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Sample records for unique synthetic sodium

  1. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  2. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Sports Drinks. Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Zeinab Moradi, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Farideh Esmaeili Aftabdari, Parnaz Badaei, Mannan Hajimahmoodi ...

  3. Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou

    2014-05-15

    Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures.

  4. Is there anything unique in the ethics of synthetic biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyd, David

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology does not create any ethical dilemmas that have not already been raised in the development of practices such as genetic screening, genetic engineering, and other interventions in the evolutionary processes. The issue is, nevertheless, ethically serious. Two different angles are examined: the philosophical legitimacy of human intervention in the shaping of human nature, and the more pragmatic (though by no means less important) question of the risks involved in such a novel line of research. As for the first, the claim made here is that in principle there is no constraint in human intervention in the world, since ultimately the source of any value lies in human interests, welfare, and values. This is an approach that is opposite to Habermas's. As for the practical problem of risk, research in synthetic biology calls for particular caution, since in at least the first stages of a new research or program, there is no social regulation, and society is wholly dependent on the scientist's ethical integrity.

  5. Designing Uniquely Addressable Bio-orthogonal Synthetic Scaffolds for DNA and RNA Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, Jerzy; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Torelli, Emanuela; Lopiccolo, Annunziata; Gu, Jing-Ying; Fellermann, Harold; Stimming, Ulrich; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2017-07-21

    Nanotechnology and synthetic biology are rapidly converging, with DNA origami being one of the leading bridging technologies. DNA origami was shown to work well in a wide array of biotic environments. However, the large majority of extant DNA origami scaffolds utilize bacteriophages or plasmid sequences thus severely limiting its future applicability as a bio-orthogonal nanotechnology platform. In this paper we present the design of biologically inert (i.e., "bio-orthogonal") origami scaffolds. The synthetic scaffolds have the additional advantage of being uniquely addressable (unlike biologically derived ones) and hence are better optimized for high-yield folding. We demonstrate our fully synthetic scaffold design with both DNA and RNA origamis and describe a protocol to produce these bio-orthogonal and uniquely addressable origami scaffolds.

  6. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Satish A; Hariyani Kaushik P

    2012-01-01

    The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Tolperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in...

  7. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF EPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Paresh U; Patel Sejal K; Patel Umang J

    2012-01-01

    The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of diclofenac sodium and Eperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Eperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the...

  8. On isomorphous substitution of calcium by sodium and lanthanum in synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Get'man, E.I.; Kanyuka, Yu.V.; Loboda, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    Isomorphous substitution of calcium by sodium and lanthanum in synthetic hydroxyapatite Ca 5-2x La x (PO 4 ) 3 OH by x=0-2.5 within the temperature range 1100-800 deg C is studied through the roentgenophase analysis and IR-spectroscopy methods. It is established that singlephase solid solutions are formed in the area of x≥0.4 by a≤0.4 there exist phases with LaPO 4 , LaNa 6 (PO 4 ) 3 structures and unknown phase along with solid solution of the apatite structure

  9. Using Synthetic Controls to Evaluate the Effect of Unique Interventions: The Case of Say Yes to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Robert; Rubenstein, Ross; Sohn, Hosung

    2017-12-01

    "Place-based" scholarships seek to improve student outcomes in urban school districts and promote urban revitalization in economically challenged cities. Say Yes to Education is a unique district-wide school reform effort adopted in Syracuse, NY, in 2008. It includes full-tuition scholarships for public and private universities, coupled with extensive wraparound support services in schools. This study uses synthetic control methods to evaluate the effect of Say Yes on district enrollment and graduation rates. It also introduces the synthetic control method and provides guidance for its use in evaluating single-site interventions. Combining school district-level data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Common Core of Data and New York State School Report Cards, this article uses synthetic control methods to construct a synthetic comparison district to estimate counterfactual enrollment and graduation trends for Syracuse. We find that Say Yes to Education was associated with enrollment increases in the Syracuse City School District, a district that had previously experienced decades of sustained enrollment declines. We do not find consistent evidence of changes in graduation rates following adoption of the program. Graduation rate analyses demonstrate that estimates of treatment effects can be sensitive to choices that the researcher has to make in applying synthetic control methods, particularly when pretreatment outcome measures appear to have considerable amounts of noise.

  10. Sodium provides unique insights into transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on bivalve shell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqiang; Schöne, Bernd R; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-15

    Ocean acidification is likely to have profound impacts on marine bivalves, especially on their early life stages. Therefore, it is imperative to know whether and to what extent bivalves will be able to acclimate or adapt to an acidifying ocean over multiple generations. Here, we show that reduced seawater pH projected for the end of this century (i.e., pH7.7) led to a significant decrease of shell production of newly settled juvenile Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum. However, juveniles from parents exposed to low pH grew significantly faster than those from parents grown at ambient pH, exhibiting a rapid transgenerational acclimation to an acidic environment. The sodium composition of the shells may shed new light on the mechanisms responsible for beneficial transgenerational acclimation. Irrespective of parental exposure, the amount of Na incorporated into shells increased with decreasing pH, implying active removal of excessive protons through the Na + /H + exchanger which is known to depend on the Na + gradient actively built up by the Na + /K + -ATPase as a driving force. However, the shells with a prior history of transgenerational exposure to low pH recorded significantly lower amounts of Na than those with no history of acidic exposure. It therefore seems very likely that the clams may implement less costly and more ATP-efficient ion regulatory mechanisms to maintain pH homeostasis in the calcifying fluid following transgenerational acclimation. Our results suggest that marine bivalves may have a greater capacity to acclimate or adapt to ocean acidification by the end of this century than currently understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  12. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  13. A Dealloying Synthetic Strategy for Nanoporous Bismuth-Antimony Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Niu, Jiazheng; Zhang, Chi; Peng, Zhangquan; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2018-04-24

    Metal-based anodes have recently aroused much attention in sodium ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their high theoretical capacities and low sodiation potentials. However, their progresses are prevented by the inferior cycling performance caused by severe volumetric change and pulverization during the (de)sodiation process. To address this issue, herein an alloying strategy was proposed and nanoporous bismuth (Bi)-antimony (Sb) alloys were fabricated by dealloying of ternary Mg-based precursors. As an anode for SIBs, the nanoporous Bi 2 Sb 6 alloy exhibits an ultralong cycling performance (10 000 cycles) at 1 A/g corresponding to a capacity decay of merely 0.0072% per cycle, due to the porous structure, alloying effect and proper Bi/Sb atomic ratio. More importantly, a (de)sodiation mechanism ((Bi,Sb) ↔ Na(Bi,Sb) ↔ Na 3 (Bi,Sb)) is identified for the discharge/charge processes of Bi-Sb alloys by using operando X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations.

  14. The Dissolution of Synthetic Na-Boltwoodite in Sodium Carbonate Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Liu, Chongxuan; Yantasee, Wassana; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Zachara, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Uranyl silicates such as uranophane and Na-boltwoodite appear to control the solubility of uranium in the contaminated sediments at the US Department of Energy Hanford site (Liu et al., 2004). Consequently, the solubility of synthetic Na-boltwoodite was determined over a wide range of bicarbonate concentrations, from circumneutral to alkaline pH, that are representative of porewater and groundwater compositions at the Hanford site. Results show that Na-boltwoodite dissolution was nearly congruent and its solubility increased with increasing bicarbonate concentration. Calculated solubility constants varied by nearly 2 log units from low bicarbonate (no added NaCO3) to 50 mmol/L bicarbonate. However, the solubility constants only vary by 0.5 log units from 0 added bicarbonate to 1.2 mmol/L bicarbonate, where logKsp = 5.39-5.92 and the average logKsp = 5.63. No systematic trend in logKsp was apparent over this range in bicarbonate concentrations. LogKsp values trended down with increasing bicarbonate concentration, where logKsp = 4.06 at 50 mmol/L bicarbonate. We conclude that the calculated solubility constants at high bicarbonate are compromised by an incomplete or inaccurate uranyl-carbonate speciation model

  15. Synthetic ciguatoxins selectively activate Nav1.8-derived chimeric sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-03-20

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.4, and Na(v)1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879-889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Na(v)1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257-262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Na(v)1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 mum CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Na(v)1.8 channel compared with those of the Na(v)1.2 and Na(v)1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 mum CTX3C induced a large leakage current (I (L)). The conductance of the I (L) calculated relative to the maximum conductance (G (max)) was 10 times larger than that of Na(v)1.2 or Na(v)1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Na(v)1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Na(v)1.4 and Na(v)1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Na(v)1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Na(v)1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains.

  16. Synthetic Ciguatoxins Selectively Activate Nav1.8-derived Chimeric Sodium Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Nav1.2, Nav1.4, and Nav1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879–889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257–262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Nav1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 μm CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Nav1.8 channel compared with those of the Nav1.2 and Nav1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 μm CTX3C induced a large leakage current (IL). The conductance of the IL calculated relative to the maximum conductance (Gmax) was 10 times larger than that of Nav1.2 or Nav1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Nav1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Nav1.4 and Nav1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Nav1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Nav1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains. PMID:19164297

  17. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  18. Unique crystallization behavior of sodium manganese pyrophosphate Na2MnP2O7 glass and its electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morito Tanabe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization behavior of Na2MnP2O7 precursor glass was examined. Layered type Na2MnP2O7 was formed at 461 °C for 3 h in N2 filled electric furnace. Irreversible phase change was confirmed from layered Na2MnP2O7 to β-Na2MnP2O7 over 600 °C. At 650 °C crystallized phase was completely changed to β-phase. By means of charge and discharge testing it is found that layered Na2MnP2O7 is also active as cathode in sodium ion batteries. We found glass-ceramics technology is one of the suitable process for the synthesis of layered Na2MnP2O7 cathode without any complicate process.

  19. Unique gene expression and MR T2 relaxometry patterns define chronic murine dextran sodium sulphate colitis as a model for connective tissue changes in human Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Breynaert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total. Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T 2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn's colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn's disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of

  20. Development of a Rapid Throughput Assay for Identification of hNav1.7 Antagonist Using Unique Efficacious Sodium Channel Agonist, Antillatoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs are responsible for the generation of the action potential. Among nine classified VGSC subtypes (Nav1.1–Nav1.9, Nav1.7 is primarily expressed in the sensory neurons, contributing to the nociception transmission. Therefore Nav1.7 becomes a promising target for analgesic drug development. In this study, we compared the influence of an array of VGSC agonists including veratridine, BmK NT1, brevetoxin-2, deltamethrin and antillatoxin (ATX on membrane depolarization which was detected by Fluorescence Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR membrane potential (FMP blue dye. In HEK-293 cells heterologously expressing hNav1.7 α-subunit, ATX produced a robust membrane depolarization with an EC50 value of 7.8 ± 2.9 nM whereas veratridine, BmK NT1, and deltamethrin produced marginal response. Brevetoxin-2 was without effect on membrane potential change. The ATX response was completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin suggesting that the ATX response was solely derived from hNav1.7 activation, which was consistent with the results where ATX produced a negligible response in null HEK-293 cells. Six VGSC antagonists including lidocaine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, carbamazepine, riluzole, and 2-amino-6-trifluoromethylthiobenzothiazole all concentration-dependently inhibited ATX response with IC50 values comparable to that reported from patch-clamp experiments. Considered together, we demonstrate that ATX is a unique efficacious hNav1.7 activator which offers a useful probe to develop a rapid throughput screening assay to identify hNav1.7 antagonists.

  1. Development of a Rapid Throughput Assay for Identification of hNav1.7 Antagonist Using Unique Efficacious Sodium Channel Agonist, Antillatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Li, Xichun; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Fan; Inoue, Masayuki; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu

    2016-02-16

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for the generation of the action potential. Among nine classified VGSC subtypes (Nav1.1-Nav1.9), Nav1.7 is primarily expressed in the sensory neurons, contributing to the nociception transmission. Therefore Nav1.7 becomes a promising target for analgesic drug development. In this study, we compared the influence of an array of VGSC agonists including veratridine, BmK NT1, brevetoxin-2, deltamethrin and antillatoxin (ATX) on membrane depolarization which was detected by Fluorescence Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR) membrane potential (FMP) blue dye. In HEK-293 cells heterologously expressing hNav1.7 α-subunit, ATX produced a robust membrane depolarization with an EC50 value of 7.8 ± 2.9 nM whereas veratridine, BmK NT1, and deltamethrin produced marginal response. Brevetoxin-2 was without effect on membrane potential change. The ATX response was completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin suggesting that the ATX response was solely derived from hNav1.7 activation, which was consistent with the results where ATX produced a negligible response in null HEK-293 cells. Six VGSC antagonists including lidocaine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, carbamazepine, riluzole, and 2-amino-6-trifluoromethylthiobenzothiazole all concentration-dependently inhibited ATX response with IC50 values comparable to that reported from patch-clamp experiments. Considered together, we demonstrate that ATX is a unique efficacious hNav1.7 activator which offers a useful probe to develop a rapid throughput screening assay to identify hNav1.7 antagonists.

