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Sample records for unique steps involved

  1. The RNase R from Campylobacter jejuni has unique features and is involved in the first steps of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nabila; Matos, Rute G; Pinto, Teresa; Rannou, Pauline; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Prévost, Hervé; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2014-10-03

    Bacterial pathogens must adapt/respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. Ribonucleases (RNases) can be crucial factors contributing to the fast adaptation of RNA levels to different environmental demands. It has been demonstrated that the exoribonuclease polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) facilitates survival of Campylobacter jejuni in low temperatures and favors swimming, chick colonization, and cell adhesion/invasion. However, little is known about the mechanism of action of other ribonucleases in this microorganism. Members of the RNB family of enzymes have been shown to be involved in virulence of several pathogens. We have searched C. jejuni genome for homologues and found one candidate that displayed properties more similar to RNase R (Cj-RNR). We show here that Cj-RNR is important for the first steps of infection, the adhesion and invasion of C. jejuni to eukaryotic cells. Moreover, Cj-RNR proved to be active in a wide range of conditions. The results obtained lead us to conclude that Cj-RNR has an important role in the biology of this foodborne pathogen.

  2. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  3. Aggressive osteoblastoma: a case report involving a unique chromosomal aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allyson C; Rezeanu, Luminita; Klein, Michael J; Pitt, Michael J; Buecker, Peter; Hersh, Joseph H; Buchino, John J; Siegal, Gene P

    2010-06-01

    Osteoblastomas are rare bone-producing neoplasms that generally occur in the young and can be misdiagnosed as an osteosarcoma if correlation with clinical history, radiology, and histology is not carefully considered or if the several variants of osteoblastoma are not recognized. These variants lie on a morphologic spectrum between conventional osteoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Aggressive osteoblastoma is one such subtype. As the name implies, the histologic features of aggressive osteoblastoma may appear malignant, and its biologic behavior may separate it from conventional osteoblastoma. We report a case of aggressive osteoblastoma occurring in the femoral diaphysis of a 12-year-old girl; this osetoblastoma was dyssynchronous from the radiologic appearance and a diagnostic challenge. Cytogenetic evaluation of the neoplasm revealed a pseudodiploid clone with a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 4, 7, and 14. Using the premise that cytogenetics might be useful as a diagnostic tool for a more specific classification, we reviewed the literature in order to compare our findings with known chromosomal aberrations.

  4. Unique Solution of a Coupled Fractional Differential System Involving Integral Boundary Conditions from Economic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution for the fractional differential system involving the Riemann-Stieltjes integral boundary conditions , , , , , and , where , , and and are the standard Riemann-Liouville derivatives, and are functions of bounded variation, and and denote the Riemann-Stieltjes integral. Our results are based on a generalized fixed point theorem for weakly contractive mappings in partially ordered sets.

  5. Summary of the steps involved in the calibration of a Spinner anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demurtas, Giorgio; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The present report is a practical guide that summarizes the steps involved in the calibration of a spinner anemometer. For each step is brie y recalled the objective, which document describes the procedure to use, and what actions must follow the calibration.......The present report is a practical guide that summarizes the steps involved in the calibration of a spinner anemometer. For each step is brie y recalled the objective, which document describes the procedure to use, and what actions must follow the calibration....

  6. Summary of the steps involved in the calibration of a Spinner anemometer

    OpenAIRE

    Demurtas, Giorgio; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The present report is a practical guide that summarizes the steps involved in the calibration of a spinner anemometer. For each step is brie y recalled the objective, which document describes the procedure to use, and what actions must follow the calibration.

  7. T cell responses to human platelet antigen–1a involve a unique form of indirect allorecognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, Maria Therese; Husebekk, Anne; Killie, Ida Løken; Skogen, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a pregnancy-related condition caused by maternal antibodies binding an alloantigen on fetal platelets. In most cases the alloantigen is formed by a single amino acid, integrin β3 Leu33, referred to as human platelet antigen–1a (HPA-1a). Production of anti–HPA-1a antibodies likely depends on CD4+ T cells that recognize the same alloantigen in complex with the HLA-DRA/DRB3*01:01 molecule. While this complex is well characterized, T cell recognition of it is not. Here, to examine the nature of antigen recognition by HPA-1a–specific T cells, we assayed native and synthetic variants of the integrin β3 peptide antigen for binding to DRA/DRB3*01:01-positive antigen-presenting cells and for T cell activation. We found that HPA-1a–specific T cells recognize non-allogeneic integrin β3 residues anchored to DRA/DRB3*01:01 by the allogeneic Leu33, which itself is not directly recognized by these T cells. Furthermore, these T cell responses are diverse, with different T cells depending on different residues for recognition. This represents a unique form of indirect allorecognition in which a non-allogeneic peptide sequence becomes immunogenic by stable anchoring to MHC by an allogeneic residue. PMID:27699233

  8. Adopting ORCID as a unique identifier will benefit all involved in scholarly communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Subbiah; Madhan, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID, is a non- profit, community-driven effort to create and maintain a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these identifiers. Together with other persistent identifiers for scholarly works such as digital object identifiers (DOIs) and identifiers for organizations, ORCID makes research more discoverable. It helps ensure that one's grants, publications and outputs are correctly attributed. It helps the research community not just in aggregating publications, but in every stage of research, viz. publishing, reviewing, profiling, metrics, accessing and archiving. Funding agencies in Austria, Australia, Denmark, Portugal, Sweden and the UK, and the world's leading scholarly publishers and associations have integrated their systems with ORCID registry. Among the BRICS countries, China and South Africa are adopting ORCID avidly. India is yet to make a beginning. If research councils and funding agencies in India require researchers to adopt ORCID and link ORCID iDs to funding as well as tracking performance, it will help them keep track of the workflow. Journal editors can also keep track of contributions made by different authors and work assigned to different reviewers through their ORCID iDs.

  9. Malignant otitis externa with bilateral cranial nerve involvement: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant otitis externa is an inflammatory condition caused by pseudomonas infection usually in the elderly diabetics, or an immunosuppressive condition that presents with diffuse otitis externa along with excruciating pain and granulations tissue in the external auditory meatus. Facial paralysis is common along with occasional involvement of other cranial nerves. Case report describing a patient of malignant otitis externa who presented to a tertiary referral hospital of eastern India. This patient had ipsilateral facial and tenth cranial nerve paralysis along with delayed-onset contralateral sixth and twelfth cranial nerve palsy. The patient was treated initially with intravenous anti-pseudomonal antibody followed by tympanic platectomy, facial nerve decompression and medialisation thyroplasty. The contralateral cranial nerve palsy was managed conservatively with partial recovery of function. Malignant otitis externa, though a common disease, may occasionally present with uncommon or unexplained presentations. The management of these cases should be prompt and aggressive and specifically address each of the debilitating complications.

  10. Sulfur Atom in its Bound State Is a Unique Element Involved in Physiological Functions in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Koike

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It was in the 1950s that the term polysulfide or persulfide was introduced in biological studies. The unfamiliar term “sulfane sulfur” sometimes appeared in papers published in the 1970s, and was defined in the review article by Westley in 1983. In the article, sulfane sulfur is described as sulfur atoms that are covalently bound only with sulfur atoms, and as this explanation was somewhat difficult to comprehend, it was not generally accepted. Thus, in the early 1990s, we redefined these sulfur species as “bound sulfur”, which easily converts to hydrogen sulfide on reduction with a thiol reducing agent. In other words, bound sulfur refers to a sulfur atom that exists in a zero to divalent form (0 to −2. The first part of this review focuses on the fluorescent derivatization HPLC method—which we developed for measurement of bound sulfur—and explains the distribution of bound sulfur and the hydrogen sulfide-producing ability of various tissues, as clarified by this method. Next, we discuss diverse physiological functions and involvement of polysulfide, a typical type of bound sulfur, in the redox regulation system. Additionally, we also address its possible physiological role in the central nervous system, based on its action of scavenging reactive carbonyl compounds.

  11. Structural and mechanistic studies on carboxymethylproline synthase (CarB), a unique member of the crotonase superfamily catalyzing the first step in carbapenem biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Mark C; Sorensen, John L; Batchelar, Edward T; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2005-10-14

    The first step in the biosynthesis of the medicinally important carbapenem family of beta-lactam antibiotics is catalyzed by carboxymethylproline synthase (CarB), a unique member of the crotonase superfamily. CarB catalyzes formation of (2S,5S)-carboxymethylproline [(2S,5S)-t-CMP] from malonyl-CoA and l-glutamate semialdehyde. In addition to using a cosubstrate, CarB catalyzes C-C and C-N bond formation processes as well as an acyl-coenzyme A hydrolysis reaction. We describe the crystal structure of CarB in the presence and absence of acetyl-CoA at 2.24 A and 3.15 A resolution, respectively. The structures reveal that CarB contains a conserved oxy-anion hole probably required for decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA and stabilization of the resultant enolate. Comparison of the structures reveals that conformational changes (involving His(229)) in the cavity predicted to bind l-glutamate semialdehyde occur on (co)substrate binding. Mechanisms for the formation of the carboxymethylproline ring are discussed in the light of the structures and the accompanying studies using isotopically labeled substrates; cyclization via 1,4-addition is consistent with the observed labeling results (providing that hydrogen exchange at the C-6 position of carboxymethylproline does not occur). The side chain of Glu(131) appears to be positioned to be involved in hydrolysis of the carboxymethylproline-CoA ester intermediate. Labeling experiments ruled out the possibility that hydrolysis proceeds via an anhydride in which water attacks a carbonyl derived from Glu(131), as proposed for 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase. The structural work will aid in mutagenesis studies directed at altering the selectivity of CarB to provide intermediates for the production of clinically useful carbapenems.

  12. The Pediatrix BabySteps® Data Warehouse--a unique national resource for improving outcomes for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Alan R; Ellsbury, Dan; Clark, Reese H

    2015-01-01

    The Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse represents a unique electronic data capture system for the assessment of outcomes, the management of quality improvement (CQI) initiatives, and the resolution of important research questions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This system is described in detail and the manner in which the Data Warehouse has been used to measure and improve patient outcomes through CQI projects and research is outlined. The Pediatrix Data Warehouse now contains more than 1 million patients, serving as an exceptional tool for evaluating NICU care. Examples are provided of how significant outcome improvement has been achieved and several papers are cited that have used the "Big Data" contained in the Data Warehouse for novel observations that could not be made otherwise.

  13. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  14. Electrocardiography as the First Step for the Further Examination of Cardiac Involvement in Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiac involvement of myasthenia gravis (MG accompanies a poor prognosis. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between ECG abnormality and cardiac involvement. Methods. Of 178 patients diagnosed with MG between 2001 and 2013 at our hospital, we retrospectively analyzed consecutive 58 patients who underwent both ECG and echocardiography and without underlying cardiovascular disease. ECG abnormalities were defined by computer-assigned Minnesota-codes. Cardiac damage was defined as either (1 ejection fraction (EF 8 on echocardiography. Results. Thirty-three patients (56.8% had ECG abnormality. An elevated E/e′ was observed in patients with ECG abnormality compared to those without ECG abnormality (11.2±3.2, 8.7±2.2, resp., p=0.03. Among patients with ECG abnormality, 14 of 15 patients showed cardiac damage. Among patients without ECG abnormality, 6 of 33 patients showed cardiac damage (p=0.003. Reduced EF was observed in five patients (8.6% with ECG abnormality and none in patients without ECG abnormality. Conclusions. ECG may aid as the first step for the further examination of cardiac damage in patients with MG.

  15. Functions and Unique Diversity of Genes and Microorganisms Involved in Arsenite Oxidation from the Tailings of a Realgar Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Chun; E, Guoji; Wang, Jianing; Wang, Nian; Chen, Xiaoming; Mu, Yao; Li, Hao; Yang, Ye; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-12-15

    The tailings of the Shimen realgar mine have unique geochemical features. Arsenite oxidation is one of the major biogeochemical processes that occurs in the tailings. However, little is known about the functional and molecular aspects of the microbial community involved in arsenite oxidation. Here, we fully explored the functional and molecular features of the microbial communities from the tailings of the Shimen realgar mine. We collected six samples of tailings from sites A, B, C, D, E, and F. Microcosm assays indicated that all of the six sites contain both chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms; their activities differed considerably from each other. The microbial arsenite-oxidizing activities show a positive correlation with soluble arsenic concentrations. The microbial communities of the six sites contain 40 phyla of bacteria and 2 phyla of archaea that show extremely high diversity. Soluble arsenic, sulfate, pH, and total organic carbon (TOC) are the key environmental factors that shape the microbial communities. We further identified 114 unique arsenite oxidase genes from the samples; all of them code for new or new-type arsenite oxidases. We also isolated 10 novel arsenite oxidizers from the samples, of which 4 are chemoautotrophic and 6 are heterotrophic. These data highlight the unique diversities of the arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms and their oxidase genes from the tailings of the Shimen realgar mine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the functional and molecular features of microbial communities from the tailings of a realgar mine. This study focused on the functional and molecular characterizations of microbial communities from the tailings of the Shimen realgar mine. We fully explored, for the first time, the arsenite-oxidizing activities and the functional gene diversities of microorganisms from the tailings, as well as the correlation of the microbial activities/diversities with

  16. Children of Divorced Parents: Action Steps for the Counselor to Involve Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that many school counseling programs designed to help children of divorce focus on child and custodial parent, usually mother. Contends that, to help child cope with divorce and maintain academic performance level in school, counselor needs to involve child's noncustodial father as well. Considers fathers in therapy, examines characteristics…

  17. 'Take small steps to go a long way' consumer involvement in research into complementary and alternative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Charlotte

    2004-08-01

    This investigation set out to learn about consumer involvement in complementary medicine research from those who have experience of practice in this area. A literature search was combined with written and oral responses from key people and organisations in the UK. Letter or e-mail contact was made with 59 key people and organisations and 43 people responded. Eighteen respondents were interviewed. The overall level of consumer involvement was low but participants provided examples of experiences of consumer involvement in commissioning, designing, carrying out, and disseminating research. Clear roles and tasks and a consumer-friendly research environment, enabled consumers to contribute, gain confidence, and gradually widen their areas of involvement. There appears to be no single 'right way' for researchers and consumers to work together, but with experience and mutual respect researchers became increasingly enthusiastic about the value of the consumer perspective. As one consumer said: 'You have to take small steps to go a long way'.

  18. Influence of outpatient treatment and 12-step group involvement on one-year substance abuse treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimette, P C; Moos, R H; Finney, J W

    1998-09-01

    This study examined whether substance abuse patients self-selecting into one of three aftercare groups (outpatient treatment only, 12-step groups only, and outpatient treatment and 12-step groups) and patients who did not participate in aftercare differed on 1-year substance use and psychosocial outcomes. A total of 3,018 male patients filled out a questionnaire at intake and 1 year following discharge from treatment. Patients were classified into aftercare groups at follow-up using information from VA databases and self-reports. Patients who participated in both outpatient treatment and 12-step groups fared the best on 1-year outcomes. Patients who did not obtain aftercare had the poorest outcomes. In terms of the amount of intervention received, patients who had more outpatient mental health treatment, who more frequently attended 12-step groups or were more involved in 12-step activities had better 1-year outcomes. In addition, patients who kept regular outpatient appointments over a longer time period fared better than those who did not. Encouraging substance abuse patients to regularly attend both outpatient aftercare and self-help groups may improve long-term outcomes.

  19. Involvement of IL-18 in the expansion of unique hepatic T cells with unconventional cytokine profiles during Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi Adachi

    Full Text Available Infection with schistosomes invokes severe fibrotic granulomatous responses in the liver of the host. Schistosoma mansoni infection induces dramatic fluctuations in Th1 or Th2 cytokine responses systemically; Th1 reactions are provoked in the early phase, whilst Th2 responses become dominant after oviposition begins. In the liver, various unique immune cells distinct from those of conventional immune competent organs or tissues exist, resulting in a unique immunological environment. Recently, we demonstrated that S. mansoni infection induces unique CD4+ T cell populations exhibiting unconventional cytokine profiles in the liver of mice during the period between Th1- and Th2-phases, which we term the transition phase. They produce both IFN-γ and IL-4 or both IFN-γ and IL-13 simultaneously. Moreover, T cells secreting triple cytokines IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-4 were also induced. We term these cells Multiple Cytokine Producing Hepatic T cells (MCPHT cells. During the transition phase, when MCPHT cells increase, IL-18 secretion was up-regulated in the liver and sera. In S. mansoni-infected IL-18-deficient mice, expansion of MCPHT cells was curtailed. Thus our data suggest that IL-18 produced during S. mansoni infection play a role in the expansion of MCPHT cells.

  20. Uniqueness of Bounded Variation Solutions of Cauchy Systems Involving Parameter%含参量Cauchy系统有界变差解的唯一性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学敏; 李宝麟; 林长伟

    2013-01-01

    By using Henstock-Kurzweil integral, uniqueness of bounded variation solutions of Cauchy systems involving parameter is discussed in the condition of generalization of ω.%利用Henstock-Kurzweil积分,在ω较弱的条件下,讨论了含参量Cauchy系统有界变差解的唯一性。

  1. Characterization of the Two Methylation Steps Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycinose in Tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Song, Myoung Chong; Kim, Myoun Su; Beom, Ji Yoon; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Nam, Sang-Jip; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2016-08-26

    The S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases TylE and TylF catalyze the last two methylation reactions in the tylosin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces fradiae. It has long been known that the TylE-catalyzed C2‴-O-methylation of the 6-deoxy-d-allose bound to demethylmacrocin or demethyllactenocin precedes the TylF-catalyzed C3‴-O-methylation of the d-javose (C2‴-O-methylated 6-deoxy-d-allose) attached to macrocin or lactenocin. This study reveals the unexpected substrate promiscuity of TylE and TylF responsible for the biosynthesis of d-mycinose (C3‴-O-methylated d-javose) in tylosin through the identification of a new minor intermediate 2‴-O-demethyldesmycosin (2; 3‴-methyl-demethyllactenocin), which lacks a 2‴-O-methyl group on the mycinose moiety of desmycosin, along with 2‴-O-demethyltylosin (1; 3‴-methyl-demethylmacrocin) that was previously detected from the S. fradiae mutant containing a mutation in the tylE gene. These results unveil the unique substrate flexibility of TylE and TylF and demonstrate their potential for the engineered biosynthesis of novel glycosylated macrolide derivatives.

  2. Identification and engineering of cholesterol oxidases involved in the initial step of sterols catabolism in Mycobacterium neoaurum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kang; Wang, Feng-Qing; Zhang, Huai-Cheng; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been modified to transform sterols to produce valuable steroids. Here, we demonstrated that the oxidation of sterols to sterones is a rate-limiting step in the catabolic pathway of sterols in Mycobacterium neoaurum. Two cholesterol oxidases ChoM1 and ChoM2 involved in the step were identified in M. neoaurum and the ChoM2 shared up to 45% identity with other cholesterol oxidases. We demonstrated that the combination of ChoM1 and ChoM2 plays a significant role in this step. Accordingly, we developed a strategy to overcome this rate-limiting step by augmenting the activity of cholesterol oxidases in M. neoaurum strains to enhance their transformation productivity of sterols to valuable steroids. Our results indicated that the augmentation of ChoM2 achieved 5.57g/l androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione in M. neoaurum NwIB-01MS and 6.85g/l androst-4-ene-3,17-dione in M. neoaurum NwIB-R10, greatly higher than the original yield, 3.87g/l androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione and 4.53g/l androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Tangled Web of Terms: The Overlap and Unique Contribution of Involvement, Engagement, and Integration to Understanding College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Ward, Kelly; Kinzie, Jillian

    2009-01-01

    Established theories and constructs long associated with student success, including involvement, engagement, and integration, provide common language and a body of knowledge to inform understanding of the challenges currently facing higher education. This paper examines how the theories and terms have evolved, explores how the terms are currently…

  4. Complete study of the existence and uniqueness of solutions for semilinear elliptic equations involving measures concentrated on boundary

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huyuan

    2017-02-06

    The purpose of this paper is to study the weak solutions of the fractional elliptic problem(Formula presented.) where (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) or (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.) is the fractional Laplacian defined in the principle value sense, (Formula presented.) is a bounded (Formula presented.) open set in (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) is a bounded Radon measure supported in (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) is defined in the distribution sense, i.e.(Formula presented.) here (Formula presented.) denotes the unit inward normal vector at (Formula presented.). In this paper, we prove that (0.1) with (Formula presented.) admits a unique weak solution when g is a continuous nondecreasing function satisfying(Formula presented.) Our interest then is to analyse the properties of weak solution when (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.), including the asymptotic behaviour near (Formula presented.) and the limit of weak solutions as (Formula presented.). Furthermore, we show the optimality of the critical value (Formula presented.) in a certain sense, by proving the non-existence of weak solutions when (Formula presented.). The final part of this article is devoted to the study of existence for positive weak solutions to (0.1) when (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) is a bounded nonnegative Radon measure supported in (Formula presented.). We employ the Schauder’s fixed point theorem to obtain positive solution under the hypothesis that g is a continuous function satisfying(Formula presented.)-pagination

  5. 45 CFR 1159.16 - Will the Endowment take steps to ensure that its employees involved with its systems of records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will the Endowment take steps to ensure that its employees involved with its systems of records are familiar with the requirements and implications of the... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1159.16 Will the Endowment take steps to ensure that its employees involved with...

  6. A unique mechanism of nuclear division in Giardia lamblia involves components of the ventral disk and the nuclear envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Alberto J; Rahn, Monica I; Saura, Alicia; Lujan, Hugo D

    2003-12-01

    The fine structure of the binucleate, parasitic protist Giardia lamblia during interphase and divisional stages was studied by serial thin sectioning and three-dimensional reconstructions. The earlier sign of nuclear division is the development of a few peripheral areas of densely packed chromatin directly attached to the inner nuclear envelope. An intracytoplasmic sheet of ventral disk components grows from the cell periphery towards one of the nuclei, apparently constricting this nucleus, which becomes located at a ventral bulge. After the basal bodies become duplicated, a full nuclear division occurs in trophozoites, giving two pairs of parent-daughter nuclei. This full division occurs in a dorsal-ventral direction, with the resulting nuclear pairs located at the sides of the two sets of basal bodies. A new ventral disk is formed from the disk-derived sheets in the cell harboring the four nuclei. Cytokinesis is polymorphic, but at early stages is dorsal-to-dorsal. Encysting trophozoites show the development of Golgi cisternae stacks and dense, specific secretory granules. 3-D reconstructions show that cysts contain a single pair of incompletely strangled nuclei. The dividing Giardia lacks a typical, microtubular spindle either inside or outside the nuclei. The nuclear envelope seems to be the only structure involved in the final division of the parent-daughter nuclei.

  7. "Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Rich Environments": Supporting Pre-service Teachers involvement in Unique Practices of Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, A. S.; Moore, J.

    2012-12-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the core scientific concepts in both the NRC K-12 standards documents (#ESS2.B) and College Board Standards for Science (#ES.1.3). These documents also mention the scientific practices expected to improve as students are learning plate tectonics: interpreting data based on their observations of maps and argumentation around the evidence based on data. Research on students' understanding of maps emphasizes the difficulty of reading maps in science classrooms.We are conducting an ethnographic case study of the process of learning and teaching by novice teachers in the middle school science major at a mid-Atlantic University. The participants of the study are third-year majors (in the middle school science program and middle students at a suburban middle school. The study uses the data from four different fields (geography, geochronology, volcanology and seismology) to help involve preservice teachers in the practices of geosciences.The data for the study includes video and audio records of novice teachers' learning and teaching processes as well as teachers' reflections about their learning and on teaching Plate Tectonics by using real data. The video and audio data will be compiled and synthesized into event maps and transcripts, which are necessary for sociolinguistic analysis. Event maps provide an overall view of the events and are used to map the learning and teaching events into timely sequences and phases based on the subtopics and types of educational activities. Transcripts cover in detail the discussion and activity observed at each phase of the learning and teaching events. After compilation, event maps and transcripts will be analyzed by using Discourse analysis with an ethnographic perspective in order to identify novice teachers' challenges and the improvement they want to make on their teaching and assessment artifacts. The preliminary findings of the project identified challenges faced by novice teachers learning and teaching

  8. Understanding barriers to involving community midwives in identifying research participants; experience of the first steps randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jane; Barnes, Jacqueline; Spiby, Helen; Elbourne, Diana

    2015-08-01

    to explore barriers to the involvement of community midwives in identifying women in early pregnancy as potential participants in the first steps study, a randomised controlled trial of a new intervention to provide health and parenting support to potentially vulnerable women. descriptive qualitative investigation using semi-structured audio-recorded interviews. community midwifery offices. volunteer sample of 13 community midwives. themes derived from content analysis. understanding of their role in the research process was unclear to many midwives. Confusion arose about the difference between potential participant identification and trial recruitment. There were concerns about the eligibility criteria and it was suggested that there was insufficient time during booking appointments, and sometimes insufficient information, to determine potential eligibility. Midwives had concerns about some aspects of the intervention, which incorporated routine midwifery care, and had expectations that women may not like a group programme. This may have led some not to mention the trial. They were, however positive about the programme׳s potential for beneficial impacts on mothers and infants. dedicated research midwives may be the best option if research studies need to identify potential participants early in pregnancy, so that they can communicate with all their colleagues. if community midwives are asked to be involved in time-critical research they are likely to need additional local resources and support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endosomes and lysosomes are involved in early steps of Tl(III)-mediated apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzel, Cecilia E; Almeira Gubiani, María F; Verstraeten, Sandra V

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms that mediate thallium (Tl) toxicity are still not completely understood. The exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to Tl(I) or Tl(III) activates both mitochondrial (Tl(I) and Tl(III)) and extrinsic (Tl(III)) pathways of apoptosis. In this work we evaluated the hypothesis that the effects of Tl(III) may be mediated by the damage to lysosomes, where it might be incorporated following the route of iron uptake. PC12 cells exposed for 3 h to 100 μM Tl(III) presented marked endosomal acidification, effect that was absent when cells were incubated in a serum-free medium and that was fully recovered when the latter was supplemented with transferrin. After 6 h of incubation the colocalization of cathepsins D and B with the lysosomal marker Lamp-1 was decreased together with an increase in the total activity of the enzymes. A permanent damage to lysosomes after 18 h of exposure was evidenced from the impairment of acridine orange uptake. Cathepsin D caused the cleavage of pro-apoptotic protein BID that is involved in the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Supporting that, BID cleavage and the activation of caspase 3 by Tl(III) were fully prevented when cells were preincubated with cathepsin D inhibitor (pepstatin A) and only partially prevented when cathepsin B inhibitor (E64d) was used. None of these inhibitors affected BID cleavage or caspase 3 activation in Tl(I)-treated cells. Together, experimental results support the role of Tl(III) uptake by the acidic cell compartments and their involvement in the early steps of Tl(III)-mediated PC12 cells apoptosis.

  10. The two-step development of a duplex retina involves distinct events of cone and rod neurogenesis and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Ragnhild; Eilertsen, Mariann; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Furmanek, Tomasz; Rønnestad, Ivar; van der Meeren, Terje; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2016-08-15

    Unlike in mammals, persistent postembryonic retinal growth is a characteristic feature of fish, which includes major remodeling events that affect all cell types including photoreceptors. Consequently, visual capabilities change during development, where retinal sensitivity to different wavelengths of light (photopic vision), -and to limited photons (scotopic vision) are central capabilities for survival. Differently from well-established model fish, Atlantic cod has a prolonged larval stage where only cone photoreceptors are present. Rods do not appear until juvenile transition (metamorphosis), a hallmark of indirect developing species. Previously we showed that whole gene families of lws (red-sensitive) and sws1 (UV-sensitive) opsins have been lost in cod, while rh2a (green-sensitive) and sws2 (blue-sensitive) genes have tandem duplicated. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of a two-step developing duplex retina in Atlantic cod. The study focuses on cone subtype dynamics and delayed rod neurogenesis and differentiation in all cod life stages. Using transcriptomic and histological approaches we show that different opsins disappear in a topographic manner during development where central to peripheral retina is a key axis of expressional change. Early cone differentiation was initiated in dorso-temporal retina different from previously described in fish. Rods first appeared during initiation of metamorphosis and expression of the nuclear receptor transcription factor nr2e3-1, suggest involvement in rod specification. The indirect developmental strategy thus allows for separate studies of cones and rods development, which in nature correlates with visual changes linked to habitat shifts. The clustering of key retinal genes according to life stage, suggests that Atlantic cod with its sequenced genome may be an important resource for identification of underlying factors required for development and function of photopic and scotopic vision.

  11. Structural and functional characterization of the Geobacillus copper nitrite reductase: involvement of the unique N-terminal region in the interprotein electron transfer with its redox partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yohta; Koteishi, Hiroyasu; Yoneda, Ryohei; Tamada, Taro; Takami, Hideto; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Nojiri, Masaki

    2014-03-01

    The crystal structures of copper-containing nitrite reductase (CuNiR) from the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 and the amino (N)-terminal 68 residue-deleted mutant were determined at resolutions of 1.3Å and 1.8Å, respectively. Both structures show a striking resemblance with the overall structure of the well-known CuNiRs composed of two Greek key β-barrel domains; however, a remarkable structural difference was found in the N-terminal region. The unique region has one β-strand and one α-helix extended to the northern surface of the type-1 copper site. The superposition of the Geobacillus CuNiR model on the electron-transfer complex structure of CuNiR with the redox partner cytochrome c551 in other denitrifier system led us to infer that this region contributes to the transient binding with the partner protein during the interprotein electron transfer reaction in the Geobacillus system. Furthermore, electron-transfer kinetics experiments using N-terminal residue-deleted mutant and the redox partner, Geobacillus cytochrome c551, were carried out. These structural and kinetics studies demonstrate that the region is directly involved in the specific partner recognition.

  12. Single step purification of lactoperoxidase from whey involving reverse micelles-assisted extraction and its comparison with reverse micellar extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, K E; Rastogi, Navin K

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of lactoperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) from whey was studied using single step reverse micelles-assisted extraction and compared with reverse micellar extraction. The reverse micelles-assisted extraction resulted in extraction of contaminating proteins and recovery of lactoperoxidase in the aqueous phase leading to its purification. Reverse micellar extraction at the optimized condition after forward and backward steps resulted in activity recovery of lactoperoxidase and purification factor of the order of 86.60% and 3.25-fold, respectively. Whereas reverse micelles-assisted extraction resulted in higher activity recovery of lactoperoxidase (127.35%) and purification factor (3.39-fold). The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles also evidenced that higher purification was obtained in reverse micelles-assisted extraction as compared of reverse micellar extracted lactoperoxidase.

  13. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Sonographic Screening for Abdominal Organ Involvement in Sickle Cell AnemiaA Step towards Better Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushita B. Lakhkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease is characterized by repeated crisis and need for frequent transfusions. Abdominal crisis are common and potentially can damage any abdominal organ. Screening for organ involvement will lead to early detection and better patient care. Aim and Objectives: To see whether ultrasound can be a better noninvasive technique for early detection of organ involvement. Material and Methods: Prospective cross sectional observational study done on patients admitted in pediatric ward of a medical college. Total of 150 patients, already diagnosed to have sickle cell anemia (homozygous 110 and heterozygous 40 was included in the study. All the patients were in steady state. Demographic, clinical biochemical details were noted and were subjected to ultrasonography. Renal artery, Being end artery, Doppler study was also done. All the modalities were compared for early detection. Results: Majority of patients (77% were between 1 to 30 years with male female ratio of 2:1. Recurrent fever (64% and recurrent abdominal pain (47% were most common symptoms and anemia (66%, hepatomegaly (62%, splenomegaly (21% were most common signs. When clinical examination, biochemical tests and ultrasonography were compared for organ detection, ultrasound significantly detected more patients (p=<0.05. Ultrasonography of kidney included renal doppler also. Renal involvement by microalbuminuria measurement was of same as ultrasonography. Organ involvement increased with age. Conclusion: Ultrasonography was good noninvasive technique for organ detection but kidneysyield was better with Doppler study. Most common organ found to be affected was liver. Involvement increased with age. Early detection helps clinicians to avoid drugs toxic to involved organs.

  15. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of fatty compounds – Focus on processes involving a lipase-catalyzed perhydrolysis step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiran Céline

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available At the industrial scale, the chemical Prileshajev reaction is currently the only method applied to produce epoxidized plant oils. Using enzymes could be an alternative way allowing an environmentally benign and more selective epoxidation reaction. P450 monooxygenases, diiron-center oxygenases, lipoxygenases, peroxygenases, and hydrolases performing perhydrolysis are enzyme classes involved in free fatty acid and glyceride epoxidation. After a brief description of these biocatalysts, this review focuses on the chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acyd chains, where a lipase-catalyzed peroxy acid formation is followed by an uncatalyzed “self-epoxidation”. The molecular bases of lipase-catalyzed perhydrolysis as well as the different parameters influencing the epoxidation reaction are reviewed and described in details.

  16. A nucleophilic catalysis step is involved in the hydrolysis of aryl phosphate monoesters by human CT acylphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Paolo; Pazzagli, Luigia; Giannoni, Elisa; Caselli, Anna; Manao, Giampaolo; Camici, Guido; Ramponi, Giampietro

    2003-01-03

    Acylphosphatase, one of the smallest enzymes, is expressed in all organisms. It displays hydrolytic activity on acyl phosphates, nucleoside di- and triphosphates, aryl phosphate monoesters, and polynucleotides, with acyl phosphates being the most specific substrates in vitro. The mechanism of catalysis for human acylphosphatase (the organ-common type isoenzyme) was investigated using both aryl phosphate monoesters and acyl phosphates as substrates. The enzyme is able to catalyze phosphotransfer from p-nitrophenyl phosphate to glycerol (but not from benzoyl phosphate to glycerol), as well as the inorganic phosphate-H(2)18O oxygen exchange reaction in the absence of carboxylic acids or phenols. In short, our findings point to two different catalytic pathways for aryl phosphate monoesters and acyl phosphates. In particular, in the aryl phosphate monoester hydrolysis pathway, an enzyme-phosphate covalent intermediate is formed, whereas the hydrolysis of acyl phosphates seems a more simple process in which the Michaelis complex is attacked directly by a water molecule generating the reaction products. The formation of an enzyme-phosphate covalent complex is consistent with the experiments of isotope exchange and transphosphorylation from substrates to glycerol, as well as with the measurements of the Brønsted free energy relationships using a panel of aryl phosphates with different structures. His-25 involvement in the formation of the enzyme-phosphate covalent complex during the hydrolysis of aryl phosphate monoesters finds significant confirmation in experiments performed with the H25Q mutated enzyme.

