WorldWideScience

Sample records for unique spectral gamma

  1. Gamma-Ray Spectral States of Galactic Black Hole Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Grove, J E; Kroeger, R A; McNaron-Brown, K; Skibo, J G; Phlips, B F

    1998-01-01

    OSSE has observed seven transient black hole candidates: GRO J0422+32, GX339-4, GRS 1716-249, GRS 1009-45, 4U 1543-47, GRO J1655-40, and GRS 1915+105. Two gamma-ray spectral states are evident and, based on a limited number of contemporaneous X-ray and gamma-ray observations, these states appear to be correlated with X-ray states. The former three objects show hard spectra below 100 keV (photon number indices Gamma < 2) that are exponentially cut off with folding energy ~100 keV, a spectral form that is consistent with thermal Comptonization. This "breaking gamma-ray state" is the high-energy extension of the X-ray low, hard state. In this state, the majority of the luminosity is above the X-ray band, carried by photons of energy ~100 keV. The latter four objects exhibit a "power-law gamma-ray state" with a relatively soft spectral index (Gamma ~ 2.5-3) and no evidence for a spectral break. For GRO J1655-40, the lower limit on the break energy is 690 keV. GRS 1716-249 exhibits both spectral states, with th...

  2. A unique palindromic element mediates gamma interferon induction of mig gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To define the molecular mechanisms involved in the action of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), we have analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the mig (monokine induced by gamma interferon) gene, a member of the platelet factor 4-interleukin-8 cytokine family that is expressed in murine macrophages specifically in response to IFN-gamma. Analysis of mig/CAT chimeric constructs transiently transfected into the RAW 264.7 mouse monocytic cell line revealed a unique IFN-gamma-responsive element (ga...

  3. Distribution of Spectral Lags in Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, L; Wu, M; Qu, J L; Jia, S M; Yang, X J

    2004-01-01

    Using the data acquired in the Time To Spill (TTS) mode for long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) collected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (BATSE/CGRO), we have carefully measured spectral lags in time between the low (25-55 keV) and high (110-320 keV) energy bands of individual pulses contained in 64 multi-peak GRBs. We find that the temporal lead by higher-energy gamma-ray photons (i.e., positive lags) is the norm in this selected sample set of long GRBs. While relatively few in number, some pulses of several long GRBs do show negative lags. This distribution of spectral lags in long GRBs is in contrast to that in short GRBs. This apparent difference poses challenges and constraints on the physical mechanism(s) of producing long and short GRBs. The relation between the pulse peak count rates and the spectral lags is also examined. Observationally, there seems to be no clear evidence for systematic spectral lag-luminosity connection for pulses within a given lo...

  4. High-Energy Spectral Signatures in $\\gamma$-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    1999-01-01

    One of the principal results obtained by the EGRET experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the detection of several Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) above 100 MeV. The broad-band spectra obtained for these bursts gave no indication of any high energy spectral attenuation that might preclude detection of bursts by ground-based Cerenkov telescopes (ACTs), thus motivating several TeV observational programs. This paper explores the expectations for the spectral properties in the TeV and sub-TeV bands for bursts, in particular how attenuation of photons by pair creation internal to the source modifies the spectrum to produce distinctive spectral signatures. The energy of spectral breaks and the associated spectral indices provide valuable information that can constrain the bulk Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow at a given time. These characteristics define palpable observational goals for ACT programs, and strongly impact the observability of bursts in the TeV band.

  5. The Copernicus ultraviolet spectral atlas of Gamma Pegasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, J. B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectral atlas is presented for the B2 IV star Gamma Pegasi, which has been scanned from 970 to 1501 A by the Princeton spectrometer aboard the Copernicus satellite. From 970 to 1430 A the observations have a nominal resolution of 0.05 A. At the longer wavelengths the resolution is 0.1 A. The atlas is presented in graphs. Line identifications are also listed.

  6. Spectral Gamma-ray Signatures of Cosmological Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, L; Ullio, P; Bergstrom, Lars; Edsjo, Joakim; Ullio, Piero

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new signature for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter, a spectral feature in the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray radiation. This feature, a sudden drop of the gamma-ray intensity at an energy corresponding to the WIMP mass, comes from the asymmetric distortion of the line due to WIMP annihilation into two gamma-rays caused by the cosmological redshift. Unlike other proposed searches for a line signal, this method is not very sensitive to the exact dark matter density distribution in halos and subhalos. The only requirement is that the mass distribution of substructure on small scales follows approximately the Press-Schechter law, and that smaller halos are on the average denser than large halos, which is a generic outcome of N-body simulations of Cold Dark Matter, and which has observational support. The upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will be eminently suited to search for these spectral features. For numerical examples, we use rates computed for supersym...

  7. The Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog: Four Years of Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, D.; Goldstein, A.; Weller von Ahlefeld, V.; Bhat, N.P.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M.S.; Byrne, D.; Cleveland, W.H.; Connaughton, V.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gibby, M.; Giles, M.M.; Greiner, J.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Layden, E.; Lin, L.; Meegan, C.A.; McGlynn, S.; Paciesas, W.S.; Pelassa, V.; Preece, R.D.; Rau, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Xiong, S.; Younes, G.; Yu, H-F.

    2014-01-01

    In this catalog we present the updated set of spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during its first four years of operation. It contains two types of spectra, time-integrated spectral fits and spectral fits at the brightest time bin, from 943

  8. The Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog: Four Years of Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, D.; Goldstein, A.; Weller von Ahlefeld, V.; Bhat, N.P.; Bissaldi, E.; Briggs, M.S.; Byrne, D.; Cleveland, W.H.; Connaughton, V.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gibby, M.; Giles, M.M.; Greiner, J.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Layden, E.; Lin, L.; Meegan, C.A.; McGlynn, S.; Paciesas, W.S.; Pelassa, V.; Preece, R.D.; Rau, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Xiong, S.; Younes, G.; Yu, H-F.

    2014-01-01

    In this catalog we present the updated set of spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during its first four years of operation. It contains two types of spectra, time-integrated spectral fits and spectral fits at the brightest time bin, from 943 tri

  9. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong (Pitt); (Xiamen)

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  10. The Spectral Sharpness Angle of Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; Greiner, Jochen; Sari, Re'em; Bhat, P Narayana; von Kienlin, Andreas; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    We explain the results of Yu et al. (2015b) of the novel sharpness angle measurement to a large number of spectra obtained from the Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor. The sharpness angle is compared to the values obtained from various representative emission models: blackbody, single-electron synchrotron, synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian or power-law electron distribution. It is found that more than 91% of the high temporally and spectrally resolved spectra are inconsistent with any kind of optically thin synchrotron emission model alone. It is also found that the limiting case, a single temperature Maxwellian synchrotron function, can only contribute up to 58+23 -18% of the peak flux. These results show that even the sharpest but non-realistic case, the single-electron synchrotron function, cannot explain a large fraction of the observed spectra. Since any combination of physically possible synchrotron spectra added together will always further broaden the spectrum, emission mechanisms other than optically...