  2. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  3. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  4. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  5. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  6. Thermal stability of synthetic thyroid hormone l-thyroxine and l-thyroxine sodium salt hydrate both pure and in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeţi, Ionuţ; Ledeţi, Adriana; Vlase, Gabriela; Vlase, Titus; Matusz, Petru; Bercean, Vasile; Şuta, Lenuţa-Maria; Piciu, Doina

    2016-06-05

    In this paper, the thermal stability of pure l-thyroxine (THY) and l-thyroxine sodium salt hydrate (THYSS) vs. two pharmaceutical solid formulations commercialized on both Romanian and European market (with a content of 100μg, respectively 200μg THYSS per tablet) were investigated. In order to determine whether the presence of excipients affects the thermal stability of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), the preliminary study of thermal stability in air atmosphere was completed with an in-depth solid-state kinetic study. By kinetic analysis, the non-isothermal degradation of the selected active pharmaceutical ingredients vs. the solid formulation with strength of 200μg THYSS per tablet was investigated. Isoconversional methods (Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Friedman) were employed for the estimation of activation energies values, at five different heating rates, β=5, 7, 10, 12 and 15°Cmin(-1). Also, a fourth method was applied in the processing of data, namely NPK, allowing an objective separation in the physical and chemical processes that contribute to the thermal degradation of the selected compounds. A discussion of thermal stability from the kinetic point of view is also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An efficient sodium citrate-promoted synthetic method for the preparation of AuNPs@mesoSiO2 for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in the detection of diluted blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel, green, and efficient organically synthetic method for the preparation of gold nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica (AuNPs@mesoSiO2. AuNPs@mesoSiO2 prepared by one-pot synthesis method using sodium citrate as the key reactant was applied for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS application in the analysis of diluted blood traces. The synthesized nanoparticles are of high quality, as characterized by use of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They exhibit high surface areas (170.18–883 m2/g and significant SERS enhancement. Detection of diluted blood (v/v, 1:50 traces through AuNPs@mesoSiO2 enhanced SERS is demonstrated, which has not been studied in previous literature. The combination of the SERS and AuNPs@mesoSiO2 would be a valuable tool for forensic investigation. Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, Mesoporous materials, Synthesis, SERS, Blood trace

  8. A quantitative and comparative study of the effects of a synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C on the kinetic properties of voltage-dependent sodium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hidemichi; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are known to bind to receptor site 5 of the voltage-dependent Na channel, but the toxin's physiological effects are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of a ciguatoxin congener (CTX3C) on three different Na-channel isoforms, rNav1.2, rNav1.4, and rNav1.5, which were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. The toxin (1.0 μmol l−1) shifted the activation potential (V1/2 of activation curve) in the negative direction by 4–9 mV and increased the slope factor (k) from 8 mV to between 9 and 12 mV (indicative of decreased steepness of the activation curve), thereby resulting in a hyperpolarizing shift of the threshold potential by 30 mV for all Na channel isoforms. The toxin (1.0 μmol l−1) significantly accelerated the time-to-peak current from 0.62 to 0.52 ms in isoform rNav1.2. Higher doses of the toxin (3–10 μmol l−1) additionally decreased time-to-peak current in rNav1.4 and rNav1.5. A toxin effect on decay of INa at −20 mV was either absent or marginal even at relatively high doses of CTX3C. The toxin (1 μmol l−1) shifted the inactivation potential (V1/2 of inactivation curve) in the negative direction by 15–18 mV in all isoforms. INa maxima of the I–V curve (at −20 mV) were suppressed by application of 1.0 μmol l−1 CTX3C to a similar extent (80–85% of the control) in all the three isoforms. Higher doses of CTX3C up to 10 μmol l−1 further suppressed INa to 61–72% of the control. Recovery from slow inactivation induced by a depolarizing prepulse of intermediate duration (500 ms) was dramatically delayed in the presence of 1.0 μmol l−1 CTX3C, as time constants describing the monoexponential recovery were increased from 38±8 to 588±151 ms (n=5), 53±6 to 338±85 ms (n=4), and 23±3 to 232±117 ms (n=3) in rNav1.2, rNav1.4, and rNav1.5, respectively. CTX3C exerted multimodal effects on sodium channels, with simultaneous stimulatory and inhibitory aspects, probably due to the large

  9. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  10. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  11. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  12. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  13. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  14. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  15. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  16. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  17. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  18. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  19. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  20. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  1. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Delaminated sodium nonatitanate and a method for producing delaminated sodium nonatitanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, May D.

    2016-02-02

    A hydrothermal synthesis method of making a delaminated titanate is disclosed. The delaminated titanate has a unique structure or morphology. The delaminated titanate is first formed by forming at a low temperature a layered sodium nonatitanate (SNT), which may be referred to as layered sodium titanate. The layered SNT has a unique morphology. The layered SNT is then synthesized into a delaminated titanate having a unique morphology.

  3. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  4. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  5. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  6. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  8. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  9. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  10. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  12. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  13. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  16. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  17. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  18. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  19. From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646

  20. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  1. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  2. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  3. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  4. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Enamel surface remineralization: Using synthetic nanohydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shanti Swarup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of synthetically processed hydroxyapatite particles in remineralization of the early enamel lesions in comparison with 2% sodium fluoride. Materials and Methods: Thirty sound human premolars were divided into nanohydroxyapatite group (n0 = 15 and the sodium fluoride group (n = 15. The specimens were subjected to demineralization before being coated with 10% aqueous slurry of 20 nm nanohydroxyapatite or 2% sodium fluoride. The remineralizing efficacy of the materials was evaluated using surface microhardness (SMH measurements, scanning microscopic analysis and analysis of the Ca/P ratio of the surface enamel. Data analysis was carried out using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: The results showed that the nanohydroxyapatite group produced a surface morphology close to the biologic enamel, the increase in mineral content (Ca/P ratio was more significant in the nanohydroxyapatite group ( P 0.05. Conclusion: The use of biomimetic nanohydroxyapatite as a remineralizing agent holds promise as a new synthetic enamel biocompatible material to repair early carious lesions.

  6. 21 CFR 178.3480 - Fatty alcohols, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived lauryl alcohol permitted as an intermediate in the synthesis of sodium lauryl sulfate used in..._locations.html. (1) Synthetic fatty alcohols. (i) Hexyl, octyl, decyl, lauryl, myristyl, cetyl, and stearyl... they may contain not more than 0.8 weight percent total diols. (ii) Lauryl, myristyl, cetyl, and...

  7. Synthetic seed technology for encapsulation and regrowth of in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, various concentrations of sodium alginate solutions and calcium chloride solutions were tested in order to optimize the size, shape and texture of alginate synthetic seeds or beads for Acacia hybrid bud-sprouting. The shoot buds and axillary buds from in vitro Acacia hybrids, as explants were encapsulated with ...

  8. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carried out by reverse phase liquid chromatography of an Agilent 1200 series liquid chromatograph equipped with a gradient pump capable of mixing four solvents, a vacuum membrane degasser, a 20 μL loop injector and a. UV Detector (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara,. CA, USA). Analysis was performed on an Eclipse.

  9. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  10. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  11. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  12. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  14. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  15. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  16. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  17. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  18. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  19. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  20. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  1. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  2. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  3. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  4. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  5. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  6. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  7. Characterization of the binding of the Ptychodiscus brevis neurotoxin T17 to sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) have been determined to bind to a unique receptor site associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in rat brain synaptosomes. Reduction of the C 42 aldehyde function of T34 to the alcohol function of T17 using NaB 3 H 4 yielded 3 H-T17 with a specific activity of 15 Ci;/mmol. Using this specific probe, binding to sodium channels was measured at 4 0 CC, 22 0 C, and 37 0 C. Rosenthal analysis of the binding data yielded a K/sub d/ of 2.9 nM and B/sub max/ of 6.8 pmoles 3 H-T17 per mg of synaptosomal protein at 4 0 C. Both K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ were found to be temperature dependent. Depolarization of the synaptosomes by osmotic lysis resulted in the loss of 34% of the available receptor sites, with no decrease in binding affinity. Unlabeled T17, T34, and synthetic T17 (reduced T34) were equipotent in their ability to displace 3 H-T17 from its specific receptor site. Competition experiments using natural toxin probes specific for sites I-IV on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel demonstrate that 3 H-T17 does not bind to any of the previously-described neurotoxin receptor sites. A fifth site is proposed

  8. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  9. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  10. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  11. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  14. Synthetic Biology: Engineering Living Systems from Biophysical Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bryan A; Kim, Kyung; Medley, J Kyle; Sauro, Herbert M

    2017-03-28

    Synthetic biology was founded as a biophysical discipline that sought explanations for the origins of life from chemical and physical first principles. Modern synthetic biology has been reinvented as an engineering discipline to design new organisms as well as to better understand fundamental biological mechanisms. However, success is still largely limited to the laboratory and transformative applications of synthetic biology are still in their infancy. Here, we review six principles of living systems and how they compare and contrast with engineered systems. We cite specific examples from the synthetic biology literature that illustrate these principles and speculate on their implications for further study. To fully realize the promise of synthetic biology, we must be aware of life's unique properties. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  16. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  17. Chromatin regulation at the frontier of synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, Albert J.; Joung, J. Keith; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Collins, James J.

    2016-01-01

    As synthetic biology approaches are extended to diverse applications throughout medicine, biotechnology and basic biological research, there is an increasing need to engineer yeast, plant and mammalian cells. Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by the diverse biochemical and biophysical states of chromatin, which brings distinct challenges, as well as opportunities, over applications in bacteria. Recent synthetic approaches, including `epigenome editing', have allowed the direct and functional dissection of many aspects of physiological chromatin regulation. These studies lay the foundation for biomedical and biotechnological engineering applications that could take advantage of the unique combinatorial and spatiotemporal layers of chromatin regulation to create synthetic systems of unprecedented sophistication. PMID:25668787

  18. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  19. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  20. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  1. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  2. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  3. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  4. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  5. Super-Resolution for Synthetic Zooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical zooming is an important feature of imaging systems. In this paper, we investigate a low-cost signal processing alternative to optical zooming—synthetic zooming by super-resolution (SR techniques. Synthetic zooming is achieved by registering a sequence of low-resolution (LR images acquired at varying focal lengths and reconstructing the SR image at a larger focal length or increased spatial resolution. Under the assumptions of constant scene depth and zooming speed, we argue that the motion trajectories of all physical points are related to each other by a unique vanishing point and present a robust technique for estimating its D coordinate. Such a line-geometry-based registration is the foundation of SR for synthetic zooming. We address the issue of data inconsistency arising from the varying focal length of optical lens during the zooming process. To overcome the difficulty of data inconsistency, we propose a two-stage Delaunay-triangulation-based interpolation for fusing the LR image data. We also present a PDE-based nonlinear deblurring to accommodate the blindness and variation of sensor point spread functions. Simulation results with real-world images have verified the effectiveness of the proposed SR techniques for synthetic zooming.

  6. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  7. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  8. Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000 0 C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions

  9. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  10. Teaching Sodium Fast Reactors in CEA-INSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, Ph.; Latgé, C.; Gicquel, L.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Education and Training: - a key element for the future of the development of Sodium Fast Reactors, and more particularly ASTRID project. - a tool to create a new generation of skilled nuclear engineers in the field. - a unique mean to share basic knowledge, operational feedback, safety approaches. The two entities aimed to deliver Training sessions, i.e. Sodium School in Cadarache, and INSTN-Cadarache, are ready: - to conceive and propose tailored sessions, - to collaborate with other foreign Education and Training Entities

  11. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  12. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  13. The Role of Synthetic Biology in NASA's Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    The time has come to for NASA to exploit synthetic biology in pursuit of its missions, including aeronautics, earth science, astrobiology and most notably, human exploration. Conversely, NASA advances the fundamental technology of synthetic biology as no one else can because of its unique expertise in the origin of life and life in extreme environments, including the potential for alternate life forms. This enables unique, creative "game changing" advances. NASA's requirement for minimizing upmass in flight will also drive the field toward miniaturization and automation. These drivers will greatly increase the utility of synthetic biology solutions for military, health in remote areas and commercial purposes. To this end, we have begun a program at NASA to explore the use of synthetic biology in NASA's missions, particular space exploration. As part of this program, we began hosting an iGEM team of undergraduates drawn from Brown and Stanford Universities to conduct synthetic biology research at NASA Ames Research Center. The 2011 team (http://2011.igem.org/Team:Brown-Stanford) produced an award-winning project on using synthetic biology as a basis for a human Mars settlement.

  14. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  15. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  16. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Measurements of hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium by using an inert gas carrier method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funada, T.; Nihei, I.; Yuhara, S.; Nakasuji, T.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed to measure the hydrogen level in liquid sodium using an inert gas carrier method. Hydrogen was extracted into an inert gas from sodium through a thin nickel membrane in the form of a helically wound tube. The amount of hydrogen in the inert gas was analyzed by gas chromatography. The present method is unique in that it can be used over the wide range of sodium temperatures (150 to 700 0 C) and has no problems associated with vacuum systems. The partial pressure of hydrogen in sodium was determined as a function of cold-trap temperature (T/sub c/). Sieverts' constant (K/sub s/) was determined as a function of sodium temperature (T). From Sieverts' constant, the solubility of hydrogen in sodium is calculated. It was found that other impurities in sodium, such as (O) and (OH), have little effect on the hydrogen pressure in the sodium loop

  18. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  19. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  20. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  1. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  2. Synthetic Immunology: Hacking Immune Cells to Expand Their Therapeutic Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2017-04-26

    The ability of immune cells to survey tissues and sense pathologic insults and deviations makes them a unique platform for interfacing with the body and disease. With the rapid advancement of synthetic biology, we can now engineer and equip immune cells with new sensors and controllable therapeutic response programs to sense and treat diseases that our natural immune system cannot normally handle. Here we review the current state of engineered immune cell therapeutics and their unique capabilities compared to small molecules and biologics. We then discuss how engineered immune cells are being designed to combat cancer, focusing on how new synthetic biology tools are providing potential ways to overcome the major roadblocks for treatment. Finally, we give a long-term vision for the use of synthetic biology to engineer immune cells as a general sensor-response platform to precisely detect disease, to remodel disease microenvironments, and to treat a potentially wide range of challenging diseases.