  17. Ipsilateral simultaneous fracture of the trochlea involving the lateral end clavicle and distal end radius: a rare combination and a unique mechanism of injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta RK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Isolated trochlea fracture in adults is a rare surgical entity as compared to its capitellar counterpart. It has been only mentioned sporadically in the literature as case reports. Fracture of the trochlea is accompanied by other elbow injuries like elbow dislocation, capitellum fracture, ulnar fracture and extraarticular condylar fracture. Here we report a unique case of isolated displaced trochlea fracture associated with fractures of the lateral end clavicle and the distal end radius. We propose a unique mechanism for this rare combination of injuries: typical triad of injury, i.e. fracture of the distal end radius with trochlea and fracture of the lateral end of the clavicle. Nonoperative treatment is recommended for undisplaced humeral trochlea fractures; but for displaced ones, anatomical reduction and internal fixation are essential to maintain the congruous trochleacoronoid articulation and hence to maintain the intrinsic stability of the elbow. Key words: Isolated trochlea fracture; Clavicle; Radius fractures

  18. Aadh2p: an Arxula adeninivorans alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the first step of the 1-butanol degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Marion; Kasprzak, Jakub; Becker, Karin; Riechen, Jan; Worch, Sebastian; Hartmann, Anja; Mascher, Martin; Scholz, Uwe; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Schauer, Frieder; Matthias Vorbrodt, H; Kunze, Gotthard

    2016-10-12

    The non-conventional yeast Arxula adeninivorans uses 1-butanol as a carbon source and has recently attracted attention as a promising organism for 1-butanol production. Alcohol dehydrogenases (adhp) are important catalysts in 1-butanol metabolism, but only Aadh1p from Arxula has been characterized. This enzyme is involved in ethanol synthesis but has a low impact on 1-butanol degradation. In this study, we identified and characterized a second adhp from A. adeninivorans (Aadh2p). Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADHs' (ScAdh) protein sequences it originates from the same ancestral node as ScAdh6p, 7p and 4p. It is also localized in the cytoplasm and uses NAD(H) as cofactor. The enzyme has its highest activity with medium chain-length alcohols and maximum activity with 1-butanol with the catalytic efficiency of the purified enzyme being 42 and 43,000 times higher than with ethanol and acetaldehyde, respectively. Arxula adeninivorans strain G1212/YRC102-AADH2, which expresses the AADH2 gene under the control of the strong constitutive TEF1 promoter was constructed. It achieved an ADH activity of up to 8000 U/L and 500 U/g dry cell weight (dcw) which is in contrast to the control strain G1212/YRC102 which had an ADH activity of up to 1400 U/L and 200 U/g dcw. Gene expression analysis showed that AADH2 derepression or induction using non-fermentable carbon-sources such as ethanol, pyruvate, glycerol or 1-butanol did occur. Compared to G1212/YRC102 AADH2 knock-out strain had a slower growth rate and lower 1-butanol consumption if 1-butanol was used as sole carbon source and AADH2-transformants did not grow at all in the same conditions. However, addition of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine allowed the transformants to use 1-butanol as carbon source. The addition of these amino acids to the control strain and Δaadh2 mutant cultures had the effect of accelerating 1-butanol consumption. Our results confirm that Aadh2p plays a major

  19. Unique post-doctoral positions in Master of Arts in Teaching Earth Science program at the American Museum of Natural History: Involving early-career research scientists in Earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, K. E.; Nadeau, P. A.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Grcevich, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    Post-doctoral positions in Earth science fields traditionally emphasize research within a university setting or research institute. Such positions may include a teaching component, but one which is often restricted to introductory undergraduate Earth science courses or upper-level courses within their own field of specialization. With such a specific focus, there may not be much inclination on the part of a post-doctoral fellow to involve themselves in broader education programs, such as public outreach or secondary schools. The American Museum of Natural History is now conducting a non-traditional post-doctoral position as part of its new Master of Arts in Teaching Earth Science (MAT). This pilot program involves forging a one-of-a-kind partnership between a world-class research museum and high-needs schools in New York City with the goal of addressing a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers in New York State, particularly in high-needs schools with diverse populations. The program, which is part of the state's Race to the Top initiative, is approved by the NYS Board of Regents and will prepare a total of 50 candidates in two cohorts to earn a Board of Regents-awarded Masters of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree with a specialization in Earth Science for grades 7-12. The post-doctoral fellows of the MAT program have unique 3-year positions, with more traditional research-based work comprising 65% of the tenure and non-traditional educational roles 35%. The MAT fellows are divided into two types: those with a teaching role, who are involved in the co-design and co-teaching of graduate-level Earth science courses; and those in a research/mentoring role, who design and teach a summer-long science research practicum while also providing informal support to MAT teaching candidates throughout the school year. Over the first year of the MAT program's implementation, fellows have been exposed to a range of activities outside the realm of a traditional post

  20. Connection between quantum systems involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent and k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator related to Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Ian; Quesne, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this communication is to point out the connection between a 1D quantum Hamiltonian involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent PIV, obtained in the context of second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics and third-order ladder operators, with a hierarchy of families of quantum systems called k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator and related with multi-indexed Xm1,m2,…,mk Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type III. The connection between these exactly solvable models is established at the level of the equivalence of the Hamiltonians using rational solutions of the fourth Painlevé equation in terms of generalized Hermite and Okamoto polynomials. We also relate the different ladder operators obtained by various combinations of supersymmetric constructions involving Darboux-Crum and Krein-Adler supercharges, their zero modes and the corresponding energies. These results will demonstrate and clarify the relation observed for a particular case in previous papers.

  1. A unique HEAT repeat-containing protein SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 is involved in vacuolar membrane dynamics in gravity-sensing cells of Arabidopsis inflorescence stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Yano, Daisuke; Nagafusa, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takehide; Saito, Chieko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Tasaka, Masao; Terao Morita, Miyo

    2014-04-01

    Plant vacuoles play critical roles in development, growth and stress responses. In mature cells, vacuolar membranes (VMs) display several types of structures, which are formed by invagination and folding of VMs into the lumenal side and can gradually move and change shape. Although such VM structures are observed in a broad range of tissue types and plant species, the molecular mechanism underlying their formation and maintenance remains unclear. Here, we report that a novel HEAT-repeat protein, SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 (SGR6), of Arabidopsis is involved in the control of morphological changes and dynamics of VM structures in endodermal cells, which are the gravity-sensing cells in shoots. SGR6 is a membrane-associated protein that is mainly localized to the VM in stem endodermal cells. The sgr6 mutant stem exhibits a reduced gravitropic response. Higher plants utilize amyloplast sedimentation as a means to sense gravity direction. Amyloplasts are surrounded by VMs in Arabidopsis endodermal cells, and the flexible and dynamic structure of VMs is important for amyloplast sedimentation. We demonstrated that such dynamic features of VMs are gradually lost in sgr6 endodermal cells during a 30 min observation period. Histological analysis revealed that amyloplast sedimentation was impaired in sgr6. Detailed live-cell imaging analyses revealed that the VM structures in sgr6 had severe defects in morphological changes and dynamics. Our results suggest that SGR6 is a novel protein involved in the formation and/or maintenance of invaginated VM structures in gravity-sensing cells.

  2. Relaxase DNA Binding and Cleavage Are Two Distinguishable Steps in Conjugative DNA Processing That Involve Different Sequence Elements of the nic Site*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, María; González-Pérez, Blanca; Cabezas, Matilde; Moncalian, Gabriel; Rivas, Germán; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, catalyzes a series of concerted DNA cleavage and strand transfer reactions on a specific site (nic) of its origin of transfer (oriT). nic contains the cleavage site and an adjacent inverted repeat (IR2). Mutation analysis in the nic region indicated that recognition of the IR2 proximal arm and the nucleotides located between IR2 and the cleavage site were essential for supercoiled DNA processing, as judged either by in vitro nic cleavage or by mobilization of a plasmid containing oriT. Formation of the IR2 cruciform and recognition of the distal IR2 arm and loop were not necessary for these reactions to take place. On the other hand, IR2 was not involved in TrwC single-stranded DNA processing in vitro. For single-stranded DNA nic cleavage, TrwC recognized a sequence embracing six nucleotides upstream of the cleavage site and two nucleotides downstream. This suggests that TrwC DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing and that different sequence elements are recognized by TrwC in each step. IR2-proximal arm recognition was crucial for the initial supercoiled DNA binding. Subsequent recognition of the adjacent single-stranded DNA binding site was required to position the cleavage site in the active center of the protein so that the nic cleavage reaction could take place. PMID:20061574

  3. Relaxase DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing that involve different sequence elements of the nic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, María; González-Pérez, Blanca; Cabezas, Matilde; Moncalian, Gabriel; Rivas, Germán; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-03-19

    TrwC, the relaxase of plasmid R388, catalyzes a series of concerted DNA cleavage and strand transfer reactions on a specific site (nic) of its origin of transfer (oriT). nic contains the cleavage site and an adjacent inverted repeat (IR(2)). Mutation analysis in the nic region indicated that recognition of the IR(2) proximal arm and the nucleotides located between IR(2) and the cleavage site were essential for supercoiled DNA processing, as judged either by in vitro nic cleavage or by mobilization of a plasmid containing oriT. Formation of the IR(2) cruciform and recognition of the distal IR(2) arm and loop were not necessary for these reactions to take place. On the other hand, IR(2) was not involved in TrwC single-stranded DNA processing in vitro. For single-stranded DNA nic cleavage, TrwC recognized a sequence embracing six nucleotides upstream of the cleavage site and two nucleotides downstream. This suggests that TrwC DNA binding and cleavage are two distinguishable steps in conjugative DNA processing and that different sequence elements are recognized by TrwC in each step. IR(2)-proximal arm recognition was crucial for the initial supercoiled DNA binding. Subsequent recognition of the adjacent single-stranded DNA binding site was required to position the cleavage site in the active center of the protein so that the nic cleavage reaction could take place.

  4. Review of Real-Time Simulator and the Steps Involved for Implementation of a Model from MATLAB/SIMULINK to Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkili, Suresh; Panda, Anup Kumar; Prattipati, Jayanthi

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays the researchers want to develop their model in real-time environment. Simulation tools have been widely used for the design and improvement of electrical systems since the mid twentieth century. The evolution of simulation tools has progressed in step with the evolution of computing technologies. In recent years, computing technologies have improved dramatically in performance and become widely available at a steadily decreasing cost. Consequently, simulation tools have also seen dramatic performance gains and steady cost decreases. Researchers and engineers now have the access to affordable, high performance simulation tools that were previously too cost prohibitive, except for the largest manufacturers. This work has introduced a specific class of digital simulator known as a real-time simulator by answering the questions "what is real-time simulation", "why is it needed" and "how it works". The latest trend in real-time simulation consists of exporting simulation models to FPGA. In this article, the Steps involved for implementation of a model from MATLAB to REAL-TIME are provided in detail.

  5. Involvement of the processing step in the susceptibility/tolerance of two lepidopteran larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Mariam; Khedher, Saoussen Ben; Boukedi, Hanen; Chaib, Ikbel; Laarif, Asma; Tounsi, Slim

    2016-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins are known for their effectiveness against lepidopteran insects. In this study, the entomopathogenic activity of Cry1Aa was investigated against two lepidopteran larvae causing serious threat to various crops, Spodoptera littoralis and Tuta absoluta. Contrarily to S. littoralis, which showed low susceptibility to Cry1Aa (40% mortality with 1μg/cm(2)), T. absoluta was very sensitive to this delta-endotoxin (LC50 of 95.8ng/cm(2)). The different steps in the mode of action of this toxin on the two larvae were studied with the aim to understand the origin of their difference of susceptibility. Activation of the 130kDa Cry1Aa protein by T. absoluta larvae juice generated a 65kDa active toxin, whereas S. littoralis gut juice led to a complete degradation of the protoxin. The study of the interaction of the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with purified biotinylated Cry1Aa toxin revealed six and seven toxin binding proteins in T. absoluta and S. littoralis BBMV, respectively. Midgut histopathology of Cry1Aa fed larvae demonstrated approximately similar damage caused by the toxin in the two larvae midguts. These results suggest that the activation step was strongly involved in the difference of susceptibility of the two larvae to Cry1Aa.

  6. The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens.

  7. Involvement of cAMP-dependent unique signaling cascades in the decrease of serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins in boar sperm head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Ayane; Tate, Shunsuke; Nakamura-Mori, Kazumi; Noda, Taichi; Ishikawa, Sho; Harayama, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously suggested that protein phosphatase-dependent decrease of postacrosomal phosphorylated proteins may be necessary for the occurrence of acrosome reaction in livestock spermatozoa (Adachi et al., J Reprod Dev 54, 171-176, 2008; Mizuno et al., Mol Reprod Dev 82, 232-250, 2015). The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of the intracellular cAMP signaling cascades in the regulation of the decrease of postacrosomal phosphorylated proteins in boar spermatozoa. Boar ejaculated spermatozoa were incubated with cAMP analogs and then used for the immunodetection of serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins and assessment of acrosome morphology. The protein phosphatase-dependent decrease of postacrosomal phosphorylated proteins was greatly promoted by the incubation with a cAMP analog Sp-5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole-3',5'-monophosphorothioate (cBiMPS). This decrease was induced before the initiation of acrosome reaction and did not require the millimolar concentration of extracellular Ca(2+) which was necessary for the initiation of acrosome reaction. Moreover, suppression of protein kinase A activity with an inhibitor (H89) had almost no influence on both decrease of phosphorylated proteins and occurrence of acrosome reaction in the spermatozoa incubated with cBiMPS. In addition, the prolonged incubation with a potentially exchange protein directly activated by cAMP-selective cAMP analog (8pM) could only partially mimic effects of cBiMPS on these events. These results indicate that the cAMP-dependent signaling cascades which are less dependent on protein kinase A may regulate the decrease of postacrosomal phosphorylated proteins in boar spermatozoa before the extracellular Ca(2+)-triggered initiation of acrosome reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic analysis of wild-type and mutant huntingtin-associated proteins in mouse brains identifies unique interactions and involvement in protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Brady P; Savas, Jeffrey N; Park, Sung K; Choi, Jeong H; Zheng, Shuqiu; Zeitlin, Scott O; Yates, John R; Tanese, Naoko

    2012-06-22

    Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat amplification in the gene huntingtin (HTT) that is reflected by a polyglutamine expansion in the Htt protein. Nearly 20 years of research have uncovered roles for Htt in a wide range of cellular processes, and many of these discoveries stemmed from the identification of Htt-interacting proteins. However, no study has employed an impartial and comprehensive strategy to identify proteins that differentially associate with full-length wild-type and mutant Htt in brain tissue, the most relevant sample source to the disease condition. We analyzed Htt affinity-purified complexes from wild-type and HTT mutant juvenile mouse brain from two different biochemical fractions by tandem mass spectrometry. We compared variations in protein spectral counts relative to Htt to identify those proteins that are the most significantly contrasted between wild-type and mutant Htt purifications. Previously unreported Htt interactions with Myo5a, Prkra (PACT), Gnb2l1 (RACK1), Rps6, and Syt2 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Gene Ontology analysis of these and other Htt-associated proteins revealed a statistically significant enrichment for proteins involved in translation among other categories. Furthermore, Htt co-sedimentation with polysomes in cytoplasmic mouse brain extracts is dependent upon the presence of intact ribosomes. Finally, wild-type or mutant Htt overexpression inhibits cap-dependent translation of a reporter mRNA in an in vitro system. Cumulatively, these data support a new role for Htt in translation and provide impetus for further study into the link between protein synthesis and Huntington disease pathogenesis.

  9. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 and VAMP3/cellubrevin: two v-SNARE proteins involved in specific steps of the autophagy/multivesicular body pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Claudio Marcelo; Sánchez, Diego Germán; Mestre, María Belén; Colombo, María Isabel

    2009-12-01

    During reticulocyte maturation, some membrane proteins and organelles that are not required in the mature red cell are lost. Several of these proteins are released into the extracellular medium associated with the internal vesicles present in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Likewise, organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are wrapped into double membrane vacuoles (i.e., autophagosomes) and degraded via autophagy. Morphological, molecular, and biochemical studies have shown that autophagosomes fuse with MVBs forming the so-called amphisomes, a prelysosomal hybrid organelle. SNAREs are key molecules of the vesicle fusion machinery. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 and VAMP3/cellubrevin are two v-SNARE proteins involved in the endocytic and exocytic pathways. We have previously shown that in the human leukemic K562 cells, Rab11 decorates MVBs and it is necessary for fusion between autophagosomes with MVBs. In the present report, we present evidence indicating that VAMP3 is required for the fusion between MVBs with autophagosomes to generate the amphisome, allowing the maturation of the autophagosome, but it does not seem to be involved in the next step, i. e., fusion with the lysosome. On the other hand, we demonstrate that VAMP7 is necessary for this latter event, allowing the completion of the autophagic pathway. Furthermore, VAMP7 and ATPase NSF, a protein required for SNAREs disassembly, participate in the fusion between MVBs with the plasma membrane to release the internal vesicles (i.e., exosomes) into the extracellular medium.

  10. Connection between quantum systems involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent and k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator related to Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquette, Ian, E-mail: i.marquette@uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Quesne, Christiane, E-mail: cquesne@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucléaire Théorique et Physique Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine CP229, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this communication is to point out the connection between a 1D quantum Hamiltonian involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent P{sub IV}, obtained in the context of second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics and third-order ladder operators, with a hierarchy of families of quantum systems called k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator and related with multi-indexed X{sub m{sub 1,m{sub 2,…,m{sub k}}}} Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type III. The connection between these exactly solvable models is established at the level of the equivalence of the Hamiltonians using rational solutions of the fourth Painlevé equation in terms of generalized Hermite and Okamoto polynomials. We also relate the different ladder operators obtained by various combinations of supersymmetric constructions involving Darboux-Crum and Krein-Adler supercharges, their zero modes and the corresponding energies. These results will demonstrate and clarify the relation observed for a particular case in previous papers.

  11. Gamma-Glutamylpolyamine Synthetase GlnA3 Is Involved in the First Step of Polyamine Degradation Pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor M145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bera

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor M145 was shown to be able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of polyamines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, or spermine, as a sole nitrogen source. However, hardly anything is known about polyamine utilization and its regulation in streptomycetes. In this study, we demonstrated that only one of the three proteins annotated as glutamine synthetase-like protein, GlnA3 (SCO6962, was involved in the catabolism of polyamines. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of glnA3 was strongly induced by exogenous polyamines and repressed in the presence of ammonium. The ΔglnA3 mutant was shown to be unable to grow on defined Evans agar supplemented with putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine as sole nitrogen source. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the ΔglnA3 mutant accumulated polyamines intracellularly, but was unable to degrade them. In a rich complex medium supplemented with a mixture of the four different polyamines, the ΔglnA3 mutant grew poorly showing abnormal mycelium morphology and decreased life span in comparison to the parental strain. These observations indicated that the accumulation of polyamines was toxic for the cell. An in silico analysis of the GlnA3 protein model suggested that it might act as a gamma-glutamylpolyamine synthetase catalyzing the first step of polyamine degradation. GlnA3-catalyzed glutamylation of putrescine was confirmed in an enzymatic in vitro assay and the GlnA3 reaction product, gamma-glutamylputrescine, was detected by HPLC/ESI-MS. In this work, the first step of polyamine utilization in S. coelicolor has been elucidated and the putative polyamine utilization pathway has been deduced based on the sequence similarity and transcriptional analysis of homologous genes expressed in the presence of polyamines.

  12. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  13. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  14. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  15. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  16. A theoretical model investigation of peptide bond formation involving two water molecules in ribosome supports the two-step and eight membered ring mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Jun, E-mail: gaojun@sdu.edu.cn [Agricultural Bioinformatics Key Laboratory of Hubei Province, College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • We theoretical studied peptide bond formation reaction mechanism with two water molecules. • The first water molecule can decrease the reaction barriers by forming hydrogen bonds. • The water molecule mediated three-proton transfer mechanism is the favorable mechanism. • Our calculation supports the two-step and eight membered ring mechanism. - Abstract: The ribosome is the macromolecular machine that catalyzes protein synthesis. The kinetic isotope effect analysis reported by Strobel group supports the two-step mechanism. However, the destination of the proton originating from the nucleophilic amine is uncertain. A computational simulation of different mechanisms including water molecules is carried out using the same reaction model and theoretical level. Formation the tetrahedral intermediate with proton transfer from nucleophilic nitrogen, is the rate-limiting step when two water molecules participate in peptide bond formation. The first water molecule forming hydrogen bonds with O9′ and H15′ in the A site can decrease the reaction barriers. Combined with results of the solvent isotope effects analysis, we conclude that the three-proton transfer mechanism in which water molecule mediate the proton shuttle between amino and carbon oxygen in rate-limiting step is the favorable mechanism. Our results will shield light on a better understand the reaction mechanism of ribosome.

  17. Cocaine-induced changes of synaptic transmission in the striatum are modulated by adenosine A2A receptors and involve the tyrosine phosphatase STEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Valentina; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Ferrante, Antonella; Chen, Jiang F; Lombroso, Paul J; Di Stasi, Anna Maria Michela; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2014-02-01

    The striatum is a brain area implicated in the pharmacological action of drugs of abuse. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the striatum and mediate, at least in part, cocaine-induced psychomotor effects in vivo. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological action of cocaine in the striatum and investigated the influence of A2ARs. We found that synaptic transmission was depressed in corticostriatal slices after perfusion with cocaine (10 μM). This effect was reduced by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 and almost abolished in striatal A2AR-knockout mice (mice lacking A2ARs in striatal neurons, stA2ARKO). The effect of cocaine on synaptic transmission was also prevented by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4). In synaptosomes prepared from striatal slices, we found that the activity of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) was upregulated by cocaine, prevented by ZM241385, and absent in synaptosomes from stA2ARKO. The role played by STEP in cocaine modulation of synaptic transmission was investigated in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum. We found that TAT-STEP, a peptide that renders STEP enzymatically inactive, prevented cocaine-induced reduction in AMPA- and NMDA-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents, whereas the control peptide, TAT-myc, had no effect. These results demonstrate that striatal A2ARs modulate cocaine-induced synaptic depression in the striatum and highlight the potential role of PTPs and specifically STEP in the effects of cocaine.

  18. Investigation of the steps involved in the difference of susceptibility of Ephestia kuehniella and Spodoptera littoralis to the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkefi-Mesrati, L.; Boukedi, H.; Chakroun, M.; Kamoun, F.; Azzouz, H.; Tounsi, S.; Rouis, S.; Jaoua, S.

    2011-01-01

    BUPM95 is a Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain producing the Vip3Aa16 toxin with an interesting insecticidal activity against the Lepidopteran larvae Ephestia kuehniella. Study of different steps in the mode of action of this Vegetative Insecticidal Protein on the Mediterranean flour moth (E. kuehniella) was carried out in the aim to investigate the origin of the higher susceptibility of this insect to Vip3Aa16 toxin compared to that of the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera litt...

  19. The sf32 unique gene of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV is a non-essential gene that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization in occlusion-derived virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Beperet

    Full Text Available A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null, unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV, was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac. Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration, speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs.

  20. The sf32 Unique Gene of Spodoptera frugiperda Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) Is a Non-Essential Gene That Could Be Involved in Nucleocapsid Organization in Occlusion-Derived Virions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beperet, Inés; Barrera, Gloria; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Gasmi, Laila; Herrero, Salvador; Caballero, Primitivo

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null), unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV), was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac). Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration), speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity) to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs. PMID:24204916

  1. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  2. The in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion obtained during electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A unique intramolecular mechanism involving an ion-molecule reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoub, Joseph H; Demian, Wael L L; Piazzetta, Paolo; Sarkis, George; Kanawati, Basem; Lafont, Dominique; Laurent, Nicolas; Vaillant, Celine; Randell, Edward; Giorgi, Gianluca; Fridgen, Travis D

    2015-10-15

    This study examines the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation and low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) of a synthetic pair of β- and α-anomers of the amphiphilic cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing the 2-azido-2-deoxy-D-galactosyl-D-GalN3 moiety. We describe the novel and unique in situ gas-phase formation of a C-glycoside ion formed during all these gas-phase processes and propose a reasonable mechanism for its formation. The synthetic amphiphilic glycolipids were composed of the 2-deoxy-2-azido-D-galactosyl moiety (GalN3, the hydrophilic part) covalently attached to a polyethoxy spacer which is covalently linked to the cholesteryl moiety (hydrophobic part). The 2-azido-2-deoxy-α- and β-D-galactosyl-containing glycolipids were studied by in-time and in-space ESI-MS and CID-MS/MS in positive ion mode, with quadrupole ion trap (QIT), quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqTOF), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) instruments. Conventional single-stage ESI-MS analysis showed the formation of the protonated molecule. During the single-stage ESI-MS analysis and the CID-MS/MS of the [M+H](+) and [M+NH4](+) adducts obtained from both glycolipid anomers, the presence of a series of specific product ions with different intensities was observed, consistent with the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+), [cholestadiene+H](+), 2-deoxy-2-D-azido-galactosyl [GalN3](+), [GalNH](+) and [sugar-Spacer+H](+) ions. The gas-phase formation of the [C-glycoside+H-N2](+) ion isolated from the glycolipid anomers was observed during both the ESI-MS of the glycolipids and the CID-MS/MS analyses of the [M+H](+) ions and it was found to occur by an intramolecular rearrangement involving an ion-molecule complex. CID-QqTOF-MS/MS and CID-FTICR-MS(2) analysis allowed the differentiation of the two glycolipid anomers and showed noticeable variation in the

  3. Identification of a novel arabinofuranosyltransferase AftB involved in a terminal step of cell wall arabinan biosynthesis in Corynebacterianeae, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Mathias; Alderwick, Luke J; Birch, Helen L; Sahm, Hermann; Eggeling, Lothar; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2007-05-18

    Arabinofuranosyltransferase enzymes, such as EmbA, EmbB, and AftA, play pivotal roles in the biosynthesis of arabinogalactan, and the anti-tuberculosis agent ethambutol (EMB) targets arabinogalactan biosynthesis through inhibition of Mt-EmbA and Mt-EmbB. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel arabinofuranosyltransferase, now termed AftB (Rv3805c), which is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Deletion of its orthologue NCgl2780 in the closely related species Corynebacterium glutamicum resulted in a viable mutant. Analysis of the cell wall-associated lipids from the deletion mutant revealed a decreased abundance of cell wall-bound mycolic acids, consistent with a partial loss of mycolylation sites. Subsequent glycosyl linkage analysis of arabinogalactan also revealed the complete absence of terminal beta(1 --> 2)-linked arabinofuranosyl residues. The deletion mutant biochemical phenotype was fully complemented by either Mt-AftB or Cg-AftB, but not with muteins of Mt-AftB, where the two adjacent aspartic acid residues, which have been suggested to be involved in glycosyltransferase activity, were replaced by alanine. In addition, the use of C. glutamicum and C. glutamicumDeltaaftB in an in vitro assay utilizing the sugar donor beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-1-monophosphoryl-decaprenol together with the neoglycolipid acceptor alpha-D-Araf-(1 --> 5)-alpha-D-Araf-O-C(8) as a substrate confirmed AftB as a terminal beta(1 --> 2) arabinofuranosyltransferase, which was also insensitive to EMB. Altogether, these studies have shed further light on the complexities of Corynebacterianeae cell wall biosynthesis, and Mt-AftB represents a potential new drug target.

  4. Two Serine Residues Control Sequential Steps during Catalysis of the Yeast Copper ATPase through Different Mechanisms That Involve Kinase-mediated Phosphorylations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Rafael H. F.; Britto-Borges, Thiago; Lowe, Jennifer; Einicker-Lamas, Marcelo; Mintz, Elisabeth; Cuillel, Martine; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2011-01-01

    Ccc2, the yeast copper-transporting ATPase, pumps copper from the cytosol to the Golgi lumen. During its catalytic cycle, Ccc2 undergoes auto-phosphorylation on Asp627 and uses the energy gained to transport copper across the cell membrane. We previously demonstrated that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) controls the energy interconversion CuE∼P → E-P + Cu when Ser258 is phosphorylated. We now demonstrate that Ser258 is essential in vivo for copper homeostasis in extremely low copper and iron concentrations. The S258A mutation abrogates all PKA-mediated phosphorylations of Ccc2, whereas the S971A mutation leads to a 100% increase in its global regulatory phosphorylation. With S258A, the first-order rate constant of catalytic phosphorylation by ATP decreases from 0.057 to 0.030 s−1, with an 8-fold decrease in the burst of initial phosphorylation. With the S971A mutant, the rate constant decreases to 0.007 s−1. PKAi5–24 decreases the amount of the aspartylphosphate intermediate (EP) in Ccc2 wt by 50% within 1 min, but not in S258A, S971A, or S258A/S971A. The increase of the initial burst and the extremely slow phosphorylation when the “phosphomimetic” mutant S258D was assayed (k = 0.0036 s−1), indicate that electrostatic and conformational (non-electrostatic) mechanisms are involved in the regulatory role of Ser258. Accumulation of an ADP-insensitive form in S971A demonstrates that Ser971 is required to accelerate the hydrolysis of the E-P form during turnover. We propose that Ser258 and Ser971 are under long-range intramolecular, reciprocal and concerted control, in a sequential process that is crucial for catalysis and copper transport in the yeast copper ATPase. PMID:21163943

  5. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  6. First Steps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Reform of a unique characteristic of the Chinese stock market-split shares-is nearing completion. But many other aspects remain to be solved A list of listed companies that kicked off the 40th round of split share structure reform was published by the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges on July 10. To date,

  7. The mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation by Amphitrite ornata dehaloperoxidase is initiated by H2O2 binding and involves two consecutive one-electron steps: role of ferryl intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Robert L; Coggins, Michael K; Raner, Gregory M; Walla, Mike; Dawson, John H

    2009-05-26

    The enzymatic globin, dehaloperoxidase (DHP), from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is designed to catalyze the oxidative dehalogenation of halophenol substrates. In this study, the ability of DHP to catalyze this reaction by a mechanism involving two consecutive one-electron steps via the normal order of addition of the oxidant cosubstrate (H(2)O(2)) before organic substrate [2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP)] is demonstrated. Specifically, 1 equiv of H(2)O(2) will fully convert 1 equiv of TCP to 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, implicating the role of multiple ferryl [Fe(IV)O] species. A significant amount of heterolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of cumene hydroperoxide, consistent with transient formation of a Compound I [Fe(IV)O/porphyrin pi-cation radical] species, is observed upon its reaction with ferric DHP. In addition, a more stable high-valent Fe(IV)O-containing DHP intermediate [Compound II (Cpd II) or Compound ES] is characterized by UV-visible absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Spectral similarities are seen between this intermediate and horse heart myoglobin Cpd II. It is also shown in single-turnover experiments that the DHP Fe(IV)O intermediate is an active oxidant in halophenol oxidative dehalogenation. Furthermore, reaction of DHP with 4-chlorophenol leads to a dimeric product. The results presented herein are consistent with a normal peroxidase order of addition of the oxidant cosubstrate (H(2)O(2)) followed by organic substrate (TCP) and indicate that the enzymatic mechanism of DHP-catalyzed oxidative halophenol dehalogenation involves two consecutive one-electron steps with a dissociable radical intermediate.

  8. The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular

  9. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  10. Friction of atomically stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikken, R. J.; Thijsse, B. J.; Nicola, L.

    2017-03-01

    The friction behavior of atomically stepped metal surfaces under contact loading is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. While real rough metal surfaces involve roughness at multiple length scales, the focus of this paper is on understanding friction of the smallest scale of roughness: atomic steps. To this end, periodic stepped Al surfaces with different step geometry are brought into contact and sheared at room temperature. Contact stress that continuously tries to build up during loading, is released with fluctuating stress drops during sliding, according to the typical stick-slip behavior. Stress release occurs not only through local slip, but also by means of step motion. The steps move along the contact, concurrently resulting in normal migration of the contact. The direction of migration depends on the sign of the step, i.e., its orientation with respect to the shearing direction. If the steps are of equal sign, there is a net migration of the entire contact accompanied by significant vacancy generation at room temperature. The stick-slip behavior of the stepped contacts is found to have all the characteristic of a self-organized critical state, with statistics dictated by step density. For the studied step geometries, frictional sliding is found to involve significant atomic rearrangement through which the contact roughness is drastically changed. This leads for certain step configurations to a marked transition from jerky sliding motion to smooth sliding, making the final friction stress approximately similar to that of a flat contact.

  11. Linear algebra step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-01-01

    Linear algebra is a fundamental area of mathematics, and is arguably the most powerful mathematical tool ever developed. It is a core topic of study within fields as diverse as: business, economics, engineering, physics, computer science, ecology, sociology, demography and genetics. For an example of linear algebra at work, one needs to look no further than the Google search engine, which relies upon linear algebra to rank the results of a search with respect to relevance. The strength of the text is in the large number of examples and the step-by-step explanation of each topic as it is introduced. It is compiled in a way that allows distance learning, with explicit solutions to set problems freely available online. The miscellaneous exercises at the end of each chapter comprise questions from past exam papers from various universities, helping to reinforce the reader's confidence. Also included, generally at the beginning of sections, are short historicalbiographies of the leading players in the field of lin...