  11. Detecting a unique EBL signature with TeV gamma rays

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Asif; Krennrich, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We discuss prospects for detecting a spectral break in gamma-ray spectra of blazars due to the extragalactic background light (EBL) density falling off between the near and mid-IR. A measurable spectral change in the TeV spectra at 1 TeV could arise from a rapid or slow drop in the EBL density above ~1 micron. This effect is mediated by the ratio of the near to mid-IR density of EBL. A detection of such a spectral feature could become a clear signature of EBL absorption. A non-detection would...

  12. An analysis of gamma-ray burst spectral break models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B; Zhang, Bing; Meszaros, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Typical gamma-ray burst spectra are characterized by a spectral break, Ep, which for bright BATSE bursts is found to be narrowly clustered around 300 keV. Recently identified X-ray flashes, which may account for a significant portion of the whole GRB population, seem to extend the Ep distribution to a broader range below 40 keV. On the other hand, within the cosmological fireball model, the issues concerning the dominant energy ingredient of the fireball as well as the location of the GRB emission site are not unambiguously settled, leading to several variants of the fireball model. Here we analyze these models within a unified framework, and critically reexamine the Ep predictions in the various model variants, focusing on their predicted properties. Attention is focused on the ability of the models to match a narrowness of the Ep distribution, and the correlations among Ep and some other measurable observables, as well as the effect of extending these properties to X-ray flash sources. These model propertie...

  13. A New Measurement of the Spectral Lag of Gamma-Ray Bursts and its Implications for Spectral Evolution Behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Lang; Wang, Fu-Ri; Wu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Ye-Hao; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Bang-Yao; Xi, Bao-Jia; Wang, Xue; Feng, Huan-Xue; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a systematical study of the spectral lag properties of 50 single-pulsed Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by Fermi/GBM. By dividing the light curves into multiple consecutive energy channels we provide a new measurement of the spectral lag which is independent on energy channel selections. We perform a detailed statistical study of our new measurements. We find two similar universal correlations by investigating the correlations between the photon arrival time versus energy and pulse width versus energy, respectively. We also study the spectral evolution behaviors of the GRB pulses and most of them follow neither "hard-to-soft" (HTS) nor "hardness-intensity tracking" (HIT) trends. We find that a GRB pulse with negligible spectral lag would appear to have an HIT behavior and a GRB pulse with significant spectral lag would appear to have an HTS behavior. The HTS might not be a genuinely true behavior.

  14. A New Measurement of the Spectral Lag of Gamma-Ray Bursts and its Implications for Spectral Evolution Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lang; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Wang, Fu-Ri; Wu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Ye-Hao; Zhang, Xi; Yu, Bang-Yao; Xi, Bao-Jia; Wang, Xue; Feng, Huan-Xue; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Dong

    2017-08-01

    We carry out a systematical study of the spectral lag properties of 50 single-pulsed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor. By dividing the light curves into multiple consecutive energy channels, we provide a new measurement of the spectral lag that is independent of energy channel selections. We perform a detailed statistical study of our new measurements. We find two similar power-law energy dependencies of both the pulse arrival time and pulse width. Our new results on the power-law indices would favor the relativistic geometric effects for the origin of spectral lag. However, a complete theoretical framework that can fully account for the diverse energy dependencies of both arrival time and pulse width revealed in this work is still lacking. We also study the spectral evolution behaviors of the GRB pulses. We find that a GRB pulse with negligible spectral lag would usually have a shorter pulse duration and would appear to have a “hardness-intensity tracking” behavior, and a GRB pulse with a significant spectral lag would usually have a longer pulse duration and would appear to have a “hard-to-soft” behavior.

  15. Use of metal organic fluors for spectral discrimination of neutrons and gammas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Feng, Patrick L.

    2010-09-01

    A new method for spectral shape discrimination (SSD) of fast neutrons and gamma rays has been investigated. Gammas interfere with neutron detection, making efficient discrimination necessary for practical applications. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) in liquid organic scintillators is currently the most effective means of gamma rejection. The hazardous liquids, restrictions on volume, and the need for fast timing are drawbacks to traditional PSD scintillators. In this project we investigated harvesting excited triplet states to increase scintillation yield and provide distinct spectral signatures for gammas and neutrons. Our novel approach relies on metal-organic phosphors to convert a portion of the energy normally lost to the scintillation process into useful luminescence with sub-microsecond lifetimes. The approach enables independent control over delayed luminescence wavelength, intensity, and timing for the first time. We demonstrated that organic scintillators, including plastics, nanoporous framework materials, and oil-based liquids can be engineered for both PSD and SSD.

  16. Spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts detected by the SIGNE experiment. 1: Correlation between intensity and spectral hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargatis, Vincent E.; Liang, Edison P.; Hurley, Kevin C.; Barat, C.; Eveno, E.; Niel, M.

    1994-01-01

    We study the continuum spectral evolution of 16 gamma-ray bursts detected by the Franco-Soviet SIGNE experiment in 1981-1982 by fitting time resolved (0.5 s) spectra in count space with simple thermal bremsstrahlung and synchrotron models. We find that there is no single characteristic of spectral evolution: we see hard-to-soft, soft-to-hard, luminosity-hardness tracking, and chaotic evolution. We perform correlation studies between instantaneous burst intensity and spectral temperature for seven bursts. While we basically confirm the existence of a correlation between these variables as originally claimed by Golenetskii et al. (1983) we find higher values and a broader range of correlation indices.

  17. Novel gamma-ray spectral features in the inert doublet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Ibarra, Alejandro, E-mail: camilo.garcia@tum.de, E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The inert doublet model contains a neutral stable particle which is an excellent dark matter candidate. We discuss in this paper the indirect signatures of this model in gamma-rays when the dark matter mass is larger than the W boson mass. We show that, in addition to the featureless gamma-ray spectrum produced in the annihilations into two weak gauge bosons, the model generically predicts a distinctive spectral feature from the internal bremsstrahlung process H{sup 0}H{sup 0}→W{sup +}W{sup −}γ. We discuss under which conditions the spectral feature is generated and we construct a number of benchmark points, compatible with the observed relic density and all other direct and indirect detection experiments, which lead to a sharp gamma-ray feature from internal bremsstrahlung.