  3. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  4. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  5. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  6. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  7. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  8. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  9. Understanding the Growing Threat of Synthetic Cannabinoids and Its Implications on University-Based Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Nedeljko; Dew, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    The rise in synthetic cannabinoid use has been one of the nation's most alarming drug-related trends. Considering the popularity of use among young adults, college counselors are likely to be among the 1st professionals to treat clients who use these drugs. In this article, the unique aspects of synthetic cannabinoids are reviewed, implications…

  10. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  12. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  13. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  14. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  15. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  16. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  17. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  18. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  19. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  20. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  1. Radiation synthesis and characterization of network structure of natural/synthetic double-network superabsorbent polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, M.; Hayrabolulu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are moderately cross linked, 3-D, hydrophilic network polymers that can absorb and conserve considerable amounts of aqueous fluids even under certain heat or pressure. Because of the unique properties superior to conventional absorbents, SAPs have found potential application in many fields such as hygienic products, disposable diapers, horticulture, gel actuators, drug-delivery systems, as well as water-blocking tapes coal dewatering, water managing materials for the renewal of arid and desert environment, etc. In recent years, naturally available resources, such as polysaccharides have drawn considerable attention for the preparation of SAPs. Since the mechanical properties of polysaccharide based natural polymers are low, researchers have mostly focused on natural/synthetic polymer/monomer mixtures to obtain novel SAPs. The aim of this study is to synthesize and characterization of network structure of novel double-network (DN) hydrogels as a SAP. Hydrogels with high mechanical strength have been prepared by radiation induced polymerization and crosslink of acrylic acid sodium salt in the presence of natural polymer locust bean gum. Liquid retention capacities and absorbency under load (AUL) analysis of synthesized SAPs was performed at different temperatures in water and synthetic urine solution, in order to determine their SAP character. For the characterization of network structure of the semi-IPN hydrogels, the average molecular weight between cross links (M c ) were evaluated by using uniaxial compression and oscillatory dynamical mechanical analyses and the advantage and disadvantage of these two technique for the characterization of network structures were compared.

  2. Radiochemical measurement of mass transport in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Chiang, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mass transport processes in the sodium coolant of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are significant in determining rates of corrosion and deposition of radioactive nuclides from the fuel cladding, deposition and cold trapping of fission products from defect or failed fuel, carbon and nitrogen redistribution in the containment materials, and removal of impurities by cold trapping or hot trapping. Mass transport between rotating, concentric cylinders in molten sodium has been investigated using a unique radiochemical method. Long-lived (33 year) cesium-137, dissolved in the sodium, decays radioactively emitting a beta to barium-137m, which decays with a short half-life (2.6 minutes) emitting a gamma. Cesium is weakly adsorbed and remains in solution, while the barium is strongly adsorbed on the stainless steel surfaces. Hence, by measuring the barium-137m activity on movable stainless steel surfaces, one can calculate the mass transport to that surface. Mass transfer coefficients in sodium measured by this method are in agreement with published heat transfer correlations when the effect of the volumetric mass source is taken into account. Hence, heat transfer correlations can be confidently utilized by analogy in estimating mass transfer in liquid-metal systems

  3. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  4. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  5. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  6. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  7. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  8. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  9. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  10. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  11. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  12. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  13. Synthetic prions and other human neurodegenerative proteinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhat Tran Thanh; Narkiewicz, Joanna; Aulić, Suzana; Salzano, Giulia; Tran, Hoa Thanh; Scaini, Denis; Moda, Fabio; Giachin, Gabriele; Legname, Giuseppe

    2015-09-02

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. The common feature of these diseases is the pathological conversion of the normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a β-structure-rich conformer-termed PrP(Sc). The latter can induce a self-perpetuating process leading to amplification and spreading of pathological protein assemblies. Much evidence suggests that PrP(Sc) itself is able to recruit and misfold PrP(C) into the pathological conformation. Recent data have shown that recombinant PrP(C) can be misfolded in vitro and the resulting synthetic conformers are able to induce the conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc)in vivo. In this review we describe the state-of-the-art of the body of literature in this field. In addition, we describe a cell-based assay to test synthetic prions in cells, providing further evidence that synthetic amyloids are able to template conversion of PrP into prion inclusions. Studying prions might help to understand the pathological mechanisms governing other neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins is a common feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders. Although the proteins implicated in each of these diseases differ, they share a common prion mechanism. Recombinant proteins are able to aggregate in vitro into β-rich amyloid fibrils, sharing some features of the aggregates found in the brain. Several studies have reported that intracerebral inoculation of synthetic aggregates lead to unique pathology, which spread progressively to distal brain regions and reduced survival time in animals. Here, we review the prion-like features of different proteins involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as α-synuclein, superoxide dismutase-1, amyloid-β and tau. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  15. Characteristics of Color Produced by Awa Natural Indigo and Synthetic Indigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoko Kawahito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Color of cloth dyed with Awa natural indigo is quantitatively compared with color of the cloth dyed with synthetic indigo. Results showed that: 1 color produced by Awa natural indigo is bluer and brighter than color produced by synthetic indigo; 2 a single Gaussian function fits the profile of the running of color produced by Awa natural indigo and the running of color produced by synthetic indigo prepared with sodium hydrosulfite approximates a linear sum of two Gaussian functions; 3 before and after washing, color is quantitatively more uneven when produced by Awa natural indigo than when produced by synthetic indigo; 4 the diffusion coefficient of Awa natural indigo is lower than that of synthetic indigo; 5 color superiority of Awa natural indigorelates to smaller diffusion coefficient, slower reduction, poorer penetration, and higher dye aggregation.

  16. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Hammond

    2013-01-01

    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  17. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  18. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  19. The combustion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The burning rates of sodium in the form of vapour jets, droplets, sprays and unconfined and confined pools have been reviewed. Attention has been paid to assessing the value of models in the various combustion modes. Additional models have been constructed for the descriptions of laminar and turbulent vapour jets, stationary droplets, forced convection over ambient pool fires together with correlations for peak pressures in confined pool environments. Where appropriate experiments with sodium have not been conducted, the likely behaviour is predicted by comparison with the burning of other fuels, particularly in the field of large free ambient fires. Some areas where further knowledge is required are highlighted. (author)

  20. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  1. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  2. Validation of the quality control method for sodium dicloxacillin in Dicloxen capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Perez Navarro, Maikel; Suarez Perez, Yania

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dicloxacillin is a semi synthetic derivative of the isoxasocyl penicillin group that may appear in oral suspension form and in caplets. For the analysis of the raw materials and the finished products, it is recommended to use high performance liquid chromatography that is an unavailable method at the dicloxen capsule manufacturing lab for the routine analysis of the drug. To develop and to validate a useful ultraviolet spectrophotometry method for the quality control of sodium dicloxacillin in Dicloxen capsules

  3. Alignment analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump. The assembled CRBRP prototype pump shows smooth predictable vibration behavior experienced during water test. An ealier swing check of the pump shaft about the motor shaft hub demonstrated that the pump is relatively insensitive to manufacturing and assembly tolerances, a consequence of close dimensional control and unique alignment features. (orig./GL)

  4. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  5. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  6. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  7. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  8. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  9. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  10. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  11. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile may be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments

  12. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10 -5 m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables

  13. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harant, M.

    1978-01-01

    Substitution, inverse and substitution inverse relations in form of regression polynomials were used in calculating saturation pressure and density for thermodynamic and transport properties determination of sodium. Program UNISOAUT/A3 was used in calculating regression polynomials coefficients. (J.P.)

  14. Extinction of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Spagna, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents how, starting from a knowledge of sodium ignition and burning, principles for extinction (smothering catch trays, leak recuperation systems, powders) can be developed. These techniques applied in Superphenix 1 and PEC reactors have been tested in the ESMERALDA experimental program which is a joint French/Italian project. (author)

  15. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability

  16. Sodium purification in Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, B.

    1968-01-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [fr

  17. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  18. Creep in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnock, W.; Cordwell, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Available information on the creep of austenitic, ferritic and Alloy-800 type steels in liquid sodium is critically reviewed. Creep properties of stainless steels can be affected by element transfer and corrosion. At reactor structural component temperatures environmental effects are likely to be less important than changes due to thermal ageing. At high clad temperatures (700 0 C) decarburisation may cause the loss of strength and ductility in unstabilised steels while cavity formation may cause embrittlement in stabilised steels. The properties of Alloy 800 are, in some experiments, found to deteriorate while in others they are enhanced. This may be a consequence of the metallurgical complexity of the material or arise from the nature of the various techniques employed. Low alloy ferritic steels tend to decarburise in sodium at temperatures greater than 500 0 C and this leads to loss of strength and an increase in ductility. High alloy ferritics are immune to this effect and appear to be able to tolerate a degree of carburisation. Although intergranular cracking may be enhanced in liquid sodium the mechanical consequences are not significant and evidence for the existence of an embrittlement effect not associated with element transfer or corrosion is weak. Stress and strain may enhance element transfer at crack tips. However in real cracks the gettering or supply action of the crack faces conditions the chemistry of the cracks in sodium and protects the crack tip from element transfer. Thus creep crack extension rates should be independent of changes in bulk coolant chemistry. (author)

  19. Fast flux test facility primary sodium check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabe, G.B.; Nash, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a tilting-disc check valve for the primary sodium coolant loop of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. The demanding design requirements specified for this system dictated a design with unique features. These features, along with the structural design and analysis requirements and the testing program used to develop and justify the design, are described

  20. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  1. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  2. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  3. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  4. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  5. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  6. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  7. A unique and unexplained ricochet leak post PCI – Successfully treated with intra-coronary glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin K. Goel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a unique case of coronary artery perforation treated with covered stent with repeat cardiac tamponade resulting out of a fresh unexplained leak from a remote vessel (Ricochet and successfully treated with intra-coronary injection of sterile synthetic glue, cyanoacrylate.

  8. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  9. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  10. Characterization of the binding of the Ptychodiscus brevis neurotoxin T17 to sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The lipid-soluble polyether neurotoxins isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) have been determined to bind to a unique receptor site associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in rat brain synaptosomes. Reduction of the C/sub 42/ aldehyde function of T34 to the alcohol function of T17 using NaB/sup 3/H/sub 4/ yielded /sup 3/H-T17 with a specific activity of 15 Ci;/mmol. Using this specific probe, binding to sodium channels was measured at 4/sup 0/CC, 22/sup 0/C, and 37/sup 0/C. Rosenthal analysis of the binding data yielded a K/sub d/ of 2.9 nM and B/sub max/ of 6.8 pmoles /sup 3/H-T17 per mg of synaptosomal protein at 4/sup 0/C. Both K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ were found to be temperature dependent. Depolarization of the synaptosomes by osmotic lysis resulted in the loss of 34% of the available receptor sites, with no decrease in binding affinity. Unlabeled T17, T34, and synthetic T17 (reduced T34) were equipotent in their ability to displace /sup 3/H-T17 from its specific receptor site. Competition experiments using natural toxin probes specific for sites I-IV on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel demonstrate that /sup 3/H-T17 does not bind to any of the previously-described neurotoxin receptor sites. A fifth site is proposed.

  11. Microencapsulation of probiotics using sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Araújo Etchepare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of probiotics is constantly growing due to the numerous benefits conferred on the health of consumers. In this context, Microencapsulation is a technology that favors the viability of probiotic cultures in food products, mainly by the properties of protection against adverse environmental conditions and controlled release. Currently there are different procedures for microencapsulation using polymers of various types of natural and synthetic origin. The use of sodium alginate polymers is one of the largest potential application in the encapsulation of probiotics because of their versatility, biocompatibility and toxicity exemption. The aim of this review is to present viable encapsulation techniques of probiotics with alginate, emphasizing the internal ionic gelation and external ionic gelation, with the possibility of applying, as well as promising for improving these techniques.

  12. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  13. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  14. Development of Sodium Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Nam, H. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Jeong, K. C.; Park, J. H.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, B. S.

    2003-02-01

    The basic P and ID and fabrication method for IHTS simplification experiment were prepared for the experimental apparatus. In order to investigate the later phase of a SWR event, an experimental apparatus was designed and manufactured. The 620 data set have been obtained in the experiment of free surface fluctuation and an experimental correlation for the critical gas entertainment condition is additionally developed. For development of water into sodium leak detection technology, the properties from leak noises were extracted, and the tools for analyzing acoustic noises were constructed. The state-of-the-art on the flow and differential pressure measuring techniques in the piping system is investigated to develop new techniques which are applicable to high temperature sodium flow environment. The plan for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement was drawn up by analysing the error factors in temperature measurement. And the countermeasures for the minimization of errors in temperature measurement due to complex heat transfer were prepared

  15. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  16. Thermal transformation of synthetic borax, Na2[B4O5(OH)4]x8H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    Using the methods of high temperature roentgenography and derivatography thermal transformation of synthetic borax is studied. It is established that borax dehydration proceeds in four stages (50-80, 80-100, 100-150 and 150-500 deg C) with the formation of three intermediate crystalline hydrate forms (one stable and two unstable) and one final stable crystalline phase. The stable crystalline phases correspond to synthetic tincalconite Na 2 [B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 ]x3H 2 O and sodium tetraborate Na 2 B 4 O 7 . Thermal transformation of borax into tincalconite and sodium tetraborate is explained on the basis of their crystal structures [ru

  17. Performance Evaluation in Sodium-to-Sodium Heat Exchangers in STELLA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Youngchul; Son, Seok-kwon; Yoon, Jung; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    The program aiming at an integral effect test is called STELLA-2, which will be used for synthetic review of the key safety issues of PGSFR. The basic and detailed design phases of the STELLA-2 test facility are underway in accordance with the specific design requirements reflecting the whole design features of PGSFR. Based on the STELLA-2 platform, a simulation of the PGSFR transient will be made to evaluate the plant dynamic behaviors and demonstrate the decay heat removal performance. The multi-dimensional effects coming from a large sodium pool system will be identified as well. Among several components of STELLA-2, there are five different types of model heat exchangers such as IHX, DHX, FHX, AHX, and UHX. Each heat exchanger has different characteristics, and it is very important to verify the heat transfer and pressure drop performance in each heat exchanger. The performance evaluation of the sodium-to-sodium heat exchangers (IHX and DHX) in STELLA-2 is performed using CFD. Also, these results are compared with 1-D heat exchanger design code. The shell/tube outlet temperature and heat transfer rate of the heat exchanger obtained by the CFD is not significantly

  18. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  20. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  1. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  2. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  3. Spectroscopy of a Synthetic Trapped Ion Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.

