentration.In addition,the mechanism for fullerene to enter cells and biodistribution of fullerene in vivo was also discussed.This research focuses on the current understanding of fullerenes-based nanomaterials in the potential clinical application as well as biological mechanism of fullerenes and its derivatives in disease therapy.

  1. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  2. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  3. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  4. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  5. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan; Liang, Guozheng

    2017-07-01

    Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO2 and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91-95%, about 29-14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and modified fibers. The excellent comprehensive properties of BL-AFs demonstrate that the green method provided in this study is facile and effective to completely solve the bottlenecks of aramid fibers, and developing higher performance organic fibers.

  6. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  7. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  8. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  9. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  10. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  11. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  12. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  13. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Trikha; Tarun Goyal; Amit K Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant dislocation of the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury.Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously.We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient.These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient.These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be quite severe.This case is presented in view of its uniqueness along with possible mechanism of injury,the sequence of reduction and follow-up.Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons.

  14. UNIQUENESS ON ZERO PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞敏; 王振

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a new idea, the authors prove the uniqueness of weak solution of pressureless gases with the large initial data. In particular, uniqueness theorem is obtained in the same functional space as the existence theorem.

  15. On the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniya Mandal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity theories coupled to n vector multiplets. We prove that for a given charge configuration the supersymmetry preserving axion free attractors are unique. We generalise the analysis to axionic attractors and state the conditions for uniqueness explicitly. We consider the example of a two-parameter model and find all solutions to the supersymmetric attractor equations and discuss their uniqueness.

  16. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 801 RIN 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification... unique device identification system as required by recent amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and..., FDA published a proposed rule to establish a unique device identification system, as required by...

  17. On chromatic and flow polynomial unique graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Yinghua; Wu, Haidong; Yu, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    ... research on graphs uniquely determined by their chromatic polynomials and more recently on their Tutte polynomials, but rather spotty research on graphs uniquely determined by their flow polynomials or the combination of both chromatic and flow polynomials. This article is an initiation of investigation on graphs uniquely determin...

  18. The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular

  19. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    CERN Document Server

    Terra, Pedro; Farina, C

    2016-01-01

    The answer to this question is no. In fact, in addition to the solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658, given by the cycloid, we show that there is an infinite number of tautochrone curves. With this goal, we start by briefly reviewing an the problem of finding out the possible potential energies that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many solutions, called sheared potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a P\\"oschl-Teller and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same periods of oscillations for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of an uniform gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the period of oscillations, there is an infinity of tracks w...

  20. Is the tautochrone curve unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Pedro; de Melo e Souza, Reinaldo; Farina, C.

    2016-12-01

    We show that there are an infinite number of tautochrone curves in addition to the cycloid solution first obtained by Christiaan Huygens in 1658. We begin by reviewing the inverse problem of finding the possible potential energy functions that lead to periodic motions of a particle whose period is a given function of its mechanical energy. There are infinitely many such solutions, called "sheared" potentials. As an interesting example, we show that a Pöschl-Teller potential and the one-dimensional Morse potentials are sheared relative to one another for negative energies, clarifying why they share the same oscillation periods for their bounded solutions. We then consider periodic motions of a particle sliding without friction over a track around its minimum under the influence of a constant gravitational field. After a brief historical survey of the tautochrone problem we show that, given the oscillation period, there is an infinity of tracks that lead to the same period. As a bonus, we show that there are infinitely many tautochrones.

  1. Plant tolerance: A unique approach to control hemipteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through g...

  2. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  3. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  4. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  5. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  6. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  7. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 16, 801, 803, et al. Unique Device Identification System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... will substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in...

  8. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  9. The essence of being extremophilic: the role of the unique archaeal membrane lipids : the role of the unique archaeal membrane lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vossenberg, J.L C M; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1998-01-01

    In extreme environments, mainly Archaea are encountered. The archaeal cytoplasmic membrane contains unique ether lipids that cannot easily be degraded, are temperature- and mechanically resistant, and highly salt tolerant. Moreover, thermophilic and extreme acidophilic Archaea possess

  10. Characterizing the unique photochemical environment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gu, D.; Zhao, C.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R.; Liao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the atmospheric chemical system over China could be more complex than expected, possibly as a result of the rapid increasing anthropogenic emissions. During the CAREBeijing-2007 Experiment in August of 2007, up to 14 ppbv of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) and 4.5 ppbv of glyoxal (CHOCHO) were observed, among the highest levels observed in the world in recent years. Elevated nitrous acid (HNO2) (~1.0 ppbv on average) was also observed in the early afternoon despite of the moderate amount of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO + NO2). We employ a 1-D photochemical model (REAM) to analyze the observations. The results indicate that reactive aromatics are the dominating source of PAN (55%-75%) and glyoxal (90%), and methylglyoxal is the major precursor of peroxy acetyl radical (50%). Downward transport from boundary layer is found to contribute ~50% of the PAN observed at surface. Photolysis of HNO2 is by far the largest primary OH source (more than 50%) throughout the daytime, and yet the fast formation rate of HNO2 inferred from the observations could not be explained by current known mechanisms. Detailed photochemical analysis is conducted to understand the controlling factors for O3 formation. O3 formation chemistry is strongly affected by aromatics and HNO2. By providing a large primary OH source, HNO2 leads to ~25% enhancement of the average O3 production rate, and aromatics contribute ~40% by serving as a major source of RO2 and HO2 radicals. Due to the large abundance of reactive hydrocarbons, O3 formation is generally NOx limited, although the sensitivity is low that a 50% reduction of NOx could only result in less than 25% reduction of the O3 production rate. Future research targeting HNO2 formation mechanism and emission sources of aromatics is necessary for better understanding the unique photochemical environment in China under significant anthropogenic impacts and the regional pollution

  11. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  12. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Opalak

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions.

  13. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  14. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  15. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  16. Existence and Uniqueness in Shape from Shading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雁萍; 李价谷

    1997-01-01

    For the image of a smooth surface object fully contained within the field of view and illuminated in and arbitrary direction,this paper discusses the existence and uniqueness o the conditions for solving a shape-from-shading problem under the conditions that the Fourier series expansion of the image intensity contains only zero and first order terms in a polar coordinate system.Three theorems are established,one for the existence and two for the uniqueness of z-axis symmetric shape from shading.

  17. Uniqueness vs non-uniqueness in complete connections with modified majority rules

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, J. C. A.; Friedli, S.

    2013-01-01

    We take a closer look at a class of chains with complete connections introduced by Berger, Hoffman and Sidoravicius. Besides giving a sharper description of the uniqueness and non-uniqueness regimes, we show that if the pure majority rule used to fix the dependence on the past is replaced with a function that is Lipschitz at the origin, then uniqueness always holds, even with arbitrarily slow decaying variation.

  18. Dusty plasma as a unique object of plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G. E.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The self-consistency and basic openness of dusty plasma, charge fluctuations, high dissipation and other features of dusty plasma system lead to the appearance of a number of unusual and unique properties of dusty plasma. “Anomalous” heating of dusty particles, anisotropy of temperatures and other features, parametric resonance, charge fluctuations and interaction potential are among these unique properties. Study is based on analytical approach and numerical simulation. Mechanisms of “anomalous” heating and energy transfer are proposed. Influence of charge fluctuations on the system properties is discussed. The self-consistent, many-particle, fluctuation and anisotropic interparticle interaction potential is studied for a significant range of gas temperature. These properties are interconnected and necessary for a full description of dusty plasmas physics.

  19. In a unique position or squeezed out?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Christensen, Inge

    2009-01-01

    language, they experience that their patients disappear, they are seldom involved, and they lack knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: GPs have few experiences with YA cancer patients, but they have a potentially unique role in general primary cancer care if they develop their vocational vocabulary, relate more...

  20. Uniqueness of meromorphic functions concerning differential polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lei

    2007-01-01

    Based on a unicity theorem for entire funcitions concerning differential polynomials proposed by M. L. Fang and W. Hong, we studied the uniqueness problem of two meromorphic functions whose differential polynomials share the same 1-point by proving two theorems and their related lemmas. The results extend and improve given by Fang and Hong's theorem.

  1. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  2. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor questionnaire, a…

  3. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  4. Multicultural Poetry: Voices Unique, yet Universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    As teachers gravitate more and more to the use of literature and strive to include a range of cultural experiences in their classrooms, the use of poetry from various cultural groups should be considered. Poetry is a very real means of having children see themselves and others as being both unique and yet the same. In considering poetry across…

  5. Tulane Student Designs Unique Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A Louisiana architect has created plans for a unique supplementary learning environment consisting of five circular buildings featuring a planetarium, an indoor display of small animals in their native habitat, an indoor pond, a library, a media center, and an auditorium. (Author/MLF)

  6. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  7. UNIQUENESS OF DIFFERENCE POLYNOMIALS OF MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 祁晓光

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the uniqueness problems of difference polynomials of meromorphic functions and obtain some results which can be viewed as discrete analogues of the results given by Shibazaki. Some examples are given to show the results in this article are best possible.

  8. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  9. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  10. Immune tolerance elicited via unique ocular and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, H M

    2015-01-01

    Immune tolerance can be induced by numerous methods. This review article aims to draw lines of similarity and contrast between two unique models of immune tolerance, namely Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) and Nickel-induced oral tolerance. ACAID is an immune tolerance model that leads to the generation of CD4(+) T regulatory cells and CD8(+) T regulatory cells in the periphery after the injection of an antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye. Nickel-induced oral tolerance is another immune tolerance model that is induced by the contact allergen Nickel and leads to the generation of Nickel-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells after oral exposure. The goal of comparing different models of immune tolerance is to identify which mechanisms are universal and which mechanisms are model-specific. The knowledge of such mechanisms would allow scientists and clinicians to better intervene in different immune deregulation scenarios.

  11. Unique device identification system. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use.

  12. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  13. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  14. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  15. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  16. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  17. Metalworking Techniques Unlock a Unique Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Approached by West Hartford, Connecticut-based Abbot Ball Company, Glenn Research Center agreed to test an intriguing alloy called Nitinol 60 that had been largely unused for a half century. Using powdered metallurgy, the partners developed a method for manufacturing and working with the material, which Abbott Ball has now commercialized. Nitinol 60 provides a unique combination of qualities that make it an excellent material for ball bearings, among other applications.

  18. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main e...

  19. A unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khizar

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year-old Asian girl was referred to the nephrology unit with rapidly progressive renal failure. At the age of 15 she was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus but had defaulted treatment. Her renal functions improved with cyclophosphamide pulse treatment but she continued to have central nervous system vasculitis, gastrointestinal vasculitis and opportunistic infections making her a unique and challenging case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  20. Uniqueness from locality and BCFW shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodina, Laurentiu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a BCFW shift which can be used to recursively build the full Yang-Mills amplitude as a function of polarization vectors. Furthermore, in line with the recent results of arXiv:1612.02797, we conjecture that the Yang-Mills scattering amplitude is uniquely fixed by locality and demanding the usual asymptotic behavior under a sufficient number of shifts. Unitarity therefore emerges from locality and constructability. We prove this statement at the leading order in the soft expansion.

  1. Unification of Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics in Unique Conception of Particle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylov, Yuri A.

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that motion of quantum particles and classical particles can be described in the framework of the same formalism. Stochasticity of particle motion depends on the form of the space-time geometry, which is to be described as a physical geometry, i.e. a geometry obtained as a result of deformation of the proper Euclidean geometry. The new method of the particle motion description does not use quantum principles. It admits one to use the structural approach to theory of elementary particles. The structural approach admits one to consider structure and arrangement of elementary particles, that cannot been obtained at conventional approach, using quantum principles.

  2. Overcoming tumor immune evasion with an unique arbovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyday, Bruce; Chen, Tony; Kesari, Santosh; Minev, Boris

    2015-01-16

    Combining dendritic cell vaccination with the adjuvant effect of a strain of dengue virus may be a way to overcome known tumor immune evasion mechanisms. Dengue is unique among viruses as primary infections carry lower mortality than the common cold, but secondary infections carry significant risk of hypovolemic shock. While current immuno-therapies rely on a single axis of attack, this approach combines physiological (hyperthermic reduction of tumor perfusion), immunological (activation of effector cells of the adaptive and innate immune system), and apoptosis-inducing pathways (sTRAIL) to destroy tumor cells. The premise of using multiple mechanisms of action in synergy with a decline in the ability of the tumor cells to employ resistance methods suggests the potential of this combination approach in cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; Gujar, Hemant; Gordon, Jennifer R; Haynes, Kenneth F; Potter, Michael F; Palli, Subba R

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reaching the target sites on nerve cells, where an additional layer of resistance (kdr) is possible. This strategy evolved in bed bugs is based on their unique morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics and has not been reported in any other insect species. RNA interference-aided knockdown of resistance associated genes showed the relative contribution of each mechanism towards overall resistance development. Understanding the complexity of adaptive strategies employed by bed bugs will help in designing the most effective and sustainable bed bug control methods.

  4. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  5. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  6. Unique double recurrence of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Surgically treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered cured when the postoperative angiogram proves complete resection. However, despite no residual nidus or early draining vein on postoperative angiogram, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in adults. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old woman with asymptomatic double recurrence of her cerebral AVM after angiographically proven complete resection. To the authors' knowledge, this patient represents the first case with double de novo asymptomatic recurrence of Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Also, she represents the first case with unique AVM criteria in each recurrence.

  7. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  8. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  9. Uniqueness of Centauro-type events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Beggio, P.C.; Carvalho, A.O. de; Menon, M.J.; Navia, C.E.; Oliveira, R. de; Shibuya, E.H

    2003-07-01

    Analysis to discriminate Centauro events from normal events is made without previous identification of secondary emitted particles. For this purpose their energy and derived quantities like distance from the center of momenta it were mainly used. As a result we found in a sample of (280+87) experimental events only 3 were compatible with 5 Centauro events, but none of them dad a high content of hadrons, characteristic of Centauro events. With this result we are confident about the uniqueness of Centauro events, especially for two events that have vertex directly determined. Comparing with some interaction models features we depict a possible scenario to explain Centauro events.

  10. Uniqueness of the Trautman-Bondi mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T; MacCallum, M A H; Chru\\'sciel, Piotr T.; Jezierski, Jacek; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the only functionals, within a natural class, which are monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri, are those depending on the metric only through a specific combination of the Bondi `mass aspect' and other next--to--leading order terms in the metric. Under the extra condition of passive BMS invariance, the unique such functional (up to a multiplicative factor) is the Trautman--Bondi energy. It is also shown that this energy remains well-defined for a wide class of `polyhomogeneous' metrics.

  11. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Paer [Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  12. [Celiac disease: an unique autoinmune model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sáez, Luis Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a unique autoimmune disorder, because the environmental precipitant factor is known. It is gluten, the major storage protein of wheat and similar grains. Originally was considered a rare malabsorption syndrome of childhood, but nowadays is recognized a common condition, that affects to 1% of the general population, all over the world', involves to all different races, may be diagnosed at any age, and affects to many organ systems. Therapy for the disease is a gluten-free-diet that must be strict and long-term. This diet cause a total recovery clinical and analytical, with excellent quality of life of patients.

  13. Uniqueness, Self belonging and Intercourse in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Dr. Marvin / E.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript has ensued from my past studies in biochemistry (PhD, CUNY 1986) and my current endeavors in graduate study in philosophy and anthropology. The current research project began during my period as a graduate student in biochemistry with a professor of classical genetics comment that DNA was unique in the physical world. The paradox presented to relate this notion to existing natural law lead me to evolve and communicate a view that the world itself is a special case of a general...

  14. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  16. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  17. An experiment on Lowest Unique Integer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Hanaki, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally study Lowest Unique Integer Games (LUIGs) to determine if and how subjects self-organize into different behavioral classes. In a LUIG, N(≥ 3) players submit a positive integer up to M and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. LUIGs are simplified versions of real systems such as Lowest/Highest Unique Bid Auctions that have been attracting attention from scholars, yet experimental studies are scarce. Furthermore, LUIGs offer insights into choice patterns that can shed light on the alleviation of congestion problems. Here, we consider four LUIGs with N = { 3 , 4 } and M = { 3 , 4 } . We find that (a) choices made by more than 1/3 of subjects were not significantly different from what a symmetric mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) predicts; however, (b) subjects who behaved significantly differently from what the MSE predicts won the game more frequently. What distinguishes subjects was their tendencies to change their choices following losses.

  18. The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capes Melinda D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs. We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs, of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs, the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all

  19. Conditional and Unique Coloring of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2011-01-01

    For integers $k, r > 0$, a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper $k$-coloring of the vertices of $G$ such that every vertex $v$ of degree $d(v)$ in $G$ is adjacent to at least $\\min\\{r, d(v)\\}$ differently colored vertices. Given $r$, the smallest integer $k$ for which $G$ has a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring is called the $r$th order conditional chromatic number $\\chi_r(G)$ of $G$. We give results (exact values or bounds for $\\chi_r(G)$, depending on $r$) related to the conditional coloring of some graphs. We introduce \\emph{unique conditional colorability} and give some related results. (Keywords. cartesian product of graphs; conditional chromatic number; gear graph; join of graphs.)

  20. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M

    1994-12-01

    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  1. Computational Transition at the Uniqueness Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Sly, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The hardcore model is a model of lattice gas systems which has received much attention in statistical physics, probability theory and theoretical computer science. It is the probability distribution over independent sets $I$ of a graph weighted proportionally to $\\lambda^{|I|}$ with fugacity parameter $\\lambda$. We prove that at the uniqueness threshold of the hardcore model on the $d$-regular tree, approximating the partition function becomes computationally hard on graphs of maximum degree $d$. Specifically, we show that unless NP$=$RP there is no polynomial time approximation scheme for the partition function (the sum of such weighted independent sets) on graphs of maximum degree $d$ for fugacity $\\lambda_c(d) 0$. Weitz produced an FPTAS for approximating the partition function when $0<\\lambda < \\lambda_c(d)$ so this result demonstrates that the computational threshold exactly coincides with the statistical physics phase transition thus confirming the main conjecture of [28]. We further analyze the s...

  2. Organizing the spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic activity is quickly changing the hydrosphere. Panta Rhei calls for improved understanding of changing hydrosphere dynamics in their connection with human systems. I argue that progress within the Panta Rhei initiative is strongly limited by the absence of hydrological principles that help to organise our spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere; without guiding principles (e.g. classification systems) hydrology will continue to be a case study dominated science that will have a hard time to efficiently improve understanding, estimation and prediction of human affected systems. Exposing such organising principles should not be considered as a step backwards into the recent PUB decade. Instead, it should be regarded as an exciting scientific challenge that is becoming increasingly relevant now the hydrosphere is quickly changing.

  3. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  4. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  5. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  6. Émission de photons uniques par un atome unique piégé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquié, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2006-10-01

    En illuminant un atome unique piégé dans une pince optique de taille micrométrique à l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses résonantes d'une durée de 4 ns, nous avons réalisé une source efficace de photons uniques déclenchés, de polarisation bien définie. Nous avons mesuré la fonction d'autocorrélation temporelle en intensité qui met en évidence un dégroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possède des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

  7. 14 CFR 221.203 - Unique rule numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unique rule numbers required. 221.203... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.203 Unique rule numbers required... bear a unique rule number. (b) The unique rule numbers for the fares specified in this section shall...

  8. ROMANIA'S MACROECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS FOR JOINING THE UNIQUE EUROPEAN CURENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government has announced plans to join the eurozone by 2015. Currently, the leu is not yet part of ERM II but plans to join in 2010-2012. The economic advantages of the monetary union grow with expansion of the Euro zone. There is also a high level of skepticism; the main fear about the Euro is the inflation –that is considerable promoted by the Euro currency’s exchange rate in comparison with 2002; another restraint is due to member states inability to establish their own interest rates. The IMF arose the option of joining the Euro zone criteria relaxing. A one-sided Euro’s joining was suggested by International Monetary Fund on March-April 2009, in a confidential report mentioned by The Financial Times as the emergent states in Central and Eastern Europe to be able to pass to the unique currency, but not being represented in the Central European Bank Board. By its side, CEB considers that emergent states of the European Union must not pass to the unique currency unilaterally, because such a fact could under-mine the trust in Euro currency worldwide. This option would hardly deepen the macroeconomic controversies inside the Euro zone and would contradict the previous conditions already imposed. An acceptable solution could be the fastening of emergent countries joining the Exchange Rate Mechanism 2, after they are aware of risks arisen by such a step. The European Commission endorses in the Convergence Report on 2010 that Romania doesn’t meet any criteria needed by passing to the unique European currency, respectively: prices stability; budget position of the government; stability of exchange rate; interest convergence on long run and there are also law impediments. Our paper discusses arguments for a faster passing to the Euro currency versus arguments for a late joining the Euro currency in Romania.

  9. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  10. Lipases at interfaces: unique interfacial properties as globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P; Miller, R; Krägel, J; Leser, M; Fainerman, V B; Watzke, H; Holmberg, K

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of two globular proteins, lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and beta-lactoglobulin, at inert oil/water and air/water interfaces was studied by the pendant drop technique. The kinetics and adsorption isotherms were interpreted for both proteins in different environments. It was found that the adopted mathematical models well describe the adsorption behavior of the proteins at the studied interfaces. One of the main findings is that unique interfacial properties were observed for lipase as compared to the reference beta-lactoglobulin. A folded drop with a "skinlike" film was formed for the two proteins after aging followed by compression. This behavior is normally associated with protein unfolding and covalent cross-linking at the interface. Despite this, the lipase activity was not suppressed. By highlighting the unique interfacial properties of lipases, we believe that the presented work contributes to a better understanding of lipase interfacial activation and the mechanisms regulating lipolysis. The results indicate that the understanding of the physical properties of lipases can lead to novel approaches to regulate their activity.

  11. Information Transmission in Emerging Markets: The Case of a Unique Financing Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Hammad

    2008-01-01

    Information flows are necessary for well-functioning financial markets. However, in many emerging markets, the legal and institutional preconditions for proper information flow are not met. How do such markets respond? We argue that they respond by developing innovative information transmission mechanisms. We identify one such mechanism associated with the evolution of equity markets in South Asia. The mechanism operates through a financing instrument unique to India and Pakistan, called badl...

  12. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  13. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  14. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  15. Unique biosynthesis of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To the best of my knowledge, only 19 cyclic and 8 linear C35 terpenes have been identified to date, and no family name was assigned to this terpene class until recently. In 2011, it was proposed that these C35 terpenes should be called sesquarterpenes. This review highlights the biosynthesis of two kinds of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) that are produced via cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid in Bacillus and Mycobacterium species. In Bacillus species, a new type of terpene cyclase that has no sequence homology with any known terpene synthases, as well as a bifunctional terpene cyclase that biosynthesizes two classes of cyclic terpenes with different numbers of carbons as natural products, have been identified. On the other hand, in Mycobacterium species, the first bifunctional Z-prenyltransferase has been found, but a novel terpene cyclase and a unique polyprenyl reductase remain unidentified. The identification of novel enzyme types should lead to the discovery of many homologous enzymes and their products including novel natural compounds. On the other hand, many enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products have low substrate specificities in vitro. Therefore, to find novel natural products present in organisms, the multifunctionality of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of natural products should be analyzed.

  16. Condition evaluation of a unique mining site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junsheng; Chen Frank Y.; Ma Yan; Zhang Siya

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the existing conditions and the stability of a mining site in which the unique features of seismicity, mining activity, hydrological conditions, geological con-ditions, environmental conditions, and future development plans were considered. In particular, the potential subsidence locations near the proposed construction site, the effects of mining boundary profile, and the influence scope of the mining activity on the neighboring areas were investigated using the finite element method. The study results indicate:(1) the overlying sandstone layer to the coal layer is the key to the stability of the mining roof; (2) the broken boundary has the most effect, followed by the arc boundary and linear boundary; (3) the safe distance from the mining boundary should be at least 400 m if the proposed structure is to be built near an active mining site. Other relevant engineering rec-ommendations are also proposed. The concluded results from this study may serve as a guide to other similar sites in the world.

  17. A Tandem Valve, a unique complication of TAVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Sattiraju

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available , MD1*,, MD1,, MD1,, MD2, MD2,, MD, PhD3 1. Division of Cardiology, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 2. Cardiovascular Surgery, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 3. Division of Cardiology, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Received: 11-1-16, Reviewed: 22-1-16, Accepted: 26-1-16 Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement, TAVR, Valve embolisation DOI: ABSTRACT We report a unique complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR in which there is mechanical entrapment of two Edward Sapien valves. The tandem valve con guration created a high gradient across the valves stuck in tandem. The images and videos in this case capture ndings that underscore the complexity of interaction between two prosthetic valves. We believe this case serves a high teaching value for physicians taking care of patients with aortic stenosis managed with TAVR approach.

  18. Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bolender

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description” requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

  19. Objective Nontensor Rheology: Unique Flow Decompositions from Correlated Microscopic Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Chafin, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The use of continuum mechanics and invariants built from the deviator as an adequate foundation for rheology has been recently disputed by this author. Here we give a specific example of the kind of parcel deformations that are uniquely decomposed by way of microscopic motions into a maximal rotation, a pure shear and an extension. The construction of these equations depends on only one free material parameter but they have no nice form in terms of the operations of vector and tensor calculus which may be why they were overlooked. Although the first order flow is often sufficient to give the rheological information, finite sized parcel deformations can give confusion because of boundary effects, the relevance of which are highly dependent on the global geometry of the experiment.