  18. SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL MODELING OF THE GAMMA-RAY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foreman, Gary; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Fields, Brian; Ricker, Paul [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, Annie, E-mail: gforema2@illinois.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    We perform spatial and spectral analyses of the LMC gamma-ray emission collected over 66 months by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In our spatial analysis, we model the LMC cosmic-ray distribution and gamma-ray production using observed maps of the LMC interstellar medium, star formation history, interstellar radiation field, and synchrotron emission. We use bootstrapping of the data to quantify the robustness of spatial model performance. We model the LMC gamma-ray spectrum using fitting functions derived from the physics of π{sup 0} decay, Bremsstrahlung, and inverse Compton scattering. We find the integrated gamma-ray flux of the LMC from 200 MeV to 20 GeV to be 1.37 ± 0.02 × 10{sup −7} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, of which we attribute about 6% to inverse Compton scattering and 44% to Bremsstrahlung. From our work, we conclude that the spectral index of the LMC cosmic-ray proton population is 2.4 ± 0.2, and we find that cosmic-ray energy loss through gamma-ray production is concentrated within a few 100 pc of acceleration sites. Assuming cosmic-ray energy equipartition with magnetic fields, we estimate LMC cosmic rays encounter an average magnetic field strength ∼3 μG.

  19. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG: THE FIRST TWO YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Adam; Burgess, J. Michael; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, Vandiver [Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Meegan, Charles A. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald J. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Von Kienlin, Andreas; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Diehl, Roland; Foley, Suzanne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fitzpatrick, Gerard [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty [Jacobs Technology, 1500 Perimeter Parkway, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); and others

    2012-03-01

    We present systematic spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) during its first two years of operation. This catalog contains two types of spectra extracted from 487 GRBs, and by fitting four different spectral models, this results in a compendium of over 3800 spectra. The models were selected based on their empirical importance to the spectral shape of many GRBs, and the analysis performed was devised to be as thorough and objective as possible. We describe in detail our procedure and criteria for the analyses, and present the bulk results in the form of parameter distributions. This catalog should be considered an official product from the Fermi GBM Science Team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  20. Spectral Evolutions in Gamma-Ray Burst Exponential Decays Observed with Suzaku WAM

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, Makoto S; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Ohno, Masahiro; Sugita, Satoshi; Uehara, Takeshi; Seta, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the spectral evolution of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emissions observed with the Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM). By making use of the WAM data archive, 6 bright GRBs exhibiting 7 well-separated fast-rise-exponential-decay (FRED) shaped light curves are presented and the evaluated exponential decay time constants of the energy-resolved light curves from these FRED peak light curves are shown to indicate significant spectral evolution. The energy dependence of the time constants is well described with a power-law function tau(E) ~ E^gamma, where gamma ~ -(0.34 +/- 0.12) in average, although 5 FRED peaks show consistent value of gamma = -1/2 which is expected in synchrotron or inverse-Compton cooling models. In particular, 2 of the GRBs were located with accuracy sufficient to evaluate the time-resolved spectra with precise energy response matrices. Their behavior in spectral evolution suggests two different origins of emissions. In the case of GRB081224, the derived 1-s ...

  1. Calculations of gamma-ray spectral profiles of linear alkanes in the positron annihilation process

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, X G

    2014-01-01

    The positron-electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of linear alkanes CnH2n+2 (n=1-12) have been studied systematically. A profile quality (PQ) parameter, is introduced to assess the agreement between the obtained theoretical profiles and the experimental measurements in the entire region of energy shift of the spectra. Together with the Doppler shift of the gamma-ray spectra, the two parameters,PQ and Doppler shift, are able to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the calculated gamma-ray spectra with respect to available experiment. Applying the recently developed docking model, the present study determines the positrophilic electrons for individual alkanes from which the gamma-ray spectral profiles are calculated. The results achieve an excellent agreement with experiment, not only with respect to the Doppler shift, but also with respect to the gamma-ray profiles in the photon energy region up to 5 keV. The study further calculates the gamma-ray spectra of other linear alkanes in the series without ...

  2. The Identification of Two Different Spectral Types of Pulses in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, G. N. (Editor); Paciesas, W. S. (Editor); Briggs, M. S. (Editor); Preece, R. D. (Editor); Mallozzi, R. S. (Editor); Meegan, C. A. (Editor); Horack, J. M. (Editor); Fishman, G. J. (Editor); Band, D. L. (Editor); Matteson, J. L. (Editor); Skelton, R. T. (Editor); Hakkila, J. (Editor); Ford, L. A. (Editor); Kouveliotou, C. (Editor); Koshut, T. M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    It is shown in this study that two different types of spectral emission are generally produced in gamma-ray bursts. A subset of bursts is identified that exhibits a marked lack of fluence above 300 keV, and these bursts are shown to have luminosities about an order of magnitude lower than bursts with significant fluence above 300 keV. The bursts lacking emission above 300 keV exhibit an effectively homogeneous intensity distribution. In addition, it is shown that both types of emission are common in many bursts, demonstrating that a single source object is capable of generating both of them. These results strongly favor a gamma-ray burst source object that produces two different types of emission with varying degrees of superposition. The impact of this behavior is strong enough that it affects the properties of the burst intensity distribution, as well as the burst spectral characteristics.

  3. Correlative Spectral Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts using Swift-BAT and GLAST-GBM

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatikos, Michael; Band, David L

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the preliminary results of spectral analysis simulations involving anticipated correlated multi-wavelength observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope's (GLAST) Burst Monitor (GLAST-GBM), resulting in joint spectral fits, including characteristic photon energy (Epeak) values, for a conservative annual estimate of ~30 GRBs. The addition of BAT's spectral response will (i) complement in-orbit calibration efforts of GBM's detector response matrices, (ii) augment GLAST's low energy sensitivity by increasing the ~20-100 keV effective area, (iii) facilitate ground-based follow-up efforts of GLAST GRBs by increasing GBM's source localization precision, and (iv) help identify a subset of non-triggered GRBs discovered via off-line GBM data analysis. Such multi-wavelength correlative analyses, which have been demonstrated by successful joint-spectral fits of Swift-BAT GRBs with other higher energy detectors such as Konus-WIND ...