  12. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  13. A Step-by-Step Guide to Personalize Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Barbara; McClaskey, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    It is known that every learner is unique and that one-size-fits-all instruction does not work for most. How can a classroom environment be created that gives each learner voice and choice? The co-founders of Personalize Learning, LLC, offer a detailed six-step approach. This article provides the background on what is and what is not Personalized…

  14. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  15. The deinococcal DdrB protein is involved in an early step of DNA double strand break repair and in plasmid transformation through its single-strand annealing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthier de la Tour, Claire; Boisnard, Stéphanie; Norais, Cédric; Toueille, Magali; Bentchikou, Esma; Vannier, Françoise; Cox, Michael M; Sommer, Suzanne; Servant, Pascale

    2011-12-10

    The Deinococcus radiodurans bacterium exhibits an extreme resistance to ionizing radiation. Here, we investigated the in vivo role of DdrB, a radiation-induced Deinococcus specific protein that was previously shown to exhibit some in vitro properties akin to those of SSB protein from Escherichia coli but also to promote annealing of single stranded DNA. First we report that the deletion of the C-terminal motif of the DdrB protein, which is similar to the SSB C-terminal motif involved in recruitment to DNA of repair proteins, did neither affect cell radioresistance nor DNA binding properties of purified DdrB protein. We show that, in spite of their different quaternary structure, DdrB and SSB occlude the same amount of ssDNA in vitro. We also show that DdrB is recruited early and transiently after irradiation into the nucleoid to form discrete foci. Absence of DdrB increased the lag phase of the extended synthesis-dependent strand annealing (ESDSA) process, affecting neither the rate of DNA synthesis nor the efficiency of fragment reassembly, as indicated by monitoring DNA synthesis and genome reconstitution in cells exposed to a sub-lethal ionizing radiation dose. Moreover, cells devoid of DdrB were affected in the establishment of plasmid DNA during natural transformation, a process that requires pairing of internalized plasmid single stranded DNA fragments, whereas they were proficient in transformation by a chromosomal DNA marker that integrates into the host chromosome through homologous recombination. Our data are consistent with a model in which DdrB participates in an early step of DNA double strand break repair in cells exposed to very high radiation doses. DdrB might facilitate the accurate assembly of the myriad of small fragments generated by extreme radiation exposure through a single strand annealing (SSA) process to generate suitable substrates for subsequent ESDSA-promoted genome reconstitution.

  16. Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bolender

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description” requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

  17. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  18. Unique properties of Plasmodium falciparum porphobilinogen deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Viswanathan Arun; Arumugam, Rajavel; Gopalakrishnan, Bulusu; Jyothsna, Yeleswarapu Sri; Rangarajan, Pundi N; Padmanaban, Govindarajan

    2008-01-04

    The hybrid pathway for heme biosynthesis in the malarial parasite proposes the involvement of parasite genome-coded enzymes of the pathway localized in different compartments such as apicoplast, mitochondria, and cytosol. However, knowledge on the functionality and localization of many of these enzymes is not available. In this study, we demonstrate that porphobilinogen deaminase encoded by the Plasmodium falciparum genome (PfPBGD) has several unique biochemical properties. Studies carried out with PfPBGD partially purified from parasite membrane fraction, as well as recombinant PfPBGD lacking N-terminal 64 amino acids expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cells (DeltaPfPBGD), indicate that both the proteins are catalytically active. Surprisingly, PfPBGD catalyzes the conversion of porphobilinogen to uroporphyrinogen III (UROGEN III), indicating that it also possesses uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) activity, catalyzing the next step. This obviates the necessity to have a separate gene for UROS that has not been so far annotated in the parasite genome. Interestingly, DeltaPfP-BGD gives rise to UROGEN III even after heat treatment, although UROS from other sources is known to be heat-sensitive. Based on the analysis of active site residues, a DeltaPfPBGDL116K mutant enzyme was created and the specific activity of this recombinant mutant enzyme is 5-fold higher than DeltaPfPBGD. More interestingly, DeltaPfPBGDL116K catalyzes the formation of uroporphyrinogen I (UROGEN I) in addition to UROGEN III, indicating that with increased PBGD activity the UROS activity of PBGD may perhaps become rate-limiting, thus leading to non-enzymatic cyclization of preuroporphyrinogen to UROGEN I. PfPBGD is localized to the apicoplast and is catalytically very inefficient compared with the host red cell enzyme.

  19. Learning SQL in Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Garner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning SQL is a common problem for many Computer Science (CS students, the steps involved are quite different to those mastered when learning procedural or object-oriented programming languages. The introduction of commercial products that include shortcuts into the learning environment can initially appear to benefit the student, however, transferring these skills to a textual environment can be difficult for many students. Computer Science students are required to build textual SQL queries because the demands of complex queries can quickly out grow the capabilities of graphical query builders available in many software packages. SQL in Steps (SiS is a graphical user interface centred around the textual translation of a query; this combination of a GUI and a clear representation of its textual meaning has the potential to improve the way in which users gain an understanding of SQL. SiS allows for an incremental and evolutionary development of queries by enabling students to build queries step by step until their goal is reached. A planned evaluation of SiS hopes to quantify the extent to which the introduction of such a user interface into the learning environment can improve the students' understanding of the language.

  20. In a unique position or squeezed out?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Christensen, Inge

    2009-01-01

    language, they experience that their patients disappear, they are seldom involved, and they lack knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: GPs have few experiences with YA cancer patients, but they have a potentially unique role in general primary cancer care if they develop their vocational vocabulary, relate more...

  1. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  2. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  3. On the Uniqueness of the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition of third-order tensors --- Part II: Uniqueness of the overall decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Polyadic (also known as Candecomp/Parafac) Decomposition (CPD) of a higher-order tensor is decomposition in a minimal number of rank-1 tensors. In Part I, we gave an overview of existing results concerning uniqueness and presented new, relaxed, conditions that guarantee uniqueness of one factor matrix. In Part II we use these results for establishing overall CPD uniqueness in cases where none of the factor matrices has full column rank. We obtain uniqueness conditions involving Khat...

  4. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  5. Step-Wise Migration : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardede, Elda; McCann, Philip; Venhorst, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study multiple internal migration trajectories in Indonesia, with special attention to step-wise migration. Step-wise migration involves moves with smaller steps from village to nearby small town, to larger town, and then to big cities rather than a direct move from

  6. Step-Wise Migration : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardede, Elda; McCann, Philip; Venhorst, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study multiple internal migration trajectories in Indonesia, with special attention to step-wise migration. Step-wise migration involves moves with smaller steps from village to nearby small town, to larger town, and then to big cities rather than a direct move from

  7. One-step purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase using reactive dye-affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunxi; Lee, Thomas C; Crowley, Kathleen S; Bell, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Reactive dye purification is an affinity purification technique offering unique selectivity and high purification potential. Historically, purification of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) has involved several steps of precipitation and column chromatography. Here, we describe a novel purification method that is simple, time-saving, inexpensive, and reproducible. The novel method employs a single chromatography step using a reactive dye resin, Reactive brown 10-agarose. Reactive brown 10 preferentially binds the PAT protein, which can then be specifically released by one of its substrates, acetyl-CoA. Using Reactive brown 10-agarose, PAT protein can be purified to homogeneity from E. coli or plant tissue with high recovery efficiency.

  8. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  9. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you fi

  10. On Computational Small Steps and Big Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jacob

    rules in the small-step semantics cause the refocusing step of the syntactic correspondence to be inapplicable. Second, we propose two solutions to overcome this in-applicability: backtracking and rule generalization. Third, we show how these solutions affect the other transformations of the two...

  11. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  12. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  13. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  14. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  15. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  16. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  17. Histoplasmose do sistema nervoso central como única manifestação da doença em pacientes imunocompetentes: apresentação de dois casos Central nervous system involvement by histoplasmosis as the unique manifestation of this disease in immunocompetent patients: presentation of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido C. Levi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos dois casos de histoplasmose em que o acometimento do sistema nervoso central foi a única manifestação clínica da doença. Revisão da literatura permitiu confirmar a raridade dessa forma de patologia, em particular em crianças, sendo o segundo caso aqui apresentado o de mais baixa idade na literatura nacional. São feitos comentários sobre a variedade das apresentações clínicas e os principais diagnósticos diferenciais da doença. São discutidos os resultados laboratoriais, tanto em relação às alterações liquóricas quanto aos resultados sorológicos. Finalmente, é analisada a terapêutica dessa forma de infecção fúngica tanto em relação aos medicamentos utilizáveis quanto à duração prolongada aconselhável para o tratamento específico.We present two patients with central nervous system involvement as the unique clinical manifestation of histoplasmosis. A clinical review confirmed the infrequency of this form of the disease, overall in childhood, being one of these cases the youngest in Brazilian reports. Comments about the diversity of clinical presentation and main differential diagnosis are presented. We analyze the serologic and cerebrospinal fluid results and, finally, discuss the drugs and duration of treatment.

  18. Developing Instructional Videotapes Step by Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the eight steps in developing an instructional videotape: planning, brainstorming content, sequencing the storyline, defining the treatment, developing the introduction and conclusion, scripting the video and audio, controlling the production, and specifying the postproduction. (DMM)

  19. Step by step: Revisiting step tolling in the bottleneck model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsey, C.R.; Berg, van den V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    In most dynamic traffic congestion models, congestion tolls must vary continuously over time to achieve the full optimum. This is also the case in Vickrey's (1969) 'bottleneck model'. To date, the closest approximations of this ideal in practice have so-called 'step tolls', in which the toll takes o

  20. Involving Practicing Scientists in K-12 Science Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments

  1. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  2. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  3. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  4. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  5. Unique Characteristics of a Graduate Program in Applied Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Stuart M.; Mills, Kim White; Dick, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Addresses one Communication Department's sojourn in designing, developing, and proposing a unique Master of Arts in Applied Communication. Discusses steps in developing an applied graduate program, the mission statement for the program, the curriculum, the expected impact of the graduate program on the undergraduate program, and program strengths.…

  6. [Celiac disease: an unique autoinmune model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Sáez, Luis Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a unique autoimmune disorder, because the environmental precipitant factor is known. It is gluten, the major storage protein of wheat and similar grains. Originally was considered a rare malabsorption syndrome of childhood, but nowadays is recognized a common condition, that affects to 1% of the general population, all over the world', involves to all different races, may be diagnosed at any age, and affects to many organ systems. Therapy for the disease is a gluten-free-diet that must be strict and long-term. This diet cause a total recovery clinical and analytical, with excellent quality of life of patients.

  7. Step-by-step Organization of a University CLIL Course

    OpenAIRE

    Cignoni, Laura (ILC-CNR); Fornaciari, Antonio; Coschino, Francesco; Fornaciari, Gino

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the organization of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) University courses in funerary archaeology held at the Division of Palaeopathology of Pisa University. We outline the different steps involved in the practical implementation of the proposed approach, which include choice of topic, linguistic content, tasks and strategies, and we describe the ways in which CLIL can be used both in the classroom and in archaeological fieldwork excavations for teaching of ...

  8. Organizing the spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuijs, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic activity is quickly changing the hydrosphere. Panta Rhei calls for improved understanding of changing hydrosphere dynamics in their connection with human systems. I argue that progress within the Panta Rhei initiative is strongly limited by the absence of hydrological principles that help to organise our spatially and temporally unique hydrosphere; without guiding principles (e.g. classification systems) hydrology will continue to be a case study dominated science that will have a hard time to efficiently improve understanding, estimation and prediction of human affected systems. Exposing such organising principles should not be considered as a step backwards into the recent PUB decade. Instead, it should be regarded as an exciting scientific challenge that is becoming increasingly relevant now the hydrosphere is quickly changing.

  9. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  10. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond ran

  11. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  12. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  13. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  14. Genome comparison without alignment using shortest unique substrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller Friedrich

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparison by alignment is a fundamental tool of molecular biology. In this paper we show how a number of sequence comparison tasks, including the detection of unique genomic regions, can be accomplished efficiently without an alignment step. Our procedure for nucleotide sequence comparison is based on shortest unique substrings. These are substrings which occur only once within the sequence or set of sequences analysed and which cannot be further reduced in length without losing the property of uniqueness. Such substrings can be detected using generalized suffix trees. Results We find that the shortest unique substrings in Caenorhabditis elegans, human and mouse are no longer than 11 bp in the autosomes of these organisms. In mouse and human these unique substrings are significantly clustered in upstream regions of known genes. Moreover, the probability of finding such short unique substrings in the genomes of human or mouse by chance is extremely small. We derive an analytical expression for the null distribution of shortest unique substrings, given the GC-content of the query sequences. Furthermore, we apply our method to rapidly detect unique genomic regions in the genome of Staphylococcus aureus strain MSSA476 compared to four other staphylococcal genomes. Conclusion We combine a method to rapidly search for shortest unique substrings in DNA sequences and a derivation of their null distribution. We show that unique regions in an arbitrary sample of genomes can be efficiently detected with this method. The corresponding programs shustring (SHortest Unique subSTRING and shulen are written in C and available at http://adenine.biz.fh-weihenstephan.de/shustring/.

  15. Evidence from sup 18 O exchange measurements for steps involving a weak acid and a slow chemical transformation in the mechanism of phosphorylation of the gastric H sup + ,K sup + -ATPase by inorganic phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, L.D.; Diaz, R.A. (Univ. of California School of Medicine and Veterans Administration Hospital Center, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-08-22

    Phosphorylation of the gastric H,K-ATPase by P{sub i} has been studied by measuring the P{sup 18}O{sub j}{sup 16}O{sub 4-j} distribution as a function of time at different H{sup +}, K{sup +}, and ({sup 18}O)P{sub i} concentrations. The advantage of isotope exchange measurements is that the P{sup 18}O{sub j}{sup 16}O{sub 4-j} distribution depends on the relative rates of HOH loss to form the phosphoenzyme intermediate and P{sub i} dissociation from the enzyme. Therefore, {sup 18}O exchange is a sensitive probe of mechanism. K{sup +} increases the exchange rate ({nu}{sub ex}) but does not affect the partition coefficient (P{sub c}) that determines the P{sup 18}O{sub j}{sup 16}O{sub 4-j} distribution. Conversely, H{sup +} inhibits exchange. A single P{sub c} describes the data at every pH, but the value increases from 0.04 to pH 8 to 0.64 at pH 5.5. {nu}{sub ex} depends hyperbolically on (P{sub i}){sub 0}. K{sub m} for P{sub i} does not depend on pH, and P{sub c} does not depend on (P{sub i}){sub 0}. Individual rate constants in the phosphorylation mechanism are estimated. Formation of the E{center dot}P{sub i} complex that looses HOH is 1-2 orders of magnitude slower at pH 5.5 than at pH 8 and is not diffusion controlled. The observed change in P{sub c} with pH is compatible with catalysis occurring by a different mechanism when a group with pK{sub a} = 7.2 is protonated. Slower than diffusion-controlled formation of the E{center dot}P{sub i} complex that splits out HOH is evidence for a relatively slow, unimolecular chemical transformation involving an additional intermediate in the phosphorylation mechanism, such as a protein conformational change.

  16. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  17. A unique chromatin signature uncovers early developmental enhancers in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Bajpai, Ruchi; Swigut, Tomek; Brugmann, Samantha A; Flynn, Ryan A; Wysocka, Joanna

    2011-02-10

    Cell-fate transitions involve the integration of genomic information encoded by regulatory elements, such as enhancers, with the cellular environment. However, identification of genomic sequences that control human embryonic development represents a formidable challenge. Here we show that in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), unique chromatin signatures identify two distinct classes of genomic elements, both of which are marked by the presence of chromatin regulators p300 and BRG1, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1), and low nucleosomal density. In addition, elements of the first class are distinguished by the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac), overlap with previously characterized hESC enhancers, and are located proximally to genes expressed in hESCs and the epiblast. In contrast, elements of the second class, which we term 'poised enhancers', are distinguished by the absence of H3K27ac, enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and are linked to genes inactive in hESCs and instead are involved in orchestrating early steps in embryogenesis, such as gastrulation, mesoderm formation and neurulation. Consistent with the poised identity, during differentiation of hESCs to neuroepithelium, a neuroectoderm-specific subset of poised enhancers acquires a chromatin signature associated with active enhancers. When assayed in zebrafish embryos, poised enhancers are able to direct cell-type and stage-specific expression characteristic of their proximal developmental gene, even in the absence of sequence conservation in the fish genome. Our data demonstrate that early developmental enhancers are epigenetically pre-marked in hESCs and indicate an unappreciated role of H3K27me3 at distal regulatory elements. Moreover, the wealth of new regulatory sequences identified here provides an invaluable resource for studies and isolation of transient, rare cell populations representing early stages of human embryogenesis.

  18. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  19. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  20. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  1. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  2. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  3. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...

  4. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  5. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  6. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  7. Parental Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  8. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...

  9. Monitoring and Evaluating Projects : A Step-by-Step Primer on Monitoring, Benchmarking, and Impact Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekka E. Grun

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to be a practical step-by-step guide to prepare and carry out benchmarking and impact analyses of projects. It's purpose is to attempt to present analytical tools solidly grounded in economic theory all while focusing on the practical questions of evaluations. Little space is given to theory, in order to spend more time on the actual steps involved, trying to make this ...

  10. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  11. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the traffic safety, the Danish Government considered introducing and afterwards implemented a step-by-step driving licence for young drivers. Due to this topicality a literature review on the experiences from step-by-step driving licence for young drivers was conducted. All...... investigated studies show that young people are heavily overrepresented in traffic accident statistics. This is partly due to lack of experience, but also due to poor understanding of the risks involving actions taken in traffic. In order to prevent this, a number of countries have started introducing a step......-by-step driving licence for young drivers. The initiatives in the various countries are the young people driving with an adult, limitations to when and where they may drive, limitations to the number of passengers and their age along with a number of tests and interviews in connection with acquiring the step...

  12. In silico biosynthesis of virenose, a methylated deoxy-sugar unique to Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramirez, Gabriela; Janecek, Stefan; Miernyk, Ján A; Skultety, Ludovit

    2012-11-15

    Coxiella burnetii is Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the zoonosis Q-fever. While it has an obligate intracellular growth habit, it is able to persist for extended periods outside of a host cell and can resist environmental conditions that would be lethal to most prokaryotes. It is these extracellular bacteria that are the infectious stage encountered by eukaryotic hosts. The intracellular form has evolved to grow and replicate within acidified parasitophorous vacuoles. The outer coat of C. burnetii comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component that includes the unique methylated-6-deoxyhexose, virenose. Although potentially important as a biomarker for C. burnetii, the pathway for its biosynthesis remains obscure. The 6-deoxyhexoses constitute a large family integral to the LPS of many eubacteria. It is believed that precursors of the methylated-deoxyhexoses traverse common early biosynthetic steps as nucleotide-monosaccharides. As a prelude to a full biosynthetic characterization, we present herein the results from bioinformatics-based, proteomics-supported predictions of the pathway for virenose synthesis. Alternative possibilities are considered which include both GDP-mannose and TDP-glucose as precursors. We propose that biosynthesis of the unique C. burnetii biomarker, virenose, involves an early pathway similar to that of other C-3'-methylated deoxysugars which then diverges depending upon the nucleotide-carrier involved. The alternatives yield either the D- or L-enantiomers of virenose. Both pathways require five enzymatic steps, beginning with either glucose-6-phosphate or mannose-6-phosphate. Our in silico results comprise a model for virenose biosynthesis that can be directly tested. Definition of this pathway should facilitate the development of therapeutic agents useful for treatment of Q fever, as well as allowing improvements in the methods for diagnosing this highly infectious disease.

  13. In silico biosynthesis of virenose, a methylated deoxy-sugar unique to Coxiella burnetii lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores-Ramirez Gabriela

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the zoonosis Q-fever. While it has an obligate intracellular growth habit, it is able to persist for extended periods outside of a host cell and can resist environmental conditions that would be lethal to most prokaryotes. It is these extracellular bacteria that are the infectious stage encountered by eukaryotic hosts. The intracellular form has evolved to grow and replicate within acidified parasitophorous vacuoles. The outer coat of C. burnetii comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS component that includes the unique methylated-6-deoxyhexose, virenose. Although potentially important as a biomarker for C. burnetii, the pathway for its biosynthesis remains obscure. Results The 6-deoxyhexoses constitute a large family integral to the LPS of many eubacteria. It is believed that precursors of the methylated-deoxyhexoses traverse common early biosynthetic steps as nucleotide-monosaccharides. As a prelude to a full biosynthetic characterization, we present herein the results from bioinformatics-based, proteomics-supported predictions of the pathway for virenose synthesis. Alternative possibilities are considered which include both GDP-mannose and TDP-glucose as precursors. Conclusion We propose that biosynthesis of the unique C. burnetii biomarker, virenose, involves an early pathway similar to that of other C-3’-methylated deoxysugars which then diverges depending upon the nucleotide-carrier involved. The alternatives yield either the D- or L-enantiomers of virenose. Both pathways require five enzymatic steps, beginning with either glucose-6-phosphate or mannose-6-phosphate. Our in silico results comprise a model for virenose biosynthesis that can be directly tested. Definition of this pathway should facilitate the development of therapeutic agents useful for treatment of Q fever, as well as allowing improvements in the methods for diagnosing this highly

  14. Nonlinear independent component analysis: Existence and uniqueness results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, Aapo; Pajunen, Petteri

    1999-04-01

    The question of existence and uniqueness of solutions for nonlinear independent component analysis is addressed. It is shown that if the space of mixing functions is not limited there exists always an infinity of solutions. In particular, it is shown how to construct parameterized families of solutions. The indeterminacies involved are not trivial, as in the linear case. Next, it is shown how to utilize some results of complex analysis to obtain uniqueness of solutions. We show that for two dimensions, the solution is unique up to a rotation, if the mixing function is constrained to be a conformal mapping together with some other assumptions. We also conjecture that the solution is strictly unique except in some degenerate cases, as the indeterminacy implied by the rotation is essentially similar to estimating the model of linear ICA.

  15. UNIQUENESS ON ZERO PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞敏; 王振

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a new idea, the authors prove the uniqueness of weak solution of pressureless gases with the large initial data. In particular, uniqueness theorem is obtained in the same functional space as the existence theorem.

  16. The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capes Melinda D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs. We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs, of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs, the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all

  17. On the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniya Mandal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity theories coupled to n vector multiplets. We prove that for a given charge configuration the supersymmetry preserving axion free attractors are unique. We generalise the analysis to axionic attractors and state the conditions for uniqueness explicitly. We consider the example of a two-parameter model and find all solutions to the supersymmetric attractor equations and discuss their uniqueness.

  18. Stepping in the river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kearney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Stepping in the River' is about the cultural misunderstandings and small betrayals that arise when First World tourists visit Third World countries. It is also about the enduring love that people in these countries can inspire, imperfect though that love may be.

  19. A Major Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Optimism arises from the new timetable of denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula Chinese officials like to use mountain climbing to describe the six-party talks aimed at resolving the North Korean nuclear puzzle.In this sense,any step toward the peak-"the verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner"-

  20. Steps toward Successful Dictation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebhaber, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Relates a technique that helps students learn dictation while enjoying the topic. Provides six steps: (1) send students to the blackboard to take dictation; (2) have students listen first; (3) ask students to isolate melody from rhythm; (4) have all students sing using solfege syllables; (5) provide feedback; and (6) accommodate varying abilities.…

  1. Step-Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babah Daouda, Falylath; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    With upcoming middle classes in Africa, micro-entrepreneurs witness new opportunities that can potentially lift them out of poverty. Exploiting these opportunities requires entrepreneurs to make a ‘step-change’ away from the bottom of the pyramid to middle-class markets. This process hosts potent

  2. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 801 RIN 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification... unique device identification system as required by recent amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and..., FDA published a proposed rule to establish a unique device identification system, as required by...

  3. On chromatic and flow polynomial unique graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Yinghua; Wu, Haidong; Yu, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    ... research on graphs uniquely determined by their chromatic polynomials and more recently on their Tutte polynomials, but rather spotty research on graphs uniquely determined by their flow polynomials or the combination of both chromatic and flow polynomials. This article is an initiation of investigation on graphs uniquely determin...

  4. Why you need to look where you step for precise foot placement : The effects of gaze eccentricity on stepping errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, K. A.; den Otter, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that accurate stepping involves the fixation of gaze on the intended step location. One possible explanation for this visual strategy is that the fixation of locations that are eccentric relative to the step target, results in systematic localization errors, as has previo

  5. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  6. Community involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Community involvement is the main theme of Health Year. Governments have a responsibility for the health of their people, and in this country under the present 3-tier system of government, the responsibility for the rendering of health services is divided between central, provincial and local government. However, under our democratic system, all people have the right to, and it is indeed their duty, to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of services to meet their health needs. Ultimately, through involvement of individuals, families and communities, greater self-reliance is achieved leading to greater responsibility being assumed by people for their own health.

  7. A rapid, one step molecular identification of Trichoderma citrinoviride and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroj, Dina B; Dengeti, Shrinivas N; Aher, Supriya; Gupta, Anil K

    2015-06-01

    Trichoderma species are widely used as production hosts for industrial enzymes. Identification of Trichoderma species requires a complex molecular biology based identification involving amplification and sequencing of multiple genes. Industrial laboratories are required to run identification tests repeatedly in cell banking procedures and also to prove absence of production host in the product. Such demands can be fulfilled by a brief method which enables confirmation of strain identity. This communication describes one step identification method for two common Trichoderma species; T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, based on identification of polymorphic region in the nucleotide sequence of translation elongation factor 1 alpha. A unique forward primer and common reverse primer resulted in 153 and 139 bp amplicon for T. citrinoviride and T. reesei, respectively. Simplification was further introduced by using mycelium as template for PCR amplification. Method described in this communication allows rapid, one step identification of two Trichoderma species.

  8. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation.

  9. A low molecular weight artificial RNA of unique size with multiple probe target regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitulle, C.; Dsouza, L.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    Artificial RNAs (aRNAs) containing novel sequence segments embedded in a deletion mutant of Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA have previously been shown to be expressed from a plasmid borne growth rate regulated promoter in E. coli. These aRNAs accumulate to high levels and their detection is a promising tool for studies in molecular microbial ecology and in environmental monitoring. Herein a new construct is described which illustrates the versatility of detection that is possible with aRNAs. This 3xPen aRNA construct carries a 72 nucleotide insert with three copies of a unique 17 base probe target sequence. This aRNA is 160 nucleotides in length and again accumulates to high levels in the E. coli cytoplasm without incorporating into ribosomes. The 3xPen aRNA illustrates two improvements in detection. First, by appropriate selection of insert size, we obtained an aRNA which provides a unique and hence, easily quantifiable peak, on a high resolution gel profile of low molecular weight RNAs. Second, the existence of multiple probe targets results in a nearly commensurate increase in signal when detection is by hybridization. These aRNAs are naturally amplified and carry sequence segments that are not found in known rRNA sequences. It thus may be possible to detect them directly. An experimental step involving RT-PCR or PCR amplification of the gene could therefore be avoided.

  10. Characterization of a Unique Pathway for 4-Cresol Catabolism Initiated by Phosphorylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Ma, Li; Qi, Feifei; Zheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Chengying; Li, Ailei; Wan, Xiaobo; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Li, Shengying

    2016-03-18

    4-Cresol is not only a significant synthetic intermediate for production of many aromatic chemicals, but also a priority environmental pollutant because of its toxicity to higher organisms. In our previous studies, a gene cluster implicated to be involved in 4-cresol catabolism, creCDEFGHIR, was identified in Corynebacterium glutamicum and partially characterized in vivo. In this work, we report on the discovery of a novel 4-cresol biodegradation pathway that employs phosphorylated intermediates. This unique pathway initiates with the phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group of 4-cresol, which is catalyzed by a novel 4-methylbenzyl phosphate synthase, CreHI. Next, a unique class I P450 system, CreJEF, specifically recognizes phosphorylated intermediates and successively oxidizes the aromatic methyl group into carboxylic acid functionality via alcohol and aldehyde intermediates. Moreover, CreD (phosphohydrolase), CreC (alcohol dehydrogenase), and CreG (aldehyde dehydrogenase) were also found to be required for efficient oxidative transformations in this pathway. Steady-state kinetic parameters (Km and kcat) for each catabolic step were determined, and these results suggest that kinetic controls serve a key role in directing the metabolic flux to the most energy effective route.

  11. Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide KidsHealth > For Parents > Tick Removal: A Step-by-Step Guide A A ... isn't a freckle at all. It's a tick. What should you do? First, don't panic. ...

  12. Fermentation guide for potatoes. A step-by-step procedure for small-scale ethanol fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This guide describes the steps involved in the successful batch starch conversion and fermentation of potatoes for the production of fuel grade ethanol. The first part of this manual provides an overview of ethanol production from feedstock to fermentation. The second part of the manual is a recipe section that gives step-by-step procedures necessary for successful fermentation. Chapter titles are: major steps in ethanol production; equipment and chemicals; water testing and treatment; feedstock cleaning and crushing; precooking; hydration and dextrinization; cooking; choosing the best enzymes; fermentation; core and cleaning, step-by-step procedure; refinements; and supplies. (DMC)

  13. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  14. Deep Panuke : uniquely positioned for future success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, L. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An overview of PanCanadian's involvement in east coast activities and the Deep Panuke Project was presented with focus on regional developments. A map depicting oil and gas fields in eastern Canada's offshore was included. PanCanadian holds 100 per cent interest in the Deep Panuke gas field which is located in the Scotian Basin and is expected to produce 400 MMcf/d by 2005. The master schedule for the Deep Panuke for 2000 to 2004 was presented. A map depicting PanCanadian land holdings interests in the Scotian Shelf was also included. Different types of gravity based structures and their installations were presented along with the construction status of the Eirik Raude deep water drilling rig. Maps depicting drilling location and coal bed methane zones were also included and means by which acid gas (H2S) will be disposed were illustrated. The Deep Panuke project has obtained approvals from the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, the National Energy Board, the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environment Canada and Industry Canada. The next step in the development process is to present a front-end engineering design and to show development plans for environmental assessment, socio-economic assessments and a Nova Scotia benefits plan. tabs., figs.

  15. Step length estimation using handheld inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Susi, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user's step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor's signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand's motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  16. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand’s motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  17. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  18. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  19. Step Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangShuochengt; WangDan; QiaoWeimin; JingLan

    2003-01-01

    All kinds of step motors and servomotors are widely used in CSR control system, such as many vacuum valves control that set on the HIRFL-CSR; all kinds of electric switches and knobs of ECR Ion Source; equipment of CSR Beam Diagnostics and a lot of large equipment like Inside Gun Toroid and Collector Toroid of HIRFL. A typical control system include up to 32 16-I/O Control boards, and each 16-I/O Control board can control 4 motors at the same time (including 8 Limit Switches).

  20. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  1. On the Uniqueness of the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition of third-order tensors --- Part I: Basic Results and Uniqueness of One Factor Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Polyadic Decomposition (CPD) of a higher-order tensor is decomposition in a minimal number of rank-1 tensors. We give an overview of existing results concerning uniqueness. We present new, relaxed, conditions that guarantee uniqueness of one factor matrix. These conditions involve Khatri-Rao products of compound matrices. We make links with existing results involving ranks and k-ranks of factor matrices. We give a shorter proof, based on properties of second compound matrices, of ex...

  2. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  3. Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB, normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND, and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and

  4. Stepping up, stepping back, stepping forward: Student nurses' experiences as peer mentors in a pre-nursing scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annetta; Beattie, Michelle; Kyle, Richard G

    2015-11-01

    Mentorship is an essential part of the registered nurse's role, yet few opportunities exist for student nurses to mentor others during pre-registration programmes. This paper reports student nurses' experiences of mentoring school pupils during a pre-nursing scholarship. Focus groups were conducted with fifteen final year student nurses (14 female, 1 male) in two university campuses in Scotland. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and data analysed thematically. Three interconnected themes emerged: 1) stepping up; 2) stepping back; 3) stepping forward. 'Stepping up' was a process through which student nurses rapidly assumed responsibility for mentoring pupils, facilitated through the attitudes and actions of students' mentors and students' control over pupils' practice experiences. 'Stepping back' encapsulated attitudes and behaviours that enabled student nurses to mentor pupils that involved considerable judgement around how unfolding events in practice could provide learning and development opportunities, and emotional acuity to support pupils through, sometimes challenging, practice situations. 'Stepping forward' described how students' mentoring experience allowed them to appraise and affirm nursing knowledge and skills, and gain greater appreciation of the reality and complexity of mentorship in clinical practice. Peer mentoring may prepare student nurses for future mentoring roles and aid their transition into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  6. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  7. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  8. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 16, 801, 803, et al. Unique Device Identification System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... will substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in...

  9. Seven steps to curb global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John [Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)]. E-mail: john.Mathews@mq.edu.au

    2007-08-15

    Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed.

  10. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  11. Step & flash imprint lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Resnick

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The escalating cost of next generation lithography (NGL is driven in part by the need for complex sources and optics. The cost for a single NGL tool could soon exceed $50 million, a prohibitive amount for many companies. As a result, several research groups are looking at alternative, low-cost methods for printing sub-100 nm features. Many of these methods are limited in their ability to do precise overlay. In 1999, Willson and Sreenivasan developed step and flash imprint lithography (S-FIL™. The use of a quartz template opens up the potential for optical alignment of the wafer and template. This paper reviews several key aspects of the S-FIL process, including template, tool, ultraviolet (UV-curable monomer, and pattern transfer. Two applications are also presented: contact holes and surface acoustic wave (SAW filters.