  20. The fern sporangium: a unique catapult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblin, X; Rojas, N O; Westbrook, J; Llorens, C; Argentina, M; Dumais, J

    2012-03-16

    Various plants and fungi have evolved ingenious devices to disperse their spores. One such mechanism is the cavitation-triggered catapult of fern sporangia. The spherical sporangia enclosing the spores are equipped with a row of 12 to 13 specialized cells, the annulus. When dehydrating, these cells induce a dramatic change of curvature in the sporangium, which is released abruptly after the cavitation of the annulus cells. The entire ejection process is reminiscent of human-made catapults with one notable exception: The sporangia lack the crossbar that arrests the catapult arm in its returning motion. We show that much of the sophistication and efficiency of the ejection mechanism lies in the two very different time scales associated with the annulus closure.

  1. The fern sporangium: a unique catapult.

    OpenAIRE

    Noblin, X.; Rojas, N. O.; Westbrook, J; Llorens, C.; Argentina, M.; Dumais, J.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Various plants and fungi have evolved ingenious devices to disperse their spores. One such mechanism is the cavitation-triggered catapult of fern sporangia. The spherical sporangia enclosing the spores are equipped with a row of 12 to 13 specialized cells, the annulus. When dehydrating, these cells induce a dramatic change of curvature in the sporangium, which is released abruptly after the cavitation of the annulus cells. The entire ejection process is reminiscent of ...

  2. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  3. Some unique superconductive Properties of Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K. A.

    2013-04-01

    Copper oxides are the only materials that show transition temperatures, Tc, above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, with a maximum Tmc of 162 K under pressure. Their structure is layered, with one to several CuO2 planes, and upon hole doping, their transition temperature follows a dome-shaped curve with a maximum at Tmc. In the underdoped regime, i.e., below Tmc, a pseudogap T* is found, with T* always being larger than Tc, a property unique to the copper oxides [1]. In the superconducting state, Cooper pairs (two holes with antiparallel spins) are formed that exhibit coherence lengths on the order of a lattice distance in the CuO2 plane and one order of magnitude less perpendicular to it. Their macroscopic wave function is parallel to the CuO2 plane near 100% d at their surface, but only 75% d and 25 % s in the bulk, and near 100% s perpendicular to the plane in YBCO. There are two gaps with the same Tc [2]. As function of doping, the oxygen isotope effect is novel and can be quantitatively accounted for by a two-band vibronic theory [3] near Tmc, and underdoped below it till Tc = 0 with by a formula valid for (bi)polarons [4]. These cuprates are intrinsically heterogeneous in a dynamic way. In terms of quasiparticles, Jahn-Teller bipolarons are present at low doping, and aggregate upon cooling [1], so that probably ramified clusters and/or stripes are formed, leading over to a more Fermi-liquid-type behavior at large carrier concentrations above Tmc.

  4. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  5. Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian Wejse; Danielsen, C. C.; Wogensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  6. The Einstein constraints: uniqueness and non-uniqueness in the conformal thin sandwich approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarte, T W; Pfeiffer, H P; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Murchadha, Niall \\'{O}; Pfeiffer, Harald P.

    2006-01-01

    We study the appearance of multiple solutions to certain decompositions of Einstein's constraint equations. Pfeiffer and York recently reported the existence of two branches of solutions for identical background data in the extended conformal thin-sandwich decomposition. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint alone, when expressed in a certain way, admits two branches of solutions with properties very similar to those found by Pfeiffer and York. We construct these two branches analytically for a constant-density star in spherical symmetry, but argue that this behavior is more general. In the case of the Hamiltonian constraint this non-uniqueness is well known to be related to the sign of one particular term, and we argue that the extended conformal thin-sandwich equations contain a similar term that causes the breakdown of uniqueness.

  7. Revealing remodeler function: Varied and unique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlund, Allen

    Chromatin remodelers perform a necessary and required function for the successful expression of our genetic code. By modifying, shifting, or ejecting nucleosomes from the chromatin structure they allow access to the underlying DNA to the rest of the cell's machinery. This research has focused on two major remodeler motors from major families of chromatin remodelers: the trimeric motor domain of RSC and the motor domain of the ISWI family, ISWI. Using primarily stopped-flow spectrofluorometry, I have categorized the time-dependent motions of these motor domains along their preferred substrate, double-stranded DNA. Combined with collected ATP utilization data, I present the subsequent analysis and associated conclusions that stem from the underlying assumptions and models. Interestingly, there is little in common between the investigated proteins aside from their favored medium. While RSC exhibits modest translocation characteristics and highly effective motion with the ability for large molecular forces, ISWI is not only structurally different but highly inefficient in its motion leading to difficulties in determining its specific translocation mechanics. While chromatin remodeling is a ubiquitous facet of eukaryotic life, there remains much to be understood about their general mechanisms.

  8. SEVERAL UNIQUENESS THEOREMS OF ALGEBROID FUNCTIONS ON ANNULI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang TAN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the uniqueness problem of algebroid functions on an-nuli, we get several uniqueness theorems of algebroid functions on annuli, which extend the Nevanlinna value distribution theory for algebroid functions on annuli.

  9. Existence and uniqueness of positive eigenfunctions for certain eigenvalue systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ru-Ying; Yang, Yi-Min

    2004-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions for some quasilinear elliptic systems are considered. Some necessary and sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions are given.

  10. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF POSITIVE EIGENVALUES FOR CERTAIN EIGENVALUE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Ruying; QIN Yuchun

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we consider certain eigenvalue systems.Imposing some reasonable hypotheses, we prove that theeigenvalue system has a unique eigenvalue with positiveeigenfunctions, and that the eigenfunction is unique upto a scalar multiple.

  11. Uniqueness Problems for Meromorphic Functions that Share Three Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigate the uniqueness problems for meromorphic functions that share three values CM and proves a uniqueness theorem on this topic which can be used to improve some previous related results.

  12. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology: Reduced Insect Food Source at Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Christopher G L; Popay, Alison J; Rolston, M Philip; Townsend, Richard J; Lloyd-West, Catherine M; Card, Stuart D

    2016-02-01

    Birds and other forms of wildlife are a major issue for airport authorities worldwide, as they can create hazards to operating aircraft. Wildlife "strikes," the majority caused by birds, can cause damage to operating aircraft and in severe cases lead to a loss of human life. Many airfields contain large areas of ground cover herbage alongside their runways that consist of mixtures of grasses, legumes, and weeds that can harbor many invertebrates. Many airfields use insecticides to control insect populations; however, mounting pressure from regional councils and water boards aim to reduce this practice due to ground water runoff and contamination concerns. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology, a product specifically developed to reduce the attractiveness of airports and surrounding areas to birds, is based on a novel association between a selected strain of Epichloë endophyte and a turf-type tall fescue cultivar. This grass-endophyte association acts through a direct mechanism whereby a negative response in birds is created through taste aversion and postingestion feedback as well as an indirect mechanism by deterring many invertebrates, a food source of many bird species.

  13. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to the Einstein Field Equations in Eternal Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Ikjyot Singh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Einstein field equations for an arbitrary FLRW universe in the context of stochastic eternal inflation where the stochastic mechanism is modeled by adding a stochastic forcing term representing Gaussian white noise to the Klein-Gordon equation. We show that under these considerations, the Klein-Gordon equation actually becomes a stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the existence and uniqueness of solutions to Einsteins equations depend on whether the drift coefficient of this stochastic differential equation obeys global Lipschitz continuity and growth conditions. We then show that only three unique solutions are possible in the context of this model. The first unique solution we obtain is a de Sitter space solution with a linear inflation potential. The other two solutions that we obtain are both Einstein static universe solutions with linear and quadratic potentials. An important implication of this work is that o...

  14. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  15. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few mu s to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  16. On the Uniqueness of the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition of third-order tensors --- Part II: Uniqueness of the overall decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Polyadic (also known as Candecomp/Parafac) Decomposition (CPD) of a higher-order tensor is decomposition in a minimal number of rank-1 tensors. In Part I, we gave an overview of existing results concerning uniqueness and presented new, relaxed, conditions that guarantee uniqueness of one factor matrix. In Part II we use these results for establishing overall CPD uniqueness in cases where none of the factor matrices has full column rank. We obtain uniqueness conditions involving Khat...

  17. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G.; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest’s physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented. PMID:27679643

  18. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  19. The unique cysteine knot regulates the pleotropic hormone leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake/expenditure, metabolism and hypertension. It folds into a four-helix bundle that binds to the extracellular receptor to initiate signaling. Our work on leptin revealed a hidden complexity in the formation of a previously un-described, cysteine-knotted topology in leptin. We hypothesized that this unique topology could offer new mechanisms in regulating the protein activity. A combination of in silico simulation and in vitro experiments was used to probe the role of the knotted topology introduced by the disulphide-bridge on leptin folding and function. Our results surprisingly show that the free energy landscape is conserved between knotted and unknotted protein, however the additional complexity added by the knot formation is structurally important. Native state analyses led to the discovery that the disulphide-bond plays an important role in receptor binding and thus mediate biological activity by local motions on distal receptor-binding sites, far removed from the disulphide-bridge. Thus, the disulphide-bridge appears to function as a point of tension that allows dissipation of stress at a distance in leptin.

  20. Different proteolipid protein mutants exhibit unique metabolic defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hüttemann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PMD (Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease, a CNS (central nervous system disease characterized by shortened lifespan and severe neural dysfunction, is caused by mutations of the PLP1 (X-linked myelin proteolipid protein gene. The majority of human PLP1 mutations are caused by duplications; almost all others are caused by missense mutations. The cellular events leading to the phenotype are unknown. The same mutations in non-humans make them ideal models to study the mechanisms that cause neurological sequelae. In the present study we show that mice with Plp1 duplications (Plp1tg have major mitochondrial deficits with a 50% reduction in ATP, a drastically reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased numbers of mitochondria. In contrast, the jp (jimpy mouse with a Plp1 missense mutation exhibits normal mitochondrial function. We show that PLP in the Plp1tg mice and in Plp1-transfected cells is targeted to mitochondria. PLP has motifs permissive for insertion into mitochondria and deletions near its N-terminus prevent its co-localization to mitochondria. These novel data show that Plp1 missense mutations and duplications of the native Plp1 gene initiate uniquely different cellular responses.

  1. Origin of the unique ventilatory apparatus of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Scheyer, Torsten M; Lambertz, Markus; Bever, G S; Rubidge, Bruce S; de Queiroz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The turtle body plan differs markedly from that of other vertebrates and serves as a model system for studying structural and developmental evolution. Incorporation of the ribs into the turtle shell negates the costal movements that effect lung ventilation in other air-breathing amniotes. Instead, turtles have a unique abdominal-muscle-based ventilatory apparatus whose evolutionary origins have remained mysterious. Here we show through broadly comparative anatomical and histological analyses that an early member of the turtle stem lineage has several turtle-specific ventilation characters: rigid ribcage, inferred loss of intercostal muscles and osteological correlates of the primary expiratory muscle. Our results suggest that the ventilation mechanism of turtles evolved through a division of labour between the ribs and muscles of the trunk in which the abdominal muscles took on the primary ventilatory function, whereas the broadened ribs became the primary means of stabilizing the trunk. These changes occurred approximately 50 million years before the evolution of the fully ossified shell.

  2. The Feat of Packaging Eight Unique Genome Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Giese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses (IAVs harbor a segmented RNA genome that is organized into eight distinct viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complexes. Although a segmented genome may be a major advantage to adapt to new host environments, it comes at the cost of a highly sophisticated genome packaging mechanism. Newly synthesized vRNPs conquer the cellular endosomal recycling machinery to access the viral budding site at the plasma membrane. Genome packaging sequences unique to each RNA genome segment are thought to be key determinants ensuring the assembly and incorporation of eight distinct vRNPs into progeny viral particles. Recent studies using advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques suggest the formation of vRNP sub-bundles (comprising less than eight vRNPs during their transport on recycling endosomes. The formation of such sub-bundles might be required for efficient packaging of a bundle of eight different genomes segments at the budding site, further highlighting the complexity of IAV genome packaging.

  3. Uniqueness of the differential Mueller matrix of uniform homogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlaminck, Vincent; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2014-06-01

    We show that the differential matrix of a uniform homogeneous medium containing birefringence may not be uniquely determined from its Mueller matrix, resulting in the potential existence of an infinite set of elementary polarization properties parameterized by an integer parameter. The uniqueness depends on the symmetry properties of a special differential matrix derived from the eigenvalue decomposition of the Mueller matrix. The conditions for the uniqueness of the differential matrix are identified, physically discussed, and illustrated in examples from the literature.

  4. Existence and uniqueness theorem for ODE: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poria, Swarup; Dhiman, Aman

    2016-01-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solutions became important due to the lack of general formula for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Compact form of existence and uniqueness theory appeared nearly 200 years after the development of the theory of differential equation. In the article, we shall discuss briefly the differences between linear and nonlinear first order ODE in context of existence and uniqueness of solutions. Special emphasis is given on the Lipschit...

  5. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Laurberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. We have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors.

  6. Genome comparison without alignment using shortest unique substrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller Friedrich

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparison by alignment is a fundamental tool of molecular biology. In this paper we show how a number of sequence comparison tasks, including the detection of unique genomic regions, can be accomplished efficiently without an alignment step. Our procedure for nucleotide sequence comparison is based on shortest unique substrings. These are substrings which occur only once within the sequence or set of sequences analysed and which cannot be further reduced in length without losing the property of uniqueness. Such substrings can be detected using generalized suffix trees. Results We find that the shortest unique substrings in Caenorhabditis elegans, human and mouse are no longer than 11 bp in the autosomes of these organisms. In mouse and human these unique substrings are significantly clustered in upstream regions of known genes. Moreover, the probability of finding such short unique substrings in the genomes of human or mouse by chance is extremely small. We derive an analytical expression for the null distribution of shortest unique substrings, given the GC-content of the query sequences. Furthermore, we apply our method to rapidly detect unique genomic regions in the genome of Staphylococcus aureus strain MSSA476 compared to four other staphylococcal genomes. Conclusion We combine a method to rapidly search for shortest unique substrings in DNA sequences and a derivation of their null distribution. We show that unique regions in an arbitrary sample of genomes can be efficiently detected with this method. The corresponding programs shustring (SHortest Unique subSTRING and shulen are written in C and available at http://adenine.biz.fh-weihenstephan.de/shustring/.

  7. Uniqueness and existence for bounded boundary value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehme, J.; Lanz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of solutions for the boundary value problems with general linear point evaluation boundary conditions is established. We assume that f is bounded and that there is uniqueness on a homogeneous problem and on the linear variational problems. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All righ

  8. Existence and Uniqueness of Solution to ODEs: Lipschitz Continuity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Poria; Aman Dhiman

    2017-05-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solution of ordinarydifferential equation (ODE) became important due to the lack ofgeneral formula for solving nonlinear ODEs. In this article, weshall discuss briefly about the existence and uniqueness of solutionof a first order ODE. A special emphasis is given on theLipschitz continuous functions in the discussion.

  9. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauerberg, Hans; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Pumbley, Mark;

    2008-01-01

    have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors....

  10. Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

  11. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  12. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  13. Uniqueness of limiting solution to a strongly competing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetik Arakelyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove a uniqueness for the positive solution to a strongly competing system of Lotka-Volterra type problem in the limiting configuration, when the competition rate tends to infinity. We give an alternate proof of uniqueness based on properties of limiting solutions.

  14. The Uniqueness of Optimal Solution for Linear Programming Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanlingWei; HongYan; JunWang

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates an old problem in operations research, the uniqueness of the optimal solution to a linear programming problem. We discuss the problem on a general polyhedron, give some equivalent conditions for uniqueness testing. In addition, we discuss the implementation issues for linear programming based decision making procedures,which motivated this research.

  15. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, C.; Wittmann, C.; Sych, D.

    2010-01-01

    unpredictability of quantum mechanics(4-11). However, most approaches do not consider that a potential adversary could have knowledge about the generated numbers, so the numbers are not verifiably random and unique(12-15). Here we present a simple experimental setup based on homodyne measurements that uses...... the purity of a continuous-variable quantum vacuum state to generate unique random numbers. We use the intrinsic randomness in measuring the quadratures of a mode in the lowest energy vacuum state, which cannot be correlated to any other state. The simplicity of our source, combined with its verifiably...... unique randomness, are important attributes for achieving high-reliability, high-speed and low-cost quantum random number generators....

  16. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Christian; Wittmann, Christoffer; Sych, Denis; Dong, Ruifang; Mauerer, Wolfgang; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Random numbers are a valuable component in diverse applications that range from simulations over gambling to cryptography. The quest for true randomness in these applications has engendered a large variety of different proposals for producing random numbers based on the foundational unpredictability of quantum mechanics. However, most approaches do not consider that a potential adversary could have knowledge about the generated numbers, so the numbers are not verifiably random and unique. Here we present a simple experimental setup based on homodyne measurements that uses the purity of a continuous-variable quantum vacuum state to generate unique random numbers. We use the intrinsic randomness in measuring the quadratures of a mode in the lowest energy vacuum state, which cannot be correlated to any other state. The simplicity of our source, combined with its verifiably unique randomness, are important attributes for achieving high-reliability, high-speed and low-cost quantum random number generators.

  17. The Mechanics of Mechanical Watches and Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu

    2013-01-01

    "The Mechanics of Mechanical Watches and Clocks" presents historical views and mathematical models of mechanical watches and clocks. Although now over six hundred years old, mechanical watches and clocks are still popular luxury items that fascinate many people around the world. However few have examined the theory of how they work as presented in this book. The illustrations and computer animations are unique and have never been published before. It will be of significant interest to researchers in mechanical engineering, watchmakers and clockmakers, as well as people who have an engineering background and are interested in mechanical watches and clocks. It will also inspire people in other fields of science and technology, such as mechanical engineering and electronics engineering, to advance their designs. Professor Ruxu Du works at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. Assistant Professor Longhan Xie works at the South China University of Technology, China.

  18. Unique prediction of cannabis use severity and behaviors by delay discounting and behavioral economic demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk was used to sample individuals reporting recent cannabis use (n=64) and controls (n=72). Participants completed measures of monetary delay discounting as well as alcohol and cannabis delay discounting and demand. Cannabis users and controls did not differ on monetary delay discounting or alcohol delay discounting and demand. Among cannabis users, regression analyses indicated that cannabis delay discounting uniquely predicted use severity, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency and quantity. These effects remained significant after controlling for other delay discounting and demand measures. This research replicates previous outcomes relating delay discounting and demand with cannabis use and extends them by accounting for the contribution of multiple commodities. This research also demonstrates the ability of online crowdsourcing methods to complement traditional human laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A unique deubiquitinase that deconjugates phosphoribosyl-linked protein ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Yu, Kaiwen; Fei, Xiaowen; Liu, Yao; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Shaw, Jared B.; Puvar, Kedar; Das, Chittaranjan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2017-05-12

    Ubiquitination regulates many aspects of host immunity and thus is a common target for infectious agents. Recent studies revealed that members of the SidE effector family of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila attacked several small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum by a novel ubiquitination mechanism that does not require the E1 and E2 enzymes of the host ubiquitination machinery. Following ubiquitin activation by ADP- ribosylation via a mono-ADP-ribosylation motif, ADP-ribosylated ubiquitin is cleaved by a phosphodiesterasedomainwithinSdeA,whichisconcomitantwiththelinkof phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to serine residues in the substrate. Here we demonstrate that the activity of SidEs is regulated by SidJ, another effector encoded by a gene situated in the locus coding for three members of the SidE family (SdeC, SdeB and SdeA). SidJ functions to remove ubiquitin from SidEs-modified substrates by cleaving the phosphodiester bond that links phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to protein substrates. Further, the deubiquitinase activity of SidJ is essential for its role in L. pneumophila infection. Finally, the activity of SidJ is required for efficiently reducing the abundance of ubiquitinated Rab33b in infected cells within a few hours after bacterial uptake. Our results establish SidJ as a deubiquitinase that functions to impose temporal regulation of the activity of the SidE effectors. The identification of SidJ may shed light on future study of signaling cascades mediated by this unique ubiquitination that also potentially regulates cellular processes in eukaryotic cells.

  20. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence,uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations.A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given.We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations,then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit.As consequences,some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  1. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-yi DAI; Yu-xia FU; Yong-geng GU

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence, uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given. We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations, then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit. As consequences, some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  2. The Unique Destination Proposition of Eskisehir: Industrial Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Unique Sales Proposition (USP concept which is one of the most important strategies of advertising history, to the Unique Destination Proposition (UDP for the case of Eskisehir. This study aims to propose industrial heritage as the UDP of Eskisehir by a descriptive approach. Industrial heritage helps Eskisehir destination brand to attain a meaningful, sustainable and distinctive dimension from its competitors. The current industrial heritage samples of Eskisehir were initially evaluated in this context. Subsequently, in the focus of the relation between industrial heritage and tourism, an excursion route and a tour program is suggested including the unique industrial heritage values of Eskisehir.

  3. Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Uniqueness Theorem of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Saida, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    This paper consists of three steps. In the first, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second, intrinsic properties of quantum mechanics are shown, which justify the Boltzmann formula to yield a unique entropy in statistical mechanics. These properties clarify three conditions, one of which is necessary and others are sufficient for the validity of Boltzmann formula. In the third, by combining the above results, we find a reasonable suggestion from the sufficient conditions that the potential of gravitational interaction among microstates of underlying quantum gravity may not diverge to negative infinity (such as Newtonian gravity) but is bounded below at a finite length scale. In addition to that, from the necessary condition, the interaction has to be repulsive within the finite length scale. The length scale should be Planck size. Thus, quantum gravi...

  4. A unique palindromic element mediates gamma interferon induction of mig gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To define the molecular mechanisms involved in the action of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), we have analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the mig (monokine induced by gamma interferon) gene, a member of the platelet factor 4-interleukin-8 cytokine family that is expressed in murine macrophages specifically in response to IFN-gamma. Analysis of mig/CAT chimeric constructs transiently transfected into the RAW 264.7 mouse monocytic cell line revealed a unique IFN-gamma-responsive element (ga...

  5. Nonlinear independent component analysis: Existence and uniqueness results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Aapo; Pajunen, Petteri

    1999-04-01

    The question of existence and uniqueness of solutions for nonlinear independent component analysis is addressed. It is shown that if the space of mixing functions is not limited there exists always an infinity of solutions. In particular, it is shown how to construct parameterized families of solutions. The indeterminacies involved are not trivial, as in the linear case. Next, it is shown how to utilize some results of complex analysis to obtain uniqueness of solutions. We show that for two dimensions, the solution is unique up to a rotation, if the mixing function is constrained to be a conformal mapping together with some other assumptions. We also conjecture that the solution is strictly unique except in some degenerate cases, as the indeterminacy implied by the rotation is essentially similar to estimating the model of linear ICA.

  6. Uniqueness and existence results for ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, J. Angel; Heikkila, Seppo; Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2006-04-01

    We establish some uniqueness and existence results for first-order ordinary differential equations with constant-signed discontinuous nonlinear parts. Several examples are given to illustrate the applicability of our work.

  7. Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet The Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand Hand therapy, a specialty practice area of occupational ... are treated by occupational therapy practitioners specializing in hand rehabilitation. Practitioners who treat clients with conditions of the ...

  8. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  9. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to Random Impulsive Differential Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jin Wu; Xiao-lin Guo; Song-qing Lin

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness in mean square of solutions to certain random impulsive differential systems is discussed in this paper. Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, Lipschtiz condition and techniques in stochastic analysis are employed in achieve the desired results.

  10. On the development of uniquely African management theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the development of uniquely African management theory. ... Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ...

  11. AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO GENERATE UNIQUE SONG SIGNAL (AUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedding uniqueness in characteristics of song signal and accustoming changes of environment is one of the challenging issues for researchers with maintaining its audible quality. Researchers are modifying or manipulating audio signal properties for generating uniqueness in content such a manner that will not vary so much in changed environment or changes can be easily defined due to unique structure of song signal. In this paper, an approach has been made based on defining a symmetric structure of song signal, followed by some secret code embedding in a specified manner will not alter the trade off ratio of embedding/modifying data but provide uniqueness in properties, even retain the properties in changing environment/ format. Therefore, authentication of song signal is easily achieved with these self manipulated properties. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  12. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  13. UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR EQUATIONS WITH AVALANCHE TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jiasheng; Wang Yuanming

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the initial and mixed boundary value problems for the semiconductor equations with avalanche term, the uniqueness of the weak solution for the semiconductor equation has been proved.

  14. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  15. Euler equation existence, non-uniqueness and mesh converged statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Lim, Hyunkyung; Kaufman, Ryan; Hu, Wenlin

    2015-09-13

    We review existence and non-uniqueness results for the Euler equation of fluid flow. These results are placed in the context of physical models and their solutions. Non-uniqueness is in direct conflict with the purpose of practical simulations, so that a mitigating strategy, outlined here, is important. We illustrate these issues in an examination of mesh converged turbulent statistics, with comparison to laboratory experiments.

  16. Limit theorem and uniqueness theorem of backward stochastic differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Long

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a limit theorem for solutions of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). By this limit theorem, this paper proves that, under the standard assumption g(t,y,0)≡0, the generator g of a BSDE can be uniquely determined by the corresponding g-expectation εg; this paper also proves that if a filtration consistent expectation ε can be represented as a g-expectation εg, then the corresponding generator g must be unique.

  17. Generic uniqueness conditions for the canonical polyadic decomposition and INDSCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    We find conditions that guarantee that a decomposition of a generic third-order tensor in a minimal number of rank-$1$ tensors (canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD)) is unique up to permutation of rank-$1$ tensors. Then we consider the case when the tensor and all its rank-$1$ terms have symmetric frontal slices (INDSCAL). Our results complement the existing bounds for generic uniqueness of the CPD and relax the existing bounds for INDSCAL. The derivation makes use of algebraic geometry. We...

  18. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation.