  4. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG: FOUR YEARS OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, David; Von Ahlefeld, Victoria Weller; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Von Kienlin, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Goldstein, Adam; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Bissaldi, Elisabetta [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Byrne, Dave; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cleveland, William H. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Fishman, Gerald J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty M. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Guiriec, Sylvain [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander J. [Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2014-03-01

    In this catalog we present the updated set of spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during its first four years of operation. It contains two types of spectra, time-integrated spectral fits and spectral fits at the brightest time bin, from 943 triggered GRBs. Four different spectral models were fitted to the data, resulting in a compendium of more than 7500 spectra. The analysis was performed similarly but not identically to Goldstein et al. All 487 GRBs from the first two years have been re-fitted using the same methodology as that of the 456 GRBs in years three and four. We describe, in detail, our procedure and criteria for the analysis and present the results in the form of parameter distributions both for the observer-frame and rest-frame quantities. The data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  5. Interpretations of gamma-ray burst spectroscopy. I. Analytical and numerical study of spectral lags

    CERN Document Server

    Ryde, F

    2004-01-01

    We describe the strong spectral evolution that occurs during a gamma-ray burst pulse and the means by which it can be analyzed. Based on observed empirical correlations, an analytical model is constructed which is used to describe the pulse shape and quantize the spectral lags and their dependences on the spectral evolution parameters. We find that the spectral lag depends mainly on the pulse-decay time-scale and that hard spectra (with large spectral power-law indices alpha) give the largest lags. Similarly, large initial peak-energies, Eo, lead to large lags, except in the case of very soft spectra. The hardness ratio is found to depend only weakly on alpha and the HIC index, eta. In particular, for low Eo, it is practically independent, and is determined mainly by Eo. The relation between the hardness ratio and the lags, for a certain Eo are described by power-laws, as alpha varies. We also discuss the expected signatures of a sample of hard spectral pulses (e.g. thermal or small pitch-angle synchrotron em...

  6. Realization and study of spectral properties of the ISGRI gamma-ray camera; Mise en oeuvre et etude des proprietes spectrales de la gamma-camera ISGRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, O

    2001-11-01

    This work evaluates spectroscopic and physical properties of CdTe detectors in view of assembling a large number on a new generation spectro-imager for space gamma-ray astronomy. Study, optimization, realization and calibration of modular detection units of the ISGRI camera are described. After a description of the experimental context of the INTEGRAL program and a review of the physical processes involved in gamma-ray photon detectors, we present an analysis of the properties of CdTe detectors attempting to be so exhaustive as possible. We propose the base point of a global model, which relates charge transport properties, spectral response and possible instabilities in the detectors. We propose a new formulation of the Hecht relation that describes charge loss as a function of the detector charge transport properties. We discuss at length the method of charge loss correction and its consequences on the associated integrated electronics definition. Finally, we illustrate our instrument capabilities using as an example the observation of titanium 44 lines in historical supernovae. (author)

  7. Comprehensive Monitoring of Gamma-ray Bright Blazars. I. Statistical Study of Optical, X-ray, and Gamma-ray Spectral Slopes

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Karen E; Marscher, Alan P; Larionov, Valeri M; Smith, Paul S; Agudo, Iván; Arkharov, Arkady A; Blinov, Dmitry A; Casadio, Carolina; Efimova, Natalia V; Gómez, José L; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A; Joshi, Manasvita; Konstantinova, Tatiana S; Kopatskaya, Evgenia N; Larionova, Elena G; Larionova, Liudmilla V; Malmrose, Michael P; McHardy, Ian M; Molina, Sol N; Morozova, Daria A; Schmidt, Gary D; Taylor, Brian W; Troitsky, Ivan S

    2014-01-01

    We present $\\gamma$-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves of 33 $\\gamma$-ray bright blazars over four years that we have been monitoring since 2008 August with multiple optical, ground-based telescopes and the Swift satellite, and augmented by data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other publicly available data from Swift. The sample consists of 21 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects (BL Lacs). We identify quiescent and active states of the sources based on their $\\gamma$-ray behavior. We derive $\\gamma$-ray, X-ray, and optical spectral indices, $\\alpha_\\gamma$, $\\alpha_X$, and $\\alpha_o$, respectively ($F_\

  8. Spectral analysis and interpretation of the \\gamma-ray emission from the Starburst galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M -H; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2012-01-01

    Very-high-energy (VHE; E >100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) data from \\gamma-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analysed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE \\gamma-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index \\Gamma=2.14 \\pm 0.18_stat \\pm 0.30_sys and differential flux normalisation at 1 TeV of F_0 = (9.6 \\pm 1.5_stat (+5.7,-2.9)_sys) x 10^{-14} TeV^{-1} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE \\gamma-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of \\Gamma=2.24 \\pm 0.14_stat \\pm 0.03_sys and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 \\pm 1.0_stat \\pm 0.3_sys) x 10^{-9} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE \\gamma-ray data results in a ...

  9. Investigations of OCT imaging performance using a unique source providing several spectral wavebands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Ramona; Dobre, George M.; Trifanov, Irina; Neagu, Liviu; Bradu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-02-01

    The authors report investigations into the suitability of a broadband supercontinuum fiber laser (SCFL) for use in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The supercontinuum of light extending from 400 nm to 1800 nm can be used selectively in several spectral wavebands from 600 nm to 1700 nm in order to characterize the performance of single mode (SM) fiber OCT systems through spectral and auto-correlation measurements, dispersion measurements and image acquisition. Spectral selection and tailoring is made possible through a combination of bandpass optical filters. In addition, for the first time, given the optical bandwidth available, we perform evaluation of effective noise bandwidths which take into consideration the spectral behavior of the optical splitter in the balanced detection receiver.

  10. Finding the Radiation Amplitude Zero in $W\\gamma$ Production is it Unique to the Standard Model?

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Mark A; Samuel, Mark A; Abraha, Tesfaye

    1997-01-01

    In the light of recent experimental observation of the radiation amplitude zero (RAZ) in W\\gamma production by CDF at Fermilab, we consider its consequences. is the RAZ unique to the standard model? Although it is not for neutrino-electron scattering, in the case of d-ubar scattering which is the case of experimental interest, observation of the RAZ implies that the SM must be correct.

  11. Finding the Radiation Amplitude Zero in W\\GAMMA Production- is it Unique to the Standard Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Mark A.; Abraha, TESFAYE

    1997-01-01

    In the light of recent experimental observation of the radiation amplitude zero (RAZ) in W\\gamma production by CDF at Fermilab, we consider its consequences. is the RAZ unique to the standard model? Although it is not for neutrino-electron scattering, in the case of d-ubar scattering which is the case of experimental interest, observation of the RAZ implies that the SM must be correct.