  12. Glycopeptide-preferring polypeptide GalNAc transferase 10 (ppGalNAc T10), involved in mucin-type O-glycosylation, has a unique GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr-binding site in its catalytic domain not found in ppGalNAc T1 or T2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Cynthia L; Ganguli, Anjali; Wu, Peng; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Fritz, Timothy A; Raman, Jayalakshmi; Tabak, Lawrence A; Gerken, Thomas A

    2009-07-24

    Mucin-type O-gly co sy la tion is initiated by a large family of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAc Ts) that transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc to the Ser and Thr residues of polypeptide acceptors. Some members of the family prefer previously gly co sylated peptides (ppGalNAc T7 and T10), whereas others are inhibited by neighboring gly co sy la tion (ppGalNAc T1 and T2). Characterizing their peptide and glycopeptide substrate specificity is critical for understanding the biological role and significance of each isoform. Utilizing a series of random peptide and glycopeptide substrates, we have obtained the peptide and glycopeptide specificities of ppGalNAc T10 for comparison with ppGalNAc T1 and T2. For the glycopeptide substrates, ppGalNAc T10 exhibited a single large preference for Ser/Thr-O-GalNAc at the +1 (C-terminal) position relative to the Ser or Thr acceptor site. ppGalNAc T1 and T2 revealed no significant enhancements suggesting Ser/Thr-O-GalNAc was inhibitory at most positions for these isoforms. Against random peptide substrates, ppGalNAc T10 revealed no significant hydrophobic or hydrophilic residue enhancements, in contrast to what has been reported previously for ppGalNAc T1 and T2. Our results reveal that these transferases have unique peptide and glycopeptide preferences demonstrating their substrate diversity and their likely roles ranging from initiating transferases to filling-in transferases.

  13. What's unique about unique entities? An fMRI investigation of the semantics of famous faces and landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lars A; Olson, Ingrid R

    2012-09-01

    Famous people and artifacts are referred to as "unique entities" (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing.

  14. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development......During the last fifteen years, a very large effort to standardize the product models employed in product design, manufacturing and other life-cycle phases has been undertaken. This effort has the acronym STEP, and resulted in the International Standard ISO-10303 "Industrial Automation Systems...

  15. First steps for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haysley, D. [Albert-Garaudy and Associates, Inc. (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Albert-Garaudy and Associates discusses how the new steps introduced in ANS/ISA apply to safety instrumental systems in the process sector. Safety is discussed in 'jargonistic' terms. The problems faced by the process industry in developing procedures to meet the 1996 ANSI/ISA S84.01 are recognised and two recommendations are made; these describe (a) how the PHA (process hazards analysis) can be carried out and (b) how acceptable methods can be used for the risk assessment and determine the SIS (safety instrumental system) requirements. Diagrams illustrate (i) the modified SIS life cycle; (ii) selection of safety integrity levels using matrix method; (iii) construction of a risk graph and (iv) the ALARP (As Low as Reasonably Possible) method. An answer to the problem of defining an 'acceptable risk level' through adopting risk values published by the US government is outlined, and references to useful sources are listed. The paper should be helpful in development and documentation of risk assessment in the process industry.

  16. One-step microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  17. STEPS: JPL's Astrometric Exoplanet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaklan, Stuart; Pravdo, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Presentation topics include: STEPS ground-based astrometry at Hale Telescope; the instrument; why astronomy and why M-dwarfs; motion of center of light about center of mass in photocentric orbit; photocentric motion vs. fractional mass; high-resolution imaging of STEPS targets; GU 802 p one possible orbit plotted with data, Keplerian frame; GJ 802 results; STEPS future; and a bibliography of STEPS papers.

  18. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  19. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  20. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Opalak

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions.

  1. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  2. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-14

    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  3. The one step fermionic ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy Prakash; Setlur, Girish S.

    2017-10-01

    The one step fermionic ladder refers to two parallel Luttinger Liquids (poles of the ladder) placed such that there is a finite probability of electrons hopping between the two poles at a pair of opposing points along each of the poles. The many-body Green function for such a system is calculated in presence of forward scattering interactions using the powerful non-chiral bosonization technique (NCBT). This technique is based on a non-standard harmonic analysis of the rapidly varying parts of the density fields appropriate for the study of strongly inhomogeneous ladder systems. The closed analytical expression for the correlation function obtained from NCBT is nothing but the series involving the RPA (Random Phase Approximation) diagrams in powers of the forward scattering coupling strength resummed to include only the most singular terms with the source of inhomogeneities treated exactly. Finally the correlation functions are used to study physical phenomena such as Friedel oscillations and the conductance of such systems with the potential difference applied across various ends.

  4. NEW STEPS IN SKETCHING MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tocariu Liliana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new and main steps in sketching machine part, by using the Solid Edge program. The traditional method applied in the technical drawing is appreciably altered in the case of the computer-assisted and modern design. These modifications involve others: e.g., use of classic drawing rule in tool sketching. The author deals with them from three points of view, namely: technical drawing, technical education and advantages.

  5. Comprehensive Approach Workshop: Hard Problem First Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    T being done and to be done. It is important to have the right people involved in these initial steps included those performing and managing the...attend the workshop: those performing as well as managing the science. Another lesson learned was to seek early endorsement of the science activity...Interagency, Multinational, Public », un regard historique, et d’explorer d’agilité organisationnelle comme un facteur essential d’améliorer

  6. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Akutsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL, which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111 surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the 〈101〉 direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  7. Stutter-Step Models of Performance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Leenman, Theodore S.; Todd, Jennifer J.; Kentucky; Weeden, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate a stutter-step model of academic performance in high school, this article adopts a unique measure of the beliefs of 12,591 high school sophomores from the Education Longitudinal Study, 2002-2006. Verbatim responses to questions on occupational plans are coded to capture specific job titles, the listing of multiple jobs, and the listing…

  8. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  9. Existence and Uniqueness in Shape from Shading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雁萍; 李价谷

    1997-01-01

    For the image of a smooth surface object fully contained within the field of view and illuminated in and arbitrary direction,this paper discusses the existence and uniqueness o the conditions for solving a shape-from-shading problem under the conditions that the Fourier series expansion of the image intensity contains only zero and first order terms in a polar coordinate system.Three theorems are established,one for the existence and two for the uniqueness of z-axis symmetric shape from shading.

  10. Step-By-Step Professional Development in Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Sarah T.

    2012-01-01

    Don't train your teachers in instructional technology without reading this resource-packed book from Sarah T. Meltzer. Meltzer presents easy-to-follow guidelines for bringing about effective professional development in technology from start to finish. She takes you step-by-step through the process of planning, implementing, and managing…

  11. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  12. Preface, Soil Science: A step-by-step analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book provides step-by-step procedures for soil professionals, without a lot of background theory. Chapters are targeted toward agricultural and environmental consultants, producers, students, teachers, government, and industry. Applied soil scientists gave input through a survey, which guided t...

  13. Uniqueness vs non-uniqueness in complete connections with modified majority rules

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, J. C. A.; Friedli, S.

    2013-01-01

    We take a closer look at a class of chains with complete connections introduced by Berger, Hoffman and Sidoravicius. Besides giving a sharper description of the uniqueness and non-uniqueness regimes, we show that if the pure majority rule used to fix the dependence on the past is replaced with a function that is Lipschitz at the origin, then uniqueness always holds, even with arbitrarily slow decaying variation.

  14. Uniqueness of meromorphic functions concerning differential polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Lei

    2007-01-01

    Based on a unicity theorem for entire funcitions concerning differential polynomials proposed by M. L. Fang and W. Hong, we studied the uniqueness problem of two meromorphic functions whose differential polynomials share the same 1-point by proving two theorems and their related lemmas. The results extend and improve given by Fang and Hong's theorem.

  15. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  16. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor questionnaire, a…

  17. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  18. Multicultural Poetry: Voices Unique, yet Universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    As teachers gravitate more and more to the use of literature and strive to include a range of cultural experiences in their classrooms, the use of poetry from various cultural groups should be considered. Poetry is a very real means of having children see themselves and others as being both unique and yet the same. In considering poetry across…

  19. Tulane Student Designs Unique Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A Louisiana architect has created plans for a unique supplementary learning environment consisting of five circular buildings featuring a planetarium, an indoor display of small animals in their native habitat, an indoor pond, a library, a media center, and an auditorium. (Author/MLF)

  20. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  1. UNIQUENESS OF DIFFERENCE POLYNOMIALS OF MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 祁晓光

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the uniqueness problems of difference polynomials of meromorphic functions and obtain some results which can be viewed as discrete analogues of the results given by Shibazaki. Some examples are given to show the results in this article are best possible.

  2. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  3. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  4. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  5. Bimaxillary presentation of central ossifying fibroma: a unique aggressive entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Kiran; Gupta, Kavita; Manjunatha, B S; Palan, Soniya

    2013-01-01

    Central ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm, having slow growing nature. Some rare lesions show very aggressive nature, multifocal appearance and reach up to a very massive size. So, these kinds of cases require special attention for their treatment. A unique case of central ossifying fibroma with aggressive nature, multifocal appearance is reported. This case shows growth both in maxilla and mandible with maxillary lesion massive in size involving maxillary sinus. There have not been any such cases reported so far in the literature showing bimaxillary growth of ossifying fibroma. PMID:23774709

  6. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  7. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  8. The Paczynski-Wiita potential: A step-by-step "derivation"

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, Marek A

    2009-01-01

    Paczynski realized that a properly chosen gravitational potential may accurately model (in a "pseudo Newtonian" theory) general relativistic effects that determine motion of matter near a non-rotating black hole. Paczynski's choice, known today as the "Paczynski-Wiita potential", proved to be very practical. It was used by numerous researchers in the black hole accretion theory, and became a standard tool in relativistic astrophysics. The model is an example of Paczynski's admired ability to invent "out of nowhere" simple ideas that were brilliant, deep and useful. Paczynski has guessed intuitively the form of the potential. However, it could be also derived by a a step-by-step formal procedure. I show the derivation here. My derivation is based on a standard definition of the relativistic "effective potential" in the Schwarzschild spacetime. The relativistic effective potential may be uniquely divided into its "gravitational" and "centrifugal" part. The gravitational part differs from the Paczynski-Wiita pot...

  9. Unique roles of acidic amino acids in phase transformation of calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaobin; Jiang, Wenge; Zhang, Zhisen; Yan, Yang; Pan, Haihua; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2011-02-10

    Although phase transformation is suggested as a key step in biomineralization, the chemical scenario about how organic molecules mediate inorganic phase transformations is still unclear. The inhibitory effect of amino acids on hydroxyapatite (HAP, the main inorganic component of biological hard tissues such as bone and enamel) formation was concluded by the previous biomimetic modeling based upon direct solution crystallization. Here we demonstrate that acidic amino acids, Asp and Glu, could promote HAP crystallization from its precursor crystal, brushite (DCPD). However, such a promotion effect could not be observed when the nonacidic amino acids were applied in the transformation-based HAP formation. We found that the specific modification of acidic amino acid on crystal-solution interfaces played a key role in the phase transition. The distinct properties between DCPD and HAP in the solution resulted in an interfacial energy barrier to suppress the spontaneous formation of HAP phase on DCPD phase. Different from the other amino acids, the carboxylate-rich amino acids, Asp and Glu, could modify the interfacial characteristics of these two calcium phosphate crystals to make them similar to each other. The experiments confirmed that the involvement of Asp or Glu reduced the interfacial energy barrier between DCPD and HAP, leading to a trigger effect on the phase transformation. An in-depth understanding about the unique roles of acidic amino acids may contribute to understanding phase transformation controls druing biomineralization.

  10. Subdural hemorrhage: A unique case involving secondary vitamin K deficiency bleeding due to biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Masashi; Abiru, Hitoshi; Ozeki, Munetaka; Kotani, Hirokazu; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Kobayashi, Naho; Omae, Tadaki; Osamura, Toshio; Tamaki, Keiji

    2012-09-10

    Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) is a rare disease characterized by progressive and obliterative cholangiopathy in infants and is one of the major causes of secondary vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to cholestasis-induced fat malabsorption. Breast feeding increases the tendency of bleeding in EHBA patients because breast milk contains low amounts of vitamin K. A 2-month-old female infant unexpectedly died, with symptoms of vomiting and jaundice prior to death. She had been born by uncomplicated vaginal delivery and exhibited normal growth and development with breastfeeding. There was no history of trauma. She received vitamin K prophylaxis orally. In an emergency hospital, a CT scan showed a right intracranial hematoma and mass effect with midline shift to the left. In the postmortem examination, severe atresia was observed in the whole extrahepatic bile duct. Histologically, cholestasis, periductal fibrosis, and distorted bile ductules were noted. The gallbladder was not identified. A subdural hematoma and cerebellar tonsillar herniation were found; however, no traumatic injury in any part of the body was observed. Together, these findings suggest that the subdural hemorrhage was caused by secondary vitamin K deficiency resulting from a combination of cholestasis-induced fat malabsorption and breastfeeding. Subdural hemorrhage by secondary VKDB sometimes occurs even when vitamin K prophylaxis is continued. This case demonstrated that intrinsic factors, such as secondary VKDB (e.g., EHBA, neonatal hepatitis, chronic diarrhea), should also be considered in infant autopsy cases presenting with subdural hemorrhage.

  11. Transformation by Polyomavirus Middle T Antigen Involves a Unique Bimodal Interaction with the Hippo Effector YAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Cecile; Pores Fernando, Arun T; Hwang, Justin H; Faure, Nathalie; Jiang, Tao; White, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Thomas M; Schaffhausen, Brian S

    2016-08-15

    Murine polyomavirus has repeatedly provided insights into tumorigenesis, revealing key control mechanisms such as tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. We recently demonstrated that polyomavirus small T antigen (ST) binds YAP, a major effector of Hippo signaling, to regulate differentiation. Here we characterize YAP as a target of middle T antigen (MT) important for transformation. Through a surface including residues R103 and D182, wild-type MT binds to the YAP WW domains. Mutation of either R103 or D182 of MT abrogates YAP binding without affecting binding to other signaling molecules or the strength of PI3K or Ras signaling. Either genetic abrogation of YAP binding to MT or silencing of YAP via short hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduced MT transformation, suggesting that YAP makes a positive contribution to the transformed phenotype. MT targets YAP both by activating signaling pathways that affect it and by binding to it. MT signaling, whether from wild-type MT or the YAP-binding MT mutant, promoted YAP phosphorylation at S127 and S381/397 (YAP2/YAP1). Consistent with the known functions of these phosphorylated serines, MT signaling leads to the loss of YAP from the nucleus and degradation. Binding of YAP to MT brings it together with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to the dephosphorylation of YAP in the MT complex. It also leads to the enrichment of YAP in membranes. Taken together, these results indicate that YAP promotes MT transformation via mechanisms that may depart from YAP's canonical oncogenic transcriptional activation functions. The highly conserved Hippo/YAP pathway is important for tissue development and homeostasis. Increasingly, changes in this pathway are being associated with cancer. Middle T antigen (MT) is the primary polyomavirus oncogene responsible for tumor formation. In this study, we show that MT signaling promotes YAP phosphorylation, loss from the nucleus, and increased turnover. Notably, MT genetics demonstrate that YAP binding to MT is important for transformation. Because MT also binds PP2A, YAP bound to MT is dephosphorylated, stabilized, and localized to membranes. Taken together, these results indicate that YAP promotes MT transformation via mechanisms that depart from YAP's canonical oncogenic transcriptional activation functions. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Physical modeling of stepped spillways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams are becoming popular for addressing the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those situated in the urban landscape. Stepped spillways are typically placed over the existing embankment, which provides for minimal disturbance to the original ...

  13. Leidenfrost Drop on a Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2008-11-01

    When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

  14. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  15. A Unique Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pelvic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Traisak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is diverse and vasculitis can be a potential manifestation. Cutaneous lesions involving small vessels are the most frequent presentation. However, medium and large vessel vasculitis may present with life-threatening visceral manifestations. We present a unique case of pelvic vasculitis mimicking a pelvic mass as an initial presentation of SLE. There are case reports of systemic vasculitis involving the female genital tract with giant cell arteritis (GCA, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN, and granulomatous with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis (GPA/MPA, among others, but only a few cases attributed to SLE. Awareness of this condition and a prompt diagnosis are warranted as this is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.

  16. ROMANIA'S MACROECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS FOR JOINING THE UNIQUE EUROPEAN CURENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government has announced plans to join the eurozone by 2015. Currently, the leu is not yet part of ERM II but plans to join in 2010-2012. The economic advantages of the monetary union grow with expansion of the Euro zone. There is also a high level of skepticism; the main fear about the Euro is the inflation –that is considerable promoted by the Euro currency’s exchange rate in comparison with 2002; another restraint is due to member states inability to establish their own interest rates. The IMF arose the option of joining the Euro zone criteria relaxing. A one-sided Euro’s joining was suggested by International Monetary Fund on March-April 2009, in a confidential report mentioned by The Financial Times as the emergent states in Central and Eastern Europe to be able to pass to the unique currency, but not being represented in the Central European Bank Board. By its side, CEB considers that emergent states of the European Union must not pass to the unique currency unilaterally, because such a fact could under-mine the trust in Euro currency worldwide. This option would hardly deepen the macroeconomic controversies inside the Euro zone and would contradict the previous conditions already imposed. An acceptable solution could be the fastening of emergent countries joining the Exchange Rate Mechanism 2, after they are aware of risks arisen by such a step. The European Commission endorses in the Convergence Report on 2010 that Romania doesn’t meet any criteria needed by passing to the unique European currency, respectively: prices stability; budget position of the government; stability of exchange rate; interest convergence on long run and there are also law impediments. Our paper discusses arguments for a faster passing to the Euro currency versus arguments for a late joining the Euro currency in Romania.

  17. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  18. Unique device identification system. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use.

  19. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  20. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  1. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  2. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kumar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early writers conceived the caste system of pre-modern India as something unique to India. An attempt is made to question this application of theory of uniqueness in the case of India.

  3. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  4. Luminosity progression in dart-stepped leader step formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Takagi, N.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Using a high-speed optical imaging system, we have observed the step formation bright pulse discharges occurring at the tip of dart-stepped leaders of rocket triggered lightning with a time resolution of 0.1 µs and a spatial resolution of about 1.4 m. Each of the step formation pulse discharges appeared to initiate at a location immediately below the bottom of its previous pulse discharge and to propagate in bidirectional (upward and downward) waves with a speed on the order of 107 m/s. The downward waves of the pulse discharges tended to slow down significantly after they propagated a distance of about 2 m. Based on the results observed in this study and those published in literatures, we propose a conceptual view of leader step formation.

  5. Metalworking Techniques Unlock a Unique Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Approached by West Hartford, Connecticut-based Abbot Ball Company, Glenn Research Center agreed to test an intriguing alloy called Nitinol 60 that had been largely unused for a half century. Using powdered metallurgy, the partners developed a method for manufacturing and working with the material, which Abbott Ball has now commercialized. Nitinol 60 provides a unique combination of qualities that make it an excellent material for ball bearings, among other applications.

  6. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main e...

  7. A unique case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khizar

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year-old Asian girl was referred to the nephrology unit with rapidly progressive renal failure. At the age of 15 she was diagnosed as having systemic lupus erythematosus but had defaulted treatment. Her renal functions improved with cyclophosphamide pulse treatment but she continued to have central nervous system vasculitis, gastrointestinal vasculitis and opportunistic infections making her a unique and challenging case of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  8. Uniqueness from locality and BCFW shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodina, Laurentiu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a BCFW shift which can be used to recursively build the full Yang-Mills amplitude as a function of polarization vectors. Furthermore, in line with the recent results of arXiv:1612.02797, we conjecture that the Yang-Mills scattering amplitude is uniquely fixed by locality and demanding the usual asymptotic behavior under a sufficient number of shifts. Unitarity therefore emerges from locality and constructability. We prove this statement at the leading order in the soft expansion.

  9. The University of Minnesota Morris (UMM) STEP Program: an initiative to encourage the participation of Native Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the UMM STEP program is to increase the number of graduates in STEM fields through innovative curricular, recruiting and mentoring strategies. A unique focus of the UMM STEP program is increasing the number of Native American science majors. The STEP program fosters a summer research environment where peer interaction and mentoring creates a web of support. To do so we will establish a supportive and fulfilling pipeline that: 1) Identifies Native American students and involves them in research while they are high school; 2) Mentors and prepares participants for university academics the summer before their freshman year; 3) Provides a complete tuition waiver, mentoring and a support network throughout their undergraduate career; and 4) Involves participants in an active and dynamic summer undergraduate research environment where under-represented individuals are in the majority. The third and fourth components of this pipeline are in very good shape. The Morris campus was originally established as an Indian School in 1887. When the federal government deeded the Indian school campus to the University of Minnesota a stipulation was that Native American students attend the college for free. At present, 196 Native Americans are enrolled at UMM (50 are STEM majors). The UMM STEP research experience provides the unique opportunity to interact with a scientific community that both breaks down a number of traditional barriers and aids in the maturation of these students as scientists. In Summer 2008, 4 students were involved in summer research and in 2009 seven Native American students participated. Early efforts of the UMM STEP program are encouraging. UMM Admissions staff used the UMM STEP program to recruit Native American students and the P.I. phoned “uncommitted admits”, visited reservations and hosted reservation student visits. The result was an increase in freshman Native American Science majors from 7 in Fall 2007, 15 in fall 2008 and 20 in fall

  10. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  11. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bin...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  12. Two-Step Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Satoru; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We analyze electroweak baryogenesis during a two-step electroweak symmetry breaking transition, wherein the baryon asymmetry is generated during the first step and preserved during the second. Focusing on the dynamics of CP-violation required for asymmetry generation, we discuss general considerations for successful two-step baryogenesis. Using a concrete model realization, we illustrate in detail the viability of this scenario and the implications for present and future electric dipole moment (EDM) searches. We find that CP-violation associated with a partially excluded sector may yield the observed baryon asymmetry while evading present and future EDM constraints.

  13. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  14. Vortex scattering by step topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, A. K.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    The scattering at a rectilinear step change in depth of a shallow-water vortex pair consisting of two patches of equal but opposite-signed vorticity is studied. Using the constants of motion, an explicit relationship is derived relating the angle of incidence to the refracted angle after crossing. A pair colliding with a step from deep water crosses the escarpment and subsequently propagates in shallow water refracted towards the normal to the escarpment. A pair colliding with a step from shallow water either crosses and propagates in deep water refracted away from the normal or, does not cross the step and is instead totally internally reflected by the escarpment. For large depth changes, numerical computations show that the coherence of the vortex pair is lost on encountering the escarpment.

  15. From Recombinant Expression to Crystals: A Step-by-Step Guide to GPCR Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Arun K; Kumari, Punita; Ghosh, Eshan; Nidhi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the primary targets of drugs prescribed for many human pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension, allergies, schizophrenia, asthma, and various types of cancer. High-resolution structure determination of GPCRs has been a key focus area in GPCR biology to understand the basic mechanism of their activation and signaling and to materialize the long-standing dream of structure-based drug design on these versatile receptors. There has been tremendous effort at this front in the past two decades and it has culminated into crystal structures of 27 different receptors so far. The recent progress in crystallization and structure determination of GPCRs has been driven by innovation and cutting-edge developments at every step involved in the process of crystallization. Here, we present a step-by-step description of various steps involved in GPCR crystallization starting from recombinant expression to obtaining diffracting crystals. We also discuss the next frontiers in GPCR biology that are likely to be a primary focus for crystallography efforts in the next decade or so. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical electronic logbook: A step forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Díaz, Carlos Javier; Luna Aufroy, Alexis; Rebasa Cladera, Pere; Serra Pla, Sheila; Jurado Ruiz, Cristina; Mora López, Laura; Serra Aracil, Xavier; Navarro Soto, Salvador

    2015-12-01

    The surgical electronic logbook (surgical e-logbook) aims to: simplify registration of the training activities of surgical residents, and to obtain reliable and detailed reports about these activities for resident evaluation. The surgical e-logbook is a unique and shared database. Residents prospectively record their activities in 3 areas: surgical, scientific and teaching. We can access activity reports that are constantly updated. Study period using the surgical e-logbook: Between June 2011 and May 2013. Number of surgeries reported: 4,255. Number of surgical procedures reported: 11,907. Number of surgeries per resident per year reported: 250. Number of surgical procedures per resident per year reported: 700. Surgical activity as a primary surgeon during the first year of residency is primarily in emergency surgery (68,01%) and by laparotomy (97,73%), while during the fifth year of residency 51,27% is performed in elective surgery and laparoscopy is used in 23,10% of cases. During this period, residents participated in a total of 11 scientific publications, 75 conference presentations and 69 continuing education activities. The surgical e-logbook is a useful tool that simplifies the recording and analysis of data about surgical and scientific activities of the residents. It is a step forward in the evaluation of the training of surgical residents, however, is only an intermediate step towards the development of a larger Spanish registry. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Oblique Water Wave Diffraction by a Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolai P.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of diffraction of an obliquely incident surface water wave train on an obstacle in the form of a finite step. Havelock expansions of water wave potentials are used in the mathematical analysis to obtain the physical parameters reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals. Appropriate multi-term Galerkin approximations involving ultraspherical Gegenbauer polynomials are utilized to obtain a very accurate numerical estimate for reflection and transmission coefficients which are depicted graphically. From these figures various interesting results are discussed.

  18. Oblique Water Wave Diffraction by a Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolai, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of diffraction of an obliquely incident surface water wave train on an obstacle in the form of a finite step. Havelock expansions of water wave potentials are used in the mathematical analysis to obtain the physical parameters reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals. Appropriate multi-term Galerkin approximations involving ultraspherical Gegenbauer polynomials are utilized to obtain a very accurate numerical estimate for reflection and transmission coefficients which are depicted graphically. From these figures various interesting results are discussed.

  19. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  20. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  1. Unique double recurrence of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Ichinose, Shunsuke; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Surgically treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered cured when the postoperative angiogram proves complete resection. However, despite no residual nidus or early draining vein on postoperative angiogram, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in adults. In this paper, the authors present a case of a 24-year-old woman with asymptomatic double recurrence of her cerebral AVM after angiographically proven complete resection. To the authors' knowledge, this patient represents the first case with double de novo asymptomatic recurrence of Spetzler-Martin grade I AVM. Also, she represents the first case with unique AVM criteria in each recurrence.

  2. A unique variation of superficial palmar arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji PJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a unique variation in the arterial pattern of superficial palmar arch in which it was completed by one of the large terminal branches of radial artery. The origin of the arteria radialis indicis was also peculiar that it was arising from the communicating branch of the radial artery and further reinforced by the first dorsal metacarpal artery that joined it after reaching the volar aspect. Pertinent anatomical knowledge regarding the variations of the palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations.

  3. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  4. Uniqueness of Centauro-type events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Beggio, P.C.; Carvalho, A.O. de; Menon, M.J.; Navia, C.E.; Oliveira, R. de; Shibuya, E.H

    2003-07-01

    Analysis to discriminate Centauro events from normal events is made without previous identification of secondary emitted particles. For this purpose their energy and derived quantities like distance from the center of momenta it were mainly used. As a result we found in a sample of (280+87) experimental events only 3 were compatible with 5 Centauro events, but none of them dad a high content of hadrons, characteristic of Centauro events. With this result we are confident about the uniqueness of Centauro events, especially for two events that have vertex directly determined. Comparing with some interaction models features we depict a possible scenario to explain Centauro events.

  5. Uniqueness of the Trautman-Bondi mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T; MacCallum, M A H; Chru\\'sciel, Piotr T.; Jezierski, Jacek; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the only functionals, within a natural class, which are monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri, are those depending on the metric only through a specific combination of the Bondi `mass aspect' and other next--to--leading order terms in the metric. Under the extra condition of passive BMS invariance, the unique such functional (up to a multiplicative factor) is the Trautman--Bondi energy. It is also shown that this energy remains well-defined for a wide class of `polyhomogeneous' metrics.

  6. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Paer [Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  7. Uniqueness, Self belonging and Intercourse in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsh, Dr. Marvin / E.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript has ensued from my past studies in biochemistry (PhD, CUNY 1986) and my current endeavors in graduate study in philosophy and anthropology. The current research project began during my period as a graduate student in biochemistry with a professor of classical genetics comment that DNA was unique in the physical world. The paradox presented to relate this notion to existing natural law lead me to evolve and communicate a view that the world itself is a special case of a general...

  8. A novel glucuronosyltransferase has an unprecedented ability to catalyse continuous two-step glucuronosylation of glycyrrhetinic acid to yield glycyrrhizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guojie; Cai, Wei; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    Glycyrrhizin is an important bioactive compound that is used clinically to treat chronic hepatitis and is also used as a sweetener world-wide. However, the key UDP-dependent glucuronosyltransferases (UGATs) involved in the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin remain unknown. To discover unknown UGATs, we fully annotated potential UGATs from Glycyrrhiza uralensis using deep transcriptome sequencing. The catalytic functions of candidate UGATs were determined by an in vitro enzyme assay. Systematically screening 434 potential UGATs, we unexpectedly found one unique GuUGAT that was able to catalyse the glucuronosylation of glycyrrhetinic acid to directly yield glycyrrhizin via continuous two-step glucuronosylation. Expression analysis further confirmed the key role of GuUGAT in the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Gln-352 may be important for the initial step of glucuronosylation, and His-22, Trp-370, Glu-375 and Gln-392 may be important residues for the second step of glucuronosylation. Notably, the ability of GuUGAT to catalyse a continuous two-step glucuronosylation reaction was determined to be unprecedented among known glycosyltransferases of bioactive plant natural products. Our findings increase the understanding of traditional glycosyltransferases and pave the way for the complete biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin.

  9. Two-Step Delivery: Exploiting the Partition Coefficient Concept to Increase Intratumoral Paclitaxel Concentrations In vivo Using Responsive Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Aaron H; Liu, Rong; Schulz, Morgan D; Padera, Robert F; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-01-07

    Drug dose, high local target tissue concentration, and prolonged duration of exposure are essential criteria in achieving optimal drug performance. However, systemically delivered drugs often fail to effectively address these factors with only fractions of the injected dose reaching the target tissue. This is especially evident in the treatment of peritoneal cancers, including mesothelioma, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer, which regularly employ regimens of intravenous and/or intraperitoneal chemotherapy (e.g., gemcitabine, cisplatin, pemetrexed, and paclitaxel) with limited results. Here, we show that a "two-step" nanoparticle (NP) delivery system may address this limitation. This two-step approach involves the separate administration of NP and drug where, first, the NP localizes to tumor. Second, subsequent administration of drug then rapidly concentrates into the NP already stationed within the target tissue. This two-step method results in a greater than 5-fold increase in intratumoral drug concentrations compared to conventional "drug-alone" administration. These results suggest that this unique two-step delivery may provide a novel method for increasing drug concentrations in target tissues.

  10. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 step...

  11. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  12. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  13. Transoral Robotic Surgery: Step-by-Step Radical Tonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Granell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS radical tonsillectomy is an emerging minimally invasive surgical procedure for the treatment of cancer of the tonsil. The detailed surgical technique and claims for its reproducibility have been previously published. Case Presentation. We present a patient with a T2N2bM0 epidermoid carcinoma of the tonsil to illustrate step by step the surgical procedure for TORS radical tonsillectomy. Neck dissection and TORS were staged. No surgical reconstruction of the defect was required. No tracheostomy was necessary. The patient could eat without any feeding tube and was on full oral diet on the fifth postoperative day. Discussion. The transoral approach offers the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to patients with cancer of the tonsil. The excellent exposure and high precision provided by robotic instrumentation allow the surgeon to closely follow and accomplish the surgical steps, which is the best warranty for safety and effectiveness.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  15. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  16. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  17. An experiment on Lowest Unique Integer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takashi; Hanaki, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally study Lowest Unique Integer Games (LUIGs) to determine if and how subjects self-organize into different behavioral classes. In a LUIG, N(≥ 3) players submit a positive integer up to M and the player choosing the smallest number not chosen by anyone else wins. LUIGs are simplified versions of real systems such as Lowest/Highest Unique Bid Auctions that have been attracting attention from scholars, yet experimental studies are scarce. Furthermore, LUIGs offer insights into choice patterns that can shed light on the alleviation of congestion problems. Here, we consider four LUIGs with N = { 3 , 4 } and M = { 3 , 4 } . We find that (a) choices made by more than 1/3 of subjects were not significantly different from what a symmetric mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium (MSE) predicts; however, (b) subjects who behaved significantly differently from what the MSE predicts won the game more frequently. What distinguishes subjects was their tendencies to change their choices following losses.

  18. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  19. Information marketing business entrepreneur's step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2012-01-01

    A six-figure income from information? Yes! It sounds easy because it is. You've got information that millions of others are looking for and now you can learn how to package, price and sell it.The experts at Entrepreneur take you step by step, jumpstarting your thinking about your area of expertise and showing you how to convert it into a high-demand information product. Following the example set by today's most successful information marketers, you learn the ins and outs of running your own information marketing business using proven strategies and effective marketing techniques.

  20. Writing a Simulation Scenario: A Step-By-Step Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Simulation is becoming a widely used method of helping nurses learn and maintain competency in the clinical area for both staff educators in clinical settings and nursing faculty in academic settings. Designing an effective simulation experience requires thoughtful planning, knowledge of educational principles, and knowledge of best practices in both simulation and clinical practice. An evidence-based strategy for writing a simulation scenario for nurses and other health care providers in any setting is described. A step-by-step process is outlined that incorporates best practices. Examples and suggestions are provided to help readers create quality simulation experiences.