    2017-09-01

    133Ba+ has been identified as an attractive ion for quantum information processing due to the unique combination of its spin-1 /2 nucleus and visible wavelength electronic transitions. Using a microgram source of radioactive material, we trap and laser cool the synthetic A =133 radioisotope of barium II in a radio-frequency ion trap. Using the same, single trapped atom, we measure the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 62P1 /2↔62S1 /2 and 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transitions that are needed for laser cooling, state preparation, and state detection of the clock-state hyperfine and optical qubits. We also report the 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transition isotope shift for the rare A =130 and 132 barium nuclides, completing the spectroscopic characterization necessary for laser cooling all long-lived barium II isotopes.

  4. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T

    2016-03-03

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Action of insecticidal N-alkylamides at site 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottea, J.A.; Payne, G.T.; Soderlund, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine synthetic N-alkylamides were examined as inhibitors of the specific binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin A 20α-benzoate ([ 3 H]BTX-B) to sodium channels and as activators of sodium uptake in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes. In the presence of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the six insecticidal analogues were active as both inhibitors of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding and stimulators of sodium uptake. These findings are consistent with an action of these compounds at the alkaloid activator recognition site (site 2) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The three noninsecticidal N-alkylamides also inhibited [ 3 H]BTX-B binding but were ineffective as activators of sodium uptake. Concentration-response studies revealed that some of the insecticidal amides also enhanced sodium uptake through a second, high-affinity interaction that does not involve site 2, but this secondary effect does not appear to be correlated with insecticidal activity. The activities of N-alkylamides as sodium channel activators were influenced by the length of the alkenyl chain and the location of unsaturation within the molecule. These results further define the actions of N-alkylamides on sodium channels and illustrate the significance of the multiple binding domains of the sodium channel as target sites for insect control agents

  6. A high-capacity, low-cost layered sodium manganese oxide material as cathode for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Jian, Zelang; Liu, Pan; Zhu, Yanbei; Guo, Xianwei; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2014-08-01

    A layered sodium manganese oxide material (NaMn3 O5 ) is introduced as a novel cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterizations reveal a typical Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of the synthetic nanosheets. Electrochemical tests reveal a particularly large discharge capacity of 219 mAh g(-1) in the voltage rang of 1.5-4.7 V vs. Na/Na(+) . With an average potential of 2.75 V versus sodium metal, layered NaMn3 O5 exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg(-1) , and also presents good rate capability. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the layered NaMn3 O5 electrode is investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. The results greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries based on earth-abundant elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  8. Investigation of PVdF active diaphragms for synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Kelly C.; Brei, Diann E.; Calkins, Frederick T.

    2000-06-01

    Current research has shown that aircraft can gain significant aerodynamic performance benefits by employing active flow control (AFC). One of the enabling technologies of AFC is the synthetic jet. Synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass flux actuators, act as bi-directional pumps injecting high momentum air into the local aerodynamic flow. Previous work has concentrated on high frequency synthetic jets based on piezoelectric active diaphragms such as Thunder actuators. Low frequency synthetic jets present a unique challenge requiring large displacements, which current technology has difficulty meeting. Boeing is investigating novel shaped low frequency synthetic jets that can modify the flow over fixed aircraft wings. This paper present the initial study of two promising active diaphragm concepts: a crescent shape and an opposing bender shape. These active diaphragms were numerically modeled utilizing the general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS. Using the ABAQUS results, the dynamic volume change within each jet was calculated and incorporated into an analytical linear Bernoulli model to predict the velocities and pressures at the nozzle. Simulations were performed to determine trends to assist in selection of prototype configurations. Prototypes of both diaphragm concepts were constructed from polyvinylidene fluoride and experimentally tested at Boeing with promising results.

  9. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  10. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  13. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  14. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  15. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  16. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  17. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  18. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  19. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  20. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  1. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  2. Phenomenological Studies on Sodium for CSP Applications: A Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Sodium as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) can achieve temperatures above 700°C to improve power cycle performance for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF’s (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable latent operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal input power cycles. This advantage could increase the receiver and system efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium systems, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Operation and maintenance experience from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  3. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  4. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  5. Synthetic smooth muscle in the outer blood plexus of the rhinarium skin of Lemur catta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2017-01-01

    The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter.

  6. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2013-12-10

    Lighting system having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  7. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  8. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  9. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  10. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  12. Developing works to detect fatigue cracks (small sodium leak detector and acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Sakakibara, Y.; Nagata, T.

    1980-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of fatigue cracks was performed (using both sodium leak detector and AE measuring system) through the creep-fatigue test of 304 stainless steel long elbow as part of the test series to establish the structural reliability of the Prototype FBR primary heat transport piping system. The sodium leak detector was a system composed mainly of SID (Sodium Ionization Detector) and DPD (Deferential Pressure Detector), that was developed by HITACHI Ltd. under a contract with PNC. The AE system was Synthetic AE Measuring and Analyzing system that was developed at FBR Safety Section to measure and analyze AE at various piping component tests. The test was continued until a sodium leakage was detected by the contact-type sodium leak detector attached to the test assembly, after about 4 weeks operation under cyclic loading at 600 deg. C. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) The sodium leak detector, both SID and DPD, indicated sodium leakage clearly, some hours before the contact-type detector did, even under an environment of air that contains ordinary humidity (Leaked sodium was estimated to be less than 15 grams after completion of the test); (2) The AE method indicated location and seriousness of the fatigue cracks, apparently before the crack penetration occurred. (author)

  13. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  14. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  15. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  16. Shell Scotsford's experience with a 100 per cent synthetic crude diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margerum, M.

    1997-01-01

    A qualitative overview of Shell Canada's Scotford refinery was presented. The Scotford refinery is the only refinery in North America designed to run on 100 per cent synthetic crude. As a result, Scotford has a unique configuration and has faced some unique problems. Some of the challenges met in converting synthetic crude to today's products are described. The refinery's unique configuration is centered around a large hydrocracker and has high yield flexibility. The major units of the refinery are the crude unit, hydrocracker, naphtha hydrotreater and reformer, the aromatics complex, the distillate hydrogenator and the hydrogen plants. The refinery products include low sulphur gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel. Other products include LPG, FCC feed, benzene and solvents. Several process problems have been experienced at the Scotford refinery including hydrodenitrification of synthetic gasoline, PCA fouling, particulate fouling, crude unit fouling, and distillate lubricity. Solutions have been devised for most of these problems. 3 figs

  17. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus : Cardiovascular and Kidney Effects, Potential Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Fitchett, David H.; Husain, Mansoor; Cherney, David Z. I.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, are now widely approved antihyperglycemic therapies. Because of their unique glycosuric mechanism, SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce weight. Perhaps more important are the osmotic diuretic and

  18. Metal Oxide Decomposition In Hydrothermal Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2003-09-24

    Alkaline hydrothermal solutions of sodium orthophosphate (2.15 < Na/P < 2.75) are shown to decompose transition metal oxides into two families of sodium-metal ion-(hydroxy)phosphate compounds. Equilibria for these reactions are quantified by determining phosphate concentration-temperature thresholds for decomposition of five oxides in the series: Ti(IV), Cr(III), Fe(III, II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). By application of a computational chemistry method General Utility Lattice Program (GULP), it is demonstrated that the unique non-whole-number Na/P molar ratio of sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate is a consequence of its open-cage structure in which the H{sup +} and excess Na{sup +} ions are located.

  19. Development of FBR visual inspection technique in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Nagai, S.; Shioyama, T.; Sato, M.; Karasawa, H.; Maruyama, F.; Ota, S.; Hida, T.; Kai, M.

    1995-01-01

    Because the reactor vessel of Fast Breeder Reactor is filled with opaque liquid sodium, it is expected to develop an acoustic visual inspection technique in sodium. The acoustic 3 dimensional image processing technique and the elemental parts of the visual inspection equipment in sodium have been developed at the first stage of the in-sodium visual inspection technique development. The cross correlation processing has been applied to improve the S/N ratio in the acoustic echo that are deteriorated by wetting in sodium and the low sensitivity that are also deteriorated by rather smaller diameter to integrate the high density multiple acoustic sensors. The improvement of S/N ratio has been realized by the cross correlation between acoustic echo data that is reflected from the objects and M-series continuous wave that is transmitted from the acoustic transducer. The high speed parallel processing circuits, in which DSPs (Digital Signal Processors) are included, have been developed to realize high speed processing by employing (the circuits connected to) each of sensors in parallel. Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT) has been applied to the acoustic 3-dimensional image processing. The amounts of ellipsoids must be drawn into the 3-dimensional memory to compose the 3-dimensional image by SAFT. Then, a high performance work-station has been employed to deal with enormous data to compose the acoustic 3 dimensional image. Motors and cables, which can be operated under the condition of high-temperature and high-radiation environment, have been developed as the parts of the manipulator which will be used for visual inspection equipment in sodium. A prototype drive mechanism consists of the manipulator with three joints and a scanner with an arrayed acoustic sensors which a sweeps in fan-shape mechanically. The manipulatory type prototype drive mechanism and the signal processing device have been developed and tested, and the acoustic 3-dimensional image of pyramid

  20. Synthetic lubricants based on copolymers of n-butyl methacrylate and α-olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đakov Tatjana A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic fluids obtained by the copolymerization of α -olefins with alkyl esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids have a unique combination of properties of non-polar poly-a-olefins (PAOs and polar esters in a single molecule. These compounds are characterized by superior thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability, miscibility with mineral and synthetic base oils solubility of additives and neutral elastomer behavior. Depending on the molar masses and comonomer ratios in the copolymer molecule, synthetic fluids with a wide range of properties are obtained. These compounds are valuable components in lubricating oil formulations for different applications.

  1. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  2. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  3. Fibrillar films obtained from sodium soap fibers and polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawko, Scott A; Schmidt, Christine E

    2011-08-01

    An objective of tissue engineering is to create synthetic polymer scaffolds with a fibrillar microstructure similar to the extracellular matrix. Here, we present a novel method for creating polymer fibers using the layer-by-layer method and sacrificial templates composed of sodium soap fibers. Soap fibers were prepared from neutralized fatty acids using a sodium chloride crystal dissolution method. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine hydrochloride were deposited onto the soap fibers, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and then the soap fibers were leached with warm water and ethanol. The morphology of the resulting PEM structures was a dense network of fibers surrounded by a nonfibrillar matrix. Microscopy revealed that the PEM fibers were solid structures, presumably composed of polyelectrolytes complexed with residual fatty acids. These fibrillar PEM films were found to support the attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Sodium as a reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, S.B.G.

    1989-01-01

    This work is related to the use of sodium as a reactor coolant, to the advantages and problems related to its use, its mechanical, thermophysics, eletronical, magnetic and nuclear properties. It is mainly a bibliographic review, with the aim of gathering the necessary information to persons initiating in the study of sodium and also as reference source. (author) [pt

  6. Recent progress in sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, W. J.

    1963-10-15

    Progress over the past year in U. S. laboratories studying some of the materials and engineering problems that must be resolved in bringing the technology of sodium to an economically and technically attractive point is reviewed. The status of sodium cooled power reactors in the U. S. is described. (P.C.H.)

  7. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  8. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  9. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  10. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  11. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  12. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  14. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  15. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  17. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  18. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  19. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  20. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  1. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  2. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  3. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental ... for maintenance or disposal, need to be cleaned free of sodium for the ... scenario on sodium removal using different alcohols are ... ethoxide and sodium n-propoxide by KBr pellet method.

  4. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  5. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  6. Solution dynamics of synthetic and natural polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Wendy E.

    Polyelectrolytes are abundant in nature and essential to life, and used extensively in industry. This work discussed two polyelectrolytes: sodium poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate) (NaPAMS), synthetic polyelectrolyte, and sodium hyaluronate (NaHA), a glycosaminoglycan. Rheological data of NaPAMS solutions of variable chain length and concentration were reported. A strong dependence of viscosity eta on chain length: eta ˜ M2.4 was found. The comparison of the rheological data with two proposed scaling theories (Dobrynin 1995, Witten 1987) forces the conclusion that neither theory is correct. A possible interpretation of the viscosity data falling between the predictions of the two scaling theories is that some chain rigidity may persist beyond the correlation length. A sample model for the conductivity of semidilute polyelectrolytes with no added salt was presented. The model correctly describes the logarithmic decrease of specific conductance observed for many polyelectrolytes at low concentration (below ca. 10-2M), and is in good agreement with data from NaPAMS solutions. NaHA in phosphate buffered saline behaves as a typical polyelectrolyte in the high-salt limit, as Newtonian viscosities are observed over a wide range of shear rates. There is no evidence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding causing gel formation in NaHA solutions without protein present. The viscosity of 3 mg/mL NaHA was measured in the presence of the selected anti-inflammatory agents. Of the seven additives investigated only (D)-penicillamine significantly altered the rheology of HA. (D)-Penicillamine dramatically reduced the viscosity of HA, probably by disrupting intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The plasma proteins albumin and gamma-globulins bind to HA in solution to form a weak reversible gel. The rheology and osmotic pressure of the simple model for synovial fluid, consisting of 3mg/mL NaHA, 11 mg/mL albumin, and 7 mg/mL gamma-globulins in phosphate buffered saline, were studied

  7. Towards a synthetic osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Reeta; Franklin, Valerie; Green, David; Liu, Christopher; Lloyd, Andrew; Tighe, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Osteo-odonto-keratoprostheses (OOKP) is a unique form of keratoprosthesis involving surgical removal of a tooth root and surrounding bone from the patient which are then used to construct an osteo-odonto lamina into which an optical cylinder is cemented. The OOKP procedure is successful and capable of withstanding the very hostile ocular environments found in severe Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pemphigoid, chemical burns, trachoma and multiple corneal graft failure. The existing procedure is complex and time consuming in terms of operative time, and additionally involves sacrifice of the oral structures. This paper discusses the rational search for a "synthetic" analogue of the dental lamina, capable of mimicking those features of the natural system that are responsible for the success of OOKP. In this study the degradation of selected commercial and natural bioceramics was tested in vitro using a purpose-designed resorption assay. Degradation rate was compared with tooth and bone, which are currently used in OOKP lamina. At normal physiological pH the degradation of bioceramics was equivalent to tooth and bone; however, at pH 6.5-5.0, associated with infectious and inflamed tissues, the bioceramics degrade more rapidly. At lower pH the degradation rate decreased in the following order: calcium carbonate corals>biphasic calcium phosphates>hydroxyapatite. Porosity did not significantly influence these degradation rates. Such degradation is likely to compromise the stability and viability of the synthetic OOKP. Consequently more chemically stable materials are required that are optimized for the surrounding ocular environment.