  12. Contribution of a germanium detector in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry. Spectral analysis and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, S; Bourgeois, C

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of the germanium semi-conductor detector is 30 times lower than that of the sodium iodide (NaI) detectors frequently used in airborne spectrometry. Its energy resolution however, is 20 times better, giving more accurate identification of radionuclides, especially when complex spectra are involved. The use of the germanium detector in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry provides a large amount of qualitative and quantitative information. In post-accident situations a germanium detector will be sufficient, and should therefore be used in preference to a NaI detector. An algorithm for detecting the total absorption peaks by studying the variations in the spectral profile of germanium gamma-ray spectra has been developed at the CEA. The use of digital filters that take into account the characteristics of the absorption peaks reduces the statistical fluctuations, making possible detection based on the analysis of the first and second derivatives. The absorption peak is then estimated by subtracting the b...

  13. Novel spectral features in MeV gamma rays from dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Galea, Ahmad; Hryczuk, Andrzej; Weniger, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Astrophysical searches for gamma rays are one of the main strategies to probe the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles. We present a new class of distinct sub-GeV spectral features that generically appear in kinematical situations where the available center-of-mass energy in such processes is just above threshold to produce excited meson states. Using a Fisher forecast with realistic astrophysical backgrounds, we demonstrate that for upcoming experiments like e-ASTROGAM and ComPair these signals can turn out to be the smoking gun in the search for particle dark matter.

  14. Novel Spectral Features in MeV Gamma Rays from Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Torsten; Hryczuk, Andrzej; Weniger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical searches for gamma rays are one of the main strategies to probe the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles. We present a new class of distinct sub-GeV spectral features that generically appear in kinematical situations where the available center-of-mass energy in such processes is just above threshold to produce excited meson states. Using a Fisher forecast with realistic astrophysical backgrounds, we demonstrate that for upcoming experiments like e-ASTROGAM and ComPair these signals can turn out to be the smoking gun in the search for particle dark matter.

  15. Calculations of gamma-ray spectral profiles of linear alkanes in the positron annihilation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoguang [Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Ludong University, Shandong, Yantai, 264025 (China); Wang, Feng, E-mail: fwang@swin.edu.au [Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The study calculates gamma-ray profiles for linear alkanes (n up to 12) quantum mechanically;. • “Profile quality” has been defined as the root-mean square deviation (RMSD) between the theoretical and the experimental results in the entire region of the profile. • Excellent agreement with measurements suggests that the theory model is applicable to predict other alkanes such as heptane (C{sub 7}H{sub 16}) etc. • The study suggested that gamma-ray spectra may be more sensitive to study smaller alkanes (and their isomers), rather than larger alkanes (i.e., n > 12). - Abstract: The positron–electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of linear alkanes C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2} (n = 1–12) have been studied systematically. A profile quality (PQ) parameter, χ, is introduced to assess the agreement between the obtained theoretical profiles and the experimental measurements in the entire region of energy shift of the spectra. Together with the Doppler shift (Δε) of the gamma-ray spectra, the two parameters, χ and Δε, are able to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the calculated gamma-ray spectra with respect to available experiment. Applying the recently developed docking model, the present study determines the positrophilic electrons for individual alkanes from which the gamma-ray spectral profiles are calculated. The results achieve an excellent agreement with experiment, not only with respect to the Doppler shift, but also with respect to the gamma-ray profiles in the photon energy region up to 5 keV. The study further calculates the gamma-ray spectra of other linear alkanes in the series without available experimental measurements, such as heptane (C{sub 7}H{sub 16}), octane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), decane (C{sub 10}H{sub 22}) and undecane (C{sub 11}H{sub 24}). The results obtained show a dominance of the positrophilic electrons in the lowest occupied valence orbital (LOVO) in the positron–electron annihilation process, in agreement with

  16. The Swift Burst Analyser I: BAT and XRT spectral and flux evolution of Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, P A; Osborne, J P; O'Brien, P T; Page, K L; Markwardt, C B; Barthelmy, S D; Beardmore, A P; Burrows, D N; Pagani, C; Starling, R L C; Romano, P

    2010-01-01

    Context: Gamma Ray Burst models predict the broadband spectral evolution and the temporal evolution of the energy flux. In contrast, standard data analysis tools and data repositories provide count-rate data, or use single flux conversion factors for all of the data, neglecting spectral evolution. Aims: To produce Swift BAT and XRT light curves in flux units, where the spectral evolution is accounted for. Methods: We have developed software to use the hardness ratio information to track spectral evolution of GRBs, and thus to convert the count-rate light curves from the BAT and XRT instruments on Swift into accurate, evolution-aware flux light curves. Results: The Swift Burst Analyser website (http://www.swift.ac.uk/burst_analyser) contains BAT, XRT and combined BAT-XRT flux light curves in three energy regimes for all GRBs observed by the Swift satellite. These light curves are automatically built and updated when data become available, are presented in graphical and plain-text format, and are available for ...

  17. The Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog: Four Years Of Data

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, David; von Ahlefeld, Victoria Weller; Bhat, P Narayana; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Briggs, Michael S; Byrne, Dave; Cleveland, William H; Connaughton, Valerie; Fishman, Gerald J; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty M; Greiner, Jochen; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Layden, Emily; Lin, Lin; Meegan, Charles A; McGlynn, Sinéad; Paciesas, William S; Pelassa, Véronique; Preece, Robert D; Rau, Arne; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A; Xiong, Shaolin; Yu, Hoi-Fung

    2014-01-01

    In this catalog we present the updated set of spectral analyses of GRBs detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) during its first four years of operation. It contains two types of spectra, time-integrated spectral fits and spectral fits at the brightest time bin, from 943 triggered GRBs. Four different spectral models were fitted to the data, resulting in a compendium of more than 7500 spectra. The analysis was performed similarly, but not identically to Goldstein et al. 2012. All 487 GRBs from the first two years have been re-fitted using the same methodology as that of the 456 GRBs in years three and four. We describe, in detail, our procedure and criteria for the analysis, and present the results in the form of parameter distributions both for the observer-frame and rest-frame quantities. The data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC).

  18. X-ray spectral studies of TeV gamma-ray emitting blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Wierzcholska, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    This work is a summary of the X-ray spectral studies of 29 TeV $\\gamma$-ray emitting blazars observed with Swift/XRT, especially focusing on sources for which X-ray regime allows to study the low and the high energy ends of the particle distributions function. Variability studies require simultaneous coverage, ideally sampling different flux states of each source. This is achieved using X-ray observations by disentangling the high-energy end of the synchrotron emission and the low-energy end of the Compton emission, which are produced by the same electron population. We focused on a sample of 29 TeV gamma-ray emitting blazars with the best signal-to-noise X-ray observations collected with Swift/XRT in the energy range of 0.3-10 keV during 10 years of Swift/XRT operations. We investigate the X-ray spectral shapes and the effects of different corrections for neutral hydrogen absorption and decompose the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. In the case of 5 sources (3C 66A, S5 0716+714, W Comae, 4C +21.35...