  1. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  2. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  3. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Holger [Brookhaven; Plate, Stephen [Brookhaven; Berg, J.Scott [Brookhaven; Tarrant, Jason [Rutherford; Bross, Alan [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  4. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Plate, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tarrant, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-05-03

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  5. Dph3 is an electron donor for Dph1-Dph2 in the first step of eukaryotic diphthamide biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Su, Xiaoyang; Dzikovski, Boris; Dando, Emily E; Zhu, Xuling; Du, Jintang; Freed, Jack H; Lin, Hening

    2014-02-01

    Diphthamide, the target of diphtheria toxin, is a unique posttranslational modification on translation elongation factor 2 (EF2) in archaea and eukaryotes. The biosynthesis of diphthamide was proposed to involve three steps. The first step is the transfer of the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) to the histidine residue of EF2, forming a C-C bond. Previous genetic studies showed this step requires four proteins in eukaryotes, Dph1-Dph4. However, the exact molecular functions for the four proteins are unknown. Previous study showed that Pyrococcus horikoshii Dph2 (PhDph2), a novel iron-sulfur cluster-containing enzyme, forms a homodimer and is sufficient for the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis in vitro. Here we demonstrate by in vitro reconstitution that yeast Dph1 and Dph2 form a complex (Dph1-Dph2) that is equivalent to the homodimer of PhDph2 and is sufficient to catalyze the first step in vitro in the presence of dithionite as the reductant. We further demonstrate that yeast Dph3 (also known as KTI11), a CSL-type zinc finger protein, can bind iron and in the reduced state can serve as an electron donor to reduce the Fe-S cluster in Dph1-Dph2. Our study thus firmly establishes the functions for three of the proteins involved in eukaryotic diphthamide biosynthesis. For most radical SAM enzymes in bacteria, flavodoxins and flavodoxin reductases are believed to serve as electron donors for the Fe-S clusters. The finding that Dph3 is an electron donor for the Fe-S clusters in Dph1-Dph2 is thus interesting and opens up new avenues of research on electron transfer to Fe-S proteins in eukaryotic cells.

  6. Existence and uniqueness for a class of double pyramidal central configurations with a concave pentagonal base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on some necessary conditions for double pyramidal central configurations with a concave pentagonal base, for any given ratio of masses, the existence and uniqueness of a class of double pyramidal central configurations with a concave pentagonal base in 7-body problems are proved and the range of the ratio between radius and half-height is obtained, within which the 7 bodies involved form a central configuration or form uniquely a central configuration.

  7. Optimizing step gauge measurements and uncertainties estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, F.; Coorevits, T.; Vincent, R.

    2017-02-01

    According to the standard ISO 10360-2 (2001 Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate measuring machines (CMM)—part 2: CMMs used for measuring size (ISO 10360-2:2001)), we verify the coordinate measuring machine (CMM) performance against the manufacturer specification. There are many types of gauges used for the calibration and verification of CMMs. The step gauges with parallel faces (KOBA, MITUTOYO) are well known gauges to perform this test. Often with these gauges, only the unidirectional measurements are considered which avoids having to deal with a residual error that affects the tip radius compensation. However the ISO 10360-2 standard imposes the use of a bidirectional measurement. Thus, the bidirectional measures must be corrected by the residual constant offset probe. In this paper, we optimize the step gauge measurement and a method is given to mathematically avoid the problem of the constant offset of the tip radius. This method involves measuring the step gauge once and to measure it a second time with a shift of one slot in order to obtain a new set of equations. Uncertainties are also presented.

  8. Visual mislocalization during double-step saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart eZimmermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual objects presented briefly at the time of saccade onset appear compressed toward the saccade target. Compression strength depends on the presentation of a visual saccade target signal and is strongly reduced during the second saccade of a double-step saccade sequence (Zimmermann et al., 2014; 2014. Here, I tested whether perisaccadic compression is linked to saccade planning by contrasting two double-step paradigms. In the same-direction double-step paradigm, subjects were required to perform two rightward 10° saccades successively. At various times around execution of the saccade sequence a probe dot was briefly flashed. Subjects had to localize the position of the probe dot after they had completed both saccades. I found compression of visual space only at the time of the first but not at the time of the second saccade. In the reverse-direction paradigm, subjects performed first a rightward 10° saccade followed by a leftward 10° saccade back to initial fixation. In this paradigm compression was found in similar magnitude during both saccades. Analysis of the saccade parameters did not reveal indications of saccade sequence preplanning in this paradigm. I therefore conclude that saccade planning, rather than saccade execution factors, is involved in perisaccadic compression.

  9. Writing the Winning Dissertation: A Step-By-Step Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Allan A.

    This book is a practical guide to researching and writing the doctoral dissertation or master's thesis. Part 1 offers seven chapters on preparatory steps: laying the groundwork for the thesis and dissertation; finding a research problem; conducting a focused review of the literature; making a preliminary choice of methodology; organizing and…

  10. Publishing Ethical Research: A Step-by-Step Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    To publish ethical research, one must conduct research responsibly, making ethical choices from the inception of the research idea and throughout the research process. Conducting and publishing ethical research is important because of the impact the results will have on the counseling profession. Steps to consider are discussed.

  11. Shapiro step at nonequilibrium conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Nashaat, M.; Kulikov, K. V.; Dawood, R.; El Samman, H.; El Sherbini, Th. M.

    2016-07-01

    Detailed numerical simulations of intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation are performed taking into account a charge imbalance effect. We demonstrate that the charge imbalance is responsible for a slope in the Shapiro step in the IV-characteristic. The value of slope increases with a nonequilibrium parameter. Coupling between junctions leads to the distribution of the slope's values along the stack. The nonperiodic boundary conditions shift the Shapiro step from the canonical position determined by Vss=\\hbar f /(2e) , where f is a frequency of external radiation. This fact makes the interpretation of the experimentally found Shapiro step shift by the charge imbalance effect ambiguous.

  12. Convex Optimization without Projection Steps

    CERN Document Server

    Jaggi, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We study the general problem of minimizing a convex function over a compact convex domain. We will investigate a simple iterative approximation algorithm that does not need projection steps in order to stay inside the optimization domain. Instead of a projection step, the linearized problem defined by a current subgradient is solved, which gives a step direction that will naturally stay in the domain. The approach generalizes the sparse greedy algorithm of Clarkson (and the low-rank SDP solver by Hazan) to arbitrary convex domains, and to using subgradients for the case of non-differentiable convex functions. Analogously, we give a convergence proof guaranteeing {\\epsilon}-small duality gap after O(1/{\\epsilon}) iterations. The framework allows us understand the sparsity of approximate solutions for any l1-regularized convex optimization problem, expressed as a function of the approximation quality. We obtain matching upper and lower bounds of {\\Theta}(1/{\\epsilon}) for the sparsity for l1-problems. The same ...

  13. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  14. Outlaw biker affiliations and criminal involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klement, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of being an outlaw biker on criminal involvement in Denmark. Using a unique dataset, 297 outlaw bikers are matched on various background characteristics with 181,931 control individuals and effects are estimated in difference-in-difference regressions. This appr......This study investigates the effect of being an outlaw biker on criminal involvement in Denmark. Using a unique dataset, 297 outlaw bikers are matched on various background characteristics with 181,931 control individuals and effects are estimated in difference-in-difference regressions....... This approach reduces the risk of selection bias and helps isolate the effect of affiliation on criminal involvement. The results suggest that affiliation with an outlaw motorcycle club may increase involvement in overall crime, specifically property crime, drug crime, and weapons crime. Results regarding...... violent crimes are inconclusive. It is concluded that an outlaw biker affiliation may increase criminal involvement....

  15. Step-by-step phacoemulsification training program for ophthalmology residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yulan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP. Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents′ procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 μ 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 μ 17.58 vs. 55.41 μ 37.59, P = 0.021. Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 μ 1.2% in total (10.8 μ 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 μ 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely.

  16. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  17. Conditional and Unique Coloring of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2011-01-01

    For integers $k, r > 0$, a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper $k$-coloring of the vertices of $G$ such that every vertex $v$ of degree $d(v)$ in $G$ is adjacent to at least $\\min\\{r, d(v)\\}$ differently colored vertices. Given $r$, the smallest integer $k$ for which $G$ has a conditional $(k,r)$-coloring is called the $r$th order conditional chromatic number $\\chi_r(G)$ of $G$. We give results (exact values or bounds for $\\chi_r(G)$, depending on $r$) related to the conditional coloring of some graphs. We introduce \\emph{unique conditional colorability} and give some related results. (Keywords. cartesian product of graphs; conditional chromatic number; gear graph; join of graphs.)

  18. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M

    1994-12-01

    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  19. Computational Transition at the Uniqueness Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Sly, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The hardcore model is a model of lattice gas systems which has received much attention in statistical physics, probability theory and theoretical computer science. It is the probability distribution over independent sets $I$ of a graph weighted proportionally to $\\lambda^{|I|}$ with fugacity parameter $\\lambda$. We prove that at the uniqueness threshold of the hardcore model on the $d$-regular tree, approximating the partition function becomes computationally hard on graphs of maximum degree $d$. Specifically, we show that unless NP$=$RP there is no polynomial time approximation scheme for the partition function (the sum of such weighted independent sets) on graphs of maximum degree $d$ for fugacity $\\lambda_c(d) 0$. Weitz produced an FPTAS for approximating the partition function when $0<\\lambda < \\lambda_c(d)$ so this result demonstrates that the computational threshold exactly coincides with the statistical physics phase transition thus confirming the main conjecture of [28]. We further analyze the s...

  20. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Trikha; Tarun Goyal; Amit K Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Concomitant dislocation of the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury.Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously.We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient.These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient.These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be quite severe.This case is presented in view of its uniqueness along with possible mechanism of injury,the sequence of reduction and follow-up.Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons.

  1. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  2. Injectable hydrogels as unique biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2008-08-01

    A concentrated fish soup could be gelled in the winter and re-solled upon heating. In contrast, some synthetic copolymers exhibit an inverse sol-gel transition with spontaneous physical gelation upon heating instead of cooling. If the transition in water takes place below the body temperature and the chemicals are biocompatible and biodegradable, such gelling behavior makes the associated physical gels injectable biomaterials with unique applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering etc. Various therapeutic agents or cells can be entrapped in situ and form a depot merely by a syringe injection of their aqueous solutions at target sites with minimal invasiveness and pain. This tutorial review summarizes and comments on this soft matter, especially thermogelling poly(ethylene glycol)-(biodegradable polyester) block copolymers. The main types of injectable hydrogels are also briefly introduced, including both physical gels and chemical gels.

  3. Fullerenes as unique nanopharmaceuticals for disease treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As unique nanoparticles,fullerenes have attracted much attention due to their unparalleled physical,chemical and biological properties.Various functionalized fullerenes with OH,NH2,COOH,and peptide modifications were developed.It summarized the biological activities of fullerenes derivatives in cancer therapy with high efficiency and low toxicity,as reactive oxygen species scavenger and lipid peroxidation inhibitor,to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus and to suppress bacteria and microbial at low concentration.In addition,the mechanism for fullerene to enter cells and biodistribution of fullerene in vivo was also discussed.This research focuses on the current understanding of fullerenes-based nanomaterials in the potential clinical application as well as biological mechanism of fullerenes and its derivatives in disease therapy.

  4. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  5. Distributed Stepping Motor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The beam diagnostic devices used at RIBLL are driven by stepper motors, which are controlled by I/O modules based on ISA-bus in an industrial computer. The disadvantages of such mode are that a large number of long cables are used and one computer to control is unsafe. We have developed a distributed stepping motor control system for the remote, local and centralized control of the stepping motors. RS-485 bus is used for the connection between the remote control unit and the local control units. The con...

  6. The energy expenditure of stair climbing one step and two steps at a time: estimations from measures of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G; Watkins, David A R; Duggan, Brendan M

    2012-01-01

    Stairway climbing provides a ubiquitous and inconspicuous method of burning calories. While typically two strategies are employed for climbing stairs, climbing one stair step per stride or two steps per stride, research to date has not clarified if there are any differences in energy expenditure between them. Fourteen participants took part in two stair climbing trials whereby measures of heart rate were used to estimate energy expenditure during stairway ascent at speeds chosen by the participants. The relationship between rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and heart rate was calibrated for each participant using an inclined treadmill. The trials involved climbing up and down a 14.05 m high stairway, either ascending one step per stride or ascending two stair steps per stride. Single-step climbing used 8.5±0.1 kcal min(-1), whereas double step climbing used 9.2±0.1 kcal min(-1). These estimations are similar to equivalent measures in all previous studies, which have all directly measured [Formula: see text] The present study findings indicate that (1) treadmill-calibrated heart rate recordings can be used as a valid alternative to respirometry to ascertain rate of energy expenditure during stair climbing; (2) two step climbing invokes a higher rate of energy expenditure; however, one step climbing is energetically more expensive in total over the entirety of a stairway. Therefore to expend the maximum number of calories when climbing a set of stairs the single-step strategy is better.

  7. The energy expenditure of stair climbing one step and two steps at a time: estimations from measures of heart rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G Halsey

    Full Text Available Stairway climbing provides a ubiquitous and inconspicuous method of burning calories. While typically two strategies are employed for climbing stairs, climbing one stair step per stride or two steps per stride, research to date has not clarified if there are any differences in energy expenditure between them. Fourteen participants took part in two stair climbing trials whereby measures of heart rate were used to estimate energy expenditure during stairway ascent at speeds chosen by the participants. The relationship between rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text] and heart rate was calibrated for each participant using an inclined treadmill. The trials involved climbing up and down a 14.05 m high stairway, either ascending one step per stride or ascending two stair steps per stride. Single-step climbing used 8.5±0.1 kcal min(-1, whereas double step climbing used 9.2±0.1 kcal min(-1. These estimations are similar to equivalent measures in all previous studies, which have all directly measured [Formula: see text] The present study findings indicate that (1 treadmill-calibrated heart rate recordings can be used as a valid alternative to respirometry to ascertain rate of energy expenditure during stair climbing; (2 two step climbing invokes a higher rate of energy expenditure; however, one step climbing is energetically more expensive in total over the entirety of a stairway. Therefore to expend the maximum number of calories when climbing a set of stairs the single-step strategy is better.

  8. The general alcoholics anonymous tools of recovery: the adoption of 12-step practices and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Brenna L; Tonigan, J Scott

    2013-09-01

    Working the 12 steps is widely prescribed for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members although the relative merits of different methods for measuring step work have received minimal attention and even less is known about how step work predicts later substance use. The current study (1) compared endorsements of step work on an face-valid or direct measure, the Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory (AAI), with an indirect measure of step work, the General Alcoholics Anonymous Tools of Recovery (GAATOR); (2) evaluated the underlying factor structure of the GAATOR and changes in step work over time; (3) examined changes in the endorsement of step work over time; and (4) investigated how, if at all, 12-step work predicted later substance use. New AA affiliates (N = 130) completed assessments at intake, 3, 6, and 9 months. Significantly more participants endorsed step work on the GAATOR than on the AAI for nine of the 12 steps. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure for the GAATOR comprising behavioral step work and spiritual step work. Behavioral step work did not change over time, but was predicted by having a sponsor, while Spiritual step work decreased over time and increases were predicted by attending 12-step meetings or treatment. Behavioral step work did not prospectively predict substance use. In contrast, spiritual step work predicted percent days abstinent. Behavioral step work and spiritual step work appear to be conceptually distinct components of step work that have distinct predictors and unique impacts on outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  10. Identification and Classification of the Unique Features of Mass Housing Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Ebenezer Kwofie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass housing projects (MHPs are said to differ significantly from the “one-off” traditional building projects often encountered in the construction industry and thus require unique management skills and approach in MHPs delivery. This unique nature of MHPs contributes to managerial inefficiencies that result in delivery failures when management approaches are not adapted to the project characteristics. However, understanding and knowledge of the unique attributes of MHPs are critical towards improving the organisation, planning, managerial effectiveness, and delivery success of mass housing projects. To date, extensive studies establishing the unique features of mass housing projects are lacking. This study is set out to identify what constitutes the unique features of mass housing projects by comparing mass housing projects to traditional “one-off” building projects. A questionnaire survey was used to establish mass housing practitioners’ perception of the unique characteristics of MHPs. Data analysis involving mean scores and ANOVA revealed 10 unique features of MHP. A clear and systematic understanding of these unique features of MHPs is crucial for evolving effective project management practices and critical competencies towards successful delivery of current and future MHPs.

  11. Émission de photons uniques par un atome unique piégé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquié, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2006-10-01

    En illuminant un atome unique piégé dans une pince optique de taille micrométrique à l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses résonantes d'une durée de 4 ns, nous avons réalisé une source efficace de photons uniques déclenchés, de polarisation bien définie. Nous avons mesuré la fonction d'autocorrélation temporelle en intensité qui met en évidence un dégroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possède des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

  12. The unique predisposition to criminal violations in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility.

  13. Unique benefits of nanotechnology to drug delivery and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Scott E

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers many potential benefits to medical research by making pharmaceuticals more efficacious and by decreasing their adverse side-effects. Preclinical characterization of nanoparticles intended for medical applications is complicated--due to the variety of materials used, their unique surface properties and multifunctional nature. This chapter serves as an introduction to the volume, giving a broad overview of applications of nanotechnology to medicine, and describes some of the beneficial aspects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery. We define nanotechnology and provide brief descriptions of the major classes of nanomaterials used for medical applications. The following two chapters discuss scientific and regulatory hurdles involved in the use of nanotechnology in medicine. The remaining bulk of the volume provides the reader with protocols that have been tested against clinically relevant nanoparticles and describes some of the nuances of nanoparticle types and necessary controls.

  14. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Involving Maxilla and Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guna Shekhar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a relatively rare unique disease process characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells usually affecting children and young adults. Jaws are involved in less than 10% of children with the disease while mandibular involvement in young children is uncommon and bilateral affection is very rare. The purpose of this report is to describe a unique and very rare case of simultaneous and bilateral occurrence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in both the jaws of a four-year-old boy.

  15. 14 CFR 221.203 - Unique rule numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unique rule numbers required. 221.203... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.203 Unique rule numbers required... bear a unique rule number. (b) The unique rule numbers for the fares specified in this section shall...

  16. Practical design of stepped columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girao Coelho, A.M.; Simao, P.D.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with buckling aspects of the design of stepped columns in heavy mill buildings. In these structures, columns have to carry significant axial loads that usually act eccentrically and strength reducing bending moments due to lateral loads. A simple physical model for buckling behaviou

  17. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat...

  18. Pride Is the First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, James; Boone, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    When visitors step inside Pocomoke (MD) Middle School, they are immediately surrounded by a profound sense of pride and high expectations. Students are actively engaged in instruction, the classroom walls are covered with student work, and the halls are lined with pictures of students demonstrating success. Beanbag chairs await eager readers,…

  19. 12-step programs to reduce illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Nielsen, Sine Kirkegaard; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2014-01-01

    Many treatments are not rigorously evaluated as to their effectiveness, and it is uncertain which types of interventions are more effective than others in reducing illicit drug use. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic mapping of the research literature of the effectiveness of 12-step...... programs in reducing illicit drug use. A systematic literature search was conducted based on 17 international and Nordic Bibliographic databases. A total of 15993 references were screened, and eleven unique studies were finally included in this mapping. The included studies demonstrated conflicting results...... regarding the effectiveness of the 12-step treatment and TSF in reducing individuals’ drug use. Two studies reported a positive effect of the TSF treatment compared to the comparison conditions in reducing drug use. Six studies reported no differences between 12-step program and the comparison condition...

  20. Three-bucket quadrature phase stepping in a shearing speckle interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, P.A.A.M.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2006-01-01

    Phase stepping algorithms are mostly based on three or more interferograms that can either be acquired sequentially, involving some temporal phase stepping mechanism, or in parallel. When a phase step is applied between acquisitions, object phase changes may cause phase errors when calculating

  1. Three-bucket quadrature phase stepping in a shearing speckle interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, P.A.A.M.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2006-01-01

    Phase stepping algorithms are mostly based on three or more interferograms that can either be acquired sequentially, involving some temporal phase stepping mechanism, or in parallel. When a phase step is applied between acquisitions, object phase changes may cause phase errors when calculating phase

  2. Dissecting a complex neurosurgical illustration: step-by-step development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Modern computer graphics software has enabled the medical illustrator to render very complex anatomy by composing many different layers of drawings simultaneously. This and the author's capacity to take an "editorial" approach to compress several chronological events into a single, comprehensive two-dimensional illustration are analyzed in a step-by-step process. Through a series of images, the article provides a visual synopsis of the development of an illustration for an extensive clinical case: total sacrectomy performed through an all-posterior approach. Originally given as a slide presentation at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons Theodore Kurze Lecture in April 2011, the article provides some detailed notes on the techniques the author used to develop a comprehensive neurosurgical illustration.

  3. Fuel cells - Fundamentals and types: Unique features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, J. R.

    An overview of the working principles, thermodynamic efficiencies, types, and engineering aspects of fuel cells is presented. It is noted that fuel cells are distinguished from other direct energy conversion devices by the existence of charge separation at the electrodes involving ions in an electrolyte. The electrical energy produced by a fuel cell is shown to be equal to the change in the free energy of the reactants, and thermodynamic balances of reactions in different fuel cells are provided. The production of electricity in the discharge mode involves a spontaneous reaction of overproduction of electrons at the anode and consumption of the electrons at the cathode, with the total ionic current being equal to the electronic current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the operations and problems of acid, alkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells, in addition to applications of electro-organic fuel cells.

  4. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  5. Undertaking a literature review: a step-by-step approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Patricia; Ryan, Frances; Coughlan, Michael

    Nowadays, most nurses, pre- and post-qualification, will be required to undertake a literature review at some point, either as part of a course of study, as a key step in the research process, or as part of clinical practice development or policy. For student nurses and novice researchers it is often seen as a difficult undertaking. It demands a complex range of skills, such as learning how to define topics for exploration, acquiring skills of literature searching and retrieval, developing the ability to analyse and synthesize data as well as becoming adept at writing and reporting, often within a limited time scale. The purpose of this article is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate understanding by presenting the critical elements of the literature review process. While reference is made to different types of literature reviews, the focus is on the traditional or narrative review that is undertaken, usually either as an academic assignment or part of the research process.

  6. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  7. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  8. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  9. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  10. Unique biosynthesis of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To the best of my knowledge, only 19 cyclic and 8 linear C35 terpenes have been identified to date, and no family name was assigned to this terpene class until recently. In 2011, it was proposed that these C35 terpenes should be called sesquarterpenes. This review highlights the biosynthesis of two kinds of sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) that are produced via cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid in Bacillus and Mycobacterium species. In Bacillus species, a new type of terpene cyclase that has no sequence homology with any known terpene synthases, as well as a bifunctional terpene cyclase that biosynthesizes two classes of cyclic terpenes with different numbers of carbons as natural products, have been identified. On the other hand, in Mycobacterium species, the first bifunctional Z-prenyltransferase has been found, but a novel terpene cyclase and a unique polyprenyl reductase remain unidentified. The identification of novel enzyme types should lead to the discovery of many homologous enzymes and their products including novel natural compounds. On the other hand, many enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products have low substrate specificities in vitro. Therefore, to find novel natural products present in organisms, the multifunctionality of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of natural products should be analyzed.

  11. Condition evaluation of a unique mining site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junsheng; Chen Frank Y.; Ma Yan; Zhang Siya

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the existing conditions and the stability of a mining site in which the unique features of seismicity, mining activity, hydrological conditions, geological con-ditions, environmental conditions, and future development plans were considered. In particular, the potential subsidence locations near the proposed construction site, the effects of mining boundary profile, and the influence scope of the mining activity on the neighboring areas were investigated using the finite element method. The study results indicate:(1) the overlying sandstone layer to the coal layer is the key to the stability of the mining roof; (2) the broken boundary has the most effect, followed by the arc boundary and linear boundary; (3) the safe distance from the mining boundary should be at least 400 m if the proposed structure is to be built near an active mining site. Other relevant engineering rec-ommendations are also proposed. The concluded results from this study may serve as a guide to other similar sites in the world.

  12. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices.

  13. Modality-Invariant Image Classification Based on Modality Uniqueness and Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungryong; Cai, Rui; Park, Kihong; Kim, Sunok; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2016-12-02

    We present a unified framework for image classification of image sets taken under varying modality conditions. Our method is motivated by a key observation that the image feature distribution is simultaneously influenced by the semantic-class and the modality category label, which limits the performance of conventional methods for that task. With this insight, we introduce modality uniqueness as a discriminative weight that divides each modality cluster from all other clusters. By leveraging the modality uniqueness, our framework is formulated as unsupervised modality clustering and classifier learning based on modality-invariant similarity kernel. Specifically, in the assignment step, each training image is first assigned to the most similar cluster according to its modality. In the update step, based on the current cluster hypothesis, the modality uniqueness and the sparse dictionary are updated. These two steps are formulated in an iterative manner. Based on the final clusters, a modalityinvariant marginalized kernel is then computed, where the similarities between the reconstructed features of each modality are aggregated across all clusters. Our framework enables the reliable inference of semantic-class category for an image, even across large photometric variations. Experimental results show that our method outperforms conventional methods on various benchmarks, such as landmark identification under severely varying weather conditions, domain-adapting image classification, and RGB and near-infrared (NIR) image classification.

  14. Unique lipid anchor attaches Vi antigen capsule to the surface of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Sean D; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; Whitfield, Chris

    2016-06-14

    Polysaccharide capsules are surface structures that are critical for the virulence of many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the etiological agent of typhoid fever. It produces a capsular polysaccharide known as "Vi antigen," which is composed of nonstoichiometrically O-acetylated α-1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronic acid residues. This glycan is a component of currently available vaccines. The genetic locus for Vi antigen production is also present in soil bacteria belonging to the genus Achromobacter Vi antigen assembly follows a widespread general strategy with a characteristic glycan export step involving an ATP-binding cassette transporter. However, Vi antigen producers lack the enzymes that build the conserved terminal glycolipid characterizing other capsules using this method. Achromobacter species possess a Vi antigen-specific depolymerase enzyme missing in S enterica Typhi, and we exploited this enzyme to isolate acylated Vi antigen termini. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed a reducing terminal N-acetylhexosamine residue modified with two β-hydroxyl acyl chains. This terminal structure resembles one half of lipid A, the hydrophobic portion of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. The VexE protein encoded in the Vi antigen biosynthesis locus shares similarity with LpxL, an acyltransferase from lipid A biosynthesis. In the absence of VexE, Vi antigen is produced, but its physical properties are altered, its export is impaired, and a Vi capsule structure is not assembled on the cell surface. The structure of the lipidated terminus dictates a unique assembly mechanism and has potential implications in pathogenesis and vaccine production.

  15. Unique motifs identify PIG-A proteins from glycosyltransferases of the GT4 family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Alok

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis is catalyzed by PIG-A, an enzyme that transfers N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol. This protein is present in all eukaryotic organisms ranging from protozoa to higher mammals, as part of a larger complex of five to six 'accessory' proteins whose individual roles in the glycosyltransferase reaction are as yet unclear. The PIG-A gene has been shown to be an essential gene in various eukaryotes. In humans, mutations in the protein have been associated with paroxysomal noctural hemoglobuinuria. The corresponding PIG-A gene has also been recently identified in the genome of many archaeabacteria although genes of the accessory proteins have not been discovered in them. The present study explores the evolution of PIG-A and the phylogenetic relationship between this protein and other glycosyltransferases. Results In this paper we show that out of the twelve conserved motifs identified by us eleven are exclusively present in PIG-A and, therefore, can be used as markers to identify PIG-A from newly sequenced genomes. Three of these motifs are absent in the primitive eukaryote, G. lamblia. Sequence analyses show that seven of these conserved motifs are present in prokaryote and archaeal counterparts in rudimentary forms and can be used to differentiate PIG-A proteins from glycosyltransferases. Using partial least square regression analysis and data involving presence or absence of motifs in a range of PIG-A and glycosyltransferases we show that (i PIG-A may have evolved from prokaryotic glycosyltransferases and lipopolysaccharide synthases, members of the GT4 family of glycosyltransferases and (ii it is possible to uniquely classify PIG-A proteins versus glycosyltransferases. Conclusion Besides identifying unique motifs and showing that PIG-A protein from G. lamblia and some putative PIG-A proteins from archaebacteria are evolutionarily closer to

  16. The TAOS/STEP Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, David; Hosken, Robert

    1995-01-01

    The Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability / Space Test Experiments Platform (TAOS/STEP) satellite was launched on a Taurus booster from Vandenberg Air Force Base into a nearly circular, 105 degree inclined orbit on March 13, 1994. The purpose of this satellite is twofold: 1) to test a new concept in multiple procurements of fast-track modular satellites and 2) to test a suite of Air Force Phillips Laboratory payloads in space. The TAOS payloads include the Microcosm Autonomous N...

  17. First Steps for New Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The formation of a unity government brings hopes of peace and stability to war-torn Iraq, though violence continues Thirty-eight months after the war on Iraq began, and after five months of wrangling over cabinet posts, a new national government led by Nuri al-Maliki was sworn in, marking a great step in the country's post-war reconstruction but one on a road that appears to be growing ever longer and rockier.

  18. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  19. Some unique superconductive Properties of Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K. A.

    2013-04-01

    Copper oxides are the only materials that show transition temperatures, Tc, above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, with a maximum Tmc of 162 K under pressure. Their structure is layered, with one to several CuO2 planes, and upon hole doping, their transition temperature follows a dome-shaped curve with a maximum at Tmc. In the underdoped regime, i.e., below Tmc, a pseudogap T* is found, with T* always being larger than Tc, a property unique to the copper oxides [1]. In the superconducting state, Cooper pairs (two holes with antiparallel spins) are formed that exhibit coherence lengths on the order of a lattice distance in the CuO2 plane and one order of magnitude less perpendicular to it. Their macroscopic wave function is parallel to the CuO2 plane near 100% d at their surface, but only 75% d and 25 % s in the bulk, and near 100% s perpendicular to the plane in YBCO. There are two gaps with the same Tc [2]. As function of doping, the oxygen isotope effect is novel and can be quantitatively accounted for by a two-band vibronic theory [3] near Tmc, and underdoped below it till Tc = 0 with by a formula valid for (bi)polarons [4]. These cuprates are intrinsically heterogeneous in a dynamic way. In terms of quasiparticles, Jahn-Teller bipolarons are present at low doping, and aggregate upon cooling [1], so that probably ramified clusters and/or stripes are formed, leading over to a more Fermi-liquid-type behavior at large carrier concentrations above Tmc.

  20. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  1. The Einstein constraints: uniqueness and non-uniqueness in the conformal thin sandwich approach

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarte, T W; Pfeiffer, H P; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Murchadha, Niall \\'{O}; Pfeiffer, Harald P.

    2006-01-01

    We study the appearance of multiple solutions to certain decompositions of Einstein's constraint equations. Pfeiffer and York recently reported the existence of two branches of solutions for identical background data in the extended conformal thin-sandwich decomposition. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint alone, when expressed in a certain way, admits two branches of solutions with properties very similar to those found by Pfeiffer and York. We construct these two branches analytically for a constant-density star in spherical symmetry, but argue that this behavior is more general. In the case of the Hamiltonian constraint this non-uniqueness is well known to be related to the sign of one particular term, and we argue that the extended conformal thin-sandwich equations contain a similar term that causes the breakdown of uniqueness.

  2. Ion drive - A step toward 'Star Trek'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, K. L.; Terwilliger, C.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a solar-powered electric propulsion system is seen as the first step in the ultimate development of an ion drive system which might incorporate many features of a spacecraft propulsion system described in a science fiction novel written by Anderson (1970). The considered ion propulsion systems would make it possible to augment significantly the operational capabilities of space transportation systems utilizing the Shuttle orbiter in combination with a solid-propellant interim upper stage. The use of the ion drive in a number of applications is discussed, giving attention to the resulting enhancement of national space capabilities, the role of the ion drive in the space transportation system, the development and the operation of a manned space station, satellite positioning and service, the elimination of space debris objects, the study of Halley's comet, interplanetary or lunar shuttle services, and space missions involving the outer planets.

  3. [Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in the use of various techniques and approaches, making it possible to build relationships, observations and a narrative with perspective. Finally, the author deals with the analysis proper, showing how the object, which has already been studied in all the previous steps, should become a second-order construct, in which the logic of the actors in their diversity and not merely their speech predominates. The final report must be a theoretic, contextual, concise and clear narrative.

  4. Day Care Services: Industry's Involvement. Bulletin 296.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Arthur

    This bulletin provides an overview of the need for services for the children of working mothers. Topics discussed include historical developments in industry day care programs, alternative roles for industry involvement, costs of operating day care centers, and income tax allowances. Also given are examples of unique programs which suggest various…

  5. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  6. Acta Clinica Croatica: progress of a journal step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    The journal Acta Clinica Croatica (ACC) was founded in 1962 under the title Anali Bolnice Dr. M. Stojanović. In 1995, the title of the journal was changed into its present form and ever since all papers have been published in English. In 2000, the electronic (online) edition of the ACC was released in addition to the print version. The paper presents development of the journal from 1962 to 2012 based on the analysis of the following SCOPUS citation index parameters: type and number of documents published in the journal; number of citations; and number of domestic and foreign authors. The studied period was analyzed in three time segments: the period from 1995 to 1999, the period from 2000 to 2006 and the period from 2007 to 2012. The same parameters were analyzed in the Web of Science/SCI-Expanded bibliographic and citation index for the 2007-2012 period. The increasing number of documents, authors (both domestic and foreign) and citations demonstrates gradual rise in the quality, visibility and impact of the journal. The fifty years of experience show that a goal, at first very distant and almost unachievable, may be reached by progressing step by step.