  8. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  9. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units

  10. Building synthetic sterols computationally – unlocking the secrets of evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eRog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is vital in regulating the physical properties of animal cell membranes. While it remains unclear what renders cholesterol so unique, it is known that other sterols are less capable in modulating membrane properties, and there are membrane proteins whose function is dependent on cholesterol. Practical applications of cholesterol include e.g. its use in liposomes in drug delivery and cosmetics, cholesterol-based detergents in membrane protein crystallography, and its fluorescent analogs in studies of cholesterol transport in cells and tissues. Clearly, in spite of their difficult synthesis, producing the synthetic analogs of cholesterol is of great commercial and scientific interest. In this article, we discuss how synthetic sterols nonexistent in nature can be used to elucidate the roles of cholesterol's structural elements. To this end, we discuss recent atomistic molecular dynamics simulation studies that have predicted new synthetic sterols with properties comparable to those of cholesterol. We also discuss more recent experimental studies that have vindicated these predictions. The paper highlights the strength of computational simulations in making predictions for synthetic biology, thereby guiding experiments.

  11. Synthetic seeds of a wild passionfruit species with ornamental potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurecilne Lemes Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora cincinnata is a wild species of passion fruit with a wide geographical distribution. It has vigorous growth, climbing habit and very showy and fragrant flowers. The aim of the present investigation was to obtain synthetic seeds from encapsulated zygotic and somatic embryos of P. cincinnata, cultivated under different conditions. Precotyledonary and cotyledonary stage embryos were obtained from zygotic embryos cultivated on MS medium supplemented with 18.1 μM of 2,4-Acid-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D and 4.5 μM of Benzyladenine (BA. Zygotic embryos and somatic embryos stages were encapsulated using sodium alginate (2.5% w v-1 and CaCl2.2H2O (1 mM as complexing agent. The zygotic and somatic embryos were encapsulated in a matrix containing (I sodium alginate, (II sodium alginate + artificial endosperm and (III sodium alginate + artificial endosperm supplemented with activated charcoal (0.15% w/v. Zygotic embryos encapsulated in the matrix (I, matrix (II and matrix (III and cultivated in flasks, germinated at rates of 79%, 76% and 86% respectively. The cotyledonary somatic embryos encapsulated in the 3 different matrices showed better germination rates when cultivated on cellulose plugs, with more than 50% of embryos converted into plants. Precotyledonary somatic embryos did not germinated regardless the matrix and cultivation. When cultivating the alginate beads ex vitro, both substrate Plantmax and Florialite showed low number of germinated embryos, and the best result (12.67% were obtained using Florialite and embryos encapsulated in the matrix (I.

  12. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  13. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-01-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety. PMID:29389843

  14. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  15. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  16. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  17. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  18. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  19. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  20. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  1. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  2. Synthetic biology in cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Deboki; Wong, Wilson W

    2015-08-01

    The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells with cancer-targeting receptors has shown tremendous promise for eradicating tumors in clinical trials. This form of cellular immunotherapy presents a unique opportunity to incorporate advanced systems and synthetic biology approaches to create cancer therapeutics with novel functions. We first review the development of synthetic receptors, switches, and circuits to control the location, duration, and strength of T cell activity against tumors. In addition, we discuss the cellular engineering and genome editing of host cells (or the chassis) to improve the efficacy of cell-based cancer therapeutics, and to reduce the time and cost of manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  4. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  6. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  7. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  8. Generation IV SFR Nuclear Reactors: Under-Sodium Repair for ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, F.; Chagnot, C.; Bruguiere, L.; Augem, J.M.; Delalande, V.; Sibilo, J.

    2013-06-01

    For non-removable components of the future ASTRID prototype, repair operations will be performed in a gas environment. If the faulty area is located under the sodium free level, the gas-tight system will have to contain the inspection and repair tools and to protect them from the surrounding liquid sodium. Concerning repair tools, the unique laser tool has been selected for future SFRs: the repair scenario for in-sodium structures will first involve removing the sodium (after bulk draining), then machining and finally welding. Concerning conventional tools (brush or gas blower for sodium removal, milling machine for machining and TIG for welding for which its feasibility was demonstrated in the 1990's) are still considered as a back-up solution. In-pile examination or repair requires robotic carriers. These carriers have to be compatible with the sodium environment: either in the cover-gas plenum or in gas after sodium draining, or even under liquid sodium. This R and D programme has been divided into nine parts in order to provide an overall design of the required robotic carriers and to develop technological solutions for their components: detailed definition for SFR carrier needs (access to internal structures, possible defects to be detected/repaired), definition and specifications of carrier architecture (depending on inspection and repair scenarios), in-sodium leak-tightness of carrier components, carrier material compatibility with sodium, temperature resistance (200 deg. C), irradiation resistance (depending on the location of the main vessel), gas-tight bell for operations under liquid sodium, carrier positioning control in liquid sodium, development, validation and qualification of technological solutions, for future SFRs, and worldwide benchmark regarding the previous areas of investigation. (authors)

  9. On Beyond Star Trek, the Role of Synthetic Biology in Nasa's Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    The time has come to for NASA to exploit the nascent field of synthetic biology in pursuit of its mission, including aeronautics, earth science, astrobiology and notably, human exploration. Conversely, NASA advances the fundamental technology of synthetic biology as no one else can because of its unique expertise in the origin of life and life in extreme environments, including the potential for alternate life forms. This enables unique, creative "game changing" advances. NASA's requirement for minimizing upmass in flight will also drive the field toward miniaturization and automation. These drivers will greatly increase the utility of synthetic biology solutions for military, health in remote areas and commercial purposes. To this end, we have begun a program at NASA to explore the use of synthetic biology in NASA's missions, particularly space exploration. As part of this program, we began hosting an iGEM team of undergraduates drawn from Brown and Stanford Universities to conduct synthetic biology research at NASA Ames Research Center. The 2011 team (http://2011.igem.org/Team:Brown-Stanford) produced an award-winning project on using synthetic biology as a basis for a human Mars settlement and the 2012 team has expanded the use of synthetic biology to estimate the potential for life in the clouds of other planets (http://2012.igem.org/Team:Stanford-Brown; http://www.calacademy.org/sciencetoday/igem-competition/). More recent projects from the Stanford-Brown team have expanded our ideas of how synthetic biology can aid NASA's missions from "Synthetic BioCommunication" (http://2013.igem.org/Team:Stanford-Brown) to a "Biodegradable UAS (drone)" in collaboration with Spelman College (http://2014.igem.org/Team:StanfordBrownSpelman#SBS%20iGEM) and most recently, "Self-Folding Origami" (http://2015.igem.org/Team:Stanford-Brown), the winner of the 2015 award for Manufacturing.

  10. Vibrational spectrum of synthetic carnotite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-05-01

    The infrared and laser-Raman spectra of synthetic carnotite, K/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/), are reported and discussed. Force constants for the terminal V-O bonds as well as for the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions are evaluated. From the spectroscopic data, a U-O bond length of 1.81 A is estimated for the uranyl ion in this compound.

  11. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  12. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  13. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  14. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  16. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  17. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  18. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  19. Stability of O/W Emulsion with Synthetic Perfumes Oxidized by Singlet Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared O/W emulsion composed of a synthetic perfume, n-dodecane, protoporphyrin IX disodium salt (PpIX-2Na, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and water and investigated oxidative decomposition of the synthetic perfume in the emulsion and change in the stability of the emulsion by singlet oxygen (1O2 generated by photosensitization of PpIX-2Na. We used eugenol, linalool, benzyl acetate, α-ionone, α-hexylcinnamaldehyde, and d-limonene as a synthetic perfume. The stability of the O/W emulation including eugenol and linalool significantly decreased with increasing light irradiation time. The decrease in the emulsion stability may be attributable to oxidative decomposition of eugenol and linalool by 1O2 and enlargement of the oil droplet size.

  20. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  1. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  2. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  3. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  4. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  5. Unique proline-benzoquinone pigment from the colored nectar of "bird's Coca cola tree" functions in bird attractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Niu, Xue-Mei; Jing, Shu-Xi; Zhao, Xu; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2012-08-17

    The major pigment responsible for the dark brown nectar of the "bird's Coca cola tree", Leucosceptrum canum (Labiatae), was isolated and identified as a unique symmetric proline-quinone conjugate, 2,5-di-(N-(-)-prolyl)-para-benzoquinone (DPBQ). Behavioral experiments with both isolated and synthetic authentic samples indicated that DPBQ functions mainly as a color attractant to bird pollinators.

  6. Synthetic optical holography for rapid nanoimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, M; Carney, P S; Hillenbrand, R

    2014-03-20

    Holography has paved the way for phase imaging in a variety of wide-field techniques, including electron, X-ray and optical microscopy. In scanning optical microscopy, however, the serial fashion of image acquisition seems to challenge a direct implementation of traditional holography. Here we introduce synthetic optical holography (SOH) for quantitative phase-resolved imaging in scanning optical microscopy. It uniquely combines fast phase imaging, technical simplicity and simultaneous operation at visible and infrared frequencies with a single reference arm. We demonstrate SOH with a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) where it enables reliable quantitative phase-resolved near-field imaging with unprecedented speed. We apply these capabilities to nanoscale, non-invasive and rapid screening of grain boundaries in CVD-grown graphene, by recording 65 kilopixel near-field images in 26 s and 2.3 megapixel images in 13 min. Beyond s-SNOM, the SOH concept could boost the implementation of holography in other scanning imaging applications such as confocal microscopy.

  7. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  8. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  9. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  11. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  12. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-05

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  13. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  14. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  15. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  16. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  17. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  18. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  19. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  20. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  1. Interfacial properties of chitosan/sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinković Jelena R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary formulations of cosmetic and pharmaceutical emulsions may be achieved by using combined polymer/surfactant system, which can form complexes with different structure and physicochemical properties. Such complexation can lead to additional stabilization of the emulsion products. For these reasons, the main goal of this study was to investigate the interfacial properties of chitosan/sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes. In order to understand the stabilization mechanism, the interface of the oil/water systems that contained mixtures of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate, was studied by measuring the interfacial tension. Considering the fact that the properties of the oil phase has influence on the adsorption process, three different types of oil were investigated: medium-chain triglycerides (semi-synthetic oil, paraffin oil (mineral oil and natural oil obtained from the grape seed. The surface tension measurements at the oil/water interface, for chitosan water solutions, indicate a poor surface activity of this biopolymer. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate to chitosan solution causes a significant decrease in the interfacial tension for all investigated oils. The results of this study are important for understanding the influence of polymer-surfactant interactions on the properties of the solution and stability of dispersed systems. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46010

  2. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  3. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  4. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  5. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  6. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthetic Biology of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, De-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters which have been extensively studied using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering methods for improving production and for widening its diversity. Synthetic biology has allowed PHA to become composition controllable random copolymers, homopolymers, and block copolymers. Recent developments showed that it is possible to establish a microbial platform for producing not only random copolymers with controllable monomers and their ratios but also structurally defined homopolymers and block copolymers. This was achieved by engineering the genome of Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas entomophiles to weaken the β-oxidation and in situ fatty acid synthesis pathways, so that a fatty acid fed to the bacteria maintains its original chain length and structures when incorporated into the PHA chains. The engineered bacterium allows functional groups in a fatty acid to be introduced into PHA, forming functional PHA, which, upon grafting, generates endless PHA variety. Recombinant Escherichia coli also succeeded in producing efficiently poly(3-hydroxypropionate) or P3HP, the strongest member of PHA. Synthesis pathways of P3HP and its copolymer P3HB3HP of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxypropionate were assembled respectively to allow their synthesis from glucose. CRISPRi was also successfully used to manipulate simultaneously multiple genes and control metabolic flux in E. coli to obtain a series of copolymer P3HB4HB of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB). The bacterial shapes were successfully engineered for enhanced PHA accumulation.