  19. Spectral Lags of Gamma-Ray Bursts From Ginga and BATSE

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, B; Wu, Bobing; Fenimore, Edward

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of spectral lag between energy bands, which combines temporal and spectral analyses, can add strict constraints to gamma-ray burst (GRB) models. In previous studies, the lag analysis focused on the lags between channel 1 (25-57 keV) and channel 3 (115-320 keV) from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In this paper, we analyzed the cross-correlation average lags (including confidence regions) between energy bands for two GRB samples: 19 events detected by Ginga, and 109 bright events detected by BATSE. We paid special attention to the BATSE GRBs with known redshifts, because there has been a reported connection between lag and luminosity. The use of Ginga extends our knowledge of spectral lags to lower energy (~2 keV). We found that lags between energy bands are small. The lag between the peak of ~40 keV photons and ~200 keV photons is ~0.08 sec. The upper limit of the lag between shifts at low energy. We found that about 20% of GRBs have detectable lags between energy bands both fr...

  20. Relative spectral lag: an new redshift indicator to measure the cosmos with gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Z B; Gao, H F; Lu, R J; Deng, Jia-Gan; Gao, Hai-Feng; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Bin

    2006-01-01

    Using 64 ms count data for long gamma-ray bursts ($T_{90}>$2.6s), we analyze the quantity, relative spectral lag (RSL), which is defined as $\\tau_{31}/FWHM_{(1)}$, where $\\tau_{31}$ is the spectral lag between energy bands 1 and 3, and $FWHM_{(1)}$ denotes full width at half maximum of the pulse in energy channel 1. To get insights into features of the RSLs, we investigate in detail all the correlations between them and other parameters with a sub-sample including nine long bursts. The general cross-correlation technique is adopted to measure the lags between two different energy bands. We can derive the below conclusions. Firstly, the distribution of RSLs is normal and oncentrates on around the value of 0.1. Secondly, the RSLs are weakly correlated with $FWHM$, asymmetry, peak flux ($F_{p}$), peak energy ($E_{p}$) and spectral indexes ($\\alpha$ and $\\beta$), while they are uncorrelated with $\\tau_{31}$, hardness-ratio ($HR_{31}$) and peak time ($t_m$). The final but important discovery is that redshift ($z$)...

  1. A Close Correlation between the Spectral Lags and Redshifts of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Feng Yi; Guang-Zhong Xie; Fu-Wen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Based on nine BATSE GRBs with known redshifts, we found that the maximum spectral lag of all the pulses in a gamma-ray burst (GRB) appears to be anti-correlated with the redshift of the burst. In order to confirm this finding, we analyzed 10 GRBs detected by HETE-2 with known redshifts and found a similar relation. Using the relation, we estimated the redshifts of 878 long GRBs in the BATSE catalog, then we investigated the distributions of the redshifts and 869 Eiso of these GRBs. The distribution of the estimated redshifts is concentrated at z = 1.4 and the distribution of Eiso peaks at 1052.5 erg. The underlying physics of the correlation is unclear at present.

  2. Detection of embedded radiation sources using temporal variation of gamma spectral data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the isotopes present in a measurement. For low energy resolution detectors, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the isotopes present in the measurement. When many isotopes are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many trial solutions by highly skilled spectroscopists. This report investigates the potential of a new analysis method which uses spatial/temporal information from multiple low energy resolution measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other isotopes present. This method is referred to as targeted principal component analysis (TPCA). For radiation portal monitor applications, multiple measurements of gamma spectra are taken at equally spaced time increments as a vehicle passes through the portal and the TPCA method is directly applicable to this type of measurement. In this report we describe the method and investigate its application to the problem of detection of a radioactive localized source that is embedded in a distributed source in the presence of an ambient background. Examples using simulated spectral measurements indicate that this method works very well and has the potential for automated analysis for RPM applications. This method is also expected to work well for isotopic detection in the presence of spectrally and spatially varying backgrounds as a result of vehicle-induced background suppression. Further work is needed to include effects of shielding, to understand detection limits, setting of thresholds, and to estimate false positive probability.

  3. VHE gamma-ray emission of PKS 2155-304: spectral and temporal variability

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Benbow, W; Bernlohr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Busching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Conrad, J; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Atai, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Foerster, A; Fontaine, G; Fussling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gerard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glueck, B; Goret, P; Goering, D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khelifi, B; Keogh, D; Klochkov, D; Kluzniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Mehault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Puehlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schoeck, F M; Schoenwald, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sushch, I; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Voelk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2010-01-01

    Observations of very high energy gamma-rays from blazars provide information about acceleration mechanisms occurring in their innermost regions. Studies of variability in these objects allow a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. To investigate the spectral and temporal variability of VHE (>100 GeV) gamma-rays of the well-known high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a wide range of flux states. Data collected from 2005 to 2007 are analyzed. Spectra are derived on time scales ranging from 3 years to 4 minutes. Light curve variability is studied through doubling timescales and structure functions, and is compared with red noise process simulations. The source is found to be in a low state from 2005 to 2007, except for a set of exceptional flares which occurred in July 2006. The quiescent state of the source is characterized by an associated mean flux level of 4.32 +/-0.09 x 10^-11 cm^-2 s^-1 above 200 GeV, or approximately 15% ...

  4. High-energy gamma-rays in the hard spectral state of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Chernyakova, Maria; Pooley, Guy G

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained a firm detection of Cyg X-1 during its hard and intermediate spectral states in the energy range of 40 MeV--60 GeV based on observations by Fermi Large Area Telescope, confirming the independent results at $\\geq$60 MeV of Zanin et al. The detection significance is $\\simeq\\! 8\\sigma$ in the 0.1--10 GeV range. In the soft state, we have found upper limits on the emission at energies $\\geq$0.2 MeV, also in agreement with Zanin et al. However, we have found emission with a very soft spectrum in the 40--80 MeV range, not detected previously. This is likely to represent the high-energy cutoff of the high-energy power-law tail observed in the soft state. Similarly, we have detected a $\\gamma$-ray soft excess in the hard state, which appears to be of similar origin. We have also confirmed the presence of an orbital modulation of the detected emission in the hard state, expected if the $\\gamma$-rays are from Compton upscattering of stellar blackbody photons. However, the observed modulation is signifi...