  19. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient′s unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient′s Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  20. Unique Measure for Time-Dependent Random Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Varner, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This paper proves the uniqueness of measure for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations under a random kick-force and a time-dependent deterministic force. By extending a result for uniqueness of measure for time-homogeneous Markov processes to the time-inhomogeneous case, it is shown that the measures are exponentially mixing for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere.

  1. Summing Up the Unique Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    interested parties to expose a theme around the transit, e.g., preparations for the event and the actual observations, as well as conveying the personal impressions. A professional jury has now selected among the many excellent entries the laureates (see the list below) who will present their videos at the Paris conference this week, competing for one of the top prizes, including a trip by the winning team to the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile), home of the Very Large Telescope. The "Venus Transit Experience" Conference The Venus Transit Experience conference will take place at "Le Carré des Sciences" at the French Ministry of Research in Paris. It brings together the main participants in this project from many different European countries. A main aim is to discuss the impact of the project, identifying possible differences from country to country and showing how to share good practices in the future. The VT-2004 programme provided an exciting field test for the execution of large-scale public activities relating to a particular, scientific event with strong operational constraints, including the requirement to act in real-time as this event progressed. Much valuable experience was gathered for future continent-wide activities involving the same mechanisms and carried out under similar conditions. Thus, the overall outcome of this unique public education project is clearly of very wide interest, not just in the field of astronomy. The Distance to the Sun Remeasured A central feature of the VT-2004 programme was the VT-2004 Observing Campaign, aimed at re-enacting the historical determination of the distance to the Sun (the "Astronomical Unit") by collecting timings of the four contacts made by participating observers and combining them in a calculation of the AU. A large number of groups of observers registered; at the end, there were 2763 all over the world. Among these were almost 1000 school classes, demonstrating the large interest among students and teachers to

  2. T Lymphocyte Activation Threshold and Membrane Reorganization Perturbations in Unique Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, C. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative activation thresholds and cellular membrane reorganization are mechanisms by which resting T cells modulate their response to activating stimuli. Here we demonstrate perturbations of these cellular processes in a unique culture system that non-invasively inhibits T lymphocyte activation. During clinorotation, the T cell activation threshold is increased 5-fold. This increased threshold involves a mechanism independent of TCR triggering. Recruitment of lipid rafts to the activation site is impaired during clinorotation but does occur with increased stimulation. This study describes a situation in which an individual cell senses a change in its physical environment and alters its cell biological behavior.

  3. Photons uniques indiscernables à partir d'une boîte quantique unique dans un cristal photonique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, S.; Varoutsis, S.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Raineri, F.; Levenson, A.; Robert-Philip, I.; Abram, I.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons développé et caractérisé une source de photons uniques basée sur l'émission spontanée d'une boîte quantique unique insérée dans une cavité à bande interdite photonique bidimensionnelle. Ce système nous a d'abord permis de produire des photons uniques, puis des photons uniques indiscernables avec une indiscernabilité supérieure à 70%. L'observation de l'indiscernabilité des photons, impossible sans un raccourcissement important de la durée de vie, met en évidence un effet Purcell supérieur à 25 dans ce système.

  4. Unique Signal mathematical analysis task group FY03 status report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Roy Stuart (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Anna Marie; Hart, Elizabeth (Utah State University, Logan, UT); White, Allan (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA); Cooper, James Arlin

    2003-12-01

    The Unique Signal is a key constituent of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety (ENDS). Although the Unique Signal approach is well prescribed and mathematically assured, there are numerous unsolved mathematical problems that could help assess the risk of deviations from the ideal approach. Some of the mathematics-based results shown in this report are: 1. The risk that two patterns with poor characteristics (easily generated by inadvertent processes) could be combined through exclusive-or mixing to generate an actual Unique Signal pattern has been investigated and found to be minimal (not significant when compared to the incompatibility metric of actual Unique Signal patterns used in nuclear weapons). 2. The risk of generating actual Unique Signal patterns with linear feedback shift registers is minimal, but the patterns in use are not as invulnerable to inadvertent generation by dependent processes as previously thought. 3. New methods of testing pair-wise incompatibility threats have resulted in no significant problems found for the set of Unique Signal patterns currently used. Any new patterns introduced would have to be carefully assessed for compatibility with existing patterns, since some new patterns under consideration were found to be deficient when associated with other patterns in use. 4. Markov models were shown to correspond to some of the engineered properties of Unique Signal sequences. This gives new support for the original design objectives. 5. Potential dependence among events (caused by a variety of communication protocols) has been studied. New evidence has been derived of the risk associated with combined communication of multiple events, and of the improvement in abnormal-environment safety that can be achieved through separate-event communication.

  5. A Unique Opportunity to Test Whether Cell Fusion is a Mechanism of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    most convincing evidence to support the symbiogenic theory is the finding that mitochondria and chloroplasts are of bacterial origin.58 What fraction...resistant bacterial and mammalian cell lines upon removal of the selective pressure of antibiotics in the culture media.157 A more recent study...Ephrussi B, Yamamoto K. Regulation of pigment synthesis in mammalian cells, as studied by somatic hybridization. Proceedings of the National Academy

  6. A Unique Opportunity To Test Whether Cell Fusion Is a Mechanism of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    26. Erikson , J., Martinis, J., and Croce, C. M. (1981) Assignment of the genes for human lambda immunoglobulin chains to chromosome 22. Nature 294...University. Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interest exists. References 1. Minguell JJ, Erices A. Mesenchymal stem

  7. Phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria by a unique CD14-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, D E; Kline, L; Soldau, K; Lee, J D; Pugin, J; Tobias, P S; Ulevitch, R J

    1997-12-01

    THP-1-derived cell lines were stably transfected with constructs encoding glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored or transmembrane forms of human CD14. CD14 expression was associated with enhanced phagocytosis of serum (heat-inactivated)-opsonized Escherichia coli (opEc). Both the GPI-anchored and transmembrane forms of CD14 supported phagocytosis of opEc equally well. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) played a role in CD14-dependent phagocytosis as evidenced by inhibition of CD14-dependent phagocytosis of opEc with anti-LBP monoclonal antibody (mAb) and by enhanced phagocytosis of E. coli opsonized with purified LBP. CD14-dependent phagocytosis was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor (wortmannin) and a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrphostin 23) but not a protein kinase C inhibitor (bisindolyl-maleimide) or a divalent cation chelator (ethylenediaminetetraacetate). Anti-LBP mAb 18G4 and anti-CD14 mAb 18E12 were used to differentiate between the pathways involved in CD14-dependent phagocytosis and CD14-dependent cell activation. F(ab')2 fragments of 18G4, a mAb to LBP that does not block cell activation, inhibited ingestion of opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. 18E12 (an anti-CD14 mAb that does not block LPS binding to CD14 but does inhibit CD14-dependent cell activation) did not inhibit phagocytosis of LBP-opEc by THP1-wtCD14 cells. Furthermore, CD14-dependent phagocytosis was not inhibited by anti-CD18 (CR3 and CR4 beta-chain) or anti-Fcgamma receptor mAb.

  8. A Unique Opportunity to Test Whether Cell Fusion is a Mechanism of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    tracked over time; some fusion products were found to undergo proliferation (previous report) • The course of fusion products after transplantation of...heterotypicgamete fusion.Asa fusionproduct, the fertilized embryo can proliferate and differentiate into all the tissues of the adult body as well as the...hematopoietic stem cell transplantation , with subsequent development of tumors showing evidence of donor genes in their cells (22, 43). In addition, a

  9. On existence and uniqueness of solutions for variational data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a term from the geosciences and refers to methods for estimating orbits of dynamical models from observations. Variational techniques for data assimilation estimate these orbits by minimising an appropriate cost functional which takes the error with respect to the observations but also deviations of the orbits from the model equations into account. Such techniques are very important in practice. In this contribution, the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions to variational data assimilation is investigated. Under mild hypotheses a solution to this problem exists. The problem of uniqueness is investigated as well, and several results (which all have analogues in optimal control) are established in the present context. The value function is introduced as the cost of an optimal trajectory starting from a given initial condition. The necessary conditions in combination with an envelope theorem can be used to demonstrate that the solution is unique if and only if the value function is differentiable at the given initial condition. This occurs for all initial conditions except maybe on a set of Lebesgue measure zero. Several examples are studied which demonstrate that non-uniqueness of solutions cannot be ruled out altogether though, which has important consequences in practice. References: J. Bröcker, "Existence and Uniqueness For Four Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation in Discrete Time.", SIAM Journal of Applied Dynamical Systems (accepted).

  10. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  11. Uniqueness Domains in the Workspace of Parallel Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    This work investigates new kinematic features of parallel manipulators. It is well known that parallel manipulators admit generally several direct kinematic solutions for a given set of input joint values. The aim of this paper is to characterize the uniqueness domains in the workspace of parallel manipulators, as well as their image in the joint space. The study focuses on the most usual case of parallel manipulators with only one inverse kinematic solution. The notion of aspect introduced for serial manipulators in [Borrel 86] is redefined for such parallel manipulators. Then, it is shown that it is possible to link several solutions to the forward kinematic problem without meeting a singularity, thus meaning that the aspects are not uniqueness domains. An additional set of surfaces, namely the characteristic surfaces, are characterized which divide the workspace into basic regions and yield new uniqueness domains. This study is illustrated all along the paper with a 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator. An oc...

  12. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.

  13. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  14. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  15. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  16. Uniqueness of form extensions and domination of semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Daniel; Schmidt, Marcel; Wirth, Melchior

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present a new method to treat uniqueness of form extensions in a rather general setting including various magnetic Schr\\"odinger forms. The method is based on the theory of ordered Hilbert spaces and the concept of domination of semigroups. We review this concept in an abstract setting and give a characterization in terms of the associated forms. Then we use it to prove a theorem that transfers uniqueness of form extension of a dominating form to that of a dominated form. ...

  17. Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-08

    AD-A243 365’ l!1111iLI[li In M aR C ’ PHASE I FINAL REPORT Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks DARPA SBIR 90-115 Contract # DAAH01-91...Contents Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks Acknowledgments Table of Contents Abstract i 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 The NGO-VRP Solver 2...34 solution is thus obtained through analogy. Because of this activity, artificial neural networks have emerged as a primary artificial intelligence

  18. Unique cardiac and cerebral anomalies with chondrodysplasia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciske, D J; Waggoner, D J; Dowton, S B

    1998-01-06

    Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is associated with a variety of genetic and nongenetic conditions. We report a girl with CDP, complex congenital cardiac disease, central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, and clinical findings that resemble those of the sibs described by Toriello et al. [1993, Am J Med Genet 47:797-799]. The cardiac defects and CNS abnormalities reported are unique in the context of CDP and may serve to expand the phenotypic spectrum of the unique form of CDP described by Toriello et al. [1993].

  19. What's unique about unique entities? An fMRI investigation of the semantics of famous faces and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lars A; Olson, Ingrid R

    2012-09-01

    Famous people and artifacts are referred to as "unique entities" (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing.

  20. Discovery of a Structurally Unique Small Molecule that Inhibits Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Durga; Tae, Hyun Seop

    2017-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing natural products and synthetic small molecules that inhibit biochemical processes such as ribosomal translation can lead to novel sources of molecular probes and therapeutics. The search for new antibiotics has been invigorated by the increasing burden of drug-resistant bacteria and has identified many clinically essential prokaryote-specific ribosome inhibitors. However, the current cohort of antibiotics is limited with regards to bacterial resistance mechanisms because of structural similarity within classes. From a high-throughput screen for translation inhibitors, we discovered a new compound, T6102, which inhibits bacterial protein synthesis in vitro, inhibits bacterial growth of Bacillus subtilis in vivo, and has a chemical structure that appears to be unique among known classes of translation-inhibiting antibiotics. T6102’s unique structure compared to current clinically-utilized antibiotics makes it an exciting new candidate for the development of next-generation antibiotics.

  1. Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M

    2016-01-01

    We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize ...

  2. IPAD: A unique approach to government/industry cooperation for technology development and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert E.; Salley, George C.

    1985-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) information. To stimulate advancement, a unique joint government/industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) was carried out from 1971 to 1984. The goal was to raise aerospace industry productivity through advancement of computer based technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. IPAD research was guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies. The project complemented traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD had unprecedented industry support and involvement and served as a unique approach to government industry cooperation in the development and transfer of advanced technology. The IPAD project background, approach, accomplishments, industry involvement, technology transfer mechanisms and lessons learned are summarized.

  3. Unique interconnected graphene/SnO2 nanoparticle spherical multilayers for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingguo; Tang, Jie; Sun, Yige; Li, Jing; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Zhu, Da-Ming; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-03-30

    We have designed and synthesized a unique structured graphene/SnO2 composite, where SnO2 nanoparticles are inserted in between interconnected graphene sheets which form hollow spherical multilayers. The hollow spherical multilayered structure provides much flexibility to accommodate the configuration and volume changes of SnO2 in the material. When it is used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, such a novel nanostructure can not only provide a stable conductive matrix and suppress the mechanical stress, but also eliminate the need of any binders for constructing electrodes. Electrochemical tests show that the unique graphene/SnO2 composite electrode as designed could exhibit a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g(-1) and long cycling life with 88% retention after 100 cycles. These results indicate the great potential of the composite for being used as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  5. The truncated Second Main Theorem and uniqueness theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first establish a truncated Second Main Theorem for algebraically nondegenerate holomorphic mappings from the complex plane into a complex projective variety V intersecting hypersurfaces. We then prove some uniqueness results for meromorphic mappings. The result of Demailly about a partial solution to the Fujita’s conjecture is used.

  6. Uniqueness Result in the Cauchy Dirichlet Problem via Mehler Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Bishnu P.

    2014-09-01

    Using the Mehler kernel, a uniqueness theorem in the Cauchy Dirichlet problem for the Hermite heat equation with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions on a class P of bounded functions U( x, t) with certain growth on U x ( x, t) is established.

  7. Three Unique Implementations of Processes for PyCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we motivate and describe three unique implementations of processes for PyCSP: process, thread and greenlet based. The overall purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of Communicating Sequential Processes as a framework for different application types and target platforms. The resul...

  8. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and non-uniqueness of superpotentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARTHA MANDAL; ABHIJIT BANERJEE

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a family of periodic quantum Hamiltonians, that is subject to a closure condition is considered. In the context of the factorization method, we address the question of non-uniqueness of the governing superpotentials and study an alternative factorization to generate new hierarchies of potentials.

  9. Solutions of fractional nabla difference equations - existence and uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Mohan Jonnalagadda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss existence, uniqueness and dependency of solutions of nonlinear fractional nabla difference equations in a Banach space equipped with a suitable norm, using the contractive mapping approach. As an application of the established results we present and analyse a few examples.

  10. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guérékata GastonM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations , , , in a Banach space , where . New results are obtained by fixed point theorem. An application of the abstract results is also given.

  11. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elschner, Johannes [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Yamamoto, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2009-07-01

    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  12. MSI's unique, multi-functional contract sterilization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern, Kennard H.

    Medical Sterilization Inc. is a unique company supplying sterilization services to regional hospitals in the New York area and also providing contract sterilization and radiation processing services to industry. The evolution from a concept to an operational entity is reviewed in this report.

  13. Unique Factorization in Cyclotomic Integers of Degree Seven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, W. Ethan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a survey of some basic results in algebraic number theory and applies this material to prove that the cyclotomic integers generated by a seventh root of unity are a unique factorization domain. Part of the proof uses the computer algebra system Maple to find and verify factorizations. The proofs use a combination of historic…

  14. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciepliński Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the functional equation , , where are closed intervals, and , are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  15. On the uniqueness of minimal projections in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szlachtowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(X\\ be a uniformly convex Banach space with a continuous semi-inner product. We investigate the relation of orthogonality in \\(X\\ and generalized projections acting on \\(X\\. We prove uniqueness of orthogonal and co-orthogonal projections.

  16. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  17. Uniqueness of group-measure space Cartan subalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kyed, David

    2011-01-01

    These notes provide an account on four lectures given by Adrian Ioana at the Institut Henri Poincare in May 2011, regarding a number of "uniqueness of Cartan" type results obtained in a recent series of papers by Chifan-Peterson and Popa-Vaes. The text is purely expository.

  18. The stereochemistry of baishouwubenzophenone, a unique atropisomer from C. wilfordii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Linwei; Zhang, Ke; Peng, Qing; Wang, Shuyun; Wang, Jinhui; Huang, Jian; Sun, Tiemin

    2016-12-01

    Baishouwubenzophenone (1), possessing a unique atropisomeric feature, has been isolated from the roots of Cynanchum wilfordii. The congested structure makes it showing optical activity and consequently the absolute configuration was identified by experimental CD and computational approaches. Configurational assignment was further confirmed by exciton chirality method. The structural features in baishouwubenzophenone molecule allow it to be a potential atropisomeric ligand in asymmetric synthesis.

  19. Unique Issues in Rural Couple and Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Baker, Brad G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding rural couple and family counseling, in conjunction with the findings of research in closely related fields. This review is conducted in an effort to identify unique practice issues facing rural couple and family counselors. (Contains 77 references.) (GCP)

  20. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  1. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  2. The quantum unique ergodicity conjecture for thin sets

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    We consider some analogs of the quantum unique ergodicity conjecture for geodesics, horocycles, or ``shrinking'' families of sets. In particular, we prove the analog of the QUE conjecture for Eisenstein series restricted to the infinite geodesic connecting 0 and infinity inside the modular surface.

  3. THE UNIQUENESS OF BIFURCATION TO SEPARATRIX LOOPS IN SUPERCRITICAL CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJIANHUA

    1994-01-01

    In paper[4] the existence of bifurcation to separatrix loops in supercritical cases on the plane is studied.This note is a continuation of [4].The author proves the uniqueness of limit cycles in a neighb-orhood of the separatrix loop,and the results strengthen the relevant conclusions in[1-6].

  4. Unique Characteristics of a Graduate Program in Applied Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stuart M.; Mills, Kim White; Dick, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Addresses one Communication Department's sojourn in designing, developing, and proposing a unique Master of Arts in Applied Communication. Discusses steps in developing an applied graduate program, the mission statement for the program, the curriculum, the expected impact of the graduate program on the undergraduate program, and program strengths.…

  5. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  6. Minimal fusion systems with a unique maximal parabolic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    We define minimal fusion systems in a way that every non-solvable fusion system has a section which is minimal. Minimal fusion systems can also be seen as analogs of Thompson's N-groups. In this paper, we consider a minimal fusion system F on a finite p-group S that has a unique maximal p-local s...

  7. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  8. DECISIONS ET COMPETITIVITE SUR LE MARCHE UNIQUE EUROPEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits importants du marché unique européen, a comme source le męme énoncé du principal objectif de l’intégration européenne ainsi que: l’harmonisation des niveaux du développement des Etats Membres et l’augmentation du niveau de vie dans l’ensemble de la communauté. Pour le marché unique européen, cet aspect se traduit par une permanente et soutenue augmentation de la demande. Cet ouvrage présente au début une analyse des éléments spécifiques du marché européen. Ensuite on identifie les opportunités et les risques au niveau macroéconomique adjointes aux perspectives du marché unique européen. Comme fondement on présente des stratégies du développement réalisables au niveau microéconomique que puissent assurer l’augmentation du niveau sur la compétitivité des sociétés sur le marché unique européen.

  9. Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vil' danova, V F [Bashkir State Pedagogical University, Ufa (Russian Federation); Mukminov, F Kh [Bashkir State University, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  10. On the Uniqueness Result for the Dirichlet Problem and Invexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Płócienniczak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide an existence and uniqueness theorem for the Dirichlet problem div Hz(y,Ñx(y=ÑxF(y,x(y.The assumption that both H and F are invex with respect to the second variable is imposed and the direct variational method is applied. The applicationis also shown.

  11. Uniquely D-colourable digraphs with large girth

    CERN Document Server

    Harutyunyan, Ararat; Mohar, Bojan; Rafferty, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Let C and D be digraphs. A mapping $f:V(D)\\to V(C)$ is a C-colouring if for every arc $uv$ of D, either $f(u)f(v)$ is an arc of C or $f(u)=f(v)$, and the preimage of every vertex of C induces an acyclic subdigraph in D. We say that D is C-colourable if it admits a C-colouring and that D is uniquely C-colourable if it is surjectively C-colourable and any two C-colourings of D differ by an automorphism of C. We prove that if a digraph D is not C-colourable, then there exist digraphs of arbitrarily large girth that are D-colourable but not C-colourable. Moreover, for every digraph D that is uniquely D-colourable, there exists a uniquely D-colourable digraph of arbitrarily large girth. In particular, this implies that for every rational number $r\\geq 1$, there are uniquely circularly r-colourable digraphs with arbitrarily large girth.

  12. Plants: a unique model for research on high diluted substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vladimirovna Novasadyuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High efficiency and low cost of homeopathic drugs, lack of side effects and accumulation of toxins in animal farming products made homeopathy one of the priority developments in veterinary medicine. However, opponents of homeopathy have intensified their activity in the recent years. The attacks of the opponents of homeopathy, with their unfounded claims that it is totally explained by the placebo effect, can largely be explained by complexity of understanding the mechanism of action of these remedies which does not fit into the established concepts the effect of drugs on the body. That is why further study of homeopathic phenomenon is especially important in these days. In order to disproof the opinion that homeopathic phenomenon is explained by placebo effect, we have been studying the effect homeopathic remedies on vegetable growth and ripening. This choice was based on the hope that the opponents of homeopathy would not be able to accuse plants of self-suggestion under the effect of potentiated remedies. There are many publications about application of homeopathic remedies on plants. For example, in this direction such researchers as Stephan Baumgartner, Carneiro SMTPG, Rossi F, Carvalho LM, Bonato CM, Betti L, Lazzarato L V. Majewsky, and other researchers worked. Methods: Our first experiments that we performed during two years demonstrated a significant improvement of growth and ripening variables when homeopathic remedies were added to fertilizing mixtures, as compared with conventional plant care. Tomatoes of Typhoon F1 and Titan breeds were sued to study the effect of homeopathic remedies on plant growth and ripening. The studies were performed in greenhouse conditions in summer 2009 and 2010, on fertile soils of an experimental farm in the Krasnoselskiy district of the Leningrad region. Every study group of a certain tomato breed contained 20 plants. When the young plants were planted in the soil they were watered with

  13. Is quantum mechanics exact?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustin, Anton [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We formulate physically motivated axioms for a physical theory which for systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom uniquely lead to quantum mechanics as the only nontrivial consistent theory. Complex numbers and the existence of the Planck constant common to all systems arise naturally in this approach. The axioms are divided into two groups covering kinematics and basic measurement theory, respectively. We show that even if the second group of axioms is dropped, there are no deformations of quantum mechanics which preserve the kinematic axioms. Thus, any theory going beyond quantum mechanics must represent a radical departure from the usual a priori assumptions about the laws of nature.

  14. Boundary Unique Continuation Properties for Elliptic Operators With Singular Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶祥兴

    2006-01-01

    @@ 0 Introduction Because of applications to control theory, see Schmit and Weck's work in [1], the following unique continuation question (UCP) was raised in [2-3]: if u is a harmonic function in a connected Lipschitz domainΩ, vanishing continuously on an open subset Г of the boundary ( )Ω and whose normal derivative vanishes on a subset of Г of positive surface measure, does it follows that u is identically zero in Ω? On the other hand, the unique continuation problem has been focusing on second order equations in which the coefficients of the lower-order terms are allowed to be singular, which is suggested by situations of physical interest; see for instance the extensive survey papers [4-6].

  15. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  16. Uniqueness of system response time for transient condensing flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, G.L.; Bhatt, B.L. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)); Beck, B.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States)); Roslund, G.L. (General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States))

    1989-11-01

    The unique characteristics under consideration in this paper are encountered in condensing flows, and have to do with a system's response time for various degrees of outlet flow quality. Specifically, the system response time for condensing flows appears to increase monotonically with decreasing outlet flow quality, reaching a maximum for systems having an outlet flow quality of between 10 and 20%. The system response time then decreases for outlet flow qualities that are less than that value. These unique characteristics are predicted theoretically by system mean void fraction model. The purpose of this paper is to develop analytically the characteristics, explain the physics of the phenomena responsible, and discuss the experimental verification efforts that have thus far been carried out.

  17. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  18. A general Lipschitz uniqueness criterion for scalar ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Diblik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical Lipschitz-type criteria guarantee unique solvability of the scalar initial value problem $\\dot x=f(t,x$, $x(t_0=x_0,$ by putting restrictions on $|f(t,x-f(t,y|$ in dependence of $|x-y|$. Geometrically it means that the field differences are estimated in the direction of the $x$-axis. In 1989, Stettner and the second author could establish a generalized Lipschitz condition in both arguments by showing that the field differences can be measured in a suitably chosen direction $v=(d_{t},d_{x}$, provided that it does not coincide with the directional vector $(1,f(t_{0},x_{0}$. Considering the vector $v$ depending on $t$, a new general uniqueness result is derived and a short proof based on the implicit function theorem is developed. The advantage of the new criterion is shown by an example. A comparison with known results is given as well.

  19. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  20. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2014-08-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  1. Medians and means in Riemannian geometry: existence, uniqueness and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc; Yang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short summary of our recent work on the medians and means of probability measures in Riemannian manifolds. Firstly, the existence and uniqueness results of local medians are given. In order to compute medians in practical cases, we propose a subgradient algorithm and prove its convergence. After that, Fr\\'echet medians are considered. We prove their statistical consistency and give some quantitative estimations of their robustness with the aid of upper curvature bounds. We also show that, in compact Riemannian manifolds, the Fr\\'echet medians of generic data points are always unique. Stochastic and deterministic algorithms are proposed for computing Riemannian p-means. The rate of convergence and error estimates of these algorithms are also obtained. Finally, we apply the medians and the Riemannian geometry of Toeplitz covariance matrices to radar target detection.