  8. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  9. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  10. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  11. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  12. Phage Therapy in the Era of Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, E Magda; Cady, Kyle C; Hubby, Bolyn

    2016-10-03

    For more than a century, bacteriophage (or phage) research has enabled some of the most important discoveries in biological sciences and has equipped scientists with many of the molecular biology tools that have advanced our understanding of replication, maintenance, and expression of genetic material. Phages have also been recognized and exploited as natural antimicrobial agents and nanovectors for gene therapy, but their potential as therapeutics has not been fully exploited in Western medicine because of challenges such as narrow host range, bacterial resistance, and unique pharmacokinetics. However, increasing concern related to the emergence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics has heightened interest in phage therapy and the development of strategies to overcome hurdles associated with bacteriophage therapeutics. Recent progress in sequencing technologies, DNA manipulation, and synthetic biology allowed scientists to refactor the entire bacterial genome of Mycoplasma mycoides, thereby creating the first synthetic cell. These new strategies for engineering genomes may have the potential to accelerate the construction of designer phage genomes with superior therapeutic potential. Here, we discuss the use of phage as therapeutics, as well as how synthetic biology can create bacteriophage with desirable attributes. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Tibialis Posterior Tenosynovitis: A Unique Musculoskeletal Manifestation of Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupper, Peter; Stitik, Todd P

    2018-02-01

    Extra-articular manifestations of gout can present in several ways, including tenosynovitis. We present a rare case of acute tibialis posterior gouty tenosynovitis. An 82-year-old man with a history of well-controlled gout presented with acute onset of left ankle pain, occurring without inciting event. The medial ankle was slightly erythematous with moderate dorsal-medial swelling and mild dorsal-lateral swelling, with severe tenderness to palpation over the medial retro-malleolar region. Range of motion and manual muscle testing were pain limited throughout. Ultrasound examination revealed a left posterior tibialis tendon sheath tenosynovitis with effusion and overlying soft tissue edema. Tendon sheath aspirate revealed sodium urate crystals and a white blood cell count of 6400/μL. Tendon sheath injection with a mixture of 1% lidocaine and dexamethasone 4 mg resulted in symptom resolution. Repeat ultrasound examination demonstrated no evidence of tibialis posterior tendon sheath effusion. This case is unique not only because acute gouty posterior tibialis tenosynovitis is very rare, particularly in a normouricemic individual, but also because the sonographic evidence of gouty infiltration into the posterior tibialis tendon and overlying subcutaneous tissue considerably aided in arriving at the correct diagnosis in a timely manner.

  14. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  15. Radiation induced F-center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt: applications to radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.; Loman, J.M.; Kierstead, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation damage, particularly Na metal colloid formation, has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt using unique equipment for making optical absorption, luminescence and other measurements during irradiation with 1 to 3 MeV electrons. Previous studies have established the F-center and colloid growth phenomenology. At temperatures where colloids form most rapidly, 100 to 250 C, F-centers appear when the irradiation is initiated and increase at a decreasing rate to a plateau, reached at doses of 10 6 to 10 7 rad. Concomitant colloid growth is described by classical nucleation and growth curves with the transition to rapid growth occurring at 10 6 to 10 7 rad. The colloid growth rate is low at 100 C, increases markedly to a maximum at 150 to 175 C and decreases to a negligible rate at 225 C. At 1.2x10 8 rad/h the induction period is >10 4 sec at 100 C, 10 4 sec at 275 C. The colloid growth in salt from 14 localities is well described by C(dose)/sup n/ relations. Data on WIPP site salt (Los Medanos, NM, USA) has been used to estimate roughly the colloid expected in radioactive waste repositories. Doses of 1 to 2x10 10 rad, which will accumulate in salt adjacent to lightly shielded high level canisters in 200 to 500 years, will convert between 1 and 100% of the salt to Na colloids (and Cl) if back reactions or other limiting reactions do not occur. Each high level lightly shielded canister may ultimately be surrounded by 200 to 300 kg of colloid sodium. Low level or heavily shielded canisters may produce as little as 1 kg sodium

  16. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  17. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  18. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  19. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  20. Neutronic spectrometry measurements in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlini, G.; Acerbis, S.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of neutronic penetration in sodium, which could serve as a reference and as a benchmark for computer codes. The model employed consisted of an assembly of 7 containers full of sodium for a total of 10 tons and a useful length of almost 4 metres. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis of the structure with proton recoil proportional counters. The energy band explored was between 100 and 650 keV. Here we report not only the original spectra of the impulses but also the neutronic spectra found by unfolding with the SPEC-4 code

  1. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  2. Hoof accelerations and ground reaction forces of Thoroughbred racehorses measured on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterbo, Jacob J; Garcia, Tanya C; Campbell, Ian P; Reese, Jennifer L; Morgan, Jessica M; Kim, Sun Y; Hubbard, Mont; Stover, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    To compare hoof acceleration and ground reaction force (GRF) data among dirt, synthetic, and turf surfaces in Thoroughbred racehorses. 3 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses. Forelimb hoof accelerations and GRFs were measured with an accelerometer and a dynamometric horseshoe during trot and canter on dirt, synthetic, and turf track surfaces at a racecourse. Maxima, minima, temporal components, and a measure of vibration were extracted from the data. Acceleration and GRF variables were compared statistically among surfaces. The synthetic surface often had the lowest peak accelerations, mean vibration, and peak GRFs. Peak acceleration during hoof landing was significantly smaller for the synthetic surface (mean + or - SE, 28.5g + or - 2.9g) than for the turf surface (42.9g + or - 3.8g). Hoof vibrations during hoof landing for the synthetic surface were dirt and turf surfaces. Peak GRF for the synthetic surface (11.5 + or - 0.4 N/kg) was 83% and 71% of those for the dirt (13.8 + or - 0.3 N/kg) and turf surfaces (16.1 + or - 0.7 N/kg), respectively. The relatively low hoof accelerations, vibrations, and peak GRFs associated with the synthetic surface evaluated in the present study indicated that synthetic surfaces have potential for injury reduction in Thoroughbred racehorses. However, because of the unique material properties and different nature of individual dirt, synthetic, and turf racetrack surfaces, extending the results of this study to encompass all track surfaces should be done with caution.

  3. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  4. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  5. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004 http://www.heldermann-verlag.de/jca/jca11/jca0386.pdf

  6. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  7. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  8. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  9. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  10. Duality based direct resolution of unique profiles using zero concentration region information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Elnaz; Rajkó, Róbert; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2018-07-01

    Self Modeling Curve Resolution (SMCR) is a class of techniques concerned with estimating pure profiles underlying a set of measurements on chemical systems. In general, the estimated profiles are ambiguous (non-unique) except if some special conditions fulfilled. Implementing the adequate information can reduce the so-called rotational ambiguity effectively, and in the most desirable cases lead to the unique solution. Therefore, studies on circumstances resulting in unique solution are of particular importance. The conditions of unique solution can particularly be studied based on duality principle. In bilinear chemical (e.g., spectroscopic) data matrix, there is a natural duality between its row and column vector spaces using minimal constraints (non-negativity of concentrations and absorbances). In this article, the conditions of the unique solution according to duality concept and using zero concentration region information is intended to show. A simulated dataset of three components and an experimental system with synthetic mixtures containing three amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are analyzed. It is shown that in the presence of sufficient information, the reliable unique solution is obtained that is valuable in analytical qualification and for quantitative verification analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solec Spa – worldwide unique properties of Polish health resort in the service of rural medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L Grabowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solec Spa is health resort in south-eastern Poland. Its unique balneorehabilitation significance worldwide is determined by chloride-iodine-sodium water with a high content of hydrogen sulphide. This water, classified as highly mineralized sodium-chloride (seltzer sulphide, bromide, iodide, boron water, contains naturally approximately 0.9 g/l divalent sulphur compounds, which is the highest concentration noted among the mineral waters of the world. The effectiveness of the Solec waters is proven in: inflammatory and autoimmunological locomotor system diseases, degenerative joint disorders (osteoarthritis, post-traumatic and post-operative orthopedic diseases, skin diseases and allergic disorders. One of the main indications for balneotherapy in Solec Spa and Busko Spa is chronic brucellosis.

  12. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  13. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  14. Synthetic biology assemblies for sustainable space exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work utilized synthetic biology to create sustainable food production processes by developing technology to efficiently convert inedible crop waste to...

  15. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  16. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  17. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  18. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  20. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  1. The adsorption of Cu(II) on sodium bentonite in a synthetic saline groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, S.R.; King, F.

    1994-10-01

    The adsorption of Cu(II) on Na-bentonite has been studied under conditions that simulate those expected in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault located deep underground in the Canadian Shield. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for loose and compacted clay (compacted clay dry density 1.2 g.cm -3 ) over a wide range of copper concentrations (1 x 10 -6 mol.dm -3 to 1.0 mol.dm -3 ) at temperatures of 25 degrees C, 50 degrees C and 95 degrees C. Studies were carried out in a Na + - /Ca 2+ -based chloride solution ([Cl - ] = 0.97 mol.dm -3 ), with a clay-to-solution ratio of 1.6 g:360 cm 3 . For loose clays, the adsorption behaviour follows a Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorbate surface coverage increases with temperature, and exceeds the cation exchange capacity for Cu 2+ at temperatures of 50 degrees C and 95 degrees C. For compacted clays, the data follow a Freundlich-type isotherm, and exhibit no apparent temperature dependence. At a given pore-water copper concentration, the extent of adsorption on compacted clay is less than on loose clay. The difference between the behaviour of loose and compacted clays is explained in terms of the inaccessibility of some of the adsorption sites in compacted media. The significance of the results for calculating the corrosion rate of copper nuclear fuel waste containers is discussed. The adsorption results are used to analyze the shape and temperature dependence of copper concentration profiles observed in diffusion and corrosion experiments. 1 ref., 12 figs. 6 tabs., 1 appendix

  2. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  3. High-pressure sodium lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  4. Cavitation problems in sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, X.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation poses few problems for sodium valves, in spite of the fact that the loops are not pressurized. This is no doubt due to the low flow velocities in the pipes. For auxiliary loop valves we are attempting to standardize performances with respect to cavitation. For economic reasons cavitation thresholds are approached with large diameter valves. (author)

  5. Structure of sodium perbromate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, A.C.; Gallucci, J.C.; Gerkin, R.E.; Reppart, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    NaBrO 4 .H 2 O, M r =184.90, monoclinic, C2/c, a=15.7575(19), b=5.7373(15), c=11.3390(19) A, β=111.193(10)deg. In this structure, there are two inequivalent Na ions, each coordinated by six O atoms. In each of the two types of distorted octahedra, there are three inequivalent Na-O distances; the average Na(1)-O and Na(2)-O distances are 2.379(10) and 2.405(23) A, respectively. The perbromate ion in this structure displays very nearly regular tetrahedral geometry, although it is subject to no symmetry constraints; the average observed Br-O distance is 1.601(4) A, while the average observed O-Br-O angle is 109.5(9)deg. These values agree well with previously reported values. The perbromate ion, but neither of the sodium coordination polyhedra, shows rigid-body behavior. The average rigid-body corrected Br-O distance in the perbromate ion is 1.624(3) A. Refinement of the two inequivalent H atoms permitted detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonding, which is slightly different from that reported for the isomorphic sodium perchlorate monohydrate. Dynamic disordering of the H atoms as detailed by magnetic resonance methods for sodium perchlorate monohydrate is not clearly indicated in our X-ray study of sodium perbromate monohydrate. (orig./GSCH)

  6. Comparison of sodium aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Bunz, H.; L'homme, A.; Lhiaubet, G.; Himeno, Y.; Kirby, C.R.; Mitsutsuka, N.

    1984-01-01

    Although hypothetical fast reactor accidents leading to severe core damage are very low probability events, their consequences are to be assessed. During such accidents, one can envisage the ejection of sodium, mixed with fuel and fission products, from the primary circuit into the secondary containment. Aerosols can be formed either by mechanical dispersion of the molten material or as a result of combustion of the sodium in the mixture. Therefore considerable effort has been devoted to study the different sodium aerosol phenomena. To ensure that the problems of describing the physical behaviour of sodium aerosols were adequately understood, a comparison of the codes being developed to describe their behaviour was undertaken. The comparison consists of two parts. The first is a comparative study of the computer codes used to predict aerosol behaviour during a hypothetical accident. It is a critical review of documentation available. The second part is an exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a pre-arranged input. For the critical comparative review of the computer models, documentation has been made available on the following codes: AEROSIM (UK), MAEROS (USA), HAARM-3 (USA), AEROSOLS/A2 (France), AEROSOLS/B1 (France), and PARDISEKO-IIIb (FRG)

  7. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, S

    1995-06-01

    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in medical costs. Problem Not all foods are created equal Understanding sodium in foods can be confusing ... for lower sodium choices. About 25% comes from restaurants and it can be hard for a person ...

  9. ELTA: Cita{sup trademark}: Sodium measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvais, O. [Water Analysis Line Mgr, ELTA (France)

    2002-07-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  10. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  11. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  12. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  13. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  14. A unique theory of all forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    In discussing the construction of a consistent theory of quantum gravity unified with the gauge interactions we are naturally led to a string theory. We review its properties and the five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions. We finally discuss the evidence that these theories are actually special limits of a unique 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, and a recent conjecture for its explicit formulation as a supersymmetric Matrix theory

  15. S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0161 S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers Dietmar Pum ZENTRUM FUER NANOBIOTECHNOLOGIE Final Report 07/09...COVERED (From - To)      01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT...technology for the fabrication of nano patterned thin film imprints by using functional S-layer protein arrays as templates. The unique feature of

  16. KFUPM-KAUST Red Sea model: Digital viscoelastic depth model and synthetic seismic data set

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.; Mousa, Wail A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    The Red Sea is geologically interesting due to its unique structures and abundant mineral and petroleum resources, yet no digital geologic models or synthetic seismic data of the Red Sea are publicly available for testing algorithms to image and analyze the area's interesting features. This study compiles a 2D viscoelastic model of the Red Sea and calculates a corresponding multicomponent synthetic seismic data set. The models and data sets are made publicly available for download. We hope this effort will encourage interested researchers to test their processing algorithms on this data set and model and share their results publicly as well.