  5. Constitutive spectral EEG peaks in the gamma range: suppressed by sleep, reduced by mental activity and resistant to sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Samuel Grummett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a systematic study of gamma activity in neuro-psychiatric disease, we unexpectedly observed distinctive, apparently persistent, electroencephalogram (EEG spectral peaks in the gamma range (25-100 Hz. Our objective, therefore, was to examine the incidence, distribution and some of the characteristics of these peaks.Methods: High sample-rate, 128-channel, EEG was recorded in 603 volunteers (510 with neuropsychiatric disorders, 93 controls, whilst performing cognitive tasks, and converted to power spectra. Peaks of spectral power, including in the gamma range, were determined algorithmically for all electrodes. To determine if peaks were stable, 24-hour ambulatory recordings were obtained from 16 subjects with peaks. In 10 subjects, steady-state responses to stimuli at peak frequency were compared with off-peak-frequency stimulation to determine if peaks were a feature of underlying network resonances and peaks were evaluated with easy and hard versions of oddball tasks to determine if peaks might be influenced by mental effort.Results: 57 % of subjects exhibited peaks > 2 dB above trough power at or above 25 Hz. Larger peaks (> 5 dB were present in 13 % of subjects. Peaks were distributed widely over the scalp, more frequent centrally. Peaks were present through the day and were suppressed by slow-wave-sleep. Steady-state responses were the same with on- or off-peak sensory stimulation. In contrast, mental effort resulted in reductions in power and frequency of gamma peaks, although the suppression did not correlate with level of effort.Conclusions: Gamma EEG can be expressed constitutively as concentrations of power in narrow or wide frequency bands that play an, as yet, unknown role in cognitive activity.Significance: These findings expand the described range of rhythmic EEG phenomena. In particular, in addition to evoked, induced and sustained gamma band activity, gamma activity can be present constitutively in spectral peaks.

  6. Spectral catalogue of bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the BeppoSAX/GRBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidorzi, C.; Lacapra, M.; Frontera, F.; Montanari, E.; Amati, L.; Calura, F.; Nicastro, L.; Orlandini, M.

    2011-02-01

    Context. The emission process responsible for the so-called "prompt" emission of gamma-ray bursts is still unknown. A number of empirical models fitting the typical spectrum still lack a satisfactory interpretation. A few GRB spectral catalogues derived from past and present experiments are known in the literature and allow to tackle the issue of spectral properties of gamma-ray bursts on a statistical ground. Aims: We extracted and studied the time-integrated photon spectra of the 200 brightest GRBs observed with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor which flew aboard the BeppoSAX mission (1996-2002) to provide an independent statistical characterisation of GRB spectra. Methods: The spectra have a time-resolution of 128 s and consist of 240 energy channels covering the 40-700 keV energy band. The 200 brightest GRBs were selected from the complete catalogue of 1082 GRBs detected with the GRBM (Frontera et al. 2009), whose products are publicly available and can be browsed/retrieved using a dedicated web interface. The spectra were fit with three models: a simple power law, a cut-off power law or a Band model. We derived the sample distributions of the best-fitting spectral parameters and investigated possible correlations between them. For a few, typically very long GRBs, we also provide a loose (128-s) time-resolved spectroscopic analysis. Results: The typical photon spectrum of a bright GRB consists of a low-energy index around 1.0 and a peak energy of the ν F_ν spectrum Ep ≃ 240 keV in agreement with previous results on a sample of bright CGRO/BATSE bursts. Spectra of ~ 35% of GRBs can be fit with a power law with a photon index around 2, indicative of peak energies either close to or outside the GRBM energy boundaries. We confirm the correlation between Ep and fluence, in agreement with previous results, with a logarithmic dispersion of 0.13 around the power law with index 0.21 ± 0.06. This is shallower than its analogous in the GRB rest-frame, the Amati relation

  7. Gamma-Irradiation Effects on the Spectral and Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE Properties of Conjugated Polymers in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad S. AlSalhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of gamma (γ radiation on the spectral and mplified spontaneous emission (ASE properties of two conjugated polymers (CPs viz., poly [2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH–PPV (CPM and poly{[2-[2′,5′-bis(2″-ethylhexyloxyphenyl]-1,4-phenylenevinylene]-co-[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene]} (BEHP-co-MEH–PPV (BMP in tetrahydrofuran (THF. Gamma irradiation strongly affected the photophysical properties of these CPs. To explore these changes, gamma radiation, in the range of 2–50 kGy, was used to maintain the temperature at 5 °C constant for all doses at a dose rate of 12.67 kGy/h, using a 60Co gamma ray. The ASE profiles of the CPs in THF were obtained under the high power excitation of a Nd:YAG laser (355 nm, pre- and post-radiation. The result revealed a dramatic blue shift of the fluorescence and the ASE spectra after gamma irradiation. This shift in the luminescence and ASE spectra could be a response to the conformational disorders such as gamma irradiation-induced polymer crosslinking, which was verified using Raman spectra, FTIR, and swelling experiments. This could be the first report on the effect of gamma radiation on the ASE properties of conjugated polymers.

  8. AN UPSCATTERING SPECTRAL FORMATION MODEL FOR THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Farinelli, Ruben; Frontera, Filippo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: titarchuk@fe.infn.it, E-mail: ltitarch@gmu.edu, E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2012-06-20

    We propose a model for the spectral formation of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission, where the phenomenological Band function is usually applied to describe this emission. We suggest that the GRB prompt emission is mainly a result of two upscattering processes. The first process is the Comptonization of relatively cold soft photons of the star off electrons of a hot shell of plasma of temperature T{sub e} of the order of 10{sup 9} K (or kT{sub e} {approx} 100 keV) that moves subrelativistically with the bulk velocity V{sub b} substantially less than the speed of light c. In this phase, the Comptonization parameter Y is high and the interaction between a blackbody-like soft seed photon population and hot electrons leads to formation of a saturated Comptonization spectrum modified by the subrelativistic bulk outflow. The second process is an upscattering of the previously Comptonized spectrum by the plasma outflow once it becomes relativistic. This process gives rise to the high-energy power-law (PL) component above the peak in the EF(E) diagram where F(E) is the energy flux. The latter process can be described by a convolution of the Comptonized spectrum with a broken-PL Green function. Possible physical scenarios for this second upscattering process are discussed. In the framework of our model, we give an interpretation of the Amati relation between the intrinsic spectral peak photon energy and radiated energy or luminosity, and we propose a possible explanation of the GRB temporal variability.