  2. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lim Chee Liew; Mohan B.Singh; Prem L.Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmo-spheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  3. Uniqueness of Black Holes with Bubbles in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We generalise uniqueness theorems for non-extremal black holes with three mutually independent Killing vector fields in five-dimensional minimal supergravity in order to account for the existence of non-trivial 2-cycles in the domain of outer communication. The black hole space-times we consider may contain multiple disconnected horizons and be asymptotically flat or asymptotically Kaluza-Klein. We show that in order to uniquely specify the black hole space-time, besides providing its domain structure and a set of asymptotic and local charges, it is necessary to measure the magnetic fluxes that support the 2-cycles as well as fluxes in the two semi-infinite rotation planes of the domain diagram.

  4. A Unique Case of Allogeneic Fat Grafting Between Brothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Samuel; Edelson, Richard L.; Sumpio, Brandon; Kwei, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old man with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy and an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from his human leukocyte antigen-matched brother. Engraftment was successful, but the patient went on to develop painful, radiation-induced ulcers. The ulcers were fat-allografted using liposuctioned fat from his brother because of the patient’s unique chimeric state. Postprocedure follow-up revealed epithelialization of the ulcer sites and significant improvement in neuropathic pain. Our unique case study supports the use of fat grafting for its restorative purposes and for its ability to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. Additionally, it appears that our case provides a basis of a general approach to the treatment of radiation-induced ulcers in chimeric patients with lymphoid malignancies.

  5. The unique chemical reactivity of a graphene nanoribbon's zigzag edge

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, D; Sumpter, B G; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2007-01-01

    The zigzag edge of a graphene nanoribbon possesses a unique electronic state that is near the Fermi level and localized at the edge carbon atoms. We investigate the chemical reactivity of these zigzag edge sites by examining their reaction energetics with common radicals from first principles. A "partial radical" concept for the edge carbon atoms is introduced to characterize their chemical reactivity, and the validity of this concept is verified by comparing the dissociation energies of edge-radical bonds with similar bonds in molecules. In addition, the uniqueness of the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon is further demonstrated by comparing it with other forms of sp2 carbons, including a graphene sheet, nanotubes, and an armchair-edged graphene nanoribbon.

  6. Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B R; Hartigan, J A; Mikulas, W L

    1999-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha, 8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness "meditations" may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.

  7. A system’s wave function is uniquely determined by its underlying physical state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Roger; Renner, Renato

    2017-01-01

    We address the question of whether the quantum-mechanical wave function Ψ of a system is uniquely determined by any complete description Λ of the system’s physical state. We show that this is the case if the latter satisfies a notion of ‘free choice’. This notion requires that certain experimental parameters—those that according to quantum theory can be chosen independently of other variables—retain this property in the presence of Λ. An implication of this result is that, among all possible descriptions Λ of a system’s state compatible with free choice, the wave function {{\\Psi }} is as objective as Λ.

  8. Unique expression patterns of multiple key genes associated with the evolution of mammalian flight

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight. Critical adaptations for flight include a pair of dramatically elongated hands with broad wing membranes. To study the molecular mechanisms of bat wing evolution, we perform genomewide mRNA sequencing and in situ hybridization for embryonic bat limbs. We identify seven key genes that display unique expression patterns in embryonic bat wings and feet, compared with mouse fore- and hindlimbs. The expression of all 5′HoxD genes (Hoxd9–13) and Tbx...

  9. [International progress of unique device identification for medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanjuan; Li, Jun; Li, Jingli

    2014-09-01

    Unique Device Identification (UDI) is a hot spot research area in the medical device administration. It comes a breakthrough from International Medical Device Regulators Forum (IMDRF) and government implementation recently. The article reviewed the advancement of IMDRF UDI program, discussed the framework for UDI system, analyzed the implementation of UDI in other countries, put forward some suggestions on the development of medical device coding system in our country.

  10. Recurrent intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis: A unique combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an 11-month-old female child, who presented with recurrent episodes of colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea. An abdominal ultrasound revealed small bowel intussusception. She was also noted to have a thick walled gall bladder and a solitary gallstone. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The combination of small bowel intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis is unique and has not been reported in the literature.

  11. Unique Aspects of Flight Testing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    High Altitude Endurance HCI Human Computer Interface INS Inertial Navigation System IR Infrared JITC Joint Interoperability Testing Command...highlighting some of the unique aspects of flight testing unmanned air vehicle systems. It is intended to provide a practical set of guidelines in support of...of unmanned aviation systems, it is especially important that even minor changes to the baseline code be carefully reviewed, and that regression

  12. The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    2000-01-01

    A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed.

  13. On Unique Ergodicity in Nonlinear Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt-Holtz, Nathan; Mattingly, Jonathan C.; Richards, Geordie

    2017-02-01

    We illustrate how the notion of asymptotic coupling provides a flexible and intuitive framework for proving the uniqueness of invariant measures for a variety of stochastic partial differential equations whose deterministic counterpart possesses a finite number of determining modes. Examples exhibiting parabolic and hyperbolic structure are studied in detail. In the later situation we also present a simple framework for establishing the existence of invariant measures when the usual approach relying on the Krylov-Bogolyubov procedure and compactness fails.

  14. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ciepliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions φ:I→J of the functional equation φ(f(x=F(φ(x, x∈I, where I,J are closed intervals, and f:I→I, F:J→J are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  15. Tamponade by an expanding left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: A unique presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir

    2015-10-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture.

  16. Osteomyelitis variolosa with fracture: A unique case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox has been eradicated completely but its unique pathology and sequlae are still found in routine clinical practice. We present a report of a patient having osteomyelitis variolosa in both elbow joints and wrist with fracture of humerus. The condyles were typically elongated as central portion of distal humerus absorbed. The fracture united uneventfully following stabilization with dynamic compression plate and bone grafting. Patient had satisfactory elbow function at the end of the last follow-up.

  17. A uniqueness theorem for higher order anharmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Soren; Sundqvist, Mikael Persson

    2015-01-01

    We study for alpha is an element of R, k is an element of N \\ {0} the family of self-adjoint operators -d(2)/dt(2) + (t(k+1)/k+1 - alpha)(2) in L-2(R) and show that if k is even then alpha = 0 gives the unique minimum of the lowest eigenvalue of this family of operators. Combined with earlier res...

  18. Existence and Uniqueness of Mild Solution for Fractional Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of mild solution of a class of nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations dqu(t/dtq+Au(t=f(t,u(t+∫0ta(t−sg(s,u(sds, t∈[0,T], u(0=u0, in a Banach space X, where 0

  19. On Unique Ergodicity in Nonlinear Stochastic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt-Holtz, Nathan; Mattingly, Jonathan C.; Richards, Geordie

    2016-08-01

    We illustrate how the notion of asymptotic coupling provides a flexible and intuitive framework for proving the uniqueness of invariant measures for a variety of stochastic partial differential equations whose deterministic counterpart possesses a finite number of determining modes. Examples exhibiting parabolic and hyperbolic structure are studied in detail. In the later situation we also present a simple framework for establishing the existence of invariant measures when the usual approach relying on the Krylov-Bogolyubov procedure and compactness fails.

  20. A unique case of isolated, spontaneous, symptomatic celiac trunk dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Ferguson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of isolated spontaneous celiac trunk dissections have been appearing in the literature more recently with the increased availability of high-resolution computerized tomography angiograms. We report a unique case of this entity. A 48-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain that radiated to the back and worsened with breathing. This was diagnosed as a celiac trunk dissection by computerized tomography angiogram. She was treated conservatively with antihypertensive medications, anticoagulants, and opioid medication for pain control.

  1. [I, Robot: artificial intelligence, uniqueness and self-consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Martín

    2008-01-01

    The cinematographic version of the science fiction classical book by Isaac Asimov (I, Robot) is used as a starting point, from the Artificial Intelligence perspective, in order to analyze what it is to have a self. Uniqueness or the exchange impossibility and the continuity of being one self are put forward to understand the movie's characters as well as the possibilities of feeling self conscious.

  2. On the stability of unique range sets for meromorphic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ha Huy Khoai

    2003-01-01

    For a set S we construct a complex space Z sub S such that S is a unique range set for meromorphic functions (URS) if and only if Z sub S is hyperbolic. A consequence of this result is that the set of URS with n elements (considered as a subset of C sup n) is open, and then the small deformations of Yi's and Frank-Reinders' sets are URS.

  3. Existence and Uniqueness of Fixed Point in Partially Ordered Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J. NIETO; Rosana RODR(I)GUEZ-L(O)PEZ

    2007-01-01

    We prove some fixed point theorems in partially ordered sets, providing an extension of theBanach contractive mapping theorem. Having studied previously the nondecreasing case, we considerin this paper nonincreasing mappings as well as non monotone mappings. We also present someapplications to first-order ordinary differential equations with periodic boundary conditions, provingthe existence of a unique solution admitting the existence of a lower solution.

  4. On Integers, Primes and UniqueFactorization in Quadratic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenlund, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. This thesis will deal with quadratic elds. The prob- lem is to study such elds and their properties including, but not limited to, determining integers, nding primes and deciding which quadratic elds have unique factorization. The goal is to get famil- iar with these concepts and to provide a starting point for students with an interest in algebra to explore eld extensions and inte- gral closures in relation to elementary number theory. The reader will be assumed to have a basic kn...

  5. Unique factorization of tensor products for Kac-Moody algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, R.; Viswanath, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    We consider integrable, category O-modules of indecomposable symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebras. We prove that unique factorization of tensor products of irreducible modules holds in this category, upto twisting by one dimensional modules. This generalizes a fundamental theorem of Rajan for finite dimensional simple Lie algebras over C. Our proof is new even for the finite dimensional case, and uses an interplay of representation theory and combinatorics to analyze the Kac-Weyl character formula.

  6. The uniqueness-of-norm problem for Calkin algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Skillicorn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We examine the question of whether the Calkin algebra of a Banach space must have a unique complete algebra norm. We present a survey of known results, and make the observation that a recent Banach space construction of Argyros and Motakis (preprint, 2015) provides the first negative answer. The parallel question for the weak Calkin algebra also has a negative answer; we demonstrate this using a Banach space of Read (J. London Math. Soc. 1989).

  7. A Tandem Valve, a unique complication of TAVR

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Sattiraju; Sanjay Mehta; Mathew Gibb; Scott Cook; Michael Colla; Emil Missov

    2016-01-01

    , MD1*,, MD1,, MD1,, MD2, MD2,, MD, PhD3 1. Division of Cardiology, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 2. Cardiovascular Surgery, Carle Heart and Vascular Institute, Carle Hospital, Urbana, IL 3. Division of Cardiology, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN Received: 11-1-16, Reviewed: 22-1-16, Accepted: 26-1-16 Keywords: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement, TAVR, Valve embolisation DOI: ABSTRACT We report a unique complica...

  8. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nectaria A. B. Gizani; M. A. Garrett; J. P. Leahy

    2002-03-01

    We present the usage of multi-frequency and multi-band radio, VLA, observations as well as X-ray observations in order to study the environment around two powerful radio galaxies, namely Hercules A and 3 C310. We study their environment both in pc- and kpc-scales. We have chosen these two radio galaxies as they present similar and unique characteristics, compared to the ones from our general knowledge about double radio galaxies associated with active galactic nuclei.

  9. A note on the uniqueness of global static decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Miguel [Departamento de GeometrIa y TopologIa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Senovilla, Jose M M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Historia de la Ciencia, Facultad de Ciencia y TecnologIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-12-07

    We discuss when static Killing vector fields are standard, that is, leading to a global orthogonal splitting of the spacetime. We prove that such an orthogonal splitting is unique whenever the natural space is compact. This is carried out by proving that many notable spacelike submanifolds must be contained in an orthogonal slice. Possible obstructions to the global splitting are also considered. (comments, replies and notes)

  10. Unique Properties of Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利玲

    2011-01-01

    We study tie unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks. A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dot-lead coupling. The relation of Q o I (I is the system current) fails in nanosystems, while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias. As a result, one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one, the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.%We study the unique properties of current-induced heat generation Q in nanostructures and its absence in macroscopic bulks.A lead-quantum dot-lead system is taken into consideration and it is found that its unique properties stem from energy quantization of the system and arise only under conditions of low temperature and weak dotlead coupling.The relation of Q o I(I is the system current)fails in nanosystems,while the Q peaks align with peaks of phonon-assisted current under small bias.As a result,one can expect a large current accompanied by relatively small Q when the elastic current peak does not coincide with the phonon-assisted one,the ideal working condition for a nanostructure.

  11. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.

  12. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  13. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  14. Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berla, Bertram M; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M; Maranas, Costas D; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as "chassis" strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a "green E. coli." In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  15. Principles of discrete time mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-01-01

    Could time be discrete on some unimaginably small scale? Exploring the idea in depth, this unique introduction to discrete time mechanics systematically builds the theory up from scratch, beginning with the historical, physical and mathematical background to the chronon hypothesis. Covering classical and quantum discrete time mechanics, this book presents all the tools needed to formulate and develop applications of discrete time mechanics in a number of areas, including spreadsheet mechanics, classical and quantum register mechanics, and classical and quantum mechanics and field theories. A consistent emphasis on contextuality and the observer-system relationship is maintained throughout.

  16. Extremotolerant tardigrade genome and improved radiotolerance of human cultured cells by tardigrade-unique protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuma; Horikawa, Daiki D; Saito, Yuki; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Shin-I, Tadasu; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohishi, Kazuko; Motoyama, Ayuko; Aizu, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Atsushi; Kondo, Koyuki; Tanaka, Sae; Hara, Yuichiro; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Sagara, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kubo, Takeo; Oyama, Masaaki; Kohara, Yuji; Fujiyama, Asao; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Katayama, Toshiaki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2016-09-20

    Tardigrades, also known as water bears, are small aquatic animals. Some tardigrade species tolerate almost complete dehydration and exhibit extraordinary tolerance to various physical extremes in the dehydrated state. Here we determine a high-quality genome sequence of Ramazzottius varieornatus, one of the most stress-tolerant tardigrade species. Precise gene repertoire analyses reveal the presence of a small proportion (1.2% or less) of putative foreign genes, loss of gene pathways that promote stress damage, expansion of gene families related to ameliorating damage, and evolution and high expression of novel tardigrade-unique proteins. Minor changes in the gene expression profiles during dehydration and rehydration suggest constitutive expression of tolerance-related genes. Using human cultured cells, we demonstrate that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein suppresses X-ray-induced DNA damage by ∼40% and improves radiotolerance. These findings indicate the relevance of tardigrade-unique proteins to tolerability and tardigrades could be a bountiful source of new protection genes and mechanisms.

  17. Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz.elizaga@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001, Covilhã (Portugal)

    2017-01-15

    We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize the part of the dynamics governed by the Dirac equation that is unitarily implementable. The uniqueness of the Fock vacuum is attained then once a physically motivated convention for the concepts of particles and antiparticles is fixed.

  18. Extremotolerant tardigrade genome and improved radiotolerance of human cultured cells by tardigrade-unique protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuma; Horikawa, Daiki D.; Saito, Yuki; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Shin-I, Tadasu; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohishi, Kazuko; Motoyama, Ayuko; Aizu, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Atsushi; Kondo, Koyuki; Tanaka, Sae; Hara, Yuichiro; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Sagara, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kubo, Takeo; Oyama, Masaaki; Kohara, Yuji; Fujiyama, Asao; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Katayama, Toshiaki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2016-01-01

    Tardigrades, also known as water bears, are small aquatic animals. Some tardigrade species tolerate almost complete dehydration and exhibit extraordinary tolerance to various physical extremes in the dehydrated state. Here we determine a high-quality genome sequence of Ramazzottius varieornatus, one of the most stress-tolerant tardigrade species. Precise gene repertoire analyses reveal the presence of a small proportion (1.2% or less) of putative foreign genes, loss of gene pathways that promote stress damage, expansion of gene families related to ameliorating damage, and evolution and high expression of novel tardigrade-unique proteins. Minor changes in the gene expression profiles during dehydration and rehydration suggest constitutive expression of tolerance-related genes. Using human cultured cells, we demonstrate that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein suppresses X-ray-induced DNA damage by ∼40% and improves radiotolerance. These findings indicate the relevance of tardigrade-unique proteins to tolerability and tardigrades could be a bountiful source of new protection genes and mechanisms. PMID:27649274

  19. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality.Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  20. Applications for unique identifiers in the geological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Even though geology has always been a generalist discipline in many parts, approaches towards questions about Earth's past have become increasingly interdisciplinary. At the same time, a wealth of samples has been collected, the resulting data have been stored in in disciplinary databases, the interpretations published in scientific literature. In the past these resources have existed alongside each other, semantically linked only by the knowledge of the researcher and his peers. One of the main drivers towards the inception of the world wide web was the ability to link scientific sources over the internet. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to locate resources on the web soon turned out to be ephemeral in nature. A more reliable way of addressing objects was needed, a way of persistent identification to make digital objects, or digital representations of objects, part of the record of science. With their high degree of centralisation the scientific publishing houses were quick to implement and adopt a system for unique and persistent identification, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ®. At the same time other identifier systems exist alongside DOI, e.g. URN, ARK, handle ®, and others. There many uses for persistent identification in science, other than the identification of journal articles. DOI are already used for the identification of data, thus making data citable. There are several initiatives to assign identifiers to authors and institutions to allow unique identification. A recent development is the application of persistent identifiers for geological samples. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central

  1. Natural product biosyntheses in cyanobacteria: A treasure trove of unique enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are prolific producers of natural products. Investigations into the biochemistry responsible for the formation of these compounds have revealed fascinating mechanisms that are not, or only rarely, found in other microorganisms. In this article, we survey the biosynthetic pathways of cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats. We especially emphasize modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS and polyketide synthase (PKS pathways and highlight the unique enzyme mechanisms that were elucidated or can be anticipated for the individual products. We further include ribosomal natural products and UV-absorbing pigments from cyanobacteria. Mechanistic insights obtained from the biochemical studies of cyanobacterial pathways can inspire the development of concepts for the design of bioactive compounds by synthetic-biology approaches in the future.

  2. Natural product biosyntheses in cyanobacteria: A treasure trove of unique enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Jan-Christoph; Gatte Picchi, Douglas; Dittmann, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are prolific producers of natural products. Investigations into the biochemistry responsible for the formation of these compounds have revealed fascinating mechanisms that are not, or only rarely, found in other microorganisms. In this article, we survey the biosynthetic pathways of cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats. We especially emphasize modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways and highlight the unique enzyme mechanisms that were elucidated or can be anticipated for the individual products. We further include ribosomal natural products and UV-absorbing pigments from cyanobacteria. Mechanistic insights obtained from the biochemical studies of cyanobacterial pathways can inspire the development of concepts for the design of bioactive compounds by synthetic-biology approaches in the future.

  3. Dynamical systems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V V

    1995-01-01

    This book shows that the phenomenon of integrability is related not only to Hamiltonian systems, but also to a wider variety of systems having invariant measures that often arise in nonholonomic mechanics. Each paper presents unique ideas and original approaches to various mathematical problems related to integrability, stability, and chaos in classical dynamics. Topics include… the inverse Lyapunov theorem on stability of equilibria geometrical aspects of Hamiltonian mechanics from a hydrodynamic perspective current unsolved problems in the dynamical systems approach to classical mechanics

  4. Uniqueness, scale, and resolution issues in groundwater model parameter identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-chyi J. Yeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper first visits uniqueness, scale, and resolution issues in groundwater flow forward modeling problems. It then makes the point that non-unique solutions to groundwater flow inverse problems arise from a lack of information necessary to make the problems well defined. Subsequently, it presents the necessary conditions for a well-defined inverse problem. They are full specifications of (1 flux boundaries and sources/sinks, and (2 heads everywhere in the domain at at least three times (one of which is t = 0, with head change everywhere at those times must being nonzero for transient flow. Numerical experiments are presented to corroborate the fact that, once the necessary conditions are met, the inverse problem has a unique solution. We also demonstrate that measurement noise, instability, and sensitivity are issues related to solution techniques rather than the inverse problems themselves. In addition, we show that a mathematically well-defined inverse problem, based on an equivalent homogeneous or a layered conceptual model, may yield physically incorrect and scenario-dependent parameter values. These issues are attributed to inconsistency between the scale of the head observed and that implied by these models. Such issues can be reduced only if a sufficiently large number of observation wells are used in the equivalent homogeneous domain or each layer. With a large number of wells, we then show that increase in parameterization can lead to a higher-resolution depiction of heterogeneity if an appropriate inverse methodology is used. Furthermore, we illustrate that, using the same number of wells, a highly parameterized model in conjunction with hydraulic tomography can yield better characterization of the aquifer and minimize the scale and scenario-dependent problems. Lastly, benefits of the highly parameterized model and hydraulic tomography are tested according to their ability to improve predictions of aquifer responses induced by

  5. Unique wing scale photonics of male Rajah Brooke's birdwing butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultrastructures in butterfly wing scales can take many shapes, resulting in the often striking coloration of many butterflies due to interference of light. The plethora of coloration mechanisms is dazzling, but often only single mechanisms are described for specific animals. Results: We

  6. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leshen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is an unusual congenital herniation of abdominal content through the triangular parasternal gaps of the anterior diaphragm. They are commonly asymptomatic and right-sided. We present a case of a bilateral Morgagni hernia resulting in delayed growth in a 10-month-old boy. The presentation was unique due to its bilateral nature and its symptomatic compression of the mediastinum. Diagnosis was made by 3D reconstructed CT angiogram. The patient underwent medical optimization until he was safely able to tolerate laparoscopic surgical repair of his hernia. Upon laparoscopy, the CT findings were confirmed and the hernia was repaired.

  7. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshen, Michael; Richardson, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is an unusual congenital herniation of abdominal content through the triangular parasternal gaps of the anterior diaphragm. They are commonly asymptomatic and right-sided. We present a case of a bilateral Morgagni hernia resulting in delayed growth in a 10-month-old boy. The presentation was unique due to its bilateral nature and its symptomatic compression of the mediastinum. Diagnosis was made by 3D reconstructed CT angiogram. The patient underwent medical optimization until he was safely able to tolerate laparoscopic surgical repair of his hernia. Upon laparoscopy, the CT findings were confirmed and the hernia was repaired.

  8. 3-branes and uniqueness of the Salam-Sezgin vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Gueven, R.; Pope, C.N

    2004-08-12

    We prove the uniqueness of the supersymmetric Salam-Sezgin (Minkowski){sub 4}xS{sup 2} ground state among all non-singular solutions with a four-dimensional Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter symmetry. We construct the most general solutions with an axial symmetry in the two-dimensional internal space, and show that included amongst these is a family that is non-singular away from a conical defect at one pole of a distorted 2-sphere. These solutions admit the interpretation of 3-branes with negative tension.

  9. Hypertension in the elderly: unique challenges and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Faruk; Yesil, Yusuf; Balogun, Rasheed A; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M

    2013-08-01

    Elderly individuals, worldwide, are on the rise, posing new challenges to care providers. Hypertension is highly prevalent in elderly individuals, and multiple challenges face care providers while managing it. In addition to treating hypertension, the physician must treat other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with or without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality. This review discusses some of the unique characteristics of high blood pressure in the elderly and provides an overview of the challenges facing care providers, as well as the current recommendations for management of hypertension in the elderly.

  10. Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhroha, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC) induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1) CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2) Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis. PMID:25610672

  11. A Spectroscopically Unique Main Belt Asteroid: 10537 (1991 RY16)

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Jedicke, Robert; Willman, Mark; Haghighipour, Nader; Bus, Schelte J; Gaidos, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We present visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra and interpreted surface mineralogy for asteroid 10537 (1991 RY16). The spectrum of this object is without precedent amongst the Main Belt asteroids. A unique absorption band centered at 0.63 microns could be attributed to one of several mineralogies. Pronounced 1- and 2-micron absorption bands suggest that the composition of 10537 is a mixture of pyroxenes and olivine and that it originated from a parent body that was partially or fully differentiated. The closest available analog is the large Main Belt asteroid 349 Dembowska but 10537 may be an isolated fragment from a completely eroded parent body.

  12. Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral.

  13. Acausality and Non-Unique Evolution in Generalized Teleparallel Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Keisuke; Ong, Yen Chin

    2013-01-01

    We show the existence of physical superluminal modes and acausality in the Brans-Dicke type extension of teleparallel gravity that includes F(T) gravity and teleparallel dark energy as special cases. We derive the characteristic hypersurface for the extra degrees of freedom in the theory, thereby showing that the time evolution is not unique and closed causal curves can appear. Furthermore, we present a concrete disastrous solution in Bianchi type-I spacetime, in which the anisotropy in expansion can be any function of time and thus anisotropy can emerge suddenly, a simple demonstration that the theory is physically problematic.

  14. Existence and uniqueness in anisotropic conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-03-18

    We show that three sets of internal current densities are the right amount of data that give the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in reconstructing an anisotropic conductivity in two space dimensions. The curl free equation of Faraday’s law is taken instead of the usual divergence free equation of the electrical impedance to- mography. Boundary conditions related to given current densities are introduced which complete a well determined problem for conductivity reconstruction together with Fara- day’s law.

  15. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a unique presentation in a pediatric patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppmann, Michael V.; Monson, Matthew [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Infection by the Aspergillus species of fungus can result in a variety of clinically and radiographically unique pulmonary diseases. The specific disease manifested is most dependent upon the immunocompetency of the infected individual. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is most commonly seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since its original description in 1952, much has been published describing the radiographic manifestations of this disease. In this article, we present the unusual case of a 13-year-old whose initial radiographic presentation was that of a dense lobar consolidation. Additionally, we highlight the contributory role of the radiologist in guiding the appropriate clinical work-up and treatment of this disease. (orig.)