  17. Recent advances of molecular toolbox construction expand Pichia pastoris in synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhen; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Yunfeng; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Pichia pastoris: (reclassified as Komagataella phaffii), a methylotrophic yeast strain has been widely used for heterologous protein production because of its unique advantages, such as readily achievable high-density fermentation, tractable genetic modifications and typical eukaryotic post-translational modifications. More recently, P. pastoris as a metabolic pathway engineering platform has also gained much attention. In this mini-review, we addressed recent advances of molecular toolboxes, including synthetic promoters, signal peptides, and genome engineering tools that established for P. pastoris. Furthermore, the applications of P. pastoris towards synthetic biology were also discussed and prospected especially in the context of genome-scale metabolic pathway analysis.

  18. KFUPM-KAUST Red Sea model: Digital viscoelastic depth model and synthetic seismic data set

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.

    2017-06-01

    The Red Sea is geologically interesting due to its unique structures and abundant mineral and petroleum resources, yet no digital geologic models or synthetic seismic data of the Red Sea are publicly available for testing algorithms to image and analyze the area\\'s interesting features. This study compiles a 2D viscoelastic model of the Red Sea and calculates a corresponding multicomponent synthetic seismic data set. The models and data sets are made publicly available for download. We hope this effort will encourage interested researchers to test their processing algorithms on this data set and model and share their results publicly as well.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for the middle region of human parathyroid hormone: comparison of two radioiodinated synthetic peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, M.E.; Marx, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two synthetic peptides were evaluated to develop radioligands for midregion-specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH). Both radioligands were tested using three anti-PTH sera of proven clinical utility. While each of these midregion-directed antisera showed unique specificity, they all reacted with high affinity with both radioligands and none of them discriminated significantly between the two synthetic midregion peptides. Analysis of data on the relation of serum calcium and hPTH midregion immunoreactivity showed a useful separation of groups (all nonazotemic) with primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, primary hypoparathyroidism and secondary hypoparathyroidism. (Auth.)

  20. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  1. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  2. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  3. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  4. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.; Lexmond, T.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type,

  5. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  6. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  7. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  8. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  10. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  11. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  13. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  14. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  15. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  18. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  1. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  2. Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition and ketogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a recently developed class of drug that have been approved for use in type 2 diabetes. Their unique extra-pancreatic glucuretic mode of action has encouraged their usage in type 1 diabetes as well. At the same time, reports of pseudo ketoacidosis and ketoacidosis related to their use have been published. No clear mechanism for this phenomenon has been demonstrated so far. This communication delves into the biochemical effects of SGLT2 inhibition, discusses the utility of these drugs and proposes steps to maximize safe usage of the molecules.

  3. A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

  4. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  5. Sodium purification in Rapsodie; La purification du sodium a Rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications presenting the main results of tests carried out during the start-up of the first french fast neutron reactor: Rapsodie. The article presents the sodium purification techniques used in the reactor cooling circuits both from the constructional point of view and with respect to results obtained during the first years working. (author) [French] Ce rapport fait partie d'une serie de publications presentant l'essentiel des resultats des essais effectues a l'occasion du demarrage du premier reacteur francais a neutrons rapides: RAPSODIE. Cet article expose les techniques de la purification du sodium utilise dans les circuits de refroidissement du reacteur tant au point de vue de leur realisation technologique, que des resultats obtenus pendant la premiere annee de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  6. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  8. Generation IV SFR Nuclear Reactors: Under Sodium Robotics for ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan-de-Kervenoael, T.; Rey, F.; Baque, F.

    2013-06-01

    For non-removable components of the future ASTRID prototype, repair operations will be performed in a gas environment. If the faulty area is located under the sodium free level, the gas-tight system will have to contain the inspection and repair tools and to protect them from the surrounding liquid sodium. Concerning repair tools, the unique laser tool has been selected for future SFRs: the repair scenario for in-sodium structures will first involve removing the sodium (after bulk draining), then machining and finally welding. Concerning conventional tools (brush or gas blower for sodium removal, milling machine for machining and TIG for welding for which its feasibility was demonstrated in the 1990's) are still considered as a back-up solution. The maintenance of future ASTRID nuclear reactor prototype (inspection, repair) will be performed during shut down periods with some robotic carriers which have to be introduced within the main vessel, in primary 200 deg. C sodium coolant with argon gas cover. Inspection campaigns will be 20 days long. These robots (or carriers) will allow bringing inspection and repairing tools up to concerned components and structures. The needed degrees of freedom associated to these operations will be assumed either directly by the carrier itself or by specifics lower end carrier device for accurate local positioning. Several carriers will be designed, well adapted to specific needs: type of maintenance operation and location of inspection and repair sites. Feedback experience was gained during Superphenix SFR operation with the MIR robot which allowed to successfully make the Non Destructive Examination of main vessel welding joints, the carrier being outside bulk sodium. Operating conditions for the ASTRID robots will be harder from those of the MIR robot: temperature ranging from 180 deg. C to 200 deg. C, radiation dose ranging from 105 to 106 Gy, but mainly direct immersion within liquid sodium coolant. At the design phase of

  9. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  10. Science with Synthetic Stellar Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn Ellyn

    2018-04-01

    A new generation of observational projects is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the resolved stellar populations of Milky-Way-like galaxies at an unprecedented level of detail, ushering in an era of precision studies of galaxy formation. In the Milky Way itself, astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys will measure three-dimensional positions and velocities and numerous chemical abundances for stars from the disk to the halo, as well as for many satellite dwarf galaxies. In the Local Group and beyond, HST, JWST and eventually WFIRST will deliver pristine views of resolved stars. The groundbreaking scale and dimensionality of this new view of resolved stellar populations in galaxies challenge us to develop new theoretical tools to robustly compare these surveys to simulated galaxies, in order to take full advantage of our new ability to make detailed predictions for stellar populations within a cosmological context. I will describe a framework for generating realistic synthetic star catalogs and mock surveys from state-of-the-art cosmological-hydrodynamical simulations, and present several early scientific results from, and predictions for, resolved stellar surveys of our Galaxy and its neighbors.

  11. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  12. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  13. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  14. Characterization and isolation of a light driven sodium pump from membranes of Halobacterium halobium. Final technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    We investigated three aspects of the light driven sodium pump (halorhodopsin, which appear to be crucial to our understanding of the mechanisms employed by Halobacterium halobium and to further investigate this unique system of energy conservation. We characterized the molecular mechanisms of transmembrane sodium transport in vesicles from H. halobium with particular reference to the mechanism of couplins of light energy to net sodium translocation. We develop procedures and techniques for extracting the components of the light driven sodium pump from membranes and incorporating them into artificial membrane systems. We examine the mechanism of conversion of bacteriorhodopsin from an active to an inactive form in membrane vesicles and to relate this alternative state of this pigment to the presence of the light driven sodium pump

  15. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  16. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  17. Application of combinatorial biocatalysis for a unique ring expansion of dihydroxymethylzearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Joseph O; Budde, Cheryl L; McConeghey, Luke D; Cotterill, Ian C; Mozhaev, Vadim V; Singh, Sheo B; Goetz, Michael A; Zhao, Annie; Michels, Peter C; Khmelnitsky, Yuri L

    2009-06-01

    Combinatorial biocatalysis was applied to generate a diverse set of dihydroxymethylzearalenone analogs with modified ring structure. In one representative chemoenzymatic reaction sequence, dihydroxymethylzearalenone was first subjected to a unique enzyme-catalyzed oxidative ring opening reaction that creates two new carboxylic groups on the molecule. These groups served as reaction sites for further derivatization involving biocatalytic ring closure reactions with structurally diverse bifunctional reagents, including different diols and diamines. As a result, a library of cyclic bislactones and bislactams was created, with modified ring structures covering chemical space and structure activity relationships unattainable by conventional synthetic means.

  18. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  19. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  20. Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan R; Van Horn, Linda; Garside, Daniel B; Miura, Katsuyuki; Wu, Yangfeng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  2. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  3. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  4. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  5. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  6. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  7. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  9. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  11. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  12. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  13. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  14. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  15. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  16. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  18. Young children's preference for unique owned objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S

    2016-10-01

    An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using of synthetic Zeolites in the treatment of low-level liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjizadeh, M.; Bayat, I.; Sadatipoor, M.T.; Yavari, I.

    2002-01-01

    The removal of Cesium-137 from low active waste solution from research reactors by ion exchange using synthetic zeolites 4 A and A R-1 has been investigated by using batch and column technique. In batch tests we have studied the distribution coefficient (k d ) of Cesium-137 on the zeolites as a function of P H, Sodium concentration, contact time, and particle size of zeolites. The decontamination factor determined in column test. The accuracy of the method is investigated by comparing results obtained by this method here with results obtained by other techniques

  1. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  2. The cost of uniqueness in groundwater model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Doherty, John

    2006-04-01

    Calibration of a groundwater model requires that hydraulic properties be estimated throughout a model domain. This generally constitutes an underdetermined inverse problem, for which a solution can only be found when some kind of regularization device is included in the inversion process. Inclusion of regularization in the calibration process can be implicit, for example through the use of zones of constant parameter value, or explicit, for example through solution of a constrained minimization problem in which parameters are made to respect preferred values, or preferred relationships, to the degree necessary for a unique solution to be obtained. The "cost of uniqueness" is this: no matter which regularization methodology is employed, the inevitable consequence of its use is a loss of detail in the calibrated field. This, in turn, can lead to erroneous predictions made by a model that is ostensibly "well calibrated". Information made available as a by-product of the regularized inversion process allows the reasons for this loss of detail to be better understood. In particular, it is easily demonstrated that the estimated value for an hydraulic property at any point within a model domain is, in fact, a weighted average of the true hydraulic property over a much larger area. This averaging process causes loss of resolution in the estimated field. Where hydraulic conductivity is the hydraulic property being estimated, high averaging weights exist in areas that are strategically disposed with respect to measurement wells, while other areas may contribute very little to the estimated hydraulic conductivity at any point within the model domain, this possibly making the detection of hydraulic conductivity anomalies in these latter areas almost impossible. A study of the post-calibration parameter field covariance matrix allows further insights into the loss of system detail incurred through the calibration process to be gained. A comparison of pre- and post

  3. Synthetic Biology: game changer in intelectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Landeweerd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology can be considered a game changer that plays an important role in the current NBIC, or BINC convergence of nano-, bio-, info and cognitive sciences. Although most synthetic biology experts are unaware of it, the field appeals to the imagination in its adherence to targets that were usually associated with premodern alchemist science. This paper elaborates several aspects of synthetic biology as well as its consequences for long held notions of intellectual property and the ontological categories of scientific discovery on the one hand and engineering on the other, the distinction between natural and artificial, the grown and the made.

  4. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen E.; Bonheyo, George T.; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology. The team analyzes selected interactions within that network to better understand the risks raised by synthetic biology and identifies opportunities for risk mitigation. To introduce the concept, the article will briefly describe how an understanding of supply chains has been important in promoting nuclear nonproliferation objectives. The article concludes by assessing the structure and networks identified in the supply chains to reveal potential opportunities for future biodefense research and development; options for additional information exchange; and means to interdict, detect, or deter suspicious activity.

  5. [Smart therapeutics based on synthetic gene circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design.

  6. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  7. Synthetic approaches to aromatic belts: building up strain in macrocyclic polyarenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David; Shenhar, Roy; Rabinovitz, Mordecai

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review discusses synthetic strategies towards aromatic belts, defined here as double-stranded conjugated macrocycles, such as [n]cyclacenes, [n]cyclophenacenes, Schlüter belt, and Vögtle belt. Their appeal stems, firstly, from the unique nature of their conjugation, having p orbitals oriented radially rather than perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. Secondly, as aromatic belts are model compounds of carbon nanotubes of different chiralities, a synthetic strategy towards the buildup of structural strain in these compounds could finally open a route towards rational chemical synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The elusiveness of these compounds has stimulated fascinating and ingenious synthetic strategies over the last decades. The various strategies are classified here by their approach to the buildup of structural strain, which is the main obstacle in the preparation of these curved polyarenes.

  8. Generation and analyses of human synthetic antibody libraries and their application for protein microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Säll, Anna; Walle, Maria; Wingren, Christer

    2016-01-01

    in a high-throughput manner. To address this we designed and constructed two human synthetic antibody fragment (scFv) libraries denoted HelL-11 and HelL-13. By the use of phage display technology, in total 466 unique scFv antibodies specific for 114 different antigens were generated. The specificities......Antibody-based proteomics offers distinct advantages in the analysis of complex samples for discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with disease. However, its large-scale implementation requires tools and technologies that allow development of suitable antibody or antibody fragments...... for diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, this work provides a great example on how a synthetic approach can be used to optimize library designs. By having precise control of the diversity introduced into the antigen-binding sites, synthetic libraries offer increased understanding of how different diversity...

  9. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  10. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  11. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  12. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  13. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  14. Convergent Synthesis of Piperidines by the Union of Conjugated Alkynes with Imines: A Unique Regioselective Bond Construction for Heterocycle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming Z.; Micalizio, Glenn C.