  7. Characterizing the unique photochemical environment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gu, D.; Zhao, C.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R.; Liao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the atmospheric chemical system over China could be more complex than expected, possibly as a result of the rapid increasing anthropogenic emissions. During the CAREBeijing-2007 Experiment in August of 2007, up to 14 ppbv of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) and 4.5 ppbv of glyoxal (CHOCHO) were observed, among the highest levels observed in the world in recent years. Elevated nitrous acid (HNO2) (~1.0 ppbv on average) was also observed in the early afternoon despite of the moderate amount of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO + NO2). We employ a 1-D photochemical model (REAM) to analyze the observations. The results indicate that reactive aromatics are the dominating source of PAN (55%-75%) and glyoxal (90%), and methylglyoxal is the major precursor of peroxy acetyl radical (50%). Downward transport from boundary layer is found to contribute ~50% of the PAN observed at surface. Photolysis of HNO2 is by far the largest primary OH source (more than 50%) throughout the daytime, and yet the fast formation rate of HNO2 inferred from the observations could not be explained by current known mechanisms. Detailed photochemical analysis is conducted to understand the controlling factors for O3 formation. O3 formation chemistry is strongly affected by aromatics and HNO2. By providing a large primary OH source, HNO2 leads to ~25% enhancement of the average O3 production rate, and aromatics contribute ~40% by serving as a major source of RO2 and HO2 radicals. Due to the large abundance of reactive hydrocarbons, O3 formation is generally NOx limited, although the sensitivity is low that a 50% reduction of NOx could only result in less than 25% reduction of the O3 production rate. Future research targeting HNO2 formation mechanism and emission sources of aromatics is necessary for better understanding the unique photochemical environment in China under significant anthropogenic impacts and the regional pollution

  8. Fundamental study of a one-step ambient temperature ferrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamental study of a one-step ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment ... The approach involves the controlled oxidation of ferrous-containing AMD water at ... The resulting oxidation product is the ferrite (M13+2M22+O4) magnetite ...

  9. Liver diseases in pregnancy: Diseases unique to pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khulood T; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Rahman, Rubayat N; Hammoud, Ghassan M; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a special clinical state with several normal physiological changes that influence body organs including the liver. Liver disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality in both pregnant women and their infants. This review summarizes liver diseases that are unique to pregnancy. We discuss clinical conditions that are seen only in pregnant women and involve the liver; from Hyperemesis Gravidarum that happens in 1 out of 200 pregnancies and Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (0.5%-1.5% prevalence), to the more frequent condition of preeclampsia (10% prevalence) and its severe form; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count syndrome (12% of pregnancies with preeclampsia), to the rare entity of Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy (incidence of 1 per 7270 to 13000 deliveries). Although pathogeneses behind the development of these aliments are not fully understood, theories have been proposed. Some propose the special physiological changes that accompany pregnancy as a precipitant. Others suggest a constellation of factors including both the mother and her fetus that come together to trigger those unique conditions. Reaching a timely and accurate diagnosis of such conditions can be challenging. The timing of the condition in relation toward which trimester it starts at is a key. Accurate diagnosis can be made using specific clinical findings and blood tests. Some entities have well-defined criteria that help not only in making the diagnosis, but also in classifying the disease according to its severity. Management of these conditions range from simple medical remedies to measures such as immediate termination of the pregnancy. In specific conditions, it is prudent to have expert obstetric and medical specialists teaming up to help improve the outcomes. PMID:24282353

  10. SEVERAL UNIQUENESS THEOREMS OF ALGEBROID FUNCTIONS ON ANNULI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang TAN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the uniqueness problem of algebroid functions on an-nuli, we get several uniqueness theorems of algebroid functions on annuli, which extend the Nevanlinna value distribution theory for algebroid functions on annuli.

  11. Existence and uniqueness of positive eigenfunctions for certain eigenvalue systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ru-Ying; Yang, Yi-Min

    2004-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions for some quasilinear elliptic systems are considered. Some necessary and sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of eigenvalues and positive eigenfunctions are given.

  12. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF POSITIVE EIGENVALUES FOR CERTAIN EIGENVALUE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Ruying; QIN Yuchun

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we consider certain eigenvalue systems.Imposing some reasonable hypotheses, we prove that theeigenvalue system has a unique eigenvalue with positiveeigenfunctions, and that the eigenfunction is unique upto a scalar multiple.

  13. Uniqueness Problems for Meromorphic Functions that Share Three Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigate the uniqueness problems for meromorphic functions that share three values CM and proves a uniqueness theorem on this topic which can be used to improve some previous related results.

  14. Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide r

  15. 48 CFR 52.214-25 - Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step Two of Two-Step... Clauses 52.214-25 Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-6(t), insert the following provision: Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding (APR 1985) (a) This invitation for bids is issued to...

  16. Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillways Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepped chutes and spillways are commonly used for routing discharges during flood events. In addition, stepped chutes are used for overtopping protection of earthen embankments. Stepped spillways provide significant energy dissipation due to its stepped feature; as a result, the stilling basin as...

  17. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  18. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    elucidates how a psycho-ideological discourse positions the mentally ill person as weak, incapable, and ineffective. By contrast, the supporting relative is positioned as a strong, capable, and effective co-therapist. Furthermore, the analysis considers how this dominant discourse of involvement...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  19. A Multi-step Transcriptional and Chromatin State Cascade Underlies Motor Neuron Programming from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Silvia; Ibrahim, Mahmoud M; Kakumanu, Akshay; Garipler, Görkem; Aydin, Begüm; Al-Sayegh, Mohamed Ahmed; Hirsekorn, Antje; Abdul-Rahman, Farah; Satija, Rahul; Ohler, Uwe; Mahony, Shaun; Mazzoni, Esteban O

    2017-02-02

    Direct cell programming via overexpression of transcription factors (TFs) aims to control cell fate with the degree of precision needed for clinical applications. However, the regulatory steps involved in successful terminal cell fate programming remain obscure. We have investigated the underlying mechanisms by looking at gene expression, chromatin states, and TF binding during the uniquely efficient Ngn2, Isl1, and Lhx3 motor neuron programming pathway. Our analysis reveals a highly dynamic process in which Ngn2 and the Isl1/Lhx3 pair initially engage distinct regulatory regions. Subsequently, Isl1/Lhx3 binding shifts from one set of targets to another, controlling regulatory region activity and gene expression as cell differentiation progresses. Binding of Isl1/Lhx3 to later motor neuron enhancers depends on the Ebf and Onecut TFs, which are induced by Ngn2 during the programming process. Thus, motor neuron programming is the product of two initially independent transcriptional modules that converge with a feedforward transcriptional logic.

  20. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: a Step-by-Step Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBevilacqua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past yeasts were traditionally regarded as the spoiling microorganisms for table olives; however, their role and impact for product quality and for the correct course of fermentation has been revised and nowadays many authors suggest a controlled inoculum of yeasts both in alkali-treated and untreated olives.The selection of a starter is a complex process, involving different steps. After strain isolation from raw material, the first step is the identification through phenotyping and genotypic methods; then, isolates should be characterized to assess their GRAS (generally recognized as safe status and technological properties (growth with salt added, at various temperatures and pHs, pectolytic and xylanolytic activity, lipolytic activity, resistance to some preservatives, functional impact.After studying these properties, the results can be submitted to data analysis (many times a statistical multivariate approach and strain selection. The number of strains to be selected depends on several factors, above all on the main goal: obtaining a single or a multiple-strain starter.After this step, starter should be used for a pilot fermentation on a lab scale, highlighting its performances, limits and benefits, as well as all the issues related to its production, storage and stability throughout the time. Finally, starter optimization conducted on a lab scale should be verified on real conditions.

  1. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  2. Development of a unique small molecule modulator of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxing Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12 interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the actions of N,N'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylenedipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using (18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can

  3. IPAD: A unique approach to government/industry cooperation for technology development and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert E.; Salley, George C.

    1985-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) information. To stimulate advancement, a unique joint government/industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) was carried out from 1971 to 1984. The goal was to raise aerospace industry productivity through advancement of computer based technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. IPAD research was guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies. The project complemented traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD had unprecedented industry support and involvement and served as a unique approach to government industry cooperation in the development and transfer of advanced technology. The IPAD project background, approach, accomplishments, industry involvement, technology transfer mechanisms and lessons learned are summarized.

  4. STEPS: A NARRATIVE ACCOUNT OF A GABAPENTIN SEEDING TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Samuel D.; Egilman, David S.; Ross, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Seeding trials, clinical studies conducted by pharmaceutical companies for marketing purposes, have rarely been described in detail. Methods We examined all documents relating to the clinical trial Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Effect, Profile of Safety (STEPS) produced during the Neurontin marketing, sales practices and product liability litigation, including company internal and external correspondence, reports, and presentations, as well as depositions elicited in legal proceedings of Harden Manufacturing v. Pfizer and Franklin v. Warner-Lambert, the majority of which were created between 1990 and 2009. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified and reviewed all documents related to the STEPS trial, in order to identify key themes related to the trial’s conduct and determine the extent of marketing involvement in its planning and implementation. Results Documents demonstrated that STEPS was a seeding trial posing as a legitimate scientific study. Documents consistently described the trial itself, not trial results, to be a marketing tactic in the company’s marketing plans. Documents demonstrated that several external sources questioned the validity of the study before execution, and that data quality during the study was often compromised. Furthermore, documents described company analyses examining the impact of participating as a STEPS investigator on rates and dosages of gabapentin prescribing, finding a positive association. None of these findings were reported in two published papers. Conclusions The STEPS trial was a seeding trial, used to promote gabapentin and increase prescribing among investigators, and marketing was extensively involved in its planning and implementation. PMID:21709111

  5. Understanding of Multiplicative Contexts Involving Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Pamela Thibodeau; Mestre, Jose P.

    Numerous studies indicate that performance in solving single step multiplicative word problems is influenced by both problem structure and the types of numbers involved in the problem. For example, including numbers less than one often increases the difficulty of a problem. What remains unclear is how problem structure and number type interact in…

  6. Step-by-step external fixation of unstable pelvis with separate anterior and posterior modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivan Viktorovich Borozda; Nikolay Alexandrovich Ganzhurov; Alexander Alexandrovich Kapustyansky; Roman Valerievich Nikolaev; Kirill Sergeevich Golokhvast

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of patients with pelvic ring injury by applying step-by-step external pelvic fixation and circular external fixation device.Methods: A total of 28 patients suffering from disintegrated pelvic ring injury are involved in the study. Fourteen patients(the treatment group) underwent step-by-step external pelvic fixation by applying anterior(anti-shock) and posterior modules. For the rest 14 patients(the experimental group), the osteosynthesis were conducted by means of a circular external fixation device. The long-term outcomes were evaluated in a year after the injury.Results: The residual deformity of 5(4–7) mm was observed in 10 patients(71.4%) from the experimental group. In the treatment group, the residual deformity was evident only in 4(28.6%) cases being 2.5(2–3) mm(P = 0.000 319) on the average. The functional result(according to the Majeed scale) was statistically better in the treatment group(P = 0.000 319). Nine(64.3%) and five(35.7%) patients in treatment group showed excellent and positive results, respectively. The excellent result was demonstrated by 3patients(21.4%) of the experimental group, the positive outcomes were observed in 6 cases(42.9%) and the unsatisfactory one was displayed by 1 patient(7.1%) of the same group.Conclusions: The modular approach applied is the advantage of the transosseous osteosynthesis allowing for a separate anterior(anti-shock) fixation and final posterior reposition of the pelvic ring preceded by the stabilization of vital functions. The above mentioned method gives an opportunity to increase the amount of techniques applied for the pelvic external fixation in polytrauma cases.

  7. Step by step error assessment in braided river sediment budget using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallias-Tacon, S.; Liébault, F.; Piégay, H.

    2014-06-01

    Sequential airborne LiDAR surveys were used to reconstruct the sediment budget of a 7-km-long braided river channel in southeastern France following a 14-year return period flood and to improve its accuracy step by step. Data processing involved (i) surface matching of the sequential point clouds, (ii) spatially distributed propagation of uncertainty based on surface conditions of the channel, and (iii) water depth subtraction from the digital elevation models based on water depths measured in the field. The respective influence of each processing step on sediment budget computation was systematically documented. This showed that surface matching and water depth subtraction both have a considerable effect on the net sediment budget. Although DEM of difference thresholding based on uncertainty analysis on absolute elevation values had a smaller effect on the sediment budget, this step is crucial for the production of a comprehensive map of channel deformations. A large independent data set of RTK-GPS checkpoints was used to control the quality of the LiDAR altimetry. The results showed that high density (7-9 points/m2) airborne LiDAR surveys can provide a very high level of detection of elevation changes on the exposed surfaces of the channel, with a 95% confidence interval level of detection between 19 and 30 cm. Change detection from LiDAR data revealed that 54% of the pre-flood active channel was reworked by the flood. The braided channel pattern was highly disturbed by the flood owing to the occurrence of several channel avulsions.

  8. Staircase Structure of Shapiro Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Nashaat, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate IV-characteristics of coupled Josephson junctions which model the intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation. A staircase structure of Shapiro steps is found in the branching region. Its origin is related to the coupling between junctions and their switching from rotating to oscillating states. This conclusion is tested by detailed analysis of the IV-characteristics as for total stack and for each junction in the stack. IV-curves of junctions in the stack are compared with the average of time derivative of phase difference. Experimental observation of this staircase structure would give us a proof of coupling between junctions and a way for precise measurement of its value. Such investigations would be also useful for a diagnostic of Josephson junctions in the stack.

  9. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.

  10. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  11. Existence and uniqueness of mild solutions for fractional semilinear differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Hendriya Guswanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence and uniqueness of a local mild solution for a class of semilinear differential equations involving the Caputo fractional time derivative of order $\\alpha$ $(0<\\alpha<1$ and, in the linear part, a sectorial linear operator A. We put some conditions on a nonlinear term f and an initial data $u_0$ in terms of the fractional power of A. By applying Banach's Fixed Point Theorem, we obtain a unique local mild solution with smoothing effects, estimates, and a behavior at t close to 0. An example as an application of our results is also given.

  12. Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dascaliuc, Radu; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C., E-mail: waymire@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Michalowski, Nicholas [Department of Mathematics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation.

  13. 11-Step Total Synthesis of (−)-Maoecrystal V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    An expedient, practical, and enantioselective route to the highly congested ent-kaurane diterpene maoecrystal V is presented. This route, which has been several years in the making, is loosely modeled after a key pinacol shift in the proposed biosynthesis. Only 11 steps, many of which are strategic in that they build key skeletal bonds and incorporate critical functionalities, are required to access (−)-maoecrystal V. Several unique and unexpected maneuvers are featured in this potentially scalable pathway. Reevaluation of the biological activity calls into question the initial exuberance surrounding this natural product. PMID:27457680

  14. Topographic ERP analyses: a step-by-step tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Micah M; Brunet, Denis; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-06-01

    In this tutorial review, we detail both the rationale for as well as the implementation of a set of analyses of surface-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) that uses the reference-free spatial (i.e. topographic) information available from high-density electrode montages to render statistical information concerning modulations in response strength, latency, and topography both between and within experimental conditions. In these and other ways these topographic analysis methods allow the experimenter to glean additional information and neurophysiologic interpretability beyond what is available from canonical waveform analyses. In this tutorial we present the example of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in response to stimulation of each hand to illustrate these points. For each step of these analyses, we provide the reader with both a conceptual and mathematical description of how the analysis is carried out, what it yields, and how to interpret its statistical outcome. We show that these topographic analysis methods are intuitive and easy-to-use approaches that can remove much of the guesswork often confronting ERP researchers and also assist in identifying the information contained within high-density ERP datasets.

  15. Unique defense strategy by the endoplasmic reticulum body in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a site for the production of secretory proteins. Plants have developed ER subdomains for protein storage. The ER body is one such structure, which is observed in Brassicaceae plants. ER bodies accumulate in seedlings and roots or in wounded leaves in Arabidopsis. ER bodies contain high amounts of the β-glucosidases PYK10/BGLU23 in seedlings and roots or BGLU18 in wounded tissues. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in the metabolism of glycoside molecules, presumably to produce repellents against pests and fungi. When Arabidopsis roots are homogenized, PYK10 formed large protein aggregates that include other β-glucosidases (BGLU21 and BGLU22), GDSL lipase-like proteins (GLL22) and cytosolic jacalin-related lectins (PBP1/JAL30, JAL31, JAL33, JAL34 and JAL35). Glucosidase activity increases by the aggregate formation. NAI1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, regulates the expression of the ER body proteins PYK10 and NAI2. Reduced expression of NAI2, PYK10 and BGLU21 resulted in abnormal ER body formation, indicating that these components regulate ER body formation. PYK10, BGLU21 and BGLU22 possess hydrolytic activity for scopolin, a coumaroyl glucoside that accumulates in the roots of Arabidopsis, and nai1 and pyk10 mutants are more susceptible to the symbiotic fungus Piriformospora indica. Therefore, it appears that the ER body is a unique organelle of Brassicaceae plants that is important for defense against pests and fungi.

  16. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G.; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest’s physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented. PMID:27679643

  17. Unique metabolic features of stem cells, cardiomyocytes, and their progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John Antonydas; Doss, Michael Xavier; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Cadenas, Cristina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2014-04-11

    Recently, growing attention has been directed toward stem cell metabolism, with the key observation that the plasticity of stem cells also reflects the plasticity of their energy substrate metabolism. There seems to be a clear link between the self-renewal state of stem cells, in which cells proliferate without differentiation, and the activity of specific metabolic pathways. Differentiation is accompanied by a shift from anaerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration. This metabolic switch of differentiating stem cells is required to cover the energy demands of the different organ-specific cell types. Among other metabolic signatures, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism is most prominent in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, whereas the fatty acid metabolic signature is unique in cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells. Identifying the specific metabolic pathways involved in pluripotency and differentiation is critical for further progress in the field of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. The recently generated knowledge on metabolic key processes may help to generate mature stem cell-derived somatic cells for therapeutic applications without the requirement of genetic manipulation. In the present review, the literature about metabolic features of stem cells and their cardiovascular cell derivatives as well as the specific metabolic gene signatures differentiating between stem and differentiated cells are summarized and discussed.

  18. Unique pioneer microbial communities exposed to volcanic sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Reiko; Kim, Seok-Won; Sato, Yoshinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Newly exposed volcanic substrates contain negligible amounts of organic materials. Heterotrophic organisms in newly formed ecosystems require bioavailable carbon and nitrogen that are provided from CO2 and N2 fixation by pioneer microbes. However, the knowledge of initial ecosystem developmental mechanisms, especially the association between microbial succession and environmental change, is still limited. This study reports the unique process of microbial succession in fresh basaltic ash, which was affected by long-term exposure to volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). Here we compared the microbial ecosystems among deposits affected by SO2 exposure at different levels. The results of metagenomic analysis suggested the importance of autotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria, particularly those involved in CO2 and N2 fixation, in the heavily SO2 affected site. Changes in the chemical properties of the deposits after the decline of the SO2 impact led to an apparent decrease in the iron-oxidizer abundance and a possible shift in the microbial community structure. Furthermore, the community structure of the deposits that had experienced lower SO2 gas levels showed higher similarity with that of the control forest soil. Our results implied that the effect of SO2 exposure exerted a selective pressure on the pioneer community structure by changing the surrounding environment of the microbes.

  19. Unique immunomodulatory effects of azelastine on dendritic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, S; Kietzmann, M; Stark, H; Bäumer, W

    2014-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis are among the most common inflammatory skin diseases in western countries, and antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells (DC) are key players in their pathophysiology. Histamine, an important mediator of allergic reactions, influences DC maturation and cytokine secretion, which led us to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of the well-known histamine H1 receptor antagonists: azelastine, olopatadine, cetirizine, and pyrilamine. Unlike other H1 antihistamines, azelastine decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-12 secretion from murine bone marrow-derived DC. This effect was independent of histamine receptors H1, H2, or H4 and may be linked to inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Moreover, only azelastine reduced proliferation of allogenic T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. We then tested topical application of the H1 antihistamines on mice sensitized against toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, a model of Th2-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. In contrast to the in vitro results, all investigated substances were efficacious in reducing allergic ear swelling. Azelastine has unique effects on dendritic cells and T cell interaction in vitro. However, this did not translate into superior in vivo efficacy for Th2-mediated allergic dermatitis, possibly due to the effects of the antihistamines on other cell types involved in skin inflammation. Future research will have to clarify whether these properties are relevant to in vivo models of allergic inflammation with a different T cell polarization.

  20. Mangarevan invention of binary steps for easier calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2014-01-28

    When Leibniz demonstrated the advantages of the binary system for computations as early as 1703, he laid the foundation for computing machines. However, is a binary system also suitable for human cognition? One of two number systems traditionally used on Mangareva, a small island in French Polynesia, had three binary steps superposed onto a decimal structure. Here, we show how this system functions, how it facilitated arithmetic, and why it is unique. The Mangarevan invention of binary steps, centuries before their formal description by Leibniz, attests to the advancements possible in numeracy even in the absence of notation and thereby highlights the role of culture for the evolution of and diversity in numerical cognition.

  1. Two-Step Camera Calibration Method Developed for Micro UAV'S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, M.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and continuous price reduction of unmanned systems attracted us to this research. Professional measuring systems are dozens of times more expensive and often heavier than "amateur", non-metric UAVs. For this reason, we tested the DJI Phantom 2 Vision Plus UAV. Phantom's smaller mass and velocity can develop less kinetic energy in relation to the professional measurement platforms, which makes it potentially less dangerous for use in populated areas. In this research, we wanted to investigate the ability of such non-metric UAV and find the procedures under which this kind of UAV may be used for the photogrammetric survey. It is important to emphasize that UAV is equipped with an ultra wide-angle camera with 14MP sensor. Calibration of such cameras is a complex process. In the research, a new two-step process is presented and developed, and the results are compared with standard one-step camera calibration procedure. Two-step process involves initially removed distortion on all images, and then uses these images in the phototriangulation with self-calibration. The paper presents statistical indicators which proved that the proposed two-step process is better and more accurate procedure for calibrating those types of cameras than standard one-step calibration. Also, we suggest two-step calibration process as the standard for ultra-wideangle cameras for unmanned aircraft.

  2. A Three-Step Reinforcer Identification Framework: A Step-by-Step Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonte, M. Alexandra; Boesch, Miriam C.; Edwards-Bowyer, Meghan E.; Restrepo, Madeleine W.; Bennett, Brittany P.; Diamond, Gwendolyn P.

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of reinforcers is a research-based practice that can be used to increase student engagement within the classroom and promote skill acquisition. Reinforcers also play an integral role in the instructional planning of students with severe disabilities. Using reinforcement involves using preference assessment to identify potential…

  3. Laryngeal Involvement of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Grobman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as “metastatic” multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options.

  4. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  5. Lung Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Lungs Lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has ... testing. (Krueger et al., 2013) What Are the Lung Features of TSC? Two forms of lung involvement ...

  6. A generalized recipe to construct elementary or multi-step reaction paths via a stochastic formulation: Application to the conformational change in noble gas clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukder, Srijeeta; Sen, Shrabani [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Sharma, Rahul [Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier’s College, 30 Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata 700 016 (India); Banik, Suman K., E-mail: skbanik@bic.boseinst.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93/1 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chaudhury, Pinaki, E-mail: pinakc@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2014-03-18

    Highlights: • We demonstrate a general strategy to map out reaction paths irrespective of the number of kinetic steps involved. • The objective function proposed does not need the information of gradient norm and eigenvalue of Hessian matrix explicitly. • A stochastic optimizer Simulated Annealing is used in searching reaction path. • The strategy is applied in mapping out the path for conformational changes in pure Ar clusters and Ar{sub N}Xe mixed clusters. - abstract: In this paper we demonstrate a general strategy to map out reaction paths irrespective of the number of kinetic steps required to bring about the change. i.e., whether the transformation takes place in a single step or in multiple steps with the appearance of intermediates. The objective function proposed is unique and works equally well for a concerted or a multiple step pathway. As the objective function proposed does not explicitly involves the calculation of the gradient of the potential energy function or the eigenvalues of the Hessian Matrix during the iterative process, the calculation is computationally economical. To map out the reaction path, we cast the entire problem as one of optimization and the solution is done with the use of the stochastic optimizer Simulated Annealing. The formalism is tested on Argon clusters (Ar{sub N}) and Argon clusters singly doped with Xenon (Ar{sub N-1}Xe). The size of the systems for which the method is applied ranges from N=7-25, where N is the total number of atoms in the cluster. We also test the results obtained by us by comparing with an established gradient only method. Moreover to demonstrate that our strategy can overcome the standard problems of drag method, we apply our strategy to a two dimensional LEPS + harmonic oscillator Potential to locate the TS, in which standard drag method has been seen to encounter problems.

  7. Salivary gland proteome analysis reveals modulation of anopheline unique proteins in insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Cornelie

    Full Text Available Insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance due to a mutation in the acetylcholinesterase (ace encoding ace-1 gene confers cross-resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Anopheles gambiae populations from Central and West Africa. This mutation is associated with a strong genetic cost revealed through alterations of some life history traits but little is known about the physiological and behavioural changes in insects bearing the ace-1(R allele. Comparative analysis of the salivary gland contents between An. gambiae susceptible and ace-1(R resistant strains was carried out to charaterize factors that could be involved in modifications of blood meal process, trophic behaviour or pathogen interaction in the insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Differential analysis of the salivary gland protein profiles revealed differences in abundance for several proteins, two of them showing major differences between the two strains. These two proteins identified as saglin and TRIO are salivary gland-1 related proteins, a family unique to anopheline mosquitoes, one of them playing a crucial role in salivary gland invasion by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Differential expression of two other proteins previously identified in the Anopheles sialome was also observed. The differentially regulated proteins are involved in pathogen invasion, blood feeding process, and protection against oxidation, relevant steps in the outcome of malaria infection. Further functional studies and insect behaviour experiments would confirm the impact of the modification of the sialome composition on blood feeding and pathogen transmission abilities of the resistant mosquitoes. The data supports the hypothesis of alterations linked to insecticide resistance in the biology of the primary vector of human malaria in Africa.

  8. Uniqueness of the differential Mueller matrix of uniform homogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlaminck, Vincent; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2014-06-01

    We show that the differential matrix of a uniform homogeneous medium containing birefringence may not be uniquely determined from its Mueller matrix, resulting in the potential existence of an infinite set of elementary polarization properties parameterized by an integer parameter. The uniqueness depends on the symmetry properties of a special differential matrix derived from the eigenvalue decomposition of the Mueller matrix. The conditions for the uniqueness of the differential matrix are identified, physically discussed, and illustrated in examples from the literature.

  9. Existence and uniqueness theorem for ODE: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poria, Swarup; Dhiman, Aman

    2016-01-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solutions became important due to the lack of general formula for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Compact form of existence and uniqueness theory appeared nearly 200 years after the development of the theory of differential equation. In the article, we shall discuss briefly the differences between linear and nonlinear first order ODE in context of existence and uniqueness of solutions. Special emphasis is given on the Lipschit...

  10. The UNIQUe Label: Supporting a Culture of Innovation and Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Annemie; Bijnens, Helena

    European higher education institutions will need significant reforms, in order to guarantee their leading role in a globalized knowledge economy. These reforms can be enhanced by improving the way in which traditional universities integrate new technologies both in their educational activities and throughout their strategic and operational processes. The UNIQUe institutional accreditation scheme, analyzed and described in this chapter, intends to support this process of integrating the use of new technologies in higher education. With its specific open approach to quality in e-Learning, UNIQUe emphasizes innovation and creativity in a process that includes self-assessment and constructive dialog with peers and stakeholders involved. UNIQUe intends to use the institutional quality label as a catalyst for continuous improvement and change while setting up collaborative bench learning processes among universities for the adoption and integration of e-Learning.

  11. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Laurberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. We have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors.

  12. Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Uniqueness Theorem of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Saida, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    This paper consists of three steps. In the first, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second, intrinsic properties of quantum mechanics are shown, which justify the Boltzmann formula to yield a unique entropy in statistical mechanics. These properties clarify three conditions, one of which is necessary and others are sufficient for the validity of Boltzmann formula. In the third, by combining the above results, we find a reasonable suggestion from the sufficient conditions that the potential of gravitational interaction among microstates of underlying quantum gravity may not diverge to negative infinity (such as Newtonian gravity) but is bounded below at a finite length scale. In addition to that, from the necessary condition, the interaction has to be repulsive within the finite length scale. The length scale should be Planck size. Thus, quantum gravi...

  13. Terrace-width distributions of touching steps: Modification of the fermion analogy with implications for measuring step-step interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Rajesh; Hamouda, Ajmi Bh.; Einstein, T. L.

    2009-10-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the terrace-width distributions (TWDs) of surfaces in which steps can touch each other, forming multiple-atomic height steps, but cannot cross (no overhangs), and so inconsistent with the standard mapping to spinless fermions. Our results show that the generalized Wigner distribution with minor modifications at small step separations, gives a very good fit for TWDs of touching steps. The interaction strength derived from the fit parameter (ϱ) indicates an effective attraction between steps. The strength of this effective attraction decreases for larger mean-step separations and decreasing step-touching energies; describable via finite-size scaling. Hence, accurate extraction of the true repulsion strength requires multiple vicinalities.

  14. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means, in...

  15. Ten Steps to Making Evaluation Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Nakaima, April

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes ten steps to make evaluations matter. The ten steps are a combination of the usual recommended practice such as developing program theory and implementing rigorous evaluation designs with a stronger focus on more unconventional steps including developing learning frameworks, exploring pathways of evaluation influence, and…

  16. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers – up to 10 times that of their parents’ generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...... presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary...

  17. [The six steps necessary in elaborating critically appraised topics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villar, C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of critically appraised topics (CATs) can be elaborated in diagnostic imaging: comparison of diagnostic tests, evaluation of techniques for early detection (screening), economical analyses, or therapeutic aspects, among others. Their design will vary in function of the question they aim to answer. For example, for treatment evaluation, clinical trials are the best, but if there are secondary studies (systematic reviews or meta-analyses) that synthesize information from several studies, the results will be more important and the scientific conclusions will be more relevant. Regardless of the study design used, the elaboration of a CAT will involve six steps: 1) question; 2) systematic and efficient bibliographic search; 3) levels of evidence (choosing the articles that have the best level); 4) critical reading of the articles chosen; 5) applying conclusions to the context, and 6) recommendations. In this article, we will describe these steps and the nuances for different types of studies in each step.

  18. Asthma treatment in a population-based cohort: putting step-up and step-down treatment changes in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Bertram, Susan L; Lowe, David; Butterfield, Joseph H; Bonde, Denise; Li, James T C

    2007-04-01

    To assess the frequency and types of visits related to modifications in the intensity of asthma medications. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of adults (aged 18-40 years) and children (aged 6-17 years) living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, to evaluate changes in asthma medications by dose and drug class and site and type of visit (routine vs unscheduled) at the time of changes. All records from all visits were reviewed for each patient to identify asthma-related visits at all sites of care from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. The study consisted of 397 adults and children. In 255 patients, 597 asthma medication changes occurred. Step-up changes usually occurred because of an exacerbation or loss of control of asthma and adhered to the medication hierarchy in the national asthma guidelines. Twenty step-up changes involved skipping inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) monotherapy and moving directly to combined ICSs plus a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA). Lack of documentation of asthma symptom frequency or interference with activities made it impossible to determine whether these 'skips' were appropriate. Only 78 physician-directed step-down changes were documented, usually to a lower dose of combined ICSs and LABAs or a move from combined ICSs and LABAs to anti-inflammatory monotherapy. Patients initiated additional step-down changes between encounters. Step-down changes occurred at routine or follow-up asthma visits, but the limited number of such visits provided few opportunities for step-down care. The continuing episodic-style treatment of asthma aimed at exacerbation management facilitates step-up changes in asthma therapy. The dearth of asthma evaluation visits limited opportunities to step down use of asthma medications and to provide long-term asthma management.

  19. Accuracy of StepWatch™ and ActiGraph accelerometers for measuring steps taken among persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Sandroff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There has been increased interest in the objective monitoring of free-living walking behavior using accelerometers in clinical research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. The current investigation examined and compared the accuracy of the StepWatch activity monitor and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer for capturing steps taken during various speeds of prolonged, over-ground ambulation in persons with MS who had mild, moderate, and severe disability. METHODS: Sixty-three persons with MS underwent a neurological examination for generation of an EDSS score and undertook two trials of walking on the GAITRite electronic walkway. Participants were fitted with accelerometers, and undertook three modified six-minute walk (6MW tests that were interspersed with 10-15 minutes of rest. The first 6MW was undertaken at a comfortable walking speed (CWS, and the two remaining 6MW tests were undertaken above (faster walking speed; FWS or below (slower walking speed; SWS the participant's CWS. The actual number of steps taken was counted through direct observation using hand-tally counters. RESULTS: The StepWatch activity monitor (99.8%-99.9% and ActiGraph model GT3X+ accelerometer (95.6%-97.4% both demonstrated highly accurate measurement of steps taken under CWS and FWS conditions. The StepWatch had better accuracy (99.0% than the ActiGraph (95.5% in the overall sample under the SWS condition, and this was particularly apparent in those with severe disability (StepWatch: 95.7%; ActiGraph: 87.3%. The inaccuracy in measurement for the ActiGraph was associated with alterations of gait (e.g., slower gait velocity, shorter step length, wider base of support. CONCLUSIONS: This research will help inform the choice of accelerometer to be adopted in clinical trials of MS wherein the monitoring of free-living walking behavior is of particular value.

  20. Computational Hemodynamics Involving Artificial Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Kiris, Cetin; Feiereisen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the progress being made towards developing complete blood flow simulation capability in human, especially, in the presence of artificial devices such as valves and ventricular assist devices. Devices modeling poses unique challenges different from computing the blood flow in natural hearts and arteries. There are many elements needed such as flow solvers, geometry modeling including flexible walls, moving boundary procedures and physiological characterization of blood. As a first step, computational technology developed for aerospace applications was extended in the recent past to the analysis and development of mechanical devices. The blood flow in these devices is practically incompressible and Newtonian, and thus various incompressible Navier-Stokes solution procedures can be selected depending on the choice of formulations, variables and numerical schemes. Two primitive variable formulations used are discussed as well as the overset grid approach to handle complex moving geometry. This procedure has been applied to several artificial devices. Among these, recent progress made in developing DeBakey axial flow blood pump will be presented from computational point of view. Computational and clinical issues will be discussed in detail as well as additional work needed.