  16. Bimaxillary presentation of central ossifying fibroma: a unique aggressive entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kiran; Gupta, Kavita; Manjunatha, B S; Palan, Soniya

    2013-01-01

    Central ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm, having slow growing nature. Some rare lesions show very aggressive nature, multifocal appearance and reach up to a very massive size. So, these kinds of cases require special attention for their treatment. A unique case of central ossifying fibroma with aggressive nature, multifocal appearance is reported. This case shows growth both in maxilla and mandible with maxillary lesion massive in size involving maxillary sinus. There have not been any such cases reported so far in the literature showing bimaxillary growth of ossifying fibroma. PMID:23774709

  17. On the Uniqueness of Ghost-Free Special Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dong; Xing, Yu-Hang

    2017-09-01

    Special gravity refers to interacting theories of massless gravitons in Minkowski space-time which are invariant under the abelian gauge invariance {h}ab\\to {h}ab+{\\partial }(a{χ }b) only. In this article we determine the most general form of special gravity free of Ostrogradski ghosts, meaning its equation of motion is of at most second order. Together with the recent works, this result could be helpful in formulating proofs of General Relativity as the unique physical theory of self-interacting massless gravitons. We also study how to construct gauge invariant couplings to matter fields.

  18. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  19. On the Uniqueness of the Standard Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Gabriel S; José, Marco V

    2017-02-13

    In this work, we determine the biological and mathematical properties that are sufficient and necessary to uniquely determine both the primeval RNY (purine-any base-pyrimidine) code and the standard genetic code (SGC). These properties are: the evolution of the SGC from the RNY code; the degeneracy of both codes, and the non-degeneracy of the assignments of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) to amino acids; the wobbling property; the consideration that glycine was the first amino acid; the topological and symmetrical properties of both codes.

  20. Idiopathic Fenestrated Complex Syndactyly in a Unique Crisscross Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Van Heest, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    This case presents surgical treatment of a unique form of syndactyly: an isolated fenestrated, complex, crisscross syndactyly of the right middle and ring fingers. A 2-year-old boy presented with the ring finger lying dorsal and the middle finger lying volar, with the middle phalanges syndactylized. A surgical release was performed with a subsequent z-plasty, 2 years later, for scar elongation. At the age of 4, he has essentially full function of his hand with minimal limitations. This case demonstrates that 2 digits that were syndactylized in a coronal plane (ring finger dorsal and middle finger volar) can be successfully surgically separated.

  1. Protostylid: As never reported before! A unique case with variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela D Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human jaw and teeth display a high degree of morphological individuality as they represent personal, familial, and population characteristics and one among them are cuspal variations. A protostylid is a supernumerary or accessory cusp located on the mesiobuccal surface of the mandibular molars that seldom pose problems. A forensic odontologist may find significant interest in its classification and identification among victims of mass causalties and bite marks on living and nonliving objects. The authors here are reporting a case of protostylid with a unique presentation which, to best of our knowledge is not reported so far.

  2. Unique interaction pattern for a functionally biased ghrelin receptor agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Bjørn Behrens; Lang, Manja; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    /13) pathway. The recognition pattern of wFw-Isn-NH(2) with the ghrelin receptor also differed significantly from that of all previously characterized unbiased agonists. Most importantly, wFw-Isn-NH(2) was not dependent on GluIII:09 (Glu3.33), which otherwise is an obligatory TM III anchor point residue...... orientation as compared with, for example, the wFw peptide agonists. It is concluded that the novel peptide-mimetic ligand wFw-Isn-NH(2) is a biased ghrelin receptor agonist and that the selective signaling pattern presumably is due to its unique receptor recognition pattern lacking interaction with key...

  3. Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Moroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1 CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2 Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis.

  4. Uniqueness of the mass in the radiating regime

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T; MacCallum, M A H; Chrusciel, Piotr T.; Jezierski, Jacek; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac

    1998-01-01

    The usual approaches to the definition of energy give an ambiguous result for the energy of fields in the radiating regime. We show that for a massless scalar field in Minkowski space-time the definition may be rendered unambiguous by adding the requirement that the energy cannot increase in retarded time. We present a similar theorem for the gravitational field, proved elsewhere, which establishes that the Trautman-Bondi energy is the unique (up to a multiplicative factor) functional, within a natural class, which is monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri.

  5. On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, Octavian G

    2011-01-01

    We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

  6. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on multipliers cannot generate a unique clearing price. Although such situations are rare, they can cause significant uncertainties and complexities in market dispatch. In practice, this situation is solved through simple empirical methods, which may cause additional operations or biased allocation. Based...... the results of the theoretical analysis, and further demonstrate that the method performs effectively in both uniform-pricing and nodalpricing markets....

  7. The unique pharmacological characteristics of mifepristone (RU486): from terminating pregnancy to preventing cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Wang, Jichuang; Shao, Jingwei; Gao, Yu; Xu, Jianguo; Yu, Suhong; Liu, Zhenhua; Jia, Lee

    2014-09-01

    Mifepristone (RU486) is a born-for-woman molecule discovered three decades ago. Unlike those antihypertensive and antipsychotic pharmaceutical blockbusters, this abortifacient offers relatively low profit potential. Current understanding of mechanism of action of mifepristone and its on-going clinical trials are changing our views on the drug beyond its abortifacient scope. Here we briefly review its metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties including its unique enterohepatic circulation, its mechanisms of actions involving antiprogesterone and antiglucocorticoid, growth inhibition of various cancer cell lines, suppression of invasive and metastatic cancer potential, downregulation of Cdk2, Bcl-2, and NF-kappa B, interference of heterotypic cell adhesion to basement membrane, and cell migration. We comprehensively analyze recent results from preclinical and clinical studies using mifepristone as an anticancer drug for breast, meningioma, and gliomas tumors in the central nervous system, prostate cancer, ovarian and endometrial cancer, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Although mifepristone has more benefits for global public health than we originally thought, its effect as a postmetastatic chemotherapeutic agent is limited. Nonetheless, owing to its unique safe, metabolism and other pharmacological properties, metapristone (the primary metabolite of mifepristone) may have potential for cancer metastatic chemoprevention.

  8. Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Uniqueness Theorem of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Saida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three parts. In the first part, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second part, intrinsic properties of quantum mechanics are shown, which justify the Boltzmann formula to yield a unique entropy in statistical mechanics. These properties clarify three conditions, one of which is necessary and others are sufficient for the validity of Boltzmann formula. In the third part, by combining the above results, we find a reasonable suggestion from the sufficient conditions that the potential of gravitational interaction among microstates of underlying quantum gravity may not diverge to negative infinity (such as Newtonian gravity but is bounded below at a finite length scale. In addition to that, from the necessary condition, the interaction has to be repulsive within the finite length scale. The length scale should be Planck size. Thus, quantum gravity may become repulsive at Planck length. Also, a relation of these suggestions with action integral of gravity at semi-classical level is given. These suggestions about quantum gravity are universal in the sense that they are independent of any existing model of quantum gravity.

  9. Exploration of the nature of a unique natural polymer-based thermosensitive hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shanling; Yang, Yuhong; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-14

    The chitosan (CS)/β-glycerol phosphate (GP) system is a heat induced gelling system with a promising potential application, such as an injectable biomedical material. Unlike most thermosensitive gelling systems, the CS/GP system is only partially reversible. That is once the hydrogel is fully matured, it only softens but cannot go back to its initial liquid state when cooled down. Here, we perform both the small and large amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS and LAOS) tests on the fully matured CS/GP hydrogel samples at a variety of temperatures within the cooling process. The purpose of such tests is to investigate the structural change of the hydrogel network and thus to understand the possible gelation mechanism of this unique thermosensitive hydrogel. From the LAOS results and the further analysis with the Chebyshev expansion method, it shows that the CS/GP hydrogel is composed of a colloidal network dominated by hydrophobic interactions at high temperature, and gradually turns into a flexible network dominated by hydrogen bonding when the temperature goes down. Therefore, we may conclude that LOAS is a powerful tool to study the nonlinear behaviour of a polymer system that is closely related to its structure, and as a practical example, we achieve a clearer vision on the gelation mechanism of the unique CS/GP thermosensitive hydrogel on the basis of considerable previous studies and assumptions in this laboratory and other research groups.

  10. Botulinum neurotoxin: unique folding of enzyme domain of the most-poisonous poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Kukreja, Roshan V; Li, Li; Zhmurov, Artem; Kononova, Olga; Cai, Shuowei; Ahmed, Syed A; Barsegov, Valeri; Singh, Bal Ram

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most toxic substance known to mankind, is the first example of the fully active molten globule state. To understand its folding mechanism, we performed urea denaturation experiments and theoretical modeling using BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A). We found that the extent of BoNT/A denaturation from the native state (N) shows a nonmonotonic dependence on urea concentration indicating a unique multistep denaturation process, N → I1 [Formula: see text] I2 [Formula: see text] U, with two intermediate states I1 and I2. BoNT/A loses almost all its secondary structure in 3.75 M urea (I1), yet it displays a native-like secondary structure in 5 M urea (I2). This agrees with the results of theoretical modeling, which helped to determine the molecular basis of unique behavior of BoNT/A in solution. Except for I2, all the states revert back to full enzymatic activity for SNAP-25 including the unfolded state U stable in 7 M urea. Our results stress the importance of structural flexibility in the toxin's mechanism of survival and action, an unmatched evolutionary trait from billion-year-old bacteria, which also correlates with the long-lasting enzymatic activity of BoNT inside neuronal cells. BoNT/A provides a rich model to explore protein folding in relation to functional activity.

  11. 78 FR 58545 - Global Unique Device Identification Database; Draft Guidance for Industry; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Global Unique Device Identification Database; Draft Guidance... ``Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID).'' FDA is issuing this draft guidance to communicate... unique device identification system for medical devices along with implementation timeframes for certain...

  12. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S.

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  13. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  14. Questions of uniqueness and resolution in reconstruction from projections

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Myron Bernard

    1978-01-01

    Reconstruction from projections has revolutionized radiology and as now become one of the most important tools of medical diagnosi- he E. M. I. Scanner is one example. In this text, some fundamental heoretical and practical questions are resolved. Despite recent research activity in the area, the crucial subject ·f the uniqueness of the reconstruction and the effect of noise in the ata posed some unsettled fundamental questions. In particular, Kennan mith proved that if we describe an object by a C~ function, i. e. , nfinitely differentiable with compact support, then there are other bjects with the same shape, i. e. , support, which can differ almost rhitrarily and still have the same projections in finitely many direc­ ions. On the other hand, he proved that objects in finite dimensional unction spaces are uniquely determined by a single projection for almost 11 angles, i. e. , except on a set of measure zero. Along these lines, erman and Rowland in [41) showed that reconstructions obtained from he common...

  15. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  16. The support systems of unique high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumeyko Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings and skyscrapers perceive significant vertical loads and, moreover, have to resist large lateral effects which form strong gusts of wind and seismic events. In the world for the high-rise buildings with the nuclei of the stiffness are using streamers – outriggers, which connect the external column and the core form the support system and resist lateral loads. High-rise buildings construction grows promptly around the world and causes new problems which shall be solved on the basis of the modern constructive opportunities, by means of exact engineering assessment. Systems of outrigers and belts are very important in the modern engineering, because they provide effective control over side shifts of a building. They play an important role in high-rise unique buildings constructions, being a link between the central kernel and outer columns. The article deals with the design scheme of conventional conveyor of belts and outriggers – bandages, explores their applications, advantages and disadvantages of various options, problems with their design. Presented material enables the design of unique high-rise buildings to choose the most optimal design solution.

  17. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  18. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.

  19. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Brauth, Steven E; Durand, Sarah E; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities.

  20. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS USING A UNIQUE MODEL OF TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Klepac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available REFII1 model is an authorial mathematical model for time series data mining. The main purpose of that model is to automate time series analysis, through a unique transformation model of time series. An advantage of this approach of time series analysis is the linkage of different methods for time series analysis, linking traditional data mining tools in time series, and constructing new algorithms for analyzing time series. It is worth mentioning that REFII model is not a closed system, which means that we have a finite set of methods. At first, this is a model for transformation of values of time series, which prepares data used by different sets of methods based on the same model of transformation in a domain of problem space. REFII model gives a new approach in time series analysis based on a unique model of transformation, which is a base for all kind of time series analysis. The advantage of REFII model is its possible application in many different areas such as finance, medicine, voice recognition, face recognition and text mining.

  1. Unique Features and Spacecraft Applications of Dynamic Isotope Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, B.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic isotope power system represents the most recent attempt to develop a heat-engine generator for space electric power. A major objective in this most recent effort was to increase the power and to reduce the cost of nuclear space power systems to the point where the unique features of this power source could be brought to bear for Earth-orbit missions which could benefit therefrom. This objective was largely achieved; both weight and cost of the dynamic isotope systems are comparable to solar power systems. The dynamic isotope power system, designed for spacecraft requiring prime power in the 500-2000 W range, has been successfully built and ground tested. A number of studies, summarized herein, have demonstrated the advantages of using such a power system instead of the conventional solar system for a variety of Earth-orbit missions. These advantages stem from the unique nature of the dynamic isotope system, different in kind from solar power systems. As a result, in many cases, the spacecraft design can be significantly simplified and more closely harmonized with mission requirements. This overall advantage can be crucial in missions which have stringent pointing, stability, viewing, and/or positioning requirements.

  2. Unique Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates as a Highly Active SERS Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzberg, A M; Grant, C D; Wolcott, A; Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Bogomolni, R; Zhang, J Z

    2004-04-06

    A unique gold nanoparticle aggregate (GNA) system has been shown to be an excellent substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Rhodamine 6G (R6G), a common molecule used for testing SERS activity on silver, but generally difficult to detect on gold substrates, has been found to readily bind to the GNA and exhibit strong SERS activity due to the unique surface chemistry afforded by sulfur species on the surface. This GNA system has yielded a large SERS enhancement of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} in bulk solution for R6G, on par with or greater than any previously reported gold SERS substrate. SERS activity has also been successfully demonstrated for several biological molecules including adenine, L-cysteine, L-lysine, and L-histidine for the first time on a gold SERS substrate, showing the potential of this GNA as a convenient and powerful SERS substrate for biomolecular detection. In addition, SERS spectrum of R6G on single aggregates has been measured. We have shown that the special surface properties of the GNA, in conjunction with strong near IR absorption, make it useful for SERS analysis of a wide variety of molecules.

  3. A new, unique signature of the true cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Keith

    Full Text Available The "cusp proper" is generally understood to be the region enclosed by the outermost magnetospheric field lines as they map to low altitudes. It is therefore a weak-field region with continuous contact with magnetosheath plasma. Data from the recent Astrid-2 Swedish microsatellite are presented which show a new, unique signature (dubbed the "true cusp" during cusp crossings that can now be shown to be consistently present and with which one can redefine the physical meaning and topology of the cusp. Similar crossings made by the DE-2, UARS and DMSP-F10 satellites also show this same, unique signature although in most cases the spatial resolution was much less than that of the Astrid-2 MEDUSA spectrometer. The presence of concurrent features of the same scale size as the plasma in the energetic particle, field and wave power data shows that this is a real structural feature and not a coincidental structure among plasma instruments. The persistence of this feature may lend new insight into the dynamics of the cusp and magnetospheric particle entry.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, arid boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  4. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  5. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  6. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  7. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  8. Resonant scanning mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

    2014-10-01

    Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 μrad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

  9. Quantum mechanics symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter

    1989-01-01

    "Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...

  10. Statistical mechanics of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kita, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...

  11. Different Flavonoids Can Shape Unique Gut Microbiota Profile In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiacheng; Chen, Long; Xue, Bin; Liu, Qianyue; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2016-09-01

    The impact of flavonoids has been discussed on the relative viability of bacterial groups in human microbiota. This study was aimed to compare the modulation of various flavonoids, including quercetin, catechin and puerarin, on gut microbiota culture in vitro, and analyze the interactions between bacterial species using fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as carbon source under the stress of flavonoids. Three plant flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, were added into multispecies culture to ferment for 24 h, respectively. The bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons were sequenced, and the composition of microbiota community was analyzed. The results revealed that the tested flavonoids, quercetin, catechin, and puerarin, presented different activities of regulating gut microbiota; flavonoid aglycones, but not glycosides, may inhibit growth of certain species. Quercetin and catechin shaped unique biological webs. Bifidobacterium spp. was the center of the biological web constructed in this study.

  12. The unique predisposition to criminal violations in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility.

  13. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  14. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Rosati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  15. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  16. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  17. Dialectical behavior therapy: current indications and unique elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Alexander L

    2006-09-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). The patient populations for which DBT has the most empirical support include parasuicidal women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), but there have been promising findings for patients with BPD and substance use disorders (SUDs), persons who meet criteria for binge-eating disorder, and depressed elderly patients. Although DBT has many similarities with other cognitive-behavioral approaches, several critical and unique elements must be in place for the treatment to constitute DBT. Some of these elements include (a) serving the five functions of treatment, (b) the biosocial theory and focusing on emotions in treatment, (c) a consistent dialectical philosophy, and (d) mindfulness and acceptance-oriented interventions.

  18. [Enamel: a unique self-assembling in mineral world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignon, Guilhem; de la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Dessombz, Arnaud; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2015-05-01

    Enamel is a unique tissue in vertebrates, acellular, formed on a labile scaffolding matrix and hypermineralized. The ameloblasts are epithelial cells in charge of amelogenesis. They secrete a number of matrix proteins degraded by enzymes during enamel mineralization. This ordered cellular and extracellular events imply that any genetic or environmental perturbation will produce indelible and recognizable defects. The specificity of defects will indicate the affected cellular process. Thus, depending on the specificity of alterations, the teratogenic event can be retrospectively established. Advances in the field allow to use enamel defects as diagnostic tools for molecular disorders. The multifunctionality of enamel peptides is presently identified from their chemical roles in mineralization to cell signaling, constituting a source of concrete innovations in regenerative medicine.

  19. Core and shell song systems unique to the parrot brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Harpøth, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely...... species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities....

  20. Existence and uniqueness results for neural network approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R C; Helmke, U

    1995-01-01

    Some approximation theoretic questions concerning a certain class of neural networks are considered. The networks considered are single input, single output, single hidden layer, feedforward neural networks with continuous sigmoidal activation functions, no input weights but with hidden layer thresholds and output layer weights. Specifically, questions of existence and uniqueness of best approximations on a closed interval of the real line under mean-square and uniform approximation error measures are studied. A by-product of this study is a reparametrization of the class of networks considered in terms of rational functions of a single variable. This rational reparametrization is used to apply the theory of Pade approximation to the class of networks considered. In addition, a question related to the number of local minima arising in gradient algorithms for learning is examined.

  1. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  2. Unique benefits of nanotechnology to drug delivery and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Scott E

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers many potential benefits to medical research by making pharmaceuticals more efficacious and by decreasing their adverse side-effects. Preclinical characterization of nanoparticles intended for medical applications is complicated--due to the variety of materials used, their unique surface properties and multifunctional nature. This chapter serves as an introduction to the volume, giving a broad overview of applications of nanotechnology to medicine, and describes some of the beneficial aspects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery. We define nanotechnology and provide brief descriptions of the major classes of nanomaterials used for medical applications. The following two chapters discuss scientific and regulatory hurdles involved in the use of nanotechnology in medicine. The remaining bulk of the volume provides the reader with protocols that have been tested against clinically relevant nanoparticles and describes some of the nuances of nanoparticle types and necessary controls.

  3. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  4. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  5. A Unique Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pelvic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Traisak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is diverse and vasculitis can be a potential manifestation. Cutaneous lesions involving small vessels are the most frequent presentation. However, medium and large vessel vasculitis may present with life-threatening visceral manifestations. We present a unique case of pelvic vasculitis mimicking a pelvic mass as an initial presentation of SLE. There are case reports of systemic vasculitis involving the female genital tract with giant cell arteritis (GCA, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN, and granulomatous with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis (GPA/MPA, among others, but only a few cases attributed to SLE. Awareness of this condition and a prompt diagnosis are warranted as this is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.

  6. A unique role for the human amygdala in novelty detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Buckholtz, Joshua W; Avery, Suzanne N; Zald, David H

    2010-04-15

    Previous research indicates that the amygdala and hippocampus are sensitive to novelty; however, two types of novelty can be distinguished - stimuli that are ordinary, but novel in the current context, and stimuli that are unusual. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) response of the human amygdala and hippocampus to novel, commonly seen objects versus novel unusual objects. When presented with the novel common stimuli, the BOLD signal increased significantly in both the amygdala and hippocampus. However, for the novel unusual stimuli, only the amygdala showed an increased response compared to the novel common stimuli. These findings suggest that the amygdala is distinctly responsive to novel unusual stimuli, making a unique contribution to the novelty detection circuit.

  7. Developing Unique Engineering Solutions to Improve Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley V. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many efforts to improve healthcare safety have focused on redesigning processes of care or retraining clinicians. Far less attention has been focused on the use of new technologies to improve safety. We present the results of a unique collaboration between the VA National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS and the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. Each year, the NCPS identifies safety problems across the VA that could be addressed with newly-engineered devices. Teams of Thayer students and faculty participating in a senior design course evaluate and engineer a solution for one of the problems. Exemplar projects have targeted surgical sponge retention, nosocomial infections, surgical site localization, and remote monitoring of hospitalized patients undergoing diagnostic testing and procedures. The program has served as an avenue for engineering students and health care workers to solve problems together. The success of this academic-clinical partnership could be replicated in other settings.

  8. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry's position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry--synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today's world.

  9. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Temporomandibular Joint: A Unique Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Kiersten; Rigby, Matthew; Hart, Robert; Trites, Jonathan; Taylor, S Mark

    2016-04-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare and benign proliferative disorder of synovium with potentially locally aggressive growth and invasion of the bone. Occurring within the joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae, it is most commonly a monoarticular disease affecting large joints. In particular, most cases of PVNS occur in the knee. PVNS of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a highly rare disorder, with approximately 60 cases reported. Herein, we present a unique case of an elderly male presenting with ear pain and subsequently diagnosed with PVNS of the TMJ with a history of trauma to the area. Initial imaging of the TMJ and the surrounding region looked concerning for invasive and/or malignant disease, but an open biopsy confirmed PVNS.

  10. Core and shell song systems unique to the parrot brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Harpøth, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe;

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely...... species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities....

  11. GSDC: A Unique Data Center in Korea for HEP research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Un

    2017-04-01

    Global Science experimental Data hub Center (GSDC) at Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) is a unique data center in South Korea established for promoting the fundamental research fields by supporting them with the expertise on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the infrastructure for High Performance Computing (HPC), High Throughput Computing (HTC) and Networking. GSDC has supported various research fields in South Korea dealing with the large scale of data, e.g. RENO experiment for neutrino research, LIGO experiment for gravitational wave detection, Genome sequencing project for bio-medical, and HEP experiments such as CDF at FNAL, Belle at KEK, and STAR at BNL. In particular, GSDC has run a Tier-1 center for ALICE experiment using the LHC at CERN since 2013. In this talk, we present the overview on computing infrastructure that GSDC runs for the research fields and we discuss on the data center infrastructure management system deployed at GSDC.

  12. Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

  13. Constructing Black Titania with Unique Nanocage Structure for Solar Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guilian; Xu, Jijian; Zhao, Wenli; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-11-23

    Solar desalination driven by solar radiation as heat source is freely available, however, hindered by low efficiency. Herein, we first design and synthesize black titania with a unique nanocage structure simultaneously with light trapping effect to enhance light harvesting, well-crystallized interconnected nanograins to accelerate the heat transfer from titania to water and with opening mesopores (4-10 nm) to facilitate the permeation of water vapor. Furthermore, the coated self-floating black titania nanocages film localizes the temperature increase at the water-air interface rather than uniformly heating the bulk of the water, which ultimately results in a solar-thermal conversion efficiency as high as 70.9% under a simulated solar light with an intensity of 1 kW m(-2) (1 sun). This finding should inspire new black materials with rationally designed structure for superior solar desalination performance.

  14. On the uniqueness of d-vertex magic constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph of order n and let D ⊆ {0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}. For v ∈ V, let ND(v = {u ∈ V : d(u, v ∈ D}. The graph G is said to be D-vertex magic if there exists a bijection f : V (G → {1, 2, . . . , n} such that for all v ∈ V, ∑uv∈ND(v f(u is a constant, called D-vertex magic constant. O’Neal and Slater have proved the uniqueness of the D-vertex magic constant by showing that it can be determined by the D-neighborhood fractional domination number of the graph. In this paper we give a simple and elegant proof of this result. Using this result, we investigate the existence of distance magic labelings of complete r-partite graphs where r ≥ 4.

  15. Electroplated targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.; Francesconi, L.; Cai, S.; Schlyer, D.; Wieland, B.

    1995-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of positron emission tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavor to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in both medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules, i.e. monoclonal antibodies and peptides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  16. The unique maximal GF-regular submodule of a module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduldaim, Areej M; Chen, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    An R-module A is called GF-regular if, for each a ∈ A and r ∈ R, there exist t ∈ R and a positive integer n such that r(n)tr(n)a = r(n)a. We proved that each unitary R-module A contains a unique maximal GF-regular submodule, which we denoted by M GF(A). Furthermore, the radical properties of A are investigated; we proved that if A is an R-module and K is a submodule of A, then MGF(K) = K∩M GF(A). Moreover, if A is projective, then MGF(A) is a G-pure submodule of A and MGF(A) = M(R) · A.