    2009-01-01

    A two-step process is described for the union of aromatic imines, conjugated alkynes and aldehydes that results in a stereoselective synthesis of highly substituted piperidines. This synthetic process has been made possible by defining a unique regioselective functionalization of conjugated alkynes that establishes a suitably functionalized substrate for subsequent heterocycle-forming cationic annulation. Given the flexibility of the coupling process, heterocycles can be accessed through a process that establishes up to four stereogenic centers and four fused rings. PMID:19817447

  15. Sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchangers design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the calculation methods adapted, in working-out the stresses due to fluid pressures (normal as well as transient), weights, piping-reactions, vibration in the tube-bundle and also the thermal stresses during normal and transient conditions, for the mechanical design of intermediate heat-exchanger. The thermal stress evaluation of the tube-sheet is given particular emphasis. A brief outline of the design problems connected with the Na-Na exchangers of large size sodium cooled fast reactor plants is also given. (author)

  16. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  17. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  18. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  19. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  20. Is physical space unique or optional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstein, H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1975-02-01

    There are two concepts of the physical space-time. One, S(F), is that of a fixed arena in which events take place. The other S(D), is that of a space-time shaped by events. The second depends on the state (initial conditions) or on the external field, the first does not. The main assertions of the present paper are: 1) the fixed space-time S(F) is neither incompatibles with nor made superfluous, by Einstein's theory. S(F) is experimentally explorable, unique, and probably identical with Minkowski space M. 2) The dynamical space S(D) is largely optional. It can be chosen to be M, but the natural choice is Einstein's pseudo-Riemanian manifold [fr

  1. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource

  2. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  3. Unique computer system for safeguards use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Pratt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors have been used to implement specialized scientific data processing systems since 1976. One such system, the LeCroy 3500, is presently being used by the Detection and Verification Group of the Energy Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for a large variety of tasks involving measurement of various nuclear parameters associated with radioactive materials. The system is unique because it can do not only sophisticated pulse height and multi-scale analyses but also other analyses that are limited only by the availability fo CAMAC modules that would acquire data from exotic experiments. The system is also field portable which extends the range of experiments that it can control. Four applications of this system are described in this paper: (1) plutonium storage vault monitoring, (2) coded aperture image reconstruction, (3) spatial distribution of gamma radiation, and (4) nuclear waste management. 7 figures

  4. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  5. The unique ethics of sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rob

    2004-04-01

    The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices.

  6. MRI: unique costing and pricing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H W; Jarl, D F

    1985-01-01

    Acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves a plethora of costs not traditionally encountered in radiology procedure cost accounting models. Experiences with MRI gained at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics during 1984 uncovered a wide variety of unique costing issues which were eventually identified at the time when the MRI hospital charge was being established. Our experience at UMHC can provide those radiology departments now acquiring MRI with an earlier awareness of these special costing issues, hopefully resulting in better and more timely data collection. Current reimbursement and pricing issues are also having a dramatic impact on MRI costs at each institution and must be assessed in terms of third-party payor intentions.

  7. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  8. CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Shaw, David Martin; Elger, Bernice Simone

    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Claude H.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)

  10. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic Sediments and Stochastic Groundwater Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    For over twenty years the groundwater community has pursued the somewhat elusive goal of describing the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on subsurface flow and chemical transport. While small perturbation stochastic moment methods have significantly advanced theoretical understanding, why is it that stochastic applications use instead simulations of flow and transport through multiple realizations of synthetic geology? Allan Gutjahr was a principle proponent of the Fast Fourier Transform method for the synthetic generation of aquifer properties and recently explored new, more geologically sound, synthetic methods based on multi-scale Markov random fields. Focusing on sedimentary aquifers, how has the state-of-the-art of synthetic generation changed and what new developments can be expected, for example, to deal with issues like conceptual model uncertainty, the differences between measurement and modeling scales, and subgrid scale variability? What will it take to get stochastic methods, whether based on moments, multiple realizations, or some other approach, into widespread application?

  12. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...... that goes beyond the scope of molecular biology and genetic engineering, respectively. With the emphasis on systems and interaction networks, the approaches explicitly engage in one of the oldest philosophical discussions on the relationship between parts and wholes, or between reductionism and holism...

  13. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazar, Sarah L; Hund, Gretchen E; Bonheyo, George T; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce. In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology to illustrate new insights about the effectiveness of current regulations, the possible need for different screening approaches, and new technical solutions that could help identify or mitigate risks in the synthetic biology supply chain.

  14. Observation of the Phononic Lamb Shift with a Synthetic Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rentrop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to classical empty space, the quantum vacuum fundamentally alters the properties of embedded particles. This paradigm shift allows one to explain the discovery of the celebrated Lamb shift in the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Here, we engineer a synthetic vacuum, building on the unique properties of ultracold atomic gas mixtures, offering the ability to switch between empty space and quantum vacuum. Using high-precision spectroscopy, we observe the phononic Lamb shift, an intriguing many-body effect originally conjectured in the context of solid-state physics. We find good agreement with theoretical predictions based on the Fröhlich model. Our observations establish this experimental platform as a new tool for precision benchmarking of open theoretical challenges, especially in the regime of strong coupling between the particles and the quantum vacuum.

  15. Computational Tools and Algorithms for Designing Customized Synthetic Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan eGould

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA synthesis have enabled the construction of artificial genes, gene circuits, and genomes of bacterial scale. Freedom in de-novo design of synthetic constructs provides significant power in studying the impact of mutations in sequence features, and verifying hypotheses on the functional information that is encoded in nucleic and amino acids. To aid this goal, a large number of software tools of variable sophistication have been implemented, enabling the design of synthetic genes for sequence optimization based on rationally defined properties. The first generation of tools dealt predominantly with singular objectives such as codon usage optimization and unique restriction site incorporation. Recent years have seen the emergence of sequence design tools that aim to evolve sequences toward combinations of objectives. The design of optimal protein coding sequences adhering to multiple objectives is computationally hard, and most tools rely on heuristics to sample the vast sequence design space. In this review we study some of the algorithmic issues behind gene optimization and the approaches that different tools have adopted to redesign genes and optimize desired coding features. We utilize test cases to demonstrate the efficiency of each approach, as well as identify their strengths and limitations.

  16. Computational Tools and Algorithms for Designing Customized Synthetic Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Nathan [Department of Computer Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States); Hendy, Oliver [Department of Biology, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States); Papamichail, Dimitris, E-mail: papamicd@tcnj.edu [Department of Computer Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Advances in DNA synthesis have enabled the construction of artificial genes, gene circuits, and genomes of bacterial scale. Freedom in de novo design of synthetic constructs provides significant power in studying the impact of mutations in sequence features, and verifying hypotheses on the functional information that is encoded in nucleic and amino acids. To aid this goal, a large number of software tools of variable sophistication have been implemented, enabling the design of synthetic genes for sequence optimization based on rationally defined properties. The first generation of tools dealt predominantly with singular objectives such as codon usage optimization and unique restriction site incorporation. Recent years have seen the emergence of sequence design tools that aim to evolve sequences toward combinations of objectives. The design of optimal protein-coding sequences adhering to multiple objectives is computationally hard, and most tools rely on heuristics to sample the vast sequence design space. In this review, we study some of the algorithmic issues behind gene optimization and the approaches that different tools have adopted to redesign genes and optimize desired coding features. We utilize test cases to demonstrate the efficiency of each approach, as well as identify their strengths and limitations.

  17. Synthetic Approach to biomolecular science by cyborg supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Sato, Sota

    2018-02-01

    To imitate the essence of living systems via synthetic chemistry approaches has been attempted. With the progress in supramolecular chemistry, it has become possible to synthesize molecules of a size and complexity close to those of biomacromolecules. Recently, the combination of precisely designed supramolecules with biomolecules has generated structural platforms for designing and creating unique molecular systems. Bridging between synthetic chemistry and biomolecular science is also developing methodologies for the creation of artificial cellular systems. This paper provides an overview of the recently expanding interdisciplinary research to fuse artificial molecules with biomolecules, that can deepen our understanding of the dynamical ordering of biomolecules. Using bottom-up approaches based on the precise chemical design, synthesis and hybridization of artificial molecules with biological materials have been realizing the construction of sophisticated platforms having the fundamental functions of living systems. The effective hybrid, molecular cyborg, approaches enable not only the establishment of dynamic systems mimicking nature and thus well-defined models for biophysical understanding, but also the creation of those with highly advanced, integrated functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biophysical Exploration of Dynamical Ordering of Biomolecular Systems" edited by Dr. Koichi Kato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inelastic neutron scattering from synthetic and biological polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering measurements have provided many unique insights into structure, and by reviewing progress on synthetics, important differences likely to arise in biological systems are identified and a direction for studies of the latter is suggested. By neutron inelastic scattering it is possible to measure the frequency of thermally excited interatomic and intermolecular vibrations in crystals. With perfect organic and inorganic crystals the technique is now classical and has given great insight into the crystal forces responsible for the observed structures as well as the phase transitions they undergo. The study of polymer crystals immediately presents two problems of disorder: (1) Macroscopic disorder arises because the sample is a mixture of amorphous and crystalline fractions, and it may be acute enough to inhibit growth of a single crystal large enough for neutron studies. (2) Microscopic disorder in the packing of polymer chains in the ''crystalline'' regions is indicated by broadening of Bragg peaks. Both types of disorder problem arise in biological systems. The methods by which they were partially overcome to allow neutron measurements with synthetic polymers are described but first a classical example of the determination of interatomic forces by inelastic neutron scattering is given

  19. Computational Tools and Algorithms for Designing Customized Synthetic Genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, Nathan; Hendy, Oliver; Papamichail, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Advances in DNA synthesis have enabled the construction of artificial genes, gene circuits, and genomes of bacterial scale. Freedom in de novo design of synthetic constructs provides significant power in studying the impact of mutations in sequence features, and verifying hypotheses on the functional information that is encoded in nucleic and amino acids. To aid this goal, a large number of software tools of variable sophistication have been implemented, enabling the design of synthetic genes for sequence optimization based on rationally defined properties. The first generation of tools dealt predominantly with singular objectives such as codon usage optimization and unique restriction site incorporation. Recent years have seen the emergence of sequence design tools that aim to evolve sequences toward combinations of objectives. The design of optimal protein-coding sequences adhering to multiple objectives is computationally hard, and most tools rely on heuristics to sample the vast sequence design space. In this review, we study some of the algorithmic issues behind gene optimization and the approaches that different tools have adopted to redesign genes and optimize desired coding features. We utilize test cases to demonstrate the efficiency of each approach, as well as identify their strengths and limitations.

  20. MIDAS: A Modular DNA Assembly System for Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Kessans, Sarah A; Van de Bittner, Kyle C; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Bundela, Rudranuj; Scott, Barry; Nicholson, Matthew J; Parker, Emily J

    2018-04-20

    A modular and hierarchical DNA assembly platform for synthetic biology based on Golden Gate (Type IIS restriction enzyme) cloning is described. This enabling technology, termed MIDAS (for Modular Idempotent DNA Assembly System), can be used to precisely assemble multiple DNA fragments in a single reaction using a standardized assembly design. It can be used to build genes from libraries of sequence-verified, reusable parts and to assemble multiple genes in a single vector, with full user control over gene order and orientation, as well as control of the direction of growth (polarity) of the multigene assembly, a feature that allows genes to be nested between other genes or genetic elements. We describe the detailed design and use of MIDAS, exemplified by the reconstruction, in the filamentous fungus Penicillium paxilli, of the metabolic pathway for production of paspaline and paxilline, key intermediates in the biosynthesis of a range of indole diterpenes-a class of secondary metabolites produced by several species of filamentous fungi. MIDAS was used to efficiently assemble a 25.2 kb plasmid from 21 different modules (seven genes, each composed of three basic parts). By using a parts library-based system for construction of complex assemblies, and a unique set of vectors, MIDAS can provide a flexible route to assembling tailored combinations of genes and other genetic elements, thereby supporting synthetic biology applications in a wide range of expression hosts.

  1. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall

  2. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  3. Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Feidt, Raheleh; Ienca, Marcello; Elger, Bernice Simone; Folcher, Marc

    2017-12-18

    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."

  4. Synthetic biology era: Improving antibiotic's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Trampe, Silvia; Ceapa, Corina D; Manzo-Ruiz, Monserrat; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen microorganisms is problematic in the context of the current spectrum of available medication. The poor specificity and the high toxicity of some available molecules have made imperative the search for new strategies to improve the specificity and to pursue the discovery of novel compounds with increased bioactivity. Using living cells as platforms, synthetic biology has counteracted this problem by offering novel pathways to create synthetic systems with improved and desired functions. Among many other biotechnological approaches, the advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to design and construct novel biological systems in order to look for new drugs with increased bioactivity. Advancements have also been made in the redesigning of RNA and DNA molecules in order to engineer antibiotic clusters for antibiotic overexpression. As for the production of these antibacterial compounds, yeasts and filamentous fungi as well as gene therapy are utilized to enhance protein solubility. Specific delivery is achieved by creating chimeras using plant genes into bacterial hosts. Some of these synthetic systems are currently in clinical trials, proving the proficiency of synthetic biology in terms of both pharmacological activities as well as an increase in the biosafety of treatments. It is possible that we may just be seeing the tip of the iceberg, and synthetic biology applications will overpass expectations beyond our present knowledge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  7. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  8. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  9. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  10. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  11. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  12. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  13. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Zagorulko, Yu I; Kovalev, Yu P; Lamykin, E V; Alekseev, V V; Sergeev, G P [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (USSR)

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  14. Interaction of oil and paraffin with sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kovalev, Yu.P.; Lamykin, E.V.; Alekseev, V.V.; Sergeev, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the investigation results on the kinetics of a gaseous oil pyrolysis product composition change in the presence of sodium under static conditions at 350 deg. C, 550 deg. C and 700 deg. C as well as the behaviour of oil and paraffin within the sodium circulating loops. The calculated estimations of the critical oil physical state parameters in sodium flows are given. (author)

  15. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  16. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  17. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  18. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Casteels, F.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  19. Cosmic ray produced sodium and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Barbosa, A.

    1981-07-01

    The following topics were presented: calculations of the theoretical production rate of sodium-22 in the atmosphere in order to estimate its activity in rain water; description of the method of chemical separation of sodium and of counting of various radionuclide samples; results obtained for 22 Na, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 7 Be and 210 Pb and seasonal variations of these radionuclides in rain and river waters; seasonal variations of natural elements, sodium, potassium and uranium in rain and river waters [fr

  20. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Casteels, F [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)