  1. GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Simon; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2013-05-01

    The ribosome is an RNA- and protein-based macromolecule having multiple functional domains to facilitate protein synthesis, and it is synthesized through multiple steps including transcription, stepwise cleavages of the primary transcript, modifications of ribosomal proteins and RNAs and assemblies of ribosomal proteins with rRNAs. This process requires dozens of trans-acting factors including GTP- and ATP-binding proteins to overcome several energy-consuming steps. Despite accumulation of genetic, biochemical and structural data, the entire process of bacterial ribosome synthesis remains elusive. Here, we review GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

  2. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses dairy products are important sources of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se. The vitamin fraction of milk and dairy products is composed of lipophilic (A, D, E, and K) and hydrophilic (B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(8), B(9), B(12), and C) vitamins. Because of their hydrophobic properties, the lipophilic vitamins are mainly in the milk fat fraction (cream, butter). The hydrophilic vitamins are in the aqueous phase of milk. For one part of these vitamins, the concentrations described in the literature are not always homogenous and sometimes not in accordance between them; these discrepancies are due to the difficulty of the sample preparation and the use of appropriate methods for their quantification. However, there is no

  3. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signaling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Djordjevic, Michael A; Imin, Nijat

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  4. Febrile Seizures: Four Steps Algorithmic Clinical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures (FS are the most common form of convulsive phenomena in human being and affect 2% to 14% of children. It is the most common type of seizures that every pediatrician is dealing with. It is the most benign type of all seizures occurring in childhood. There are many debates on how to approach to febrile seizures in pediatric neurology and there are many possible malpractices in this field. Some of the most common frequent queries are -How could we differentiate FS from seizures and fever associated with serious infections involving the central nervous system? - When should we refer the affected child for further investigations such as lumbar puncture, EEG, neuroimaging, and routine biochemical studies? - How should we treat FS in its acute phase? - How could we assess the risk for further recurrences as well as other risks threatening the childs health in future? - How could we select the patients for treatment or prophylaxis? - Which medication(s should be selected for treatment or prophylaxis? Trying to answer the above-mentioned questions, this review article will present a four steps algorithmic clinical approach model to a child with febrile seizures based on the current medical literature.

  5. Febrile Seizures: Four Steps Algorithmic Clinical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common form of convulsive phenomena in human being and affect 2% to 14% of children. It is the most common type of seizures that every pediatrician is dealing with. It is the most benign type of all seizures occurring in childhood. There are many debates on how to approach to febrile seizures in pediatric neurology and there are many possible malpractices in this field. Some of the most common frequent queries areHow could we differentiate FS from seizures and fever associated with serious infections involving the central nervous system?When should we refer the affected child for further investigations such as lumbar puncture, EEG, neuroimaging, and routine biochemical studies?How should we treat FS in its acute phase?How could we assess the risk for further recurrences as well as other risks threatening the child's health in future?How could we select the patients for treatment or prophylaxis?Which medication(s) should be selected for treatment or prophylaxis? Trying to answer the above-mentioned questions, this review article will present a four steps algorithmic clinical approach model to a child with febrile seizures based on the current medical literature. PMID:23056677

  6. First steps in qualitative data analysis: transcribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia

    2008-04-01

    Qualitative research in primary care deepens understanding of phenomena such as health, illness and health care encounters. Many qualitative studies collect audio or video data (e.g. recordings of interviews, focus groups or talk in consultation), and these are usually transcribed into written form for closer study. Transcribing appears to be a straightforward technical task, but in fact involves judgements about what level of detail to choose (e.g. omitting non-verbal dimensions of interaction), data interpretation (e.g. distinguishing 'I don't, no' from 'I don't know') and data representation (e.g. representing the verbalization 'hwarryuhh' as 'How are you?'). Representation of audible and visual data into written form is an interpretive process which is therefore the first step in analysing data. Different levels of detail and different representations of data will be required for projects with differing aims and methodological approaches. This article is a guide to practical and theoretical considerations for researchers new to qualitative data analysis. Data examples are given to illustrate decisions to be made when transcribing or assigning the task to others.

  7. Considerations for the independent reaction times and step-by-step methods for radiation chemistry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with the water molecules of the tissues mostly by ionizations and excitations, which result in the formation of the radiation track structure and the creation of radiolytic species such as H.,.OH, H2, H2O2, and e-aq. After their creation, these species diffuse and may chemically react with the neighboring species and with the molecules of the medium. Therefore radiation chemistry is of great importance in radiation biology. As the chemical species are not distributed homogeneously, the use of conventional models of homogeneous reactions cannot completely describe the reaction kinetics of the particles. Actually, many simulations of radiation chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, which is a very fast technique to calculate radiochemical yields but which do not calculate the positions of the radiolytic species as a function of time. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time-consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. The SBS and IRT methods are both based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). In this paper, several sampling algorithms of the GFDE and for the IRT method are presented. We show that the IRT and SBS methods are exactly equivalent for 2-particles systems for diffusion and partially diffusion-controlled reactions between non-interacting particles. We also show that the results obtained with the SBS simulation method with periodic boundary conditions are in agreement with the predictions by classical reaction kinetics theory, which is an important step towards using this method for modelling of biochemical networks and metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress. Finally, the first simulation results obtained with the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) are presented.

  8. Existence and uniqueness for a class of nine-bodies central configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On some necessary conditions for double pyramidal central configurations with concave heptagon for any given ratio of masses, the existence and uniqueness of a class of double pyramidal central configurations with concave heptagon base for nine-body problems is proved in this paper, and the range of the ratio of the circularity radius of the heptagon to the half-height of the double pyramidal central configuration involved in this class configurations is obtained, which is in the interval(√3/3,1.099 600 679), and the configuration involved in the bodies with anyσ∈(√3/3,1.099 600 679) can form a central configuration which is a uniquely central configuration is proved.

  9. The Unique Mental Health Needs of Military Women: A Social Work Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Osborne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Women involved in all aspects of the United States Armed Forces face mental health needs that are unique from women in the general population. Because the most recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are involving more women in combat situations, social workers encounter female clients who are increasingly experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder, substance misuse, and sexual violence. Special attention must be paid particularly to women who serve in the National Guard or Reserves, as they have different concerns than enlisted active duty women. These concerns include less social support and fewer resources upon return from deployment. Thus, it is imperative for social workers in the community to be aware of these military women’s experiences and unique mental health challenges in order to effectively treat their needs.

  10. Unique morphology of intratubular light chain casts in multiple myeloma: The amyloid cast nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cast nephropathy is the most frequent pattern of renal involvement in multiple myeloma characterized by presence of tubular casts with characteristic morphology that are composed of monotypic (either kappa or lambda light chains as seen by immunofluorescence microscopy. Rarely these casts may show evidence of amyloidogenesis and assume a unique morphology, which needs to be appreciated for arriving at accurate diagnosis. We present the case of an elderly male presenting with features of acute kidney injury and detected with extensive inspissation of intratubular casts with lambda light chain restriction and a unique morphology with spiculated congophilic periphery. Further investigations confirmed the presence of systemic myeloma. Presence of intratubular amyloid casts is a rare occurrence which needs to be recognized by the pathologist and forms a vital element in timely diagnosis of the systemic disease which often presents with renal involvement.

  11. Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. Intracellular maintenance of plastids in the slug's digestive epithelium has long attracted interest given its implications for understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis. However, photosynthetic ability varies widely among sacoglossans; some species have no plastid retention while others survive for months solely on photosynthesis. We present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sacoglossa and a survey of kleptoplasty from representatives of all major clades. We sought to quantify variation in photosynthetic ability among lineages, identify phylogenetic origins of plastid retention, and assess whether kleptoplasty was a key character in the radiation of the Sacoglossa. Results Three levels of photosynthetic activity were detected: (1 no functional retention; (2 short-term retention lasting about one week; and (3 long-term retention for over a month. Phylogenetic analysis of one nuclear and two mitochondrial loci revealed reciprocal monophyly of the shelled Oxynoacea and shell-less Plakobranchacea, the latter comprising a monophyletic Plakobranchoidea and paraphyletic Limapontioidea. Only species in the Plakobranchoidea expressed short- or long-term kleptoplasty, most belonging to a speciose clade of slugs bearing parapodia (lateral flaps covering the dorsum. Bayesian ancestral character state reconstructions indicated that functional short-term retention arose once in the last common ancestor of Plakobranchoidea, and independently evolved into long-term retention in four derived species. Conclusion We propose a sequential progression from short- to long-term kleptoplasty, with different adaptations involved in each step. Short-term kleptoplasty likely arose as a deficiency in plastid digestion, yielding additional energy via the release of fixed carbon

  12. Uniqueness and existence for bounded boundary value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehme, J.; Lanz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of solutions for the boundary value problems with general linear point evaluation boundary conditions is established. We assume that f is bounded and that there is uniqueness on a homogeneous problem and on the linear variational problems. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All righ

  13. Existence and Uniqueness of Solution to ODEs: Lipschitz Continuity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Poria; Aman Dhiman

    2017-05-01

    The study of existence and uniqueness of solution of ordinarydifferential equation (ODE) became important due to the lack ofgeneral formula for solving nonlinear ODEs. In this article, weshall discuss briefly about the existence and uniqueness of solutionof a first order ODE. A special emphasis is given on theLipschitz continuous functions in the discussion.

  14. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauerberg, Hans; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Pumbley, Mark;

    2008-01-01

    have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors....

  15. Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

  16. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  17. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  18. Uniqueness of limiting solution to a strongly competing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetik Arakelyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove a uniqueness for the positive solution to a strongly competing system of Lotka-Volterra type problem in the limiting configuration, when the competition rate tends to infinity. We give an alternate proof of uniqueness based on properties of limiting solutions.

  19. The Uniqueness of Optimal Solution for Linear Programming Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanlingWei; HongYan; JunWang

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates an old problem in operations research, the uniqueness of the optimal solution to a linear programming problem. We discuss the problem on a general polyhedron, give some equivalent conditions for uniqueness testing. In addition, we discuss the implementation issues for linear programming based decision making procedures,which motivated this research.

  20. Two Step Synthesis of a Non-symmetric Acetylcholinesterase Reactivator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vit Koleckar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed and very promising acetylcholinesterase reactivator (E-1- (2-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium-4-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium-but-2-ene dibromide was prepared using two different pathways via a two-step synthesis involving the appropriate (E-1-(4-bromobut-2-enyl-2- or 4-hydroxyiminomethyl-pyridinium bromides. Afterwards, purities and yields of the desired product prepared by both routes were compared. Finally, its potency to reactivate several nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterases was tested.

  1. Survey yields data on unique metamorphic rock complex in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A.; Jiang, M.; Ryberg, T.; Gao, R.

    Seismic data from survey work last year in Dabie Shan, China, are giving scientists their first view of the subsurface structure of a unique metamorphic rock complex. The work, in which a joint Chinese-German research team surveyed possible sites for a super deep borehole, set the stage for more intensive petrological and seismic investigations this year and next.Data were collected by near-vertical seismic imaging at Dabie Shan, the Earth's largest outcrop of ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHM) rocks, some exhumed from depths of 100 km. Processing so far has revealed unexpectedly strong mid-and lower-crustal reflections, predominantly dipping west to east, indicating the involved tectonic history of the region. Upcoming research will look more closely at the three-dimensional structure of the rock and other matters. Scientific deep drilling is essential in addressing a wide range of major geoscientific problems of global importance. The International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP) coordinates such, and one key target of ICDP is the Dabie Shan. To find the most appropriate location for a drill site and to extend the findings of the drilling beyond the drill hole, geophysical methods, especially seismic investigations, play an important role. Integrated interpretation of seismic and drill results in the Dabie Shan will lead to a better understanding of the structure and dynamic processes of the collisional history of the Yangtze and Sino-Korean Cratons. The Dabie Shan is located in the eastern part of the Qinling orogen in Anhui province, central China. The rocks there contain microdiamonds and coesite within a 20-km-thick eclogite zone representing a part of the lower lithosphere of the Yangtze Craton [Okay, 1993]. Such rocks suggest that continental crust had been subducted to depths greater than 100 km and exhumed afterwards [Hackeretal, 1995].

  2. 2-rational Cubic Spline Involving Tension Parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shrivastava; J Joseph

    2000-08-01

    In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a 2-rational cubic spline interpolant are established. The error analysis of the spline interpolant is also given.

  3. From Zinnia to Arabidopsis: approaching the involvement of peroxidases in lignification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Uzal, Esther; Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Herrero, Joaquín; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Gómez-Ros, Laura V; Bernal, María Ángeles; Díaz, José; Cuello, Juan; Pomar, Federico; Pedreño, María Ángeles

    2013-09-01

    Zinnia elegans constitutes one of the most useful model systems for studying xylem differentiation, which simultaneously involves secondary cell wall synthesis, cell wall lignification, and programmed cell death. Likewise, the in vitro culture system of Z. elegans has been the best characterized as the differentiation of mesophyll cells into tracheary elements allows study of the biochemistry and physiology of xylogenesis free from the complexity that heterogeneous plant tissues impose. Moreover, Z. elegans has emerged as an excellent plant model to study the involvement of peroxidases in cell wall lignification. This is due to the simplicity and duality of the lignification pattern shown by the stems and hypocotyls, and to the basic nature of the peroxidase isoenzyme. This protein is expressed not only in hypocotyls and stems but also in mesophyll cells transdifferentiating into tracheary elements. Therefore, not only does this peroxidase fulfil all the catalytic requirements to be involved in lignification overcoming all restrictions imposed by the polymerization step, but also its expression is inherent in lignification. In fact, its basic nature is not exceptional since basic peroxidases are differentially expressed during lignification in other model systems, showing unusual and unique biochemical properties such as oxidation of syringyl moieties. This review focuses on the experiments which led to a better understanding of the lignification process in Zinnia, starting with the basic knowledge about the lignin pattern in this plant, how lignification takes place, and how a sole basic peroxidase with unusual catalytic properties is involved and regulated by hormones, H2O2, and nitric oxide.

  4. A unique palindromic element mediates gamma interferon induction of mig gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To define the molecular mechanisms involved in the action of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), we have analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the mig (monokine induced by gamma interferon) gene, a member of the platelet factor 4-interleukin-8 cytokine family that is expressed in murine macrophages specifically in response to IFN-gamma. Analysis of mig/CAT chimeric constructs transiently transfected into the RAW 264.7 mouse monocytic cell line revealed a unique IFN-gamma-responsive element (ga...

  5. Molecular machines in the synapse: Overlapping protein sets control distinct steps in neurosecretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, L.N.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Meijer, M.; Dijkstra, T.M.H.; Heskes, T.; Verhage, M.

    2012-01-01

    Activity regulated neurotransmission shapes the computational properties of a neuron and involves the concerted action of many proteins. Classical, intuitive working models often assign specific proteins to specific steps in such complex cellular processes, whereas modern systems theories emphasize

  6. evaluation of single-step steam pyrolysis-activated carbons from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    provision of safe water to the people is an urgent development ... coagulants such as aluminium salts in both domestic and ... generally involves two-steps - carbonization ... This study was therefore ... was generated by injecting water into the.

  7. Bridging the Cultural Gap: Ten Steps toward a More Multicultural Youth Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents ten steps toward a more multicultural youth library to help bridge cultural and linguistic gaps in public and school libraries. Topics include mission statements; physical environment; collection diversity; collaboration; bilingual materials; multicultural materials; community involvement; and appreciating diversity. (LRW)

  8. Further steps towards healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In many areas of the world, lack of money, time, and education compels women to perform their household duties and neglect their health care regardless of how sick they are. In response to this situation, the World Health Organization created a "Healthy Women Counselling Guide" (HWCG) package consisting of 1) a document that describes background research conducted in Nigeria, Kenya, and Sierra Leone; 2) a document that chronicles the development of radio and illustration materials; 3) sample audiocassette tapes from the three country teams; 4) two illustrated booklets and a calendar supporting the radio tapes; and 5) a user's guide. The pretested materials in the HWCG were designed with community input for rural women. The sample tape from Kenya focuses on malaria and that from Nigeria on vesicovaginal fistula. The Nigerian team also produced a booklet on adolescent childbirth. The Sierra Leone team prepared a calendar illustrated with information about a variety of ways to obtain good health. A further HWCG series is being developed in India on alcohol abuse. The HWCG package was developed for policy-makers, nongovernmental organizations, and other individuals and agencies concerned with improving women's health. Additional HWCC activities will involve wider dissemination of the material that has been developed, exchanges among teams to determine cross-cultural applicability and adaptability of the material, and studies of the impact of the HWCG process.

  9. Step change in the Bakken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, S. [Schlumberger Drilling and Measurements, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The effective development of resource plays for Schlumberger involves drilling long horizontal sections; drilling fast wells; drilling wells in the right place; and cost certainty. Schlumberger has identified several challenges with conventional tools, including excessive torque and drag; fixed bend setups which limits the operating window; reduced hole cleaning while sliding; and slower ROP when sliding versus rotary. This presentation discussed methods of lowering of drilling costs in the Bakken Shale through the adoption of rotary steerable technology. It discussed the application methodology with particular reference to loading data; evaluating data; determining optimization opportunities/applicability; and promoting certain and appropriate technologies. The results of the data were presented. It was found that rotary steerable systems spent more time rotating rather than sliding, and spent less time off the bottom and had reduced flat time. They resulted in reduced borehole tortuosity and achieved a smooth hole. It was determined that lower friction would increase hole length and a smoother wellbore would eliminate reamer run. The PowerDrive X5 system was presented and illustrated. A comparison of conventional tools was also offered. It was concluded that rotary steerable systems are not confined to use in high cost offshore drilling environments and that they drill wells faster, eliminate reamer runs, drill longer, and reduce drilling risk. figs.

  10. Early Steps in the DNA Base Excision Repair Pathway of a Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichiro Kanamitsu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA base excision repair (BER accounts for maintaining genomic integrity by removing damaged bases that are generated endogenously or induced by genotoxic agents. In this paper, we describe the roles of enzymes functioning in the early steps of BER in fission yeast. Although BER is an evolutionarily conserved process, some unique features of the yeast repair pathway were revealed by genetic and biochemical approaches. AP sites generated by monofunctional DNA glycosylases are incised mainly by AP lyase activity of Nth1p, a sole bifunctional glycosylase in yeast, to leave a blocked 3′ end. The major AP endonuclease Apn2p functions predominantly in removing the 3′ block. Finally, a DNA polymerase fills the gap, and a DNA ligase seals the nick (Nth1p-dependent or short patch BER. Apn1p backs up Apn2p. In long patch BER, Rad2p endonuclease removes flap DNA containing a lesion after DNA synthesis. A UV-specific endonuclease Uve1p engages in an alternative pathway by nicking DNA on the 5′ side of oxidative damage. Nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination are involved in repair of BER intermediates including the AP site and single-strand break with the 3′ block. Other enzymes working in 3′ end processing are also discussed.

  11. Poster 4: Investigating the first steps of hydrocarbon condensation in the laboratory and in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biennier, Ludovic; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Benidar, Abdessamad; Le Picard, Sebastien

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocarbons formed in Titan's cold atmosphere, starting with ethane C2H6, ethylene C2H4, acetylene C2H2, propane C3H8,... up to benzene C6H6, play some role in aerosol production, cloud processes, rain generation and Titan's lakes formation. We have started to study in the laboratory the kinetics of the first steps of condensation of these hydrocarbons. Rate coefficients are very sensitive to the description of the potential interaction surfaces of the molecules involved. Combined theoretical and experimental studies at the molecular level of the homogenous nucleation of various small molecules should improve greatly our fundamental understanding. This knowledge will serve as a model for studying more complex nucleation processes actually taking places in planetary atmospheres. Here we present the first experimental kinetic study of the dimerization of two small hydrocarbons: ethane C2H6 and propane C3H8. We have performed experiments to identify the temperature and partial densities ranges over which small hydrocarbon clusters form in saturated uniform supersonic flows. Using our unique reactor based on a Laval nozzle expansions, the kinetics of the formation has also been investigated down to 23 K. The chemical species present in the reactor are probed by a time of flight mass spectrometer equipped with an electron gun for soft ionization of the neutral reagents and products. This work aims at putting some constraints on the role of small hydrocarbon condensation in the formation of haze particles in the dense atmosphere of Titan.

  12. Doctors' involvement in torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonntag, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Doctors from both non-democratic and democratic countries are involved in torture. The majority of doctors involved in torture are doctors at risk. Doctors at risk might compromise their ethical duty towards patients for the following possible reasons: individual factors (such as career, economic...

  13. A Step-by-Step Teaching Technique for Teachers with Adult Students of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Step-by-step teaching is a researcher-designed innovative process that takes the adult learner, step-by-step, from his present level of understanding to the required level. The technique is based on well-researched and accepted pedagogical practices set in their psychological, sociological, and andragogical perspectives. Using a convenience sample…

  14. Primes in Fibonacci n-step and Lucas n-step Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Tony D.; Vos Post, Jonathan

    2005-09-01

    We search for primes in the Fibonacci n-step and Lucas n-step sequences, which are the natural generalizations of the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. While the Fibonacci n-step sequences are nearly devoid of primes, the Lucas n-step sequences are prime-rich. We tabulate the occurrence of primes in the first 10000 terms for n sequences.

  15. Neurocognitive Processing Steps during Remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan CR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method of recording several of the electrophysiological changes seen during remembrance of experiential components of autobiographic episodes has been developed for use in forensic investigations of suspects and accused persons. The technique has been called Brain Electrical Oscillations Signature [BEOS] profiling and has been used successfully used in several hundreds of cases as aid for investigation. The two important facilitating aspects of the test are that [1] remembrance can be automatically cued by presenting short verbal statements referring to various components of an experience, and the remembrance is automatic and mandatory when a cue is presented, in normal individuals. [2] There is also no need for any response from the subject while receiving the cueing information. Knowing the occurrence of an activity in the past does not trigger any remembrance of own participation. Remembrance of participation in an activity occurs only if the person has participated in the activity referred by the probe. Remembrance has several neurocognitive components, which are reflected in the scalp EEG of a person. Sets of verbal probes representing different formulations of the episode and the different roles of individuals, as they are essentially possibilities arrived at by an investigating team, when more than one person is suspected to be involved in the activity are presented to the suspected persons. Each multichannel epoch of EEG time locked to each probe, acquired with its pre-probe baseline, is acquired and analyzed to determine the statistical significance of the differences in the different components across the EEG channels of each epoch, related to each probe, is analyzed and statistically compared. Presence of Experiential Knowledge is arrived at if all the changes indicating multiple neurocognitive processing components are significantly present.

  16. Unique distribution of aromatase in the human brain: in vivo studies with PET and [N-methyl-11C]vorozole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Kim, Sung Won; Alexoff, David L; Jayne, Millard; Carter, Pauline; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S

    2010-11-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-(11)C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, three men and three women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5 mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90-min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (V(T)) values in both men and women followed the following rank order: thalamus > amygdala = preoptic area > medulla (inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum, and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced V(T) in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region-dependent, ranging from ∼70% blocking in thalamus andpreoptic area to ∼10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the noninvasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain.

  17. Unique Distribution of Aromatase in the Human Brain: In Vivo Studies With PET and [N-Methyl-11C]Vorozole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.W.; Alexoff, D.; Millard, J.; Carter, P.; Hubbard, B.; King, P.; Logan, J.; Muench, L.; Pareto, D.; Schlyer, D.; Shea, C.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Xu, Y.; Fowler, J.

    2010-10-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, three men and three women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5 mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90-min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (V{sub T}) values in both men and women followed the following rank order: thalamus > amygdala = preoptic area > medulla (inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum, and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region-dependent, ranging from {approx}70% blocking in thalamus andpreoptic area to {approx}10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the noninvasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain.

  18. Unique distribution of aromatase in the human brain: in vivo studies with PET and [N-methyl-11C]vorozole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Kim, Sung Won; Alexoff, David L.; Jayne, Millard; Carter, Pauline; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2010-01-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-11C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, 3 men and 3 women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90 min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (VT) values in both men and women followed the rank order: thalamus>amygdala=preoptic area>medulla(inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region dependent; ranging from ~70% blocking in thalamus and preoptic area to ~10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the non-invasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain. PMID:20842717

  19. Perturbations of ground support alter posture and locomotion coupling during step initiation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark W; Hilliard, Marjorie Johnson; Martinez, Katherine M; Zhang, Yunhui; Simuni, Tanya; Mille, Marie-Laure

    2011-02-01

    During the initiation of stepping, anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) for lateral weight transfer and propulsion normally precede the onset of locomotion. In Parkinson's disease (PD), impaired step initiation typically involves altered APA ground force production with delayed step onset and deficits in stepping performance. If, as in stance and gait, sensory information about lower limb load is important for the control of stepping, then perturbations influencing loading conditions could affect the step initiation process. This study investigated the influence of changes in lower limb loading during step initiation in patients with PD and healthy control subjects. Participants performed rapid self-triggered step initiation with the impending single stance limb positioned over a pneumatically actuated platform. In perturbation trials, the stance limb ground support surface was either moved vertically downward (DROP) or upward (ELEVATE) by 1.5 cm shortly after the onset of the APA phase. Overall, PD patients demonstrated a longer APA duration, longer time to first step onset, and slower step speed than controls. In both groups, the DROP perturbation reinforced the intended APA kinetic changes for lateral weight transfer and resulted in a significant reduction in APA duration, increase in peak amplitude, and earlier time to first step onset compared with other conditions. During ELEVATE trials that opposed the intended weight transfer forces both groups rapidly adapted their stepping to preserve standing stability by decreasing step length and duration, and increasing step height and foot placement laterally. The findings suggested that sensory information associated with limb load and/or foot pressure modulates the spatial and temporal parameters of posture and locomotion components of step initiation in interaction with a centrally generated feedforward mode of neural control. Moreover, impaired step initiation in PD may at least acutely be enhanced by

  20. Frequency dependence of the subharmonic Shapiro steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekić, Jasmina; Ivić, Zoran

    2011-05-01

    Frequency dependence of the subharmonic Shapiro steps has been studied in the ac driven overdamped Frenkel-Kontorova model with deformable substrate potential. As potential gets deformed, in addition to the harmonic steps, subharmonic steps appear in the number and size that increase as the frequency of the external force increases. It was found that size of both harmonic and subharmonic steps strongly depend on the frequency where in the high-amplitude limit oscillatory dependence appears. When expressed as a function of period these oscillations of the step size with frequency have the same form as the oscillations of the step size with amplitude. Deformation of the potential has strong influence on these oscillations, and as in the case of amplitude dependence, with the increase of deformation, the same three distinctive types of behavior have been classified.

  1. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence,uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations.A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given.We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations,then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit.As consequences,some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  2. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions of semilinear elliptic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-yi DAI; Yu-xia FU; Yong-geng GU

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of existence, uniqueness and non-degeneracy of positive solutions of semi-linear elliptic equations. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions to problems is given. We prove that if the uniqueness and non-degeneracy results are valid for positive solutions of a class of semi-linear elliptic equations, then they are still valid when one perturbs the differential operator a little bit. As consequences, some uniqueness results of positive solutions under the domain perturbation are also obtained.

  3. The Unique Destination Proposition of Eskisehir: Industrial Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Unique Sales Proposition (USP concept which is one of the most important strategies of advertising history, to the Unique Destination Proposition (UDP for the case of Eskisehir. This study aims to propose industrial heritage as the UDP of Eskisehir by a descriptive approach. Industrial heritage helps Eskisehir destination brand to attain a meaningful, sustainable and distinctive dimension from its competitors. The current industrial heritage samples of Eskisehir were initially evaluated in this context. Subsequently, in the focus of the relation between industrial heritage and tourism, an excursion route and a tour program is suggested including the unique industrial heritage values of Eskisehir.

  4. Explicit Time-Stepping for Stiff ODEs

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksson, Kenneth; Logg, Anders; 10.1137/S1064827502409626

    2012-01-01

    We present a new strategy for solving stiff ODEs with explicit methods. By adaptively taking a small number of stabilizing small explicit time steps when necessary, a stiff ODE system can be stabilized enough to allow for time steps much larger than what is indicated by classical stability analysis. For many stiff problems the cost of the stabilizing small time steps is small, so the improvement is large. We illustrate the technique on a number of well-known stiff test problems.

  5. Unique self-assembly properties of a bridge-shaped protein dimer with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhao; Jiang, Pengju [Changzhou University, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science (China); Gao, Liqian; Yu, Yongsheng; Lu, Yao [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Chemistry (Hong Kong, China) (China); Qiu, Lin; Wang, Cheli [Changzhou University, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science (China); Xia, Jiang, E-mail: jiangxia@cuhk.edu.hk [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Chemistry (Hong Kong, China) (China)

    2013-09-15

    How protein-protein interaction affects protein-nanoparticle self-assembly is the key to the understanding of biomolecular coating of nanoparticle in biological fluids. However, the relationship between protein shape and its interaction with nanoparticles is still under-exploited because of lack of a well-conceived binding system and a method to detect the subtle change in the protein-nanoparticle assemblies. Noticing this unresolved need, we cloned and expressed a His-tagged SpeA protein that adopts a bridge-shaped dimer structure, and utilized a high-resolution capillary electrophoresis method to monitor assembly formation between the protein and quantum dots (QDs, 5 nm in diameter). We observed that the bridge-shaped structure rendered a low SpeA:QD stoichiometry at saturation. Also, close monitoring of imidazole (Im) displacement of surface-bound protein revealed a unique two-step process. High-concentration Im could displace surface-bound SpeA protein and form a transient QD-protein intermediate, through a kinetically controlled displacement process. An affinity-driven equilibrium step then followed, resulting in re-assembling of the QD-protein complex in about 1 h. Through a temporarily formed intermediate, Im causes a rearrangement of His-tagged proteins on the surface. Thus, our work showcases that the synergistic interplay between QD-His-tag interaction and protein-protein interaction can result in unique properties of protein-nanoparticle assembly for the first time.

  6. Smart Steps to Sustainability 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart Steps to Sustainability provides small business owners and managers with practical advice and tools to implementsustainable and environmentally-preferable business practices that go beyond compliance.

  7. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancassel Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3, is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6 and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3. Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several years ago, we hypothesized that a modification of DHA contents of neuronal membranes by dietary modulation could change the neurotransmission function and then underlie inappropriate behavioural response. We showed that, in parallel to a severe loss of brain DHA concomitant to a compensatory substitution by 22:5n-6, the dietary lack of α-linolenic acid during development induced important changes in the release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine in cerebral areas specifically involved in learning, memory and reward processes. Data suggested alteration of presynaptic storage process and dysregulations of reciprocal functional interactions between monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we showed that recovery of these neurochemical changes was possible when the deficient diet was switched to a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 PUFA before weaning. The next step is to understand the mechanism involved. Particularly, we focus on the study of the metabolic cooperation between the endothelial cell, the astrocyte and the neuron which regulate synaptic transmission.These works could contribute to the understanding of the link between some neuropsychiatric disorders and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, through their action on neurotransmission.

  8. Autophagy and proteins involved in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Celina; Fader, Claudio Marcelo; Colombo, María Isabel

    2015-11-14

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that, as a basic mechanism it delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosomes in order to maintain adequate energy levels and cellular homeostasis. This complex cellular process is activated by low cellular nutrient levels and other stress situations such as low ATP levels, the accumulation of damaged proteins or organelles, or pathogen invasion. Autophagy as a multistep process involves vesicular transport events leading to tethering and fusion of autophagic vesicles with several intracellular compartments. This review summarizes our current understanding of the autophagic pathway with emphasis in the trafficking machinery (i.e. Rabs GTPases and SNAP receptors (SNAREs)) involved in specific steps of the pathway.

  9. Uniqueness and existence results for ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, J. Angel; Heikkila, Seppo; Pouso, Rodrigo Lopez

    2006-04-01

    We establish some uniqueness and existence results for first-order ordinary differential equations with constant-signed discontinuous nonlinear parts. Several examples are given to illustrate the applicability of our work.

  10. Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet The Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand Hand therapy, a specialty practice area of occupational ... are treated by occupational therapy practitioners specializing in hand rehabilitation. Practitioners who treat clients with conditions of the ...

  11. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  12. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to Random Impulsive Differential Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jin Wu; Xiao-lin Guo; Song-qing Lin

    2006-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness in mean square of solutions to certain random impulsive differential systems is discussed in this paper. Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, Lipschtiz condition and techniques in stochastic analysis are employed in achieve the desired results.

  13. On the development of uniquely African management theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the development of uniquely African management theory. ... Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ...

  14. AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO GENERATE UNIQUE SONG SIGNAL (AUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kr. Mondal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedding uniqueness in characteristics of song signal and accustoming changes of environment is one of the challenging issues for researchers with maintaining its audible quality. Researchers are modifying or manipulating audio signal properties for generating uniqueness in content such a manner that will not vary so much in changed environment or changes can be easily defined due to unique structure of song signal. In this paper, an approach has been made based on defining a symmetric structure of song signal, followed by some secret code embedding in a specified manner will not alter the trade off ratio of embedding/modifying data but provide uniqueness in properties, even retain the properties in changing environment/ format. Therefore, authentication of song signal is easily achieved with these self manipulated properties. A comparative study has been made with similar existing techniques and experimental results are also supported with mathematical formula based on Microsoft WAVE (".wav" stereo sound file.

  15. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  16. UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR EQUATIONS WITH AVALANCHE TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jiasheng; Wang Yuanming

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the initial and mixed boundary value problems for the semiconductor equations with avalanche term, the uniqueness of the weak solution for the semiconductor equation has been proved.