  17. On the uniqueness of color patterns in raptor feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, I compared sequentially molted feathers for a few captive raptors from year to year and symmetrically matched feathers (left/right pairs) for many raptors to see if color patterns of sequential feather pairs were identical or if symmetrical pairs were mirror-image identical. Feather pairs were found to be identical only when without color pattern (e.g., the all-white rectrices of Bald Eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]). Complex patterns were not closely matched, but some simple patterns were sometimes closely matched, although not identical. Previous claims that complex color patterns in feather pairs are fingerprint-identical (and therefore that molted feathers from wild raptors can be used to identify breeding adults from year to year with certainty) were found to be untrue: each feather is unique. Although it is unwise to be certain of bird of origin using normal feathers, abnormal feathers can often be so used. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Hansen, Solveig Walløe; Nedergaard, Signe;

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning...... in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely...... species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities....

  19. Universal and uniquely human factors in spontaneous number perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2017-01-01

    A capacity for nonverbal numerical estimation is widespread among humans and animals. However, it is currently unclear whether numerical percepts are spontaneously extracted from the environment and whether nonverbal perception is influenced by human exposure to formal mathematics. We tested US adults and children, non-human primates, and numerate and innumerate Tsimane' adults on a quantity task in which they could choose to categorize sets of dots on the basis of number alone, surface area alone or a combination of the two. Despite differences in age, species and education, subjects are universally biased to base their judgments on number as opposed to the alternatives. Numerical biases are uniquely enhanced in humans compared to non-human primates, and correlated with degree of mathematics experience in both the US and Tsimane' groups. We conclude that humans universally and spontaneously extract numerical information, and that human nonverbal numerical perception is enhanced by symbolic numeracy. PMID:28091519

  20. Unique Offerings of the ISS as an Earth Observing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station offers unique capabilities for earth remote sensing. An established Earth orbiting platform with abundant power, data and commanding infrastructure, the ISS has been in operation for twelve years as a crew occupied science laboratory and offers low cost and expedited concept-to-operation paths for new sensing technologies. Plug in modularity on external platforms equipped with structural, power and data interfaces standardizes and streamlines integration and minimizes risk and start up difficulties. Data dissemination is also standardized. Emerging sensor technologies and instruments tailored for sensing of regional dynamics may not be worthy of dedicated platforms and launch vehicles, but may well be worthy of ISS deployment, hitching a ride on one of a variety of government or commercial visiting vehicles. As global acceptance of the urgent need for understanding Climate Change continues to grow, the value of ISS, orbiting in Low Earth Orbit, in complementing airborne, sun synchronous polar, geosynchronous and other platform remote sensing will also grow.

  1. Liver diseases in pregnancy: Diseases unique to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khulood T; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. This review summarizes liver diseases that are unique to pregnancy. We discuss clinical conditions that are seen only in pregnant women and involve the liver; from Hyperemesis Gravidarum that happens in 1 out of 200 pregnancies and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (0.5%-1.5% prevalence), to the more frequent condition of preeclampsia (10% prevalence) and its severe form; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count syndrome (12% of pregnancies with preeclampsia), to the rare entity of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (incidence of 1 per 7270 to 13000 deliveries). Although pathogeneses behind the development of these aliments are not fully understood, theories have been proposed. Some propose the special physiological changes that accompany pregnancy as a precipitant. Others suggest a constellation of factors including both the mother and her fetus that come together to trigger those unique conditions. Reaching a timely and accurate diagnosis of such conditions can be challenging. The timing of the condition in relation toward which trimester it starts at is a key. Accurate diagnosis can be made using specific clinical findings and blood tests. Some entities have well-defined criteria that help not only in making the diagnosis, but also in classifying the disease according to its severity. Management of these conditions range from simple medical remedies to measures such as immediate termination of the pregnancy. In specific conditions, it is prudent to have expert obstetric and medical specialists teaming up to help improve the outcomes. PMID:24282353

  2. Unique Cellular Organization in the Oldest Root Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Alexander J; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Dolan, Liam

    2016-06-20

    Roots and shoots of plant bodies develop from meristems-cell populations that self-renew and produce cells that undergo differentiation-located at the apices of axes [1].The oldest preserved root apices in which cellular anatomy can be imaged are found in nodules of permineralized fossil soils called coal balls [2], which formed in the Carboniferous coal swamp forests over 300 million years ago [3-9]. However, no fossil root apices described to date were actively growing at the time of preservation [3-10]. Because the cellular organization of meristems changes when root growth stops, it has been impossible to compare cellular dynamics as stem cells transition to differentiated cells in extinct and extant taxa [11]. We predicted that meristems of actively growing roots would be preserved in coal balls. Here we report the discovery of the first fossilized remains of an actively growing root meristem from permineralized Carboniferous soil with detail of the stem cells and differentiating cells preserved. The cellular organization of the meristem is unique. The position of the Körper-Kappe boundary, discrete root cap, and presence of many anticlinal cell divisions within a broad promeristem distinguish it from all other known root meristems. This discovery is important because it demonstrates that the same general cellular dynamics are conserved between the oldest extinct and extant root meristems. However, its unique cellular organization demonstrates that extant root meristem organization and development represents only a subset of the diversity that has existed since roots first evolved. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Telomere length alterations unique to invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Christopher M; Asch-Kendrick, Rebecca; Argani, Pedram; Meeker, Alan K; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley

    2015-08-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the extreme ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and protect chromosomal ends from degradation and recombination. Dysfunctional telomeres contribute to genomic instability, promote tumorigenesis, and, in breast cancer, have been associated with increased cancer risk and poor prognosis. Short telomere lengths have been previously associated with triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2)--positive ductal carcinomas. However, these investigations have not specifically assessed invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs), which accounts for 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. Here, we evaluate telomere lengths within 48 primary ILCs with complete characterization of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2 status, including 32 luminal/Her2- (ER+/PR+/Her2-), 8 luminal/Her2+ (ER+/PR+/Her2+), 3 Her2+ (ER-/PR-/Her2+), and 5 triple-negative (ER-/PR-/Her2-) carcinomas. A telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization assay, which provides single-cell telomere length resolution, was used to evaluate telomere lengths and compare with standard clinicopathological markers. In contrast to breast ductal carcinoma, in which more than 85% of cases display abnormally short telomeres, approximately half (52%) of the ILCs displayed either normal or long telomeres. Short telomere length was associated with older patient age. Interestingly, 3 cases (6%) displayed a unique telomere pattern consisting of 1 or 2 bright telomere spots among the normal telomere signals within each individual cancer cell, a phenotype that has not been previously described. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the significance of the unique bright telomere spot phenotype and the potential utility of telomere length as a prognostic marker in ILC.

  4. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  5. Is There a Unique Physical Entropy? Micro versus Macro

    CERN Document Server

    Dieks, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Entropy in thermodynamics is an extensive quantity, whereas standard methods in statistical mechanics give rise to a non-extensive expression for the entropy. This discrepancy is often seen as a sign that basic formulas of statistical mechanics should be revised, either on the basis of quantum mechanics or on the basis of general and fundamental considerations about the (in)distinguishability of particles. In this article we argue against this response. We show that both the extensive thermodynamic and the non-extensive statistical entropy are perfectly alright within their own fields of application. Changes in the statistical formulas that remove the discrepancy must be seen as motivated by pragmatic reasons (conventions) rather than as justified by basic arguments about particle statistics.

  6. Zika Virus Is Not Uniquely Stable at Physiological Temperatures Compared to Other Flaviviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Leslie; Dowd, Kimberly A.; Smith, Alexander R. Y.; Pelc, Rebecca S.; DeMaso, Christina R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has emerged as a global health threat due in part to its association with congenital abnormalities. Other globally relevant flaviviruses include dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV). High-resolution structures of ZIKV reveal many similarities to DENV and suggest some differences, including an extended glycan loop (D. Sirohi, Z. Chen, L. Sun, T. Klose, T. C. Pierson, et al., 352:467–470, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf5316) and unique interactions among envelope (E) protein residues that were proposed to confer increased virion stability and contribute mechanistically to the distinctive pathobiology of ZIKV (V. A. Kostyuchenko, E. X. Lim, S. Zhang, G. Fibriansah, T. S. Ng, et al., Nature 533:425–428, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature17994). However, in the latter study, virus stability was inferred by measuring the loss of infectivity following a short incubation period. Here, we rigorously assessed the relative stability of ZIKV, DENV, and WNV by measuring changes in infectivity following prolonged incubation at physiological temperatures. At 37°C, the half-life of ZIKV was approximately twice as long as the half-life of DENV (11.8 and 5.2 h, respectively) but shorter than that of WNV (17.7 h). Incubation at 40°C accelerated the loss of ZIKV infectivity. Increasing virion maturation efficiency modestly increased ZIKV stability, as observed previously with WNV and DENV. Finally, mutations at E residues predicted to confer increased stability to ZIKV did not affect virion half-life. Our results demonstrate that ZIKV is not uniquely stable relative to other flaviviruses, suggesting that its unique pathobiology is explained by an alternative mechanism. PMID:27601578

  7. Unique neurobiology during the sensitive period for attachment produces distinctive infant trauma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opendak, Maya; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma has neurobehavioral effects when experienced at any stage of development, but trauma experienced in early life has unique neurobehavioral outcomes related to later life psychiatric sequelae. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences. Trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver child maltreatment, is particularly detrimental. Methods Using data primarily from rodent models, we review the literature on the interaction between trauma and attachment in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. We then consider how trauma with and without the caregiver produces long-term changes in emotionality and behavior, and suggest that these experiences initiate distinct pathways to pathology. Results Together these data suggest that infant trauma processing and its enduring effects are impacted by both the immaturity of brain areas for processing trauma and the unique functioning of the early-life brain, which is biased toward processing information within the attachment circuitry. Conclusion An understanding of developmental differences in trauma processing as well as the critical role of the caregiver in further altering early life brain processing of trauma is important for developing age-relevant treatment and interventions. Highlights of this article Trauma experienced in early life has been linked with life-long outcomes for mental health through a mechanism that remains unclear. Trauma experienced in the presence of a caregiver has unique consequences. The infant brain is predisposed toward processing information using attachment circuitry rather than threat circuitry. Data from rodent models suggest that repeated trauma in the presence of a caregiver prematurely engages brain areas important

  8. Unique strategies for technical information management at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the current NASA manned programs, the maturation of Space Station and the introduction of the Space Exploration programs are anticipated to add substantially to the number and variety of data and documentation at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). This growth in the next decade has been estimated at five to ten fold compared to the current numbers. There will be an increased requirement for the tracking and currency of space program data and documents with National pressures to realize economic benefits from the research and technological developments of space programs. From a global perspective the demand for NASA's technical data and documentation is anticipated to increase at local, national, and international levels. The primary users will be government, industry, and academia. In our present national strategy, NASA's research and technology will assume a great role in the revitalization of the economy and gaining international competitiveness. Thus, greater demand will be placed on NASA's data and documentation resources. In this paper the strategies and procedures developed by DDMS, Inc., to accommodate the present and future information utilization needs are presented. The DDMS, Inc., strategies and procedures rely on understanding user requirements, library management issues, and technological applications for acquiring, searching, storing, and retrieving specific information accurately and quickly. The proposed approach responds to changing customer requirements and product deliveries. The unique features of the proposed strategy include: (1) To establish customer driven data and documentation management through an innovative and unique methods to identify needs and requirements. (2) To implement a structured process which responds to user needs, aimed at minimizing costs and maximizing services, resulting in increased productivity. (3) To provide a process of standardization of services and procedures. This standardization is the central

  9. Perivascular adipose tissue: An unique fat compartment relevant for the cardiometabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel-Axel, D I; Häring, H U

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes and its major risk factor, obesity, are an increasing worldwide health problem. The exact mechanisms that link obesity with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular complications and renal diseases, are still not clarified sufficiently. Adipose tissue in general is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that may influence the development of these disorders. Excessive body fat in general obesity may also cause quantitative and functional alterations of specific adipose tissue compartments. Beside visceral and subcutaneous fat depots which exert systemic effects by the release of adipokines, cytokines and hormones, there are also locally acting fat depots such as peri- and epicardial fat, perivascular fat, and renal sinus fat. Perivascular adipose tissue is in close contact with the adventitia of large, medium and small diameter arteries, possesses unique features differing from other fat depots and may act also independently of general obesity. An increasing number of studies are dealing with the "good" or "bad" characteristics and functions of normally sized and dramatically increased perivascular fat mass in lean or heavily obese individuals. This review describes the origin of perivascular adipose tissue, its different locations, the dual role of a physiological and unphysiological fat mass and its impact on diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Clinical studies, new imaging methods, as well as basic research in cell culture experiments in the last decade helped to elucidate the various aspects of the unique fat compartment.

  10. Trauma patients who present in a delayed fashion: a unique and challenging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Mary J; Nunez, Hector; Monaghan, Sean F; Heffernan, Daithi S; Adams, Charles A; Lueckel, Stephanie N; Stephen, Andrew H

    2017-02-01

    A proportion of trauma patients present for evaluation in a delayed fashion after injury, likely due to a variety of medical and nonmedical reasons. There has been little investigation into the characteristics and outcomes of trauma patients who present delayed. We hypothesize that trauma patients who present in a delayed fashion are a unique population at risk of increased trauma-related complications. This was a retrospective review from 2010-2015 at a Level I trauma center. Patients were termed delayed if they presented >24 hours after injury. Patients admitted within 24 hours of their injury were the comparison group. Charts were reviewed for demographics, mechanism, comorbidities, complications and outcomes. A subgroup analysis was done on patients who suffered falls. During the 5-y period, 11,705 patients were admitted. A total of 588 patients (5%) presented >24 h after their injury. Patients in the delayed group were older (65 versus 55 y, P fashion have unique characteristics and are more likely to suffer negative outcomes including substance withdrawal. Future goals will include exploring strategies for early intervention, such as automatic withdrawal monitoring and social work referral for all patients who present in a delayed fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dried plum's unique capacity to reverse bone loss and alter bone metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Elizabeth; Hembree, Kelsey D; Davis, McKale R; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Halloran, Bernard P; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2013-01-01

    Interest in dried plum has increased over the past decade due to its promise in restoring bone and preventing bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. This study compared the effects of dried plum on bone to other dried fruits and further explored the potential mechanisms of action through which dried plum may exert its osteoprotective effects. Adult osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 25% (w/w) dried plum, apple, apricot, grape or mango for 8 weeks. Whole body and spine bone mineral density improved in mice consuming the dried plum, apricot and grape diets compared to the OVX control mice, but dried plum was the only fruit to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in the vertebra and prevent bone loss in the tibia. Restoration of biomechanical properties occurred in conjunction with the changes in trabecular bone in the spine. Compared to other dried fruits in this study, dried plum was unique in its ability to down-regulate osteoclast differentiation coincident with up-regulating osteoblast and glutathione (GPx) activity. These alterations in bone metabolism and antioxidant status compared to other dried fruits provide insight into dried plum's unique effects on bone.

  12. Unfolding the mystery of alternative splicing through a unique method of in vivo selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra N

    2007-05-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism of gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. In addition to creating protein diversity, alternative splicing provides the safest mode of gene evolution. Of late, more and more forms of alternatively spliced transcripts (mRNAs) are being discovered for key genes. Some of the alternatively spliced transcripts are also associated with major human diseases. This has created a sense of urgency to find the methods by which regulation of alternative splicing of specific exons could be best understood. Here I review a powerful in vivo selection method that uses a combinatorial library of partially random sequences. Several advantages of this method include in vivo analysis of large sequences, identification of unique sequence motifs, determination of relative strength of splice sites and identification of long-distance interactions including role of RNA structures. This unique method could be applied to identify tissue-specific cis-elements. Similarly, the method is suitable to find cis-elements that become active in response to specific treatments of cells. Considering this unbiased method uses in vivo conditions, it has potential to identify critical regulatory elements as therapeutic targets for a growing number of splicing-associated diseases.

  13. Puzzling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  14. Unique defense strategy by the endoplasmic reticulum body in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a site for the production of secretory proteins. Plants have developed ER subdomains for protein storage. The ER body is one such structure, which is observed in Brassicaceae plants. ER bodies accumulate in seedlings and roots or in wounded leaves in Arabidopsis. ER bodies contain high amounts of the β-glucosidases PYK10/BGLU23 in seedlings and roots or BGLU18 in wounded tissues. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in the metabolism of glycoside molecules, presumably to produce repellents against pests and fungi. When Arabidopsis roots are homogenized, PYK10 formed large protein aggregates that include other β-glucosidases (BGLU21 and BGLU22), GDSL lipase-like proteins (GLL22) and cytosolic jacalin-related lectins (PBP1/JAL30, JAL31, JAL33, JAL34 and JAL35). Glucosidase activity increases by the aggregate formation. NAI1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, regulates the expression of the ER body proteins PYK10 and NAI2. Reduced expression of NAI2, PYK10 and BGLU21 resulted in abnormal ER body formation, indicating that these components regulate ER body formation. PYK10, BGLU21 and BGLU22 possess hydrolytic activity for scopolin, a coumaroyl glucoside that accumulates in the roots of Arabidopsis, and nai1 and pyk10 mutants are more susceptible to the symbiotic fungus Piriformospora indica. Therefore, it appears that the ER body is a unique organelle of Brassicaceae plants that is important for defense against pests and fungi.

  15. Liver diseases in pregnancy: diseases not unique to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-11-21

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. Few challenges arise in reaching an accurate diagnosis in light of such physiological changes. Laboratory test results should be carefully interpreted and the knowledge of what normal changes to expect is prudent to avoid clinical misjudgment. Other challenges entail the methods of treatment and their safety for both the mother and the baby. This review summarizes liver diseases that are not unique to pregnancy. We focus on viral hepatitis and its mode of transmission, diagnosis, effect on the pregnancy, the mother, the infant, treatment, and breast-feeding. Autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Wilson's disease, Budd Chiari and portal vein thrombosis in pregnancy are also discussed. Pregnancy is rare in patients with cirrhosis because of the metabolic and hormonal changes associated with cirrhosis. Variceal bleeding can happen in up to 38% of cirrhotic pregnant women. Management of portal hypertension during pregnancy is discussed. Pregnancy increases the pathogenicity leading to an increase in the rate of gallstones. We discuss some of the interventions for gallstones in pregnancy if symptoms arise. Finally, we provide an overview of some of the options in managing hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma during pregnancy.

  16. Unique metabolic features of stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and their progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John Antonydas; Doss, Michael Xavier; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Cadenas, Cristina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2014-04-11

    Recently, growing attention has been directed toward stem cell metabolism, with the key observation that the plasticity of stem cells also reflects the plasticity of their energy substrate metabolism. There seems to be a clear link between the self-renewal state of stem cells, in which cells proliferate without differentiation, and the activity of specific metabolic pathways. Differentiation is accompanied by a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration. This metabolic switch of differentiating stem cells is required to cover the energy demands of the different organ-specific cell types. Among other metabolic signatures, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism is most prominent in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, whereas the fatty acid metabolic signature is unique in cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells. Identifying the specific metabolic pathways involved in pluripotency and differentiation is critical for further progress in the field of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. The recently generated knowledge on metabolic key processes may help to generate mature stem cell-derived somatic cells for therapeutic applications without the requirement of genetic manipulation. In the present review, the literature about metabolic features of stem cells and their cardiovascular cell derivatives as well as the specific metabolic gene signatures differentiating between stem and differentiated cells are summarized and discussed.

  17. Cryogenic Vibrational Spectroscopy Provides Unique Fingerprints for Glycan Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masellis, Chiara; Khanal, Neelam; Kamrath, Michael Z; Clemmer, David E; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2017-06-22

    The structural characterization of glycans by mass spectrometry is particularly challenging. This is because of the high degree of isomerism in which glycans of the same mass can differ in their stereochemistry, attachment points, and degree of branching. Here we show that the addition of cryogenic vibrational spectroscopy to mass and mobility measurements allows one to uniquely identify and characterize these complex biopolymers. We investigate six disaccharide isomers that differ in their stereochemistry, attachment point of the glycosidic bond, and monosaccharide content, and demonstrate that we can identify each one unambiguously. Even disaccharides that differ by a single stereogenic center or in the monosaccharide sequence order show distinct vibrational fingerprints that would clearly allow their identification in a mixture, which is not possible by ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry alone. Moreover, this technique can be applied to larger glycans, which we demonstrate by distinguishing isomeric branched and linear pentasaccharides. The creation of a database containing mass, collision cross section, and vibrational fingerprint measurements for glycan standards should allow unambiguous identification and characterization of these biopolymers in mixtures, providing an enabling technology for all fields of glycoscience. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Mentoring during residency education: a unique challenge for the surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Vincent D

    2006-08-01

    A mentor serves as role model, counselor, and advocate for an understudy or protégé. The art and science of mentoring have been investigated most thoroughly in the educational literature, yet there are unique situational and individual considerations in the surgical arena that may warrant special consideration. The general attributes of successful mentors are not foreign to academic surgeons but may require deliberate cultivation to optimize mentorship in the context of academic medicine. Moreover, the stages of productive mentoring may be counter to the learned adaptive behaviors and instinctive personality traits of some accomplished surgeon educators. Indeed, examples of failed mentorship are common in our medical centers and, specifically, in surgical training programs. The behavioral adaptation that supports surgical decision-making under conditions of incomplete data and unusual stress often devalues succession planning and derivation of satisfaction from the success of other members of the team. Accordingly, fostering effective mentoring relationships in academic surgery will require a concerted effort to develop appropriate behaviors conducive to the mentoring process. The personal and professional growth of our students as well as the succession planning for our specialty are dependent upon the successful creation of an environment conducive to mentoring in academic orthopaedics.

  19. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  20. Discovering unique tobacco use patterns among Alaska Native people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Dilley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Alaska Native people are disproportionately impacted by tobacco-related diseases in comparison to non-Native Alaskans. Design. We used Alaska's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS to describe tobacco use among more than 4,100 Alaska Native adults, stratified by geographic region and demographic groups. Results . Overall tobacco use was high: approximately 2 out of every 5 Alaska Native adults reported smoking cigarettes (41.2% and 1 in 10 reported using smokeless tobacco (SLT, 12.3%. A small percentage overall (4.8% reported using iq'mik, an SLT variant unique to Alaska Native people. When examined by geographic region, cigarette smoking was highest in remote geographic regions; SLT use was highest in the southwest region of the state. Use of iq'mik was primarily confined to a specific area of the state; further analysis showed that 1 in 3 women currently used iq'mik in this region. Conclusion . Our results suggest that different types of tobacco use are epidemic among diverse Alaska Native communities. Our results also illustrate that detailed analysis within racial/ethnic groups can be useful for public health programme planning to reduce health disparities.

  1. Unique immunomodulatory effects of azelastine on dendritic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S; Kietzmann, M; Stark, H; Bäumer, W

    2014-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis are among the most common inflammatory skin diseases in western countries, and antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells (DC) are key players in their pathophysiology. Histamine, an important mediator of allergic reactions, influences DC maturation and cytokine secretion, which led us to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of the well-known histamine H1 receptor antagonists: azelastine, olopatadine, cetirizine, and pyrilamine. Unlike other H1 antihistamines, azelastine decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-12 secretion from murine bone marrow-derived DC. This effect was independent of histamine receptors H1, H2, or H4 and may be linked to inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Moreover, only azelastine reduced proliferation of allogenic T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. We then tested topical application of the H1 antihistamines on mice sensitized against toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, a model of Th2-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. In contrast to the in vitro results, all investigated substances were efficacious in reducing allergic ear swelling. Azelastine has unique effects on dendritic cells and T cell interaction in vitro. However, this did not translate into superior in vivo efficacy for Th2-mediated allergic dermatitis, possibly due to the effects of the antihistamines on other cell types involved in skin inflammation. Future research will have to clarify whether these properties are relevant to in vivo models of allergic inflammation with a different T cell polarization.

  2. Generating unique IDs from patient identification data using security models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of electronic health records (EHRs has continued to increase within healthcare systems in the developed and developing nations. EHRs allow for increased patient safety, grant patients easier access to their medical records, and offer a wealth of data to researchers. However, various bioethical, financial, logistical, and information security considerations must be addressed while transitioning to an EHR system. The need to encrypt private patient information for data sharing is one of the foremost challenges faced by health information technology. Method: We describe the usage of the message digest-5 (MD5 and secure hashing algorithm (SHA as methods for encrypting electronic medical data. In particular, we present an application of the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms in encrypting a composite message from private patient information. Results: The results show that the composite message can be used to create a unique one-way encrypted ID per patient record that can be used for data sharing. Conclusion: The described software tool can be used to share patient EMRs between practitioners without revealing patients identifiable data.

  3. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.

  4. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  5. STEREOREGULAR POLY(CYCLOHEXENE CARBONATE)S: UNIQUE CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-peng Wu; Shi-dong Jiang; Xiao-bing Lu; Wei-min Ren; Shou-ke Yan

    2012-01-01

    An example of crystalline CO2-based polymer from the asymmetric alternating copolymerization of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide is reported.Isotacticity of poly(cyclohexene carbonate) (PCHC) has the critical influence on the crystallinity,and only copolymers with a isotacticity of more than 90% are crystallizable.The stereoregular PCHC is a typical semi-crystalline thermoplastic,and possesses a high melting point (Tm) of 215-230℃ and a decomposition temperature of ca.310℃.The spherulitic morphology of (R)-PCHC grows in a clockwise spiral from a center,and that of (S)-PCHC is a counterclockwise spiral,while the stereocomplex of (S)-PCHC/(R)-PCHC (1/1 mass ratio) presents lath-like dendritic crystal.The novel crystalline CO2-based polycarbonate represents a rare example of optically active polymers with unique crystallization behavior.Our findings reflect the critical influence of stereoregularity on the crystallization for this kind of polymeric materials,and may lead to developments of thermal-resistance CO2 copolymers for application in engineering thermoplastics.

  6. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed.

  7. Industrial rehabilitation medicine. 1. Why is industrial rehabilitation medicine unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J P; Rondinelli, R D; Scheer, S J; Weinstein, S M

    1997-03-01

    This self-directed learning module is part of the chapter on industrial rehabilitation medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Industrial rehabilitation medicine encompasses injuries and illnesses that occur in the workplace and are covered under workers' compensation. The central thesis of this article is that industrial rehabilitation medicine is a unique area because the workers' compensation system influences the behavior of injured workers. The article is divided into three sections. The first briefly reviews the history of workers' compensation in the United States, and describes eight key features of compensation systems. The second explores several hypotheses to explain why injured workers frequently have less favorable outcomes than noncompensation patients with similar medical conditions. Some explanations focus on dysfunctional psychologic reactions such as "compensation neurosis" and "disability syndrome." Others focus on contextual factors, including return to work policies by employers and financial incentives or disincentives for return to work. The third section outlines reasons why the physiatrist is often the "preferred provider" in industrial rehabilitation medicine. One crucial consideration is that many of the most important disabling work injuries are those with which physiatrists are familiar. Also, physiatric training and philosophy prepare the physician to focus on function, to work with a rehabilitation team, and to be sensitive to psychologic factors that might impede an injured worker's recovery. All of these skills are important in the treatment of injured workers.

  8. Frames of References – Art Museums as Unique Visual Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Hristova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The age old activity of collecting arts is not intrinsically dependent on the art museum as separate architectural type. How was the art museum as an independent structure conceptualized and why? What was the idea behind that concept? Was it created as a medium consciously and what kind of messages was it supposed to deliver? What kind of unique “textual” overlaps the various disciplines of archaeology, art history, politics, literature, science and architecture created in order to produce what we today recognize as art museum space? This study focuses on the crucial historical moments of the late 17th century when such questions were posed for the first time within the classical discourse of the French architectural theory which followed the consolidation of French absolutism and the foundation of the Royal academies of arts and sciences, until the mid 19th century when the answers to those questions were finally exemplified in built architecture. The study gives a comprehensive overview of the cultural context art museums as public institutions emerged from and became new spatial models for collective cultivation.

  9. Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Berge Henegouwen Mark I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic ruptures of the esophagus are relatively rare. This condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most traumatic ruptures occur after motor vehicle accidents. Case Presentation We describe a unique case of a 23 year old woman that presented at our trauma resuscitation room after a fall from 8 meters. During physical examination there were no clinical signs of life-threatening injuries. She did however have a massive amount of subcutaneous emphysema of the chest and neck and pneumomediastinum. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed a lesion in the upper esophagus just below the level of the upper esophageal sphincter. Despite preventive administration of intravenous antibiotics and nutrition via a nasogastric tube, the patient developed a cervical abscess, which drained spontaneously. Normal diet was gradually resumed after 2.5 weeks and the patient was discharged in a reasonable condition 3 weeks after the accident. Conclusions This case report presents a high cervical esophageal rupture without associated local injuries after a fall from height.

  10. The Universe as a Process of Unique Events

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new class of models of quantum space-time based on energetic causal sets and show that under natural conditions space-time emerges from them. These are causal sets whose causal links are labelled by energy and momentum and conservation laws are applied at events. The models are motivated by principles we propose govern microscopic physics which posit a fundamental irreversibility of time. One consequence is that each event in the history of the universe has a distinct causal relationship to the rest; this requires a novel form of dynamics which an be applied to uniquely distinctive events. We hence introduce a new kind of deterministic dynamics for a causal set in which new events are generated from pairs of progenitor events by a rule which is based on extremizing the distinctions between causal past sets of events. This dynamics is asymmetric in time, but we find evidence from numerical simulations of a 1+1 dimensional model, that an effective dynamics emerges which restores approximate time r...

  11. SOS processing of unique oxidative DNA damages in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspia, M F; Wallace, S S

    1989-05-05

    phi X174 replicative form (RF) I transfecting DNA containing thymine glycols (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine), urea glycosides or apurinic (AP) sites was used to study SOS processing of unique DNA damages in Escherichia coli. All three lesions can be found in DNA damaged by chemical oxidants or radiation and are representative of several common structural modifications of DNA bases. When phi X DNA containing thymine glycols was transfected into host cells that were ultraviolet-irradiated to induce the SOS response, a substantial increase in survival was observed compared to transfection into uninduced hosts. Studies with mutants demonstrated that both the activated form of RecA and UmuDC proteins were required for this reactivation. In contrast, no increase in survival was observed when DNA containing urea glycosides or AP sites was transfected into ultraviolet-induced hosts. These data suggest that SOS-induced reactivation does not reflect a generalized repair system for all replication-blocking, lethal lesions but rather that the efficiency of reactivation is damage dependent. Further, we found that a significant fraction of potentially lethal thymine glycols could be ultraviolet-reactivated in an umuC lexA recA-independent manner, suggesting the existence of an as yet uncharacterized damage-inducible SOS-independent mode of thymine glycol repair.

  12. Unique Education and Workforce Development for NASA Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Miller, Lauren L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA engineers are some of the world's best-educated graduates, responsible for technically complex, highly significant scientific programs. Even though these professionals are highly proficient in traditional analytical competencies, there is a unique opportunity to offer continuing education that further enhances their overall scientific minds. With a goal of maintaining the Agency's passionate, "best in class" engineering workforce, the NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) provides educational resources encouraging foundational learning, professional development, and knowledge sharing. NASA APPEL is currently partnering with the scientific community's most respected subject matter experts to expand its engineering curriculum beyond the analytics and specialized subsystems in the areas of: understanding NASA's overall vision and its fundamental basis, and the Agency initiatives supporting them; sharing NASA's vast reservoir of engineering experience, wisdom, and lessons learned; and innovatively designing hardware for manufacturability, assembly, and servicing. It takes collaboration and innovation to educate an organization that possesses such a rich and important historyand a future that is of great global interest. NASA APPEL strives to intellectually nurture the Agency's technical professionals, build its capacity for future performance, and exemplify its core valuesalJ to better enable NASA to meet its strategic visionand beyond.

  13. Uniqueness of Petrov type D spatially inhomogeneous irrotational silent models

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolopoulos, P S; Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S; Carot, Jaume

    2006-01-01

    The consistency of the constraint with the evolution equations for spatially inhomogeneous and irrotational silent (SIIS) models of Petrov type I, demands that the former are preserved along the timelike congruence represented by the velocity of the dust fluid, leading to an infinite set of non-trivial constraints. This fact has been used to conjecture that the resulting models correspond to the spatially homogeneous (SH) models of Bianchi type I, at least for the case where the cosmological constant vanish. By exploiting the full set of the constraint equations as expressed in the 1+3 covariant formalism and using elements from the theory of the spacelike congruences, we provide a direct and simple proof of this conjecture for vacuum and dust fluid models, which shows that the Szekeres family of solutions represents the most general class of SIIS models. The suggested procedure also shows that, the uniqueness of the spatially inhomogeneous and irrotational models of Petrov type D is not affected by the prese...

  14. Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy and its Unique Application to Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1970's the infrared heterodyne technique has evolved into a powerful tool for the study of molecular constituents, temperatures, and dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Its extremely high spectral resolution (Lambda/(Delta)Lambda/>10(exp 6)) and highly accurate frequency measurement (to 1 part in 10(exp 8)) enabled the detection of nonthermal/natural lasing phenomena on Mars and Venus; direct measurements of winds on Venus, Mars, and Titan; study of mid-infrared aurorae on Jupiter; direct measurement of species abundances on Mars (ozone, isotopic CO2), hydrocarbons on Jupiter, Saturn., Neptune, and Titan, and stratospheric composition in the Earth's stratosphere (O3, CIO, N2O, CO2 ....). Fully resolved emission and absorption line shapes measured by this method enabled the unambiguous retrieval of molecular abundances and local temperatures and thermal structure in regions not probed by other techniques. The mesosphere of Mars and thermosphere of Venus are uniquely probed by infrared heterodyne spectroscopy. Results of these studies tested and constrained photochemical and dynamical theoretical models describing the phenomena measured. The infrared heterodyne technique will be described. Highlights in its evolution to today's instrumentation and resultant discoveries will be presented, including work at Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Koln. Resultant work will include studies supporting NASA and ESA space missions and collaborations between instrumental and theoretical groups.

  15. Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy and its Unique Application to Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1970's the infrared heterodyne technique has evolved into a powerful tool for the study of molecular constituents, temperatures, and dynamics in planetary atmospheres. Its extremely high spectral resolution (Lambda/(Delta)Lambda/>10(exp 6)) and highly accurate frequency measurement (to 1 part in 10(exp 8)) enabled the detection of nonthermal/natural lasing phenomena on Mars and Venus; direct measurements of winds on Venus, Mars, and Titan; study of mid-infrared aurorae on Jupiter; direct measurement of species abundances on Mars (ozone, isotopic CO2), hydrocarbons on Jupiter, Saturn., Neptune, and Titan, and stratospheric composition in the Earth's stratosphere (O3, CIO, N2O, CO2 ....). Fully resolved emission and absorption line shapes measured by this method enabled the unambiguous retrieval of molecular abundances and local temperatures and thermal structure in regions not probed by other techniques. The mesosphere of Mars and thermosphere of Venus are uniquely probed by infrared heterodyne spectroscopy. Results of these studies tested and constrained photochemical and dynamical theoretical models describing the phenomena measured. The infrared heterodyne technique will be described. Highlights in its evolution to today's instrumentation and resultant discoveries will be presented, including work at Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Koln. Resultant work will include studies supporting NASA and ESA space missions and collaborations between instrumental and theoretical groups.

  16. Global loss of avian evolutionary uniqueness in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Rubio, Enrique; Benedetti, Yanina; Morelli, Federico

    2016-11-17

    Urbanization, one of the most important anthropogenic impacts on Earth, is rapidly expanding worldwide. This expansion of urban land-covered areas is known to significantly reduce different components of biodiversity. However, the global evidence for this effect is mainly focused on a single diversity measure (species richness) with a few local or regional studies also supporting reductions in functional diversity. We have used birds, an important ecological group that has been used as surrogate for other animals, to investigate the hypothesis that urbanization reduces the global taxonomical and/or evolutionary diversity. We have also explored whether there is evidence supporting that urban bird communities are evolutionarily homogenized worldwide in comparison with nonurban ones by means of using evolutionary distinctiveness (how unique are the species) of bird communities. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to quantify the effect of urbanization in more than one single diversity measure as well as the first time to look for associations between urbanization and phylogenetic diversity at a large spatial scale. Our findings show a strong and globally consistent reduction in taxonomic diversity in urban areas, which is also synchronized with the evolutionary homogenization of urban bird communities. Despite our general patterns, we found some regional differences in the intensity of the effect of cities on bird species richness or evolutionary distinctiveness, suggesting that conservation efforts should be adapted locally. Our findings might be useful for conservationists and policymakers to minimize the impact of urban development on Earth's biodiversity and help design more realistic conservation strategies.

  17. The odontoid synchondrotic slip: an injury unique to young children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Emery, D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Armstrong, D. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    We report seven children (three female, four male) diagnosed with traumatic synchrondrotic slip of the odontoid. The clinical records, plain films, and CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. The patients ranged in age between 3 and 5 years. Their injuries resulted from a motor vehicle accident in four cases and from a fall from a height in three. The injury was isolated in five; it was associated with a closed head injury in one and with facial and brachial plexus trauma in another. Radiographs showed anterior angulation with or without displacement in all seven cases. Axial CT with sagittal reformation and 3D reconstructions were performed in six cases. This confirmed the synchrondrotic slip and, in addition, identified a rotary component to the injury in three cases, with compromise of the canal in two. Other additional injuries were also noted. All cases were treated conservatively and the injuries healed. Only one child had a neurological deficit attributable to her head injury rather than to her cervical injury (MR of the cervical cord was normal). The presence of the synchondrosis between the dens and the body of C-2 makes this injury unique to children under 7 years of age; by the age of 7 the synchrondrosis has fused. (orig.)

  18. A UNIQUE CASE OF PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA PRESENTING WITH HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maji.S, Saha. ML, Kanwar KS, Das S, Bhagat P, Bhar P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheochromocytoma is an extremely uncommon tumor of childhood and there are several features that distinguish its presentation between adults and children. The incidence of pheochromocytoma in childhood is 10% of the adult incidence, occurring in approximately 1 in 500,000 children compared with 1 in 50,000 adults. Around 10% of childhood tumors are familial which is 4times the frequency in adults. Whereas only 7% of pheochromocytomas are bilateral in adults, the reported incidence of the same in children range from 24 % to as high as &70%.These tumors are known for their great diversity in clinical presentation. Greater than 50% of children present with headaches, fever, palpitation, thirst, polyuria, sweating, nausea and weight loss. However the commonest mode of presentation is sustained hypertension. Pheochromocytoma accounts for 0.5% of children with hypertension and must be considered once other causes have been eliminated. We here in report a unique case of a 13 year old girl who initially presented with bilateral hypertensive retinopathy and later found to have a pheochromocytoma on subsequent workup. Hypertensive retinopathy secondary to pheochromocytoma is itself a rare entity whose exact incidence in children is still unknown. This case highlights the importance of routine history, physical examination and measurement of bp. Prompt surgery can reverse the effect of hypertension and lead to good outcome as was evident in our case.

  19. Mad scientist: the unique case of a published delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomi, Matan

    2013-06-01

    In 1951, entomologist Jay Traver published in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington her personal experiences with a mite infestation of her scalp that resisted all treatment and was undetectable to anyone other than herself. Traver is recognized as having suffered from Delusory Parasitosis: her paper shows her to be a textbook case of the condition. The Traver paper is unique in the scientific literature in that its conclusions may be based on data that was unconsciously fabricated by the author's mind. The paper may merit retraction on the grounds of error or even scientific misconduct "by reason of insanity," but such a retraction raises the issue of discrimination against the mentally ill. This article asks what responsibilities journals have when faced with delusions disguised as science, what right editors have to question the sanity of an author, and what should be done about the Traver paper itself. By placing higher emphasis on article content than author identity, scientific integrity is maintained and a balance is struck between avoiding discrimination against the mentally ill and not preventing patients from seeking needed treatment.

  20. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.

  1. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells.

  2. What is Unique About Extension Personnel in the City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extension’s pursuit to better attract, develop, retain, and structure competent personnel in the city requires new strategies to build on the knowledge base established through previous research and practice. With the support of numerous national organizations, this study utilized a Competency Framework Development (CFD process to systematically tap into the knowledge of County Extension Directors serving in large urban communities. Findings indicated these local leaders need specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs that are both similar and unique when compared with results from other Extension competency studies. Competencies identified included building social and financial capital, strategic planning and organizing, resource attraction and management, advocacy and impact accountability with multiple stakeholders, and others. A primary difference was that diversity, complexity, and scale in urban communities influenced the extent to which competencies are demonstrated. Research results can be applied to a competency model that incorporates intentional recruiting and hiring practices that reflect the diversity and priorities of the community, competency-based professional development, competitive compensation and retention tactics, and staffing structure and strategies. Further research can include CFD with various types of Extension personnel and perspectives. Extension leaders can continue learning alongside others who can help inform administrators about human capital policies and practices.

  3. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Gaskell

    Full Text Available The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces L-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to L-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed.

  4. Unique copper-induced oligomers mediate alpha-synuclein toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Josephine A; Wang, Xiaoyan; Brown, David R

    2009-08-01

    Parkinson's disease and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to either genetic mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene or show evidence of aggregates of the alpha-synuclein protein, sometimes in the form of Lewy bodies. There currently is no clear evidence of a distinct neurotoxic species of alpha-synuclein to explain the death of neurons in these diseases. We undertook to assess the toxicity of alpha-synuclein via exogenous application in cell culture. Initially, we showed that only aggregated alpha-synuclein is neurotoxic and requires the presence copper but not iron. Other members of the synuclein family showed no toxicity in any form and inherited point mutations did not alter the effective toxic concentration of alpha-synuclein. Through protein fractionation techniques, we were able to isolate an oligomeric species responsible for the toxicity of alpha-synuclein. This oligomeric species has a unique stellate appearance under EM and again, requires association with copper to induce cell death. The results allow us to suggest that the toxic species of alpha-synuclein in vivo could possibly be these stellate oligomers and not fibrils. Our data provide a link between the recently noted association of copper and alpha-synuclein and a potential role for the combination in causing neurodegeneration.

  5. MicroRNA-210: A unique and pleiotropic hypoxamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen Y.; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate oxygen availability or hypoxia induces a complex and still incompletely understood set of adaptations that influence cellular survival and function. Many of these adaptations are directly controlled by a master transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-alpha (HIF-α). In response to hypoxia, HIF-α levels increase and directly induce the transcription of >100 genes, influencing functions ranging from metabolism, survival, proliferation, migration, to angiogenesis, among others. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a specific set of microRNA molecules are upregulated by hypoxia, which we denote here as “hypoxamirs.” In particular, the HIF-responsive hypoxamir microRNA-210 (miR-210) is a unique microRNA that is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed in hypoxic cell and tissue types. A number of direct targets of miR-210 have been identified by in silico, transcriptional and biochemical methods, a subset of which have been extensively validated. As a result, miR-210 has been mechanistically linked to the control of a wide range of cellular responses known to influence normal developmental physiology as well as a number of hypoxia-dependent disease states, including tissue ischemia, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Thus, reflecting the pleiotropic actions of HIF-α, miR-210 appears to function as a “master microRNA” relevant for the control of diverse functions in the hypoxic state. PMID:20237418

  6. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  7. CERN openlab and its partners - a unique collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Collaborating with industry is a long-standing tradition at CERN. CERN openlab is a unique example of a structure for CERN and industry to jointly carry out large-scale research and development in the field of information technologies. An initiative perceived by some as rather new, as already old by others,  the openlab this year celebrates its 10th anniversary.   CERN openlab 10th birthday celebration on 3 May 2011, on the occasion of its annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners, as well as past and present team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). The idea of openlab started with Manuel Delfino, who was the head of the IT Department at the start of the millennium. “Links with industry were already in place in the computing field but lacked a general framework” explains François Fluckiger, the manager of openlab since its inception. For example, benchmarking of cutting-edge IT products ...

  8. Unique Dental Morphology of Homo floresiensis and Its Evolutionary Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Kono, Reiko T; Sutikna, Thomas; Saptomo, Emanuel Wahyu; Jatmiko; Due Awe, Rokus

    2015-01-01

    Homo floresiensis is an extinct, diminutive hominin species discovered in the Late Pleistocene deposits of Liang Bua cave, Flores, eastern Indonesia. The nature and evolutionary origins of H. floresiensis' unique physical characters have been intensively debated. Based on extensive comparisons using linear metric analyses, crown contour analyses, and other trait-by-trait morphological comparisons, we report here that the dental remains from multiple individuals indicate that H. floresiensis had primitive canine-premolar and advanced molar morphologies, a combination of dental traits unknown in any other hominin species. The primitive aspects are comparable to H. erectus from the Early Pleistocene, whereas some of the molar morphologies are more progressive even compared to those of modern humans. This evidence contradicts the earlier claim of an entirely modern human-like dental morphology of H. floresiensis, while at the same time does not support the hypothesis that H. floresiensis originated from a much older H. habilis or Australopithecus-like small-brained hominin species currently unknown in the Asian fossil record. These results are however consistent with the alternative hypothesis that H. floresiensis derived from an earlier Asian Homo erectus population and experienced substantial body and brain size dwarfism in an isolated insular setting. The dentition of H. floresiensis is not a simple, scaled-down version of earlier hominins.

  9. Unique Dental Morphology of Homo floresiensis and Its Evolutionary Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuke Kaifu

    Full Text Available Homo floresiensis is an extinct, diminutive hominin species discovered in the Late Pleistocene deposits of Liang Bua cave, Flores, eastern Indonesia. The nature and evolutionary origins of H. floresiensis' unique physical characters have been intensively debated. Based on extensive comparisons using linear metric analyses, crown contour analyses, and other trait-by-trait morphological comparisons, we report here that the dental remains from multiple individuals indicate that H. floresiensis had primitive canine-premolar and advanced molar morphologies, a combination of dental traits unknown in any other hominin species. The primitive aspects are comparable to H. erectus from the Early Pleistocene, whereas some of the molar morphologies are more progressive even compared to those of modern humans. This evidence contradicts the earlier claim of an entirely modern human-like dental morphology of H. floresiensis, while at the same time does not support the hypothesis that H. floresiensis originated from a much older H. habilis or Australopithecus-like small-brained hominin species currently unknown in the Asian fossil record. These results are however consistent with the alternative hypothesis that H. floresiensis derived from an earlier Asian Homo erectus population and experienced substantial body and brain size dwarfism in an isolated insular setting. The dentition of H. floresiensis is not a simple, scaled-down version of earlier hominins.

  10. GENOMEMASKER package for designing unique genomic PCR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplinski Lauris

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of oligonucleotides and PCR primers for studying large genomes is complicated by the redundancy of sequences. The eukaryotic genomes are particularly difficult to study due to abundant repeats. The speed of most existing primer evaluation programs is not sufficient for large-scale experiments. Results In order to improve the efficiency and success rate of automatic primer/oligo design, we created a novel method which allows rapid masking of repeats in large sequence files, for example in eukaryotic genomes. It also allows the detection of all alternative binding sites of PCR primers and the prediction of PCR products. The new method was implemented in a collection of efficient programs, the GENOMEMASKER package. The performance of the programs was compared to other similar programs. We also modified the PRIMER3 program, to be able to design primers from lowercase-masked sequences. Conclusion The GENOMEMASKER package is able to mask the entire human genome for non-unique primers within 6 hours and find locations of all binding sites for 10 000 designed primer pairs within 10 minutes. Additionally, it predicts all alternative PCR products from large genomes for given primer pairs.

  11. Graphene oxides dispersing and hosting graphene sheets for unique nanocomposite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Leilei; Anilkumar, Parambath; Cao, Li; Kong, Chang Yi; Meziani, Mohammed J; Qian, Haijun; Veca, L Monica; Thorne, Tim J; Tackett, Kenneth N; Edwards, Travis; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2011-04-26

    Graphene oxides (GOs), beyond their widely reported use as precursors for single-layer graphene sheets, are in fact excellent materials themselves (polymers in two-dimension, polyelectrolyte-like, aqueous solubility and biocompatibility, etc.). In this reported work we used aqueous GOs to effectively disperse few-layer graphene sheets (GNs) in suspension for facile wet-processing into nanocomposites of GNs embedded in GOs (as the polymeric matrix). The resulting lightweight and plastic-like nanocomposite materials remained mechanically flexible even at high loadings of GNs, and they were found to be highly efficient in thermal transport, with the experimentally determined thermal diffusivity competitive to those typically observed only in well-known thermally conductive metals such as aluminum and copper. As demonstrated, GOs apparently represent a unique class of two-dimensional polymeric materials for potentially "all-carbon" nanocomposites, among others, which may find technological applications independent of those widely proclaimed for graphene sheets.

  12. Rapid resolution of grief with IV infusion of ketamine: a unique phenomenological experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Ramanna Gowda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, a primarily FDA-approved anaesthetic agent is also used as recreational drug. Based on preclinical findings and later the clinical observations it is noted to have rapid antidepressant effect due to its mechanisms related to NMDA antagonism. In spite of established evidence of ketamine being effective in depression with significant role in treatment resistant cases as well, there was absolute dearth of literature regarding its utility in grief-related disorders. In this context we present a case of 28-year-old graduate male who presented to us in complicated grief following death of his wife due to obstetric complications. With the patient and immediate family members consenting for use of ketamine as off-label use, patient had single IV infusion of ketamine following which he had unique phenomenological experience ultimately resolving his grief in few minutes. Through this case we highlight the enormous therapeutic promise of ketamine in complicated grief.

  13. The RSC chromatin remodelling enzyme has a unique role in directing the accurate positioning of nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippo, Christian J; Israel, Lars; Watanabe, Shinya; Hochheimer, Andreas; Peterson, Craig L; Korber, Philipp

    2011-04-01

    Nucleosomes impede access to DNA. Therefore, nucleosome positioning is fundamental to genome regulation. Nevertheless, the molecular nucleosome positioning mechanisms are poorly understood. This is partly because in vitro reconstitution of in vivo-like nucleosome positions from purified components is mostly lacking, barring biochemical studies. Using a yeast extract in vitro reconstitution system that generates in vivo-like nucleosome patterns at S. cerevisiae loci, we find that the RSC chromatin remodelling enzyme is necessary for nucleosome positioning. This was previously suggested by genome-wide in vivo studies and is confirmed here in vivo for individual loci. Beyond the limitations of conditional mutants, we show biochemically that RSC functions directly, can be sufficient, but mostly relies on other factors to properly position nucleosomes. Strikingly, RSC could not be replaced by either the closely related SWI/SNF or the Isw2 remodelling enzyme. Thus, we pinpoint that nucleosome positioning specifically depends on the unique properties of the RSC complex.

  14. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong (Pitt); (Xiamen)

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  15. The Complete Genome Sequences, Unique Mutational Spectra, and Developmental Potency of Adult Neurons Revealed by Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Jennifer L; Faust, Gregory G; Rodriguez, Alberto R; Ferguson, William C; Shumilina, Svetlana; Clark, Royden A; Boland, Michael J; Martin, Greg; Chubukov, Pavel; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Torkamani, Ali; Kupriyanov, Sergey; Hall, Ira M; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2016-03-16

    Somatic mutation in neurons is linked to neurologic disease and implicated in cell-type diversification. However, the origin, extent, and patterns of genomic mutation in neurons remain unknown. We established a nuclear transfer method to clonally amplify the genomes of neurons from adult mice for whole-genome sequencing. Comprehensive mutation detection and independent validation revealed that individual neurons harbor ∼100 unique mutations from all classes but lack recurrent rearrangements. Most neurons contain at least one gene-disrupting mutation and rare (0-2) mobile element insertions. The frequency and gene bias of neuronal mutations differ from other lineages, potentially due to novel mechanisms governing postmitotic mutation. Fertile mice were cloned from several neurons, establishing the compatibility of mutated adult neuronal genomes with reprogramming to pluripotency and development.