  17. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Susan

    1976-01-01

    With the emphasis on consumer involvement in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, changes in the counseling relationship must occur. This article discusses new interaction patterns for consumer and counselor. (Author)

  18. Summing Up the Unique Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    interested parties to expose a theme around the transit, e.g., preparations for the event and the actual observations, as well as conveying the personal impressions. A professional jury has now selected among the many excellent entries the laureates (see the list below) who will present their videos at the Paris conference this week, competing for one of the top prizes, including a trip by the winning team to the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile), home of the Very Large Telescope. The "Venus Transit Experience" Conference The Venus Transit Experience conference will take place at "Le Carré des Sciences" at the French Ministry of Research in Paris. It brings together the main participants in this project from many different European countries. A main aim is to discuss the impact of the project, identifying possible differences from country to country and showing how to share good practices in the future. The VT-2004 programme provided an exciting field test for the execution of large-scale public activities relating to a particular, scientific event with strong operational constraints, including the requirement to act in real-time as this event progressed. Much valuable experience was gathered for future continent-wide activities involving the same mechanisms and carried out under similar conditions. Thus, the overall outcome of this unique public education project is clearly of very wide interest, not just in the field of astronomy. The Distance to the Sun Remeasured A central feature of the VT-2004 programme was the VT-2004 Observing Campaign, aimed at re-enacting the historical determination of the distance to the Sun (the "Astronomical Unit") by collecting timings of the four contacts made by participating observers and combining them in a calculation of the AU. A large number of groups of observers registered; at the end, there were 2763 all over the world. Among these were almost 1000 school classes, demonstrating the large interest among students and teachers to

  19. Clinical studies involving probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Degnan, Fred H

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from a diverse array of scientific disciplines have focused and continue to focus on opportunities and areas for responsible clinical research involving the possible beneficial health effects of “probiotics.” Investigators and researchers should be aware that not all clinical research involving probiotics reasonably falls within the requirements of the “investigational new drug” (IND) rubric administered and enforced by the US Food and Drug Administration. In determining whether a...

  20. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  1. Euler equation existence, non-uniqueness and mesh converged statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimm, James; Sharp, David H; Lim, Hyunkyung; Kaufman, Ryan; Hu, Wenlin

    2015-09-13

    We review existence and non-uniqueness results for the Euler equation of fluid flow. These results are placed in the context of physical models and their solutions. Non-uniqueness is in direct conflict with the purpose of practical simulations, so that a mitigating strategy, outlined here, is important. We illustrate these issues in an examination of mesh converged turbulent statistics, with comparison to laboratory experiments.

  2. Limit theorem and uniqueness theorem of backward stochastic differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Long

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes a limit theorem for solutions of backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). By this limit theorem, this paper proves that, under the standard assumption g(t,y,0)≡0, the generator g of a BSDE can be uniquely determined by the corresponding g-expectation εg; this paper also proves that if a filtration consistent expectation ε can be represented as a g-expectation εg, then the corresponding generator g must be unique.

  3. Generic uniqueness conditions for the canonical polyadic decomposition and INDSCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    We find conditions that guarantee that a decomposition of a generic third-order tensor in a minimal number of rank-$1$ tensors (canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD)) is unique up to permutation of rank-$1$ tensors. Then we consider the case when the tensor and all its rank-$1$ terms have symmetric frontal slices (INDSCAL). Our results complement the existing bounds for generic uniqueness of the CPD and relax the existing bounds for INDSCAL. The derivation makes use of algebraic geometry. We...

  4. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient′s unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient′s Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  5. Unique Measure for Time-Dependent Random Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Varner, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This paper proves the uniqueness of measure for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations under a random kick-force and a time-dependent deterministic force. By extending a result for uniqueness of measure for time-homogeneous Markov processes to the time-inhomogeneous case, it is shown that the measures are exponentially mixing for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere.

  6. Strategic Management: Managing Change by Employee Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Fareeha Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic management attempts to link strategic planning with decision making and these decisions implementation. The role of involvement -who should be involved and how that involvement should be managed is essential for effectual decision making. This paper scrutinizes the significance of involvement in decision making generally and demonstrate how involvement management principles apply to the strategic management process explicitly. Strategic management composed of three important steps: creation of a documented plan, making strategic planning an effectual part of the management systems, and appropriately manage involvement in the planning process. It requires that an organization's managers must be involved in a process of objectives identification, strategies development and implementation plans to accomplish those objectives, and sporadically evaluate the decisions implementation of decisions. Decision making, implementation, feedback, and evaluation; is a continuous process. Basically, effective decision making and implementation means congregating the right mix of people, convincing them that what they are doing is significant to the senior executive, and effectively managing their involvement in the decision making process. This paper provides some proven techniques that add value to many organizations.

  7. USMLE Step 1 Examination: Legal Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Bryce

    1996-01-01

    In 1994 the Federation of State Medical Boards and the National Board of Medical Examiners instituted a three-step U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Step one of the USMLE may be vulnerable to legal challenge on the basis of minority group bias and lack of construct validity. (SLD)

  8. Student USMLE Step One Preparation and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi

    This study investigated factors associated with medical students performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step One examination. The USMLE Step One emphasizes basic mechanisms and principles that are typically covered in the first 2 years of medical school. The study examined the relationship among student performance…

  9. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...

  10. Haier's Four Steps to Brand Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN YAN

    2006-01-01

    @@ On December 25 last year, Haier formally launched its fourth brand-building step, namely to make the company a global brand. The latest strategy follows the previous three steps - branding, diversification and internationalization. In the latest stage, Haier will further build its brand overseas, said Zhang Ruimin,CEO of the Chinese electronics appliances giant.

  11. Step tolling with bottleneck queuing congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.; Lindsey, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    . It also proposes a third scheme in which late in the rush hour drivers slow down or stop just before reaching a tolling point, and wait until the toll is lowered from one step to the next step. Such ‘braking’ behaviour has been observed in practice. Analytical derivations and numerical modelling s

  12. Pancreatic Involvement in Melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vui Heng Chong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Melioidosis is endemic to tropical regions and, despite the common occurrence of intra-abdominal abscesses, pancreatic involvement in melioidosis has not previously been reported. Objective We report our experience with pancreatic melioidosis. Patients All 65 patients treated for melioidosis who had computed tomography (CT scans were identified from prospective databases and were retrospectively reviewed. Main outcome measures A detailed review of cases with pancreas involvement was carried out. Results There were four cases (three males and one female; median age 29.5 years, range: 25-48 years with pancreatic melioidosis, giving a prevalence of 6.2%. All had predisposing conditions (two had poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and two had thalassemia for melioidosis. Fever (100%, anorexia (100%, weight loss (100%, rigor (75% and abdominal pain (75% were the most common symptoms at presentation and the median duration of symptoms before presentation was six weeks (range: 2-8 weeks. All pancreatic abscesses were detected on CT scan. Multiple foci involvement was common (3 to 6 sites: blood (4 patients, liver (3 patients, psoas muscle (2 patients, spleen (2 patients, infected ascites (2 patients and lung (1 patient. Pancreatic involvement ranged from multi-focal micro-abscesses to focal large abscesses and involved all parts of the pancreas (body 100%, head 75% and tail 50%. Associated pancreatic findings included splenic vein thrombosis, peripancreatic inflammation and peripancreatic fat streaking. All the pancreatic abscesses were resolved with antibiotics without requiring pancreatic abscess drainage (including one patient who died from disseminated melioidosis. Conclusion Pancreatic involvement typically occurs as part of multi-organ involvement and commonly manifests as multifoci micro-abscesses. Associated pancreatic abnormalities were also common. All responded to treatment without requiring drainage

  13. Uniqueness from pointwise observations in a multi-parameter inverse problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cristofol, Michel; Hamel, Francois; Roques, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a uniqueness result in the inverse problem of determining several non-constant coefficients of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equations. Such reaction-diffusion equations include the classical model of Kolmogorov, Petrovsky and Piskunov as well as more sophisticated models from biology. When the reaction term contains an unknown polynomial part of degree $N,$ with non-constant coefficients $\\mu_k(x),$ our result gives a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the determination of this polynomial part. This sufficient condition only involves pointwise measurements of the solution $u$ of the reaction-diffusion equation and of its spatial derivative $\\partial u / \\partial x$ at a single point $x_0,$ during a time interval $(0,\\epsilon).$ In addition to this uniqueness result, we give several counter-examples to uniqueness, which emphasize the optimality of our assumptions. Finally, in the particular cases N=2 and $N=3,$ we show that such pointwise measurements can allow an efficien...

  14. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... Commodities Act, 1930; (2) Subject to a federal marketing order under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement...

  15. Bi-modes alternation stepping ultrasonic motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiamei JIN; Chunsheng ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of alternative operation of two bending vibration modes in an annular stator, this paper presents a standing-wave stepping ultrasonic motor characterized by no accumulative errors driven by an open-loop control circuitry. The driving forces are generated from the motions of projections on the stator in two modes. The positioning of the motor is achieved by the cooperation between the stator projections and rotor teeth, and the number of the rotors determines the stepping angle of the motor. Two-phase sinusoidal signals corresponding to the two modal frequencies drive the motor bi-direction stepping rotation via a switch unit. The prototype runs steadily without miss-step on trial. The single-step angle displacement of the motor is 2.5°.

  16. Numerical simulation and analysis of water flow over stepped spillways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN ZhongDong; HU XiaoQing; HUAI WenXin; AMADOR António

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of water flow over the stepped spillway is conducted using Mixture multiphase flow model. Different turbulence models are chosen to enclose the controlling equations. The turbulence models investigated are realizable k-ε model, SST k-ω model, v2-f model and LES model. The computational results by the four turbulence models are compared with experimental ones in the following aspects: mean velocity, the spanwise vorticity and the growth of the turbulent boundary layer thickness in the streamwise direction. It is found from the comparison that the realizable k-ε model, in which the rotation tensor is included, shows good performance for simulation of flows involving rotation, boundary layer and recirculation. The realizable k-e model is the most efficient in simulating flow over stepped spillways. Further, the characteristics of water flow on the stepped spillway are studied in terms of the mean velocity profile normal to the pseudo-bottom and the pressure field on the steps based on the simulation results using realizable k-ε model.

  17. Numerical simulation and analysis of water flow over stepped spillways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMADOR; António

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of water flow over the stepped spillway is conducted using Mixture multiphase flow model. Different turbulence models are chosen to enclose the controlling equations. The turbulence models investigated are realizable k-ε model, SST k-ω model, v2-f model and LES model. The computational results by the four turbulence models are compared with experimental ones in the following aspects: mean velocity, the spanwise vorticity and the growth of the turbulent boundary layer thickness in the streamwise direction. It is found from the comparison that the realizable k-ε model, in which the rotation tensor is included, shows good performance for simulation of flows involving rotation, boundary layer and recirculation. The realizable k-ε model is the most efficient in simulating flow over stepped spillways. Further, the characteristics of water flow on the stepped spillway are studied in terms of the mean velocity profile normal to the pseudo-bottom and the pressure field on the steps based on the simulation results using realizable k-ε model.

  18. Photons uniques indiscernables à partir d'une boîte quantique unique dans un cristal photonique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, S.; Varoutsis, S.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Raineri, F.; Levenson, A.; Robert-Philip, I.; Abram, I.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons développé et caractérisé une source de photons uniques basée sur l'émission spontanée d'une boîte quantique unique insérée dans une cavité à bande interdite photonique bidimensionnelle. Ce système nous a d'abord permis de produire des photons uniques, puis des photons uniques indiscernables avec une indiscernabilité supérieure à 70%. L'observation de l'indiscernabilité des photons, impossible sans un raccourcissement important de la durée de vie, met en évidence un effet Purcell supérieur à 25 dans ce système.

  19. [Pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, M; Hiraga, Y; Hirasawa, M

    1990-01-01

    We reported about intrathoracic changes and prognosis of 686 patients with sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital between 1963 and 1988. We evaluated CT findings in 135 patients with sarcoidosis and found pulmonary involvements in 81. We analyzed CT findings according to the classification by Tuengerthal which classified radiographic findings combining ILO classification of pneumoconiosis and characteristic findings of bronchovascular sheath with sarcoidosis. The CT findings were as follows: small opacities (44 out of 81 cases, 54.3%), large opacities (37 cases, 46.7%). Additional findings were as follows: peribronchial marking (42 cases, 51.9%), contraction (17 cases, 21.0%), pleural involvement (9 cases, 11.1%), bulla (5 cases, 6.2%). The characteristic CT findings of serious sarcoidosis were extasis of bronchus, thickening of the bronchial wall, unclearness of vascular shadow, atelectasis and thickening of pleura. Concerning the prognosis of pulmonary involvement, according to age, patients younger than 30 years old at initial diagnosis were better than those of 30 years and over in terms of disappearance of pulmonary involvements. According to stage, patients of stage I and stage II were better than those of stage III. Among the patients we were able to observe chest X-ray findings during five years according to the character of shadow, ill-defined shadow of small opacities and rounded shadows of large opacities had a higher disappearance rate of pulmonary involvements than irregular shadows of large opacities, atelectasis and contraction.

  20. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

  1. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasbi Nessrine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis, and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management.

  2. Unique core genomes of the bacterial family vibrionaceae: insights into niche adaptation and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlke Tim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The criteria for defining bacterial species and even the concept of bacterial species itself are under debate, and the discussion is apparently intensifying as more genome sequence data is becoming available. However, it is still unclear how the new advances in genomics should be used most efficiently to address this question. In this study we identify genes that are common to any group of genomes in our dataset, to determine whether genes specific to a particular taxon exist and to investigate their potential role in adaptation of bacteria to their specific niche. These genes were named unique core genes. Additionally, we investigate the existence and importance of unique core genes that are found in isolates of phylogenetically non-coherent groups. These groups of isolates, that share a genetic feature without sharing a closest common ancestor, are termed genophyletic groups. Results The bacterial family Vibrionaceae was used as the model, and we compiled and compared genome sequences of 64 different isolates. Using the software orthoMCL we determined clusters of homologous genes among the investigated genome sequences. We used multilocus sequence analysis to build a host phylogeny and mapped the numbers of unique core genes of all distinct groups of isolates onto the tree. The results show that unique core genes are more likely to be found in monophyletic groups of isolates. Genophyletic groups of isolates, in contrast, are less common especially for large groups of isolate. The subsequent annotation of unique core genes that are present in genophyletic groups indicate a high degree of horizontally transferred genes. Finally, the annotation of the unique core genes of Vibrio cholerae revealed genes involved in aerotaxis and biosynthesis of the iron-chelator vibriobactin. Conclusion The presented work indicates that genes specific for any taxon inside the bacterial family Vibrionaceae exist. These unique core genes encode

  3. Unique Signal mathematical analysis task group FY03 status report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Roy Stuart (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Anna Marie; Hart, Elizabeth (Utah State University, Logan, UT); White, Allan (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA); Cooper, James Arlin

    2003-12-01

    The Unique Signal is a key constituent of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety (ENDS). Although the Unique Signal approach is well prescribed and mathematically assured, there are numerous unsolved mathematical problems that could help assess the risk of deviations from the ideal approach. Some of the mathematics-based results shown in this report are: 1. The risk that two patterns with poor characteristics (easily generated by inadvertent processes) could be combined through exclusive-or mixing to generate an actual Unique Signal pattern has been investigated and found to be minimal (not significant when compared to the incompatibility metric of actual Unique Signal patterns used in nuclear weapons). 2. The risk of generating actual Unique Signal patterns with linear feedback shift registers is minimal, but the patterns in use are not as invulnerable to inadvertent generation by dependent processes as previously thought. 3. New methods of testing pair-wise incompatibility threats have resulted in no significant problems found for the set of Unique Signal patterns currently used. Any new patterns introduced would have to be carefully assessed for compatibility with existing patterns, since some new patterns under consideration were found to be deficient when associated with other patterns in use. 4. Markov models were shown to correspond to some of the engineered properties of Unique Signal sequences. This gives new support for the original design objectives. 5. Potential dependence among events (caused by a variety of communication protocols) has been studied. New evidence has been derived of the risk associated with combined communication of multiple events, and of the improvement in abnormal-environment safety that can be achieved through separate-event communication.

  4. Step driven competitive epitaxial and self-limited growth of graphene on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of surface steps was found to have significant function and influence on the growth of graphene on copper via chemical vapor deposition. The two typical growth modes involved were found to be influenced by the step morphologies on copper surface, which led to our proposed step driven competitive growth mechanism. We also discovered a protective role of graphene in preserving steps on copper surface. Our results showed that wide and high steps promoted epitaxial growth and yielded multilayer graphene domains with regular shape, while dense and low steps favored self-limited growth and led to large-area monolayer graphene films. We have demonstrated that controllable growth of graphene domains of specific shape and large-area continuous graphene films are feasible.

  5. Two-step polarization reversal in biased ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, John E., E-mail: j.daniels@unsw.edu.au; Ukritnukun, Supphatuch; Glaum, Julia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Cozzan, Clayton [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Tutuncu, Goknur; Dosch, Chris [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Andrieux, Jerome [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, LMI -UMR CNRS n°5615, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38000 (France); Jo, Wook [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-06-14

    Polarization reversal in polycrystalline ferroelectrics is shown to occur via two distinct and sequential domain reorientation steps. This reorientation sequence, which cannot be readily discriminated in the overall sample polarization, is made apparent using time-resolved high-energy x-ray diffraction. Upon application of electric fields opposite to the initial poling direction, two unique and significantly different time constants are observed. The first (faster time constant) is shown to be derived by the release of a residual stress due to initial electrical biasing and the second (slower time constant) due to the redevelopment of residual stress during further domain wall motion. A modified domain reorientation model is given that accurately describes the domain volume fraction evolution during the reversal process.

  6. Two-step polarization reversal in biased ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, John E.; Cozzan, Clayton; Ukritnukun, Supphatuch; Tutuncu, Goknur; Andrieux, Jerome; Glaum, Julia; Dosch, Chris; Jo, Wook; Jones, Jacob L.

    2014-06-01

    Polarization reversal in polycrystalline ferroelectrics is shown to occur via two distinct and sequential domain reorientation steps. This reorientation sequence, which cannot be readily discriminated in the overall sample polarization, is made apparent using time-resolved high-energy x-ray diffraction. Upon application of electric fields opposite to the initial poling direction, two unique and significantly different time constants are observed. The first (faster time constant) is shown to be derived by the release of a residual stress due to initial electrical biasing and the second (slower time constant) due to the redevelopment of residual stress during further domain wall motion. A modified domain reorientation model is given that accurately describes the domain volume fraction evolution during the reversal process.

  7. Involve physicians in marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, G T; Baker, K M; Laubach, C A

    1984-01-01

    Many everyday problems in medical group practice can be attacked by a marketing approach. To be successful, however, this kind of approach must have the full support of those involved, especially the physicians, since they are the principal providers of healthcare services. When marketing is presented in a broad context, including elements such as patient mix, population distribution, and research, physicians are more likely to be interested and supportive. The members of Geisinger Medical Center's Department of Cardiovascular Medicine addressed their patient appointment backlog problem with a marketing approach. Their method is chronicled here and serves as a fine example of how physician involvement in marketing can lead to a positive outcome.

  8. Förster Energy Transport in Metal–Organic Frameworks Is Beyond Step-by-Step Hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiongqiong [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Zhang, Cankun [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Cao, Lingyun [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Wang, Zi [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); An, Bing [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Lin, Zekai [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Huang, Ruiyun [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Zhang, Zhiming [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Wang, Cheng [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Lin, Wenbin [Xiamen Univ. (People' s Republic of China); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with light-harvesting building blocks designed to mimic photosynthetic chromophore arrays in green plants provide an excellent platform to study exciton transport in networks with well-defined structures. A step-by-step exciton random hopping model made of the elementary steps of energy transfer between only the nearest neighbors is usually used to describe the transport dynamics. Although such a nearest neighbor approximation is valid in describing the energy transfer of triplet states via the Dexter mechanism, we found it inadequate in evaluating singlet exciton migration that occurs through the Förster mechanism, which involves one-step jumping over longer distance. We measured migration rates of singlet excitons on two MOFs constructed from truxene-derived ligands and zinc nodes, by monitoring energy transfer from the MOF skeleton to a coumarin probe in the MOF cavity. The diffusivities of the excitons on the frameworks were determined to be 1.8 × 10–2 cm2/s and 2.3 × 10–2 cm2/s, corresponding to migration distances of 43 and 48 nm within their lifetimes, respectively. “Through space” energy-jumping beyond nearest neighbor accounts for up to 67% of the energy transfer rates. This finding presents a new perspective in the design and understanding of highly efficient energy transport networks for singlet excited states.

  9. On existence and uniqueness of solutions for variational data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a term from the geosciences and refers to methods for estimating orbits of dynamical models from observations. Variational techniques for data assimilation estimate these orbits by minimising an appropriate cost functional which takes the error with respect to the observations but also deviations of the orbits from the model equations into account. Such techniques are very important in practice. In this contribution, the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions to variational data assimilation is investigated. Under mild hypotheses a solution to this problem exists. The problem of uniqueness is investigated as well, and several results (which all have analogues in optimal control) are established in the present context. The value function is introduced as the cost of an optimal trajectory starting from a given initial condition. The necessary conditions in combination with an envelope theorem can be used to demonstrate that the solution is unique if and only if the value function is differentiable at the given initial condition. This occurs for all initial conditions except maybe on a set of Lebesgue measure zero. Several examples are studied which demonstrate that non-uniqueness of solutions cannot be ruled out altogether though, which has important consequences in practice. References: J. Bröcker, "Existence and Uniqueness For Four Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation in Discrete Time.", SIAM Journal of Applied Dynamical Systems (accepted).

  10. A uniqueness result for propagation-based phase contrast imaging from a single measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Maretzke, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging seeks to reconstruct the complex refractive index of an unknown sample from scattering intensities, measured for example under illumination with coherent X-rays. By incorporating refraction, this method yields improved contrast compared to purely absorption-based radiography but involves a phase retrieval problem which, in general, allows for ambiguous reconstructions. In this paper, we show uniqueness of propagation-based phase contrast imaging for compactly supported objects in the near field regime, based on a description by the projection- and paraxial approximations. In this setting, propagation is governed by the Fresnel propagator and the unscattered part of the illumination function provides a known reference wave at the detector which facilitates phase reconstruction. The uniqueness theorem is derived using the theory of entire functions. Unlike previous results based on exact solution formulae, it is valid for arbitrary complex objects and requires intensity measurements only ...

  11. Deviation of viscous drops at chemical steps

    CERN Document Server

    Semprebon, Ciro; Filippi, Daniele; Perlini, Luca; Pierno, Matteo; Brinkmann, Martin; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic wetting experiments and numerical simulations of gravity driven liquid drops sliding on a plane substrate decorated with a linear chemical step. Surprisingly, the optimal direction to observe crossing is not the one perpendicular to the step, but a finite angle that depends on the material parameters. We computed the landscapes of the force acting on the drop by means of a contact line mobility model showing that contact angle hysteresis dominates the dynamics at the step and determines whether the drop passes onto the lower substrate. This analysis is very well supported by the experimental dynamic phase diagram in terms of pinning, crossing, sliding and sliding followed by pinning.

  12. Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinçli, H., E-mail: haldunsevincli@iyte.edu.tr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe Kampüsü, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Micro- and Nano-technology (DTU Nanotech), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Brandbyge, M., E-mail: mads.brandbyge@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nano-technology (DTU Nanotech), Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Nanostructured Graphene(CNG), Department of Micro- and Nano-technology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-10-13

    We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.

  13. Reaching Parents Through Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    The parent involvement program evolved from the needs of parents. Basic to the program is the concept of parenting, which implies taking positive action to facilitate and meet the needs of the children ahe family. Parents participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of their child's program. (Author)

  14. Effects of age and step length on joint kinetics during stepping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Kathleen A; Buffinton, Christine

    2015-07-16

    Following a balance perturbation, a stepping response is commonly used to regain support, and the distance of the recovery step can vary. To date, no other studies have examined joint kinetics in young and old adults during increasing step distances, when participants are required to bring their rear foot forward. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine age-related differences in joint kinetics with increasing step distance. Twenty young and 20 old adults completed the study. Participants completed a step starting from double support, at an initial distance equal to the individual's average step length. The distance was increased by 10% body height until an unsuccessful attempt. A one-way, repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of age on joint kinetics during the maximum step distance. A two-way, repeated measures, mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effects of age, step distance, and their interaction on joint kinetics during the first three step distances for all participants. Young adults completed a significantly longer step than old adults. During the maximum step, in general, kinetic measures were greater in the young than in the old. As step distance increased, all but one kinetic measure increased for both young and old adults. This study has shown the ability to discriminate between young and old adults, and could potentially be used in the future to distinguish between fallers and non-fallers.

  15. Portfolio Planner: A Step-by-Step Guide to Portfolio Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmine, Julia

    This guide presents a step-by-step portfolio assessment method for teachers who want to implement portfolio assessment in their classrooms. Portfolio assessment is not neat or tidy in its early stages, but tidy and organized portfolios can be constructed if the outlined steps are followed. These are: (1) storage and establishing a file for each…

  16. EXPANSION OF STEP-TRANSITION OPERATOR OF MULTI-STEP METHOD AND ITS APPLICATIONS (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-fa Tang

    2002-01-01

    We expand the step-transition operator of any linear multi-step method with order s ≥ 2 up to O(τs+5). And through examples we show how much the perturbation of the step-transition operator caused by the error of initial value is.

  17. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for the System of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations with Nonlocal and Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nonlocal and integral boundary value problems for the system of nonlinear fractional differential equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative are investigated. Theorems on existence and uniqueness of a solution are established under some sufficient conditions on nonlinear terms. A simple example of application of the main result of this paper is presented.

  18. Improved enteral tolerance following step procedure: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Melissa A; Usatin, Danielle; Allen, Isabel E; Rhee, Sue; Vu, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) changed with the introduction of the serial transverse enteroplasty procedure (STEP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE and SCOPUS to determine if children with SBS had improved enteral tolerance following STEP. Studies were included if information about a child's pre- and post-STEP enteral tolerance was provided. A random effects meta-analysis provided a summary estimate of the proportion of children with enteral tolerance increase following STEP. From 766 abstracts, seven case series involving 86 children were included. Mean percent tolerance of enteral nutrition improved from 35.1 to 69.5. Sixteen children had no enteral improvement following STEP. A summary estimate showed that 87 % (95 % CI 77-95 %) of children who underwent STEP had an increase in enteral tolerance. Compilation of the literature supports the belief that SBS subjects' enteral tolerance improves following STEP. Enteral nutritional tolerance is a measure of efficacy of STEP and should be presented as a primary or secondary outcome. By standardizing data collection on children undergoing STEP procedure, better determination of nutritional benefit from STEP can be ascertained.

  19. Uniqueness Domains in the Workspace of Parallel Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    This work investigates new kinematic features of parallel manipulators. It is well known that parallel manipulators admit generally several direct kinematic solutions for a given set of input joint values. The aim of this paper is to characterize the uniqueness domains in the workspace of parallel manipulators, as well as their image in the joint space. The study focuses on the most usual case of parallel manipulators with only one inverse kinematic solution. The notion of aspect introduced for serial manipulators in [Borrel 86] is redefined for such parallel manipulators. Then, it is shown that it is possible to link several solutions to the forward kinematic problem without meeting a singularity, thus meaning that the aspects are not uniqueness domains. An additional set of surfaces, namely the characteristic surfaces, are characterized which divide the workspace into basic regions and yield new uniqueness domains. This study is illustrated all along the paper with a 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator. An oc...

  20. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.

  1. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  2. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  3. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  4. Dirac Quantum Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implications in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum systems and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using different set of conditions which are not uniquely defined. The form of the operators in these model are not always in implementable configuration on an other system. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) which are uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the Dirac quantum cellular automaton (DQCA). This will bridge the connection between Dirac equation(DE)-DQCA-DTQW and eliminate the explicit use of invariance, symmetries and limiting range of parameter to establish the connections. For a combination of par...

  5. Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C M

    2016-05-17

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.

  6. Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.

  7. A unique case of concomitant intra and extracranial Hansen's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divyam; Gupta, Anshul; Chhabra, Satnam Singh; Jain, Shrey

    2017-02-01

    Leprosy is a debilitating disease that usually involves the peripheral branches of the cranial nerves leading to anesthetic/hypoesthetic skin lesions and thickened peripheral nerves. However, the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely rare. To the best of the author's knowledge, the involvement of the cranial nerve nuclei by leprosy has not been reported in the literature and the present case is the first report of involvement of the facial nerve nuclei by leprosy.

  8. Step-by-step of ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy of the breast: review and technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dahmer Rocha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy has high sensitivity in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study is aimed at detailing the main steps of such procedure, including indications, advantages, limitations, follow-up and description of the technique, besides presenting a checklist including the critical steps required for an appropriate practice of the technique. In the recent years, an increasing number of patients have required breast biopsy, indicating the necessity of a proportional increase in the number of skilled professionals to carry out the procedures and histological diagnoses. A multidisciplinary approach involving the tripod clinical practice-radiology-pathology is responsible for the highest rate of accuracy of the technique and must always be adopted.

  9. Uniqueness of form extensions and domination of semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Daniel; Schmidt, Marcel; Wirth, Melchior

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present a new method to treat uniqueness of form extensions in a rather general setting including various magnetic Schr\\"odinger forms. The method is based on the theory of ordered Hilbert spaces and the concept of domination of semigroups. We review this concept in an abstract setting and give a characterization in terms of the associated forms. Then we use it to prove a theorem that transfers uniqueness of form extension of a dominating form to that of a dominated form. ...

  10. Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-08

    AD-A243 365’ l!1111iLI[li In M aR C ’ PHASE I FINAL REPORT Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks DARPA SBIR 90-115 Contract # DAAH01-91...Contents Unique Applications for Artificial Neural Networks Acknowledgments Table of Contents Abstract i 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 The NGO-VRP Solver 2...34 solution is thus obtained through analogy. Because of this activity, artificial neural networks have emerged as a primary artificial intelligence

  11. Unique cardiac and cerebral anomalies with chondrodysplasia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciske, D J; Waggoner, D J; Dowton, S B

    1998-01-06

    Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is associated with a variety of genetic and nongenetic conditions. We report a girl with CDP, complex congenital cardiac disease, central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, and clinical findings that resemble those of the sibs described by Toriello et al. [1993, Am J Med Genet 47:797-799]. The cardiac defects and CNS abnormalities reported are unique in the context of CDP and may serve to expand the phenotypic spectrum of the unique form of CDP described by Toriello et al. [1993].

  12. Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162357.html Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood Synthetic product could save lives on battlefield and ... 5, 2016 SATURDAY, Dec. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Artificial blood stored as a powder could one day revolutionize ...

  13. Quit Smoking: 5 Steps to START

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking 5 Steps to START Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... a part of every successful plan to quit smoking: S et a quit date. T ell family, friends, ...

  14. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  15. Fabrication of Simple Step-Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Step-target was used to measure the shock velocity. If we can measure the shock velocity and particle velocity together, we get one point in the shock compress line. If we measure a series of shock velocity

  16. Step-emulsification in nanofluidic device

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Pismen, L M; Tabeling, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive study of the step-emulsification process for high-throughput production of (sub-)$\\mu$m-size monodisperse droplets. The microfluidic device combines a Hele-Shaw nanofluidic cell with a step-like outlet to a deep and wide reservoir. The proposed theory based on Hele-Shaw hydrodynamics provides the quasi-static shape of the free boundary between the disperse liquid phase engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase prior to transition to oscillatory step-emulsification at low enough capillary number. At the transition the proposed theory anticipates a simple condition for critical capillary number as a function of the Hele-Shaw cell geometry. The transition threshold is in excellent agreement with experimental data. A simple closed-form expression for the size of the droplets generated in step-emulsification regime derived using simple geometric arguments also shows a very good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Novel precision piezoelectric step rotary actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianfang; YANG Zhigang; ZHAO Hongwei; CHENG Guangming

    2007-01-01

    A novel piezoelectric (PZT) precision step rotary actuator was developed on the basis of PZT technology.It adopts the principle of bionics and works with an inside anchoring/loosening of the stator and a distortion structure of the uniformly distributed thin flexible hinge to solve problems such as ineffective anchoring/loosening,low step rotary frequency,small travel,poor resolution,low speed and unsteady output.The developed actuator is characterized by high frequency (30 Hz),high speed (380 μrad/s),large travel (>270°),high resolution (1 μrad/step),and work stability.It greatly improves the ability to drive the existing PZT step rotary actuator.The new actuator can be applied in the field of micromanipulation and precision engineering,including precision driving and positioning and optics engineering.

  18. IT project management 30 steps to success

    CERN Document Server

    Doraiswamy, Premanand

    2011-01-01

    This pocket guide is designed to help IT project managers to succeed, and is based on the author's years of experience in IT project management. The guide's step-by-step approach will enable those new to IT project management, or intending to make a career in this field, to master the essential skills. For seasoned professionals, the pocket guide offers an invaluable concise reference guide.

  19. Analysis of multi-step transitions in spin crossover nanochains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiruta, Daniel [GEMaC, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UVSQ (UMR 8635), 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); LISV, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 78140 Velizy (France); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Linares, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.linares@uvsq.fr [GEMaC, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UVSQ (UMR 8635), 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Garcia, Yann, E-mail: yann.garcia@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Place Louis Pasteur, 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dimian, Mihai [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Dahoo, Pierre Richard [LATMOS, Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ (UMR 8190), 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-02-01

    The temperature driven phase transition occurring in spin crossover nanochains has been studied by an Ising-like model considering both short-range and long-range interactions. Various types of spin crossover profiles have been described in this framework, including a novel three-step transition identified in a nanosystem with eight molecules, which is modeled for the first time. A special interest has been also given to stepwise transitions accompanied by two hysteresis loops. The edge and size effects on spin crossover behavior have been investigated in order to get a deeper insight of the underlying mechanisms involved in these unusual spin transitions.

  20. Step voltage transient currents in poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaura, T.; Nath, Rabinder

    1983-10-01

    The step voltage current transient characteristics have been studied in poly(vinylidene flouride) as a function of field, temperature, and time. The current peaks have been observed in the current-time characteristics. These peaks have been attributed to the space-charge injection phenomena. Using the space-charge-limited model of current transients the mobility has been estimated to 2.2±0.2×10-9 cm2 v-1 s-1 at 301 K. The analysis of the temperature dependence of mobilities establishes that charge carrier transport in extended states involving trapping is predominant.