  16. C1 Polymerization: a unique tool towards polyethylene-based complex macromolecular architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2017-05-09

    The recent developments in organoborane initiated C1 polymerization (chain grows by one atom at a time) of ylides opens unique horizons towards well-defined/perfectly linear polymethylenes (equivalent to polyethylenes, PE) and PE-based complex macromolecular architectures. The general mechanism of C1 polymerization (polyhomologation) involves the formation of a Lewis complex between a methylide (monomer) and a borane (initiator), followed by migration/insertion of a methylene into the initiator and after oxidation/hydrolysis to afford OH-terminated polyethylenes. This review summarizes efforts towards conventional and newly discovered borane-initiators and ylides (monomers), as well as a combination of polyhomologation with other polymerization methods. Initial efforts dealing with C3 polymerization and the synthesis of the first C1/C3 copolymers are also given. Finally, some thoughts for the future of these polymerizations are presented.

  17. Autoimmune Hepatitis as a Unique Form of an Autoimmune Liver Disease: Immunological Aspects and Clinical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind I. Fallatah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a unique form of immune-mediated disease that attacks the liver through a variety of immune mechanisms. The outcomes of AIH are either acute liver disease, which can be fatal, or, more commonly, chronic progressive liver disease, which can lead to decompensated liver cirrhosis if left untreated. AIH has characteristic immunological, and pathological, features that are important for the establishment of the diagnosis. More importantly, most patients with AIH have a favorable response to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine, although some patients with refractory AIH or more aggressive disease require more potent immune-suppressant agents, such as cyclosporine or Mycophenolate Mofetil. In this paper, we discuss the immunological, pathological and clinical features of AIH, as well as the standard and alternative treatments for AIH.

  18. Personal and vicarious embarrassability: Common and unique personality correlates

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Although distinct vicarious embarrassability (VE) and personal embarrassability (PE) dimensions have emerged in factor analytic research, few studies have compared theoretically relevant correlates to explore potential differences in underlying mechanisms. The current study sought to determine whether PE was best accounted for by a social evaluation model, and VE by emotional empathy. Four fifty three undergraduates completed embarrassability, emotional empathy, and social evaluation trait me...

  19. Mechanics of the Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus is the distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Until recently, it was often considered simply as a unique compartment containing the genetic information of the cell and associated machinery, without much attention to its structure and mechanical properties. This article provides compelling examples that illustrate how specific nuclear structures are associated with important cellular functions, and how defects in nuclear mechanics can cause a multitude of human diseases. During differentiation, embryonic stem cells modify their nuclear envelope composition and chromatin structure, resulting in stiffer nuclei that reflect decreased transcriptional plasticity. In contrast, neutrophils have evolved characteristic lobulated nuclei that increase their physical plasticity, enabling passage through narrow tissue spaces in their response to inflammation. Research on diverse cell types further demonstrates how induced nuclear deformations during cellular compression or stretch can modulate cellular function. Pathological examples of disturbed nuclear mechanics include the many diseases caused by mutations in the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C and associated proteins, as well as cancer cells that are often characterized by abnormal nuclear morphology. In this article, we will focus on determining the functional relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular (dys-)function, describing the molecular changes associated with physiological and pathological examples, the resulting defects in nuclear mechanics, and the effects on cellular function. New insights into the close relationship between nuclear mechanics and cellular organization and function will yield a better understanding of normal biology and will offer new clues into therapeutic approaches to the various diseases associated with defective nuclear mechanics. PMID:23737203

  20. Common and unique elements of the ABA-regulated transcriptome of Arabidopsis guard cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhixin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of drought and other desiccating stresses, plants synthesize and redistribute the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. ABA promotes plant water conservation by acting on specialized cells in the leaf epidermis, guard cells, which border and regulate the apertures of stomatal pores through which transpirational water loss occurs. Following ABA exposure, solute uptake into guard cells is rapidly inhibited and solute loss is promoted, resulting in inhibition of stomatal opening and promotion of stomatal closure, with consequent plant water conservation. There is a wealth of information on the guard cell signaling mechanisms underlying these rapid ABA responses. To investigate ABA regulation of gene expression in guard cells in a systematic genome-wide manner, we analyzed data from global transcriptomes of guard cells generated with Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays, and compared these results to ABA regulation of gene expression in leaves and other tissues. Results The 1173 ABA-regulated genes of guard cells identified by our study share significant overlap with ABA-regulated genes of other tissues, and are associated with well-defined ABA-related promoter motifs such as ABREs and DREs. However, we also computationally identified a unique cis-acting motif, GTCGG, associated with ABA-induction of gene expression specifically in guard cells. In addition, approximately 300 genes showing ABA-regulation unique to this cell type were newly uncovered by our study. Within the ABA-regulated gene set of guard cells, we found that many of the genes known to encode ion transporters associated with stomatal opening are down-regulated by ABA, providing one mechanism for long-term maintenance of stomatal closure during drought. We also found examples of both negative and positive feedback in the transcriptional regulation by ABA of known ABA-signaling genes, particularly with regard to the PYR/PYL/RCAR class of soluble ABA receptors and

  1. Survey yields data on unique metamorphic rock complex in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A.; Jiang, M.; Ryberg, T.; Gao, R.

    Seismic data from survey work last year in Dabie Shan, China, are giving scientists their first view of the subsurface structure of a unique metamorphic rock complex. The work, in which a joint Chinese-German research team surveyed possible sites for a super deep borehole, set the stage for more intensive petrological and seismic investigations this year and next.Data were collected by near-vertical seismic imaging at Dabie Shan, the Earth's largest outcrop of ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHM) rocks, some exhumed from depths of 100 km. Processing so far has revealed unexpectedly strong mid-and lower-crustal reflections, predominantly dipping west to east, indicating the involved tectonic history of the region. Upcoming research will look more closely at the three-dimensional structure of the rock and other matters. Scientific deep drilling is essential in addressing a wide range of major geoscientific problems of global importance. The International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP) coordinates such, and one key target of ICDP is the Dabie Shan. To find the most appropriate location for a drill site and to extend the findings of the drilling beyond the drill hole, geophysical methods, especially seismic investigations, play an important role. Integrated interpretation of seismic and drill results in the Dabie Shan will lead to a better understanding of the structure and dynamic processes of the collisional history of the Yangtze and Sino-Korean Cratons. The Dabie Shan is located in the eastern part of the Qinling orogen in Anhui province, central China. The rocks there contain microdiamonds and coesite within a 20-km-thick eclogite zone representing a part of the lower lithosphere of the Yangtze Craton [Okay, 1993]. Such rocks suggest that continental crust had been subducted to depths greater than 100 km and exhumed afterwards [Hackeretal, 1995].

  2. Monolithic supports with unique geometries and enhanced mass transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of natural gas has been the topic of much research over the past decade. Interest in this technology results from a desire to decrease or eliminate the emissions of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOX) from gas turbine power plants. A low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic monolith, is ideal for this high-temperature, high-flow application. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. 'Robocasting' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low pressure drops. This report details the mass transfer effects for novel 3-dimensional robocast monoliths, traditional honeycomb-type monoliths, and ceramic foams. The mass transfer limit is experimentally determined using the probe reaction of CO oxidation over a Pt / {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, and the pressure drop is measured for each monolith sample. Conversion versus temperature data is analyzed quantitatively using well-known dimensionless mass transfer parameters. The results show that, relative to the honeycomb monolith support, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application.

  3. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutens, C; Adriaens, D; Christiaens, J; De Kegel, B; Dierick, M; Boistel, R; Van Hoorebeke, L

    2014-06-01

    Seahorses and pipehorses both possess a prehensile tail, a unique characteristic among teleost fishes, allowing them to grasp and hold onto substrates such as sea grasses. Although studies have focused on tail grasping, the pattern of evolutionary transformations that made this possible is poorly understood. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the prehensile tail evolved independently in different syngnathid lineages, including seahorses, Haliichthys taeniophorus and several types of so-called pipehorses. This study explores the pattern that characterizes this convergent evolution towards a prehensile tail, by comparing the caudal musculoskeletal organization, as well as passive bending capacities in pipefish (representing the ancestral state), pipehorse, seahorse and H. taeniophorus. To study the complex musculoskeletal morphology, histological sectioning, μCT-scanning and phase contrast synchrotron scanning were combined with virtual 3D-reconstructions. Results suggest that the independent evolution towards tail grasping in syngnathids reflects at least two quite different strategies in which the ancestral condition of a heavy plated and rigid system became modified into a highly flexible one. Intermediate skeletal morphologies (between the ancestral condition and seahorses) could be found in the pygmy pipehorses and H. taeniophorus, which are phylogenetically closely affiliated with seahorses. This study suggests that the characteristic parallel myoseptal organization as already described in seahorse (compared with a conical organization in pipefish and pipehorse) may not be a necessity for grasping, but represents an apomorphy for seahorses, as this pattern is not found in other syngnathid species possessing a prehensile tail. One could suggest that the functionality of grasping evolved before the specialized, parallel myoseptal organization seen in seahorses. However, as the grasping system in pipehorses is a totally different one, this cannot be

  4. Harnessing optical loss for unique microlaser functionality (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang

    2017-05-01

    Lasers, as the key driving force in the field of optics and photonics over other photonic components, are now being significantly benefited from the studies of nanophotonics and metamaterials, broadening laser physics and device applications. The properties of light are much more beyond its simple intensity and temporal characteristics. The fruitful nature of light provides a great variety of freedoms in manipulating light for modern photonic applications, including spin (polarization), chirality, angular momentum, and spin-orbit coupling. Unfortunately, all these fundamental properties and functionalities of light have not been fully exploited in micro/nano-laser systems because the conventional principles of laser design in bulk optics cannot be easily scaled down to the micro/nano scale. The capability of creating microlasers with controlled spin/orbital information and chirality in their radiations is expected to revolutionize next generation of photonic systems for computing and communication. In this talk, I will focus on our recent effort in harnessing optical losses for unique microlaser functionalities, in particular, an orbital angular momentum (OAM) microlaser that structure and twist the lasing radiation at the microscale. The effective generation of OAM lasing, especially at a micro/nano-scale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode and its polarization state. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications.

  5. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  6. A unique chromatin signature uncovers early developmental enhancers in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Bajpai, Ruchi; Swigut, Tomek; Brugmann, Samantha A; Flynn, Ryan A; Wysocka, Joanna

    2011-02-10

    Cell-fate transitions involve the integration of genomic information encoded by regulatory elements, such as enhancers, with the cellular environment. However, identification of genomic sequences that control human embryonic development represents a formidable challenge. Here we show that in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), unique chromatin signatures identify two distinct classes of genomic elements, both of which are marked by the presence of chromatin regulators p300 and BRG1, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1), and low nucleosomal density. In addition, elements of the first class are distinguished by the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac), overlap with previously characterized hESC enhancers, and are located proximally to genes expressed in hESCs and the epiblast. In contrast, elements of the second class, which we term 'poised enhancers', are distinguished by the absence of H3K27ac, enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and are linked to genes inactive in hESCs and instead are involved in orchestrating early steps in embryogenesis, such as gastrulation, mesoderm formation and neurulation. Consistent with the poised identity, during differentiation of hESCs to neuroepithelium, a neuroectoderm-specific subset of poised enhancers acquires a chromatin signature associated with active enhancers. When assayed in zebrafish embryos, poised enhancers are able to direct cell-type and stage-specific expression characteristic of their proximal developmental gene, even in the absence of sequence conservation in the fish genome. Our data demonstrate that early developmental enhancers are epigenetically pre-marked in hESCs and indicate an unappreciated role of H3K27me3 at distal regulatory elements. Moreover, the wealth of new regulatory sequences identified here provides an invaluable resource for studies and isolation of transient, rare cell populations representing early stages of human embryogenesis.

  7. Development of a unique small molecule modulator of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxing Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12 interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the actions of N,N'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylenedipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using (18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can

  8. Diverticulitis exclusiva de ciego Unique diverticulitis of the cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Frías Espinosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La diverticulitis cecal es una rara entidad de difícil diagnóstico que con frecuencia se confunde con un proceso apendicular agudo. Los divertículos primarios o de origen congénito, generalmente son únicos, suelen presentarse en una edad más temprana que la enfermedad diverticular cólica (divertículos secundarios.La presencia de estos en el colon derecho se reporta con menor frecuencia, su diagnóstico es en muchas ocasiones indistinguible de la apendicitis aguda y se realiza en la mayoría de los casos durante la laparotomía, el tratamiento es variable, según la literatura abarca desde la resección del divertículo hasta la hemicolectomía derecha. El objetivo de esta presentación es referir la dificultad diagnostica y la alta frecuencia de error diagnóstico que presenta esta entidad.The cecal diverticulitis is a strange disease, difficult to be diagnosed, frequently confused with acute appendicular process. The primary diverticula or those of congenital origin are generally unique; they usually appear at younger age than the colic diverticular disease (secondary diverticula. Their presence in the right colon is less frequently reported, the diagnosis is often confused with that of acute appendicitis and most of cases undergo laparatomy. According to the scientific literature, the treatment is variable, ranging from diverticular resection to right hemi-cholectomy. The objective of this paper was to present the difficulties and the high frequency of errors in diagnosing this disease.

  9. Naive Probability: Model-Based Estimates of Unique Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Philip N

    2015-08-01

    We describe a dual-process theory of how individuals estimate the probabilities of unique events, such as Hillary Clinton becoming U.S. President. It postulates that uncertainty is a guide to improbability. In its computer implementation, an intuitive system 1 simulates evidence in mental models and forms analog non-numerical representations of the magnitude of degrees of belief. This system has minimal computational power and combines evidence using a small repertoire of primitive operations. It resolves the uncertainty of divergent evidence for single events, for conjunctions of events, and for inclusive disjunctions of events, by taking a primitive average of non-numerical probabilities. It computes conditional probabilities in a tractable way, treating the given event as evidence that may be relevant to the probability of the dependent event. A deliberative system 2 maps the resulting representations into numerical probabilities. With access to working memory, it carries out arithmetical operations in combining numerical estimates. Experiments corroborated the theory's predictions. Participants concurred in estimates of real possibilities. They violated the complete joint probability distribution in the predicted ways, when they made estimates about conjunctions: P(A), P(B), P(A and B), disjunctions: P(A), P(B), P(A or B or both), and conditional probabilities P(A), P(B), P(B|A). They were faster to estimate the probabilities of compound propositions when they had already estimated the probabilities of each of their components. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of probabilistic reasoning.

  10. A Unique Facility For Metabolic and Thermoregulatory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to perform tipper body ergometry tests for space applications. Originally designed to simulate the muscular, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to working in zero gravity, this facility may be used to conduct basic thermoregulatory investigations applicable to multiple sclerosis patients. An environmental chamber houses the tipper body ergometer and permits control of temperature, air now and humidify. The chamber is a closed system and recirculate-s air after conditioning if. A Cybex Lipper body ergometer has been mounted horizontally on the wall of the environmental chamber. In this configuration, the subject lies underneath the arm crank on a supine seat in order to turn the crank. The supine seat can be removed in order to introduce other equipment into the chamber such as a stool to allow upright arm cranking, or a treadmill to allow walk-run experiments. Physiological and environmental signals are fed into a Strawberry Tree data acquisition system while being monitored and logged using the Workbench software program. Physiological monitoring capabilities include 3-lead EKG using an H-P patient monitor, 5 site skin temperature and core temperature using YSI thermistors, and O2 consumption and CO2 production using AMFTFK Applied Electrochemistry analyzers and sensors. This comprehensive data acquisition set tip allows for calculation of various thermoregulatory indices including heat storage, evaporative heat loss, latent heat loss, and metabolic rate. The current system is capable of adding more data acquisition channels if needed. Some potential studies that could be carried out using the facility include: 1) An investigation into the efficiency of cooling various segments of the body to lower Tc 1-2 F. 2) A series of heat and mass balance studies comparing various LCG configurations.

  11. The gaming of concussions: a unique intervention in postconcussion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James M; Anderson, Megan; Benton, Brooke; Green, Sue Stanley

    2015-03-01

    To present the case of 2 adolescent high school student-athletes who developed postconcussion syndrome with protracted and limiting visual complaints that markedly affected academic, social, and athletic activity for a year after the onset of symptoms. Both had significant improvement soon after a unique intervention was administered. A 14-year-old female soccer and softball player sustained 2 concussions in the same week. She had persistent symptoms for a year that affected her grades and precluded athletic participation. A 15-year-old male football player sustained a concussion during an altercation with 2 other male adolescents. He continued to have symptoms 1 year later, with a marked decrease in academic performance and restriction from athletics. Both adolescents reported blurry vision, photophobia, and associated headache as significant components of the postconcussion syndrome. Concussion, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, second-impact syndrome, and visually sensitive migraine. Both patients were advised to obtain computer gaming glasses to use throughout the day. The female patient was diligent in her use of the glasses, with marked lessening of symptoms. The male patient was less accepting of the glasses but did report lessening of symptoms when using the glasses. We hypothesized that postconcussion syndrome with marked visual complaints would respond to and improve with decreased stimulation of the visual system. This was attempted with the addition of computer gaming glasses. Both adolescent athletes responded well to the filtering of visual stimuli by off-the-shelf computer gaming glasses. Postconcussion syndrome is a persistent condition with a myriad of symptoms. Two young athletes developed postconcussion syndrome with prominent visual symptoms that lasted a year. The addition of computer gaming glasses markedly lessened symptoms in both patients.

  12. Savonius wind turbines: Design and testing of unique blade designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul B.

    As the idea of implementing alternative energy systems into urbanized areas continues to gain popularity, there is a growing need to improve the efficiency of such systems. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine whether or not six unique blade designs, developed by the researcher, would lead to a more efficient vertical axis Savonius wind turbine. This report provides details regarding the study of aerodynamic forces, drag coefficients, and flow characteristics around each blade as well as information pertaining to the assembly and field testing of a turbine. The researcher began by conducting wind tunnel tests and computational fluid dynamic simulations on a single blade with the proposed designs. The data from these experiments was then used to calculate the driving and opposing forces and drag coefficients that would be present when each blade design is used in a fully assembled turbine. Lastly, the researcher determined the theoretical maximum efficiency of each turbine by multiplying the difference between the drag coefficients with the Betz Limit (4/27). Upon analyzing the results, the researcher discovered that the forces that were reported in the CFD analysis were more than double those measured in the wind tunnel. In addition, upon calculating the performance of each blade design when assembled into a full turbine, it was found that the turbines may not perform as well as the researcher initially expected; with only one having an efficiency of greater than 12%. However, because of the differences between the wind tunnel and CFD results, the researcher suggests that further experimentation and analysis needs to be completed to accurately justify the performance calculations.

  13. Design for robustness of unique, multi-component engineering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kenneth A.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to advance the science of conceptual designing for robustness in unique, multi-component engineering systems. Robustness is herein defined as the ability of an engineering system to operate within a desired performance range even if the actual configuration has differences from specifications within specified tolerances. These differences are caused by three sources, namely manufacturing errors, system degradation (operational wear and tear), and parts availability. Unique, multi-component engineering systems are defined as systems produced in unique or very small production numbers. They typically have design and manufacturing costs on the order of billions of dollars, and have multiple, competing performance objectives. Design time for these systems must be minimized due to competition, high manpower costs, long manufacturing times, technology obsolescence, and limited available manpower expertise. Most importantly, design mistakes cannot be easily corrected after the systems are operational. For all these reasons, robustness of these systems is absolutely critical. This research examines the space satellite industry in particular. Although inherent robustness assurance is absolutely critical, it is difficult to achieve in practice. The current state of the art for robustness in the industry is to overdesign components and subsystems with redundancy and margin. The shortfall is that it is not known if the added margins were either necessary or sufficient given the risk management preferences of the designer or engineering system customer. To address this shortcoming, new assessment criteria to evaluate robustness in design concepts have been developed. The criteria are comprised of the "Value Distance", addressing manufacturing errors and system degradation, and "Component Distance", addressing parts availability. They are based on an evolutionary computation format that uses a string of alleles to describe the components in the

  14. An Analysis of Philosophical Connotation of "Unique Features" Loaded on Sports%An Analysis of Philosophical Connotation of "Unique Features" Loaded on Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    JIN Qing-kai (School of Physical Education, West Anhui University, Lu' an, Anhui 237012, China) Abstract: By studying the traditional implication and philosophical connotation of "unique features", the writer of this article expounds the scientific meaning of "unique features" loaded on sports, which refers to a pattern of modality, rule, practice and theory formed in the optimized combination of the commonality with individuality of a certain object. Meanwhile, the writer makes an induction and analysis of the basic modality of "unique features" in sports field, and illustrates the aspects that we should pay attention to in understanding "unique features" loaded on sports.

  15. Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-24

    With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes.

  16. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  17. Unique antigenic gene expression at different developmental stages of Trichinella pseudospiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X P; Liu, X L; Wang, X L; Blaga, R; Fu, B Q; Liu, P; Bai, X; Wang, Z J; Rosenthal, B M; Shi, H N; Sandrine, L; Vallee, I; Boireau, P; Wang, F; Zhou, X N; Zhao, Y; Liu, M Y

    2013-05-20

    Parasite-induced and parasite-regulated larval capsule formation and host immunosuppression are two major characteristics that are unique in Trichinella spp. infections, but the molecule(s) and mechanism(s) that mediate these processes remain largely unknown. Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella spiralis, are obviously different with respect to these two characteristics. A comparative study of these two species, in particular their antigen expression profiles at different developmental stages (the main molecules involved in the cross-talk or interaction between each parasite and its host), may help us better understand the parasite molecules and mechanisms involved. Here, we constructed cDNA libraries from T. pseudospiralis adults (Ad), newborn larvae (NBL) and muscle larvae (ML) mRNA and screened them with pig anti-T. pseudospiralis serum collected 26, 32 and 60 days post-infection (p.i.). The most abundant antigens were found to vary among life-cycle stages. Pyroglutamy peptidase 1-like and 6-phosphogluconolactonase-like genes predominated in the Ad stage and a serine protease (SS2-1-like gene) predominated in NBL similar to that observed in T. spiralis. Muscle larvae expressed proteasome activator complex subunit 3-like and 21 kDa excretory/secretory protein-like genes. This study indicated that parasites of two species may utilise different molecules and mechanisms for larvae capsule formation and host immunosuppression during their infections. Proteins of antigenic genes identified in this study may be also good candidates for diagnosis, treatment or vaccination for T. pseudospiralis infection, and also for the differential diagnosis of two species' infections.

  18. Why have chloroplasts developed a unique motility system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Dolja, Valerian V; Wada, Masamitsu

    2010-10-01

    Organelle movement in plants is dependent on actin filaments with most of the organelles being transported along the actin cables by class XI myosins. Although chloroplast movement is also actin filament-dependent, a potential role of myosin motors in this process is poorly understood. Interestingly, chloroplasts can move in any direction, and change the direction within short time periods, suggesting that chloroplasts use the newly formed actin filaments rather than preexisting actin cables. Furthermore, the data on myosin gene knockouts and knockdowns in Arabidopsis and tobacco do not support myosins' XI role in chloroplast movement. Our recent studies revealed that chloroplast movement and positioning are mediated by the short actin filaments localized at chloroplast periphery (cp-actin filaments) rather than cytoplasmic actin cables. The accumulation of cp-actin filaments depends on kinesin-like proteins, KAC1 and KAC2, as well as on a chloroplast outer membrane protein CHUP1. We propose that plants evolved a myosin XI-independent mechanism of the actin-based chloroplast movement that is distinct from the mechanism used by other organelles.

  19. Mbosi: An anomalous iron with unique silicate inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clarke, Roy S., Jr.; Wasson, John T.

    1996-09-01

    The Mbosi iron meteorite contains millimeter size silicate inclusions. Mbosi is an ungrouped iron meteorite with a Ge/Ga ratio >10, which is an anomalous property shared with the five-member IIF iron group, the Eagle Station pallasites and four other ungrouped irons. Neither the IIF group nor the four other ungrouped irons are known to have silicate inclusions. Chips from three Mbosi inclusions were studied, but most of the work concentrated on a whole 3.1 mm circular inclusion. This inclusion consists of a mantle and a central core of different mineralogies. The mantle is partially devitrified quartz-normative glass, consisting of microscopic crystallites of two pyroxenes and plagioclase, which are crystalline enough to give an x-ray powder diffraction pattern but not coarse enough to permit analyses of individual minerals. The core consists of silica. The bulk composition does not match any known meteorite type, although there is a similarity in mode of occurrence to quartz-normative silicate inclusions in some HE irons. Mbosi silicate appears to be unique. The bulk rare earth element (REE) pattern of the mantle is flat at ≅ 7×C1; the core is depleted in REE but shows a small positive Eu anomaly. The O-isotope composition of bulk silicate lies on a unit slope mixing line (parallel and close to the C3 mixing line) that includes the Eagle Station pallasites and the iron Bocaiuva (related to the IIF irons); all of these share the property of having Ge/Ga ratios >10. It is concluded that Mbosi silicate represents a silica-bearing source rock that was melted and injected into metal. Melting occurred early in the history of the parent body because the metal now shows a normal Widmanstätten structure with only minor distortion that was caused when the parent body broke up and released meteorites into interplanetary space. The cause of Ge/Ga ratios being >10 in these irons is unknown. The fact that silicates in Mbosi, Bocaiuva (related to IIF irons) and the Eagle

  20. Found in transition: applying milestones to three unique discharge curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Meade

    2015-03-01

    demonstrate that the three unique discharge curricula in aggregate capture all of the highest prioritized milestones for this discharge EPA.