  9. Revisiting the Correlations of Peak Luminosity with Spectral Lag and Peak Energy of the Observed Gamma-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yun-A.; Chang, Heon-Young

    2016-12-01

    An analysis of light curves and spectra of observed gamma-ray bursts in gamma-ray ranges is frequently demanded because the prompt emission contains immediate details regarding the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We have revisited the relationship between the collimation-corrected peak luminosity and the spectral lag, investigating the lag-luminosity relationships in great detail by focusing on spectral lags resulting from all possible combinations of channels. Firstly, we compiled the opening angle data and demonstrated that the distribution of opening angles of 205 long GRBs is represented by a double Gaussian function having maxima at 0.1 and 0.3 radians. We confirmed that the peak luminosity and the spectral lag are anti-correlated, both in the observer frame and in the source frame. We found that, in agreement with our previous conclusion, the correlation coefficient improves significantly in the source frame. It should be noted that spectral lags involving channel 2 (25-50 keV) yield high correlation coefficients, where Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) has four energy channels (channel 1: 15-25 keV, channel 2: 25-50 keV, channel 3: 50-100 keV, channel 4: 100-200 keV). We also found that peak luminosity is positively correlated with peak energy.

  10. Spectral Study of the HESS J1745-290 Gamma-Ray Source as Dark Matter Signal

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, J A R; Maroto, A L

    2013-01-01

    We study the main spectral features of the gamma-ray fluxes observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source during the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. In particular, we show that these data are well fitted as the secondary gamma-rays photons generated from dark matter annihilating into Standard Model particles in combination with a simple power law background. We present explicit analyses for annihilation in a single standard model particle-antiparticle pair. In this case, the best fits are obtained for the u and d quark-antiquark channels and for the WW and ZZ gauge bosons, with background spectral index compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. The fits return a heavy WIMP, with a mass above 10 TeV approximately, but well below the unitarity limit for thermal relic annihilation.

  11. Spectral study of the HESS J1745-290 gamma-ray source as dark matter signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembranos, J.A.R.; Gammaldi, V.; Maroto, A.L., E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: vivigamm@ucm.es, E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    We study the main spectral features of the gamma-ray fluxes observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source during the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. In particular, we show that these data are well fitted as the secondary gamma-rays photons generated from dark matter annihilating into Standard Model particles in combination with a simple power law background. We present explicit analyses for annihilation in a single standard model particle-antiparticle pair. In this case, the best fits are obtained for the uū and d d-bar quark channels and for the W{sup +}W{sup −} and ZZ gauge bosons, with background spectral index compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. The fits return a heavy WIMP, with a mass above ∼ 10 TeV, but well below the unitarity limit for thermal relic annihilation.

  12. Comprehensive monitoring of gamma-ray bright blazars. I. Statistical study of optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray spectral slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Karen E.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Agudo, Iván; Joshi, Manasvita; Malmrose, Michael P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Larionov, Valeri M.; Blinov, Dmitry A.; Efimova, Natalia V.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Konstantinova, Tatiana S.; Kopatskaya, Evgenia N.; Larionova, Elena G.; Larionova, Liudmilla V. [Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskij Pr. 28, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Smith, Paul S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Arkharov, Arkady A. [Main (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of RAS, Pulkovskoye shosse 60, 196140 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.; Molina, Sol N. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); McHardy, Ian M., E-mail: kwilliam@bu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-07-10

    We present γ-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves of 33 γ-ray bright blazars over 4 years that we have been monitoring since 2008 August with multiple optical, ground-based telescopes and the Swift satellite, and augmented by data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other publicly available data from Swift. The sample consists of 21 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects (BL Lacs). We identify quiescent and active states of the sources based on their γ-ray behavior. We derive γ-ray, X-ray, and optical spectral indices, α{sub γ}, α{sub X}, and α{sub o}, respectively (F{sub ν}∝ν{sup α}), and construct spectral energy distributions during quiescent and active states. We analyze the relationships between different spectral indices, blazar classes, and activity states. We find (1) significantly steeper γ-ray spectra of FSRQs than for BL Lacs during quiescent states, but a flattening of the spectra for FSRQs during active states while the BL Lacs show no significant change; (2) a small difference of α{sub X} within each class between states, with BL Lac X-ray spectra significantly steeper than in FSRQs; (3) a highly peaked distribution of X-ray spectral slopes of FSRQs at ∼ –0.60, but a very broad distribution of α{sub X} of BL Lacs during active states; (4) flattening of the optical spectra of FSRQs during quiescent states, but no statistically significant change of α{sub o} of BL Lacs between states; and (5) a positive correlation between optical and γ-ray spectral slopes of BL Lacs, with similar values of the slopes. We discuss the findings with respect to the relative prominence of different components of high-energy and optical emission as the flux state changes.

  13. Modulation of gamma and theta spectral amplitude and phase synchronization is associated with the development of visuo-motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Moisello, Clara; Landsness, Eric Carl; Kvint, Svetlana; Lanzafame, Simona; Onofrj, Marco; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2011-10-12

    The formation of new motor memories, which is fundamental for efficient performance during adaptation to a visuo-motor rotation, occurs when accurate planning is achieved mostly with feedforward mechanisms. The dynamics of brain activity underlying the switch from feedback to feedforward control is still matter of debate. Based on the results of studies in declarative learning, it is likely that phase synchronization of low and high frequencies as well as their temporal modulation in power amplitude underlie the formation of new motor memories during visuo-motor adaptation. High-density EEG (256 electrodes) was recorded in 17 normal human subjects during adaptation to a visuo-motor rotation of 60° in four incremental steps of 15°. We found that initial learning is associated with enhancement of gamma power in a right parietal region during movement execution as well as gamma/theta phase coherence during movement planning. Late stages of learning are instead accompanied by an increase of theta power over that same right parietal region during movement planning, which is correlated with the degree of learning and retention. Altogether, these results suggest that the formation of new motor memories and, thus, the switch from feedback to feedforward control is associated with the modulation of gamma and theta spectral activities, with respect to their amplitude and phase, during movement planning and execution. Specifically, we propose that gamma/theta phase coupling plays a pivotal role in the integration of a new representation into motor memories.

  14. Awakening the BALROG (BAyesian Location Reconstruction Of GRBs): A new paradigm in spectral and location analysis of gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, J Michael; Greiner, Jochen; Mortlock, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The accurate spatial location of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial for both producing a detector response matrix (DRM) and follow-up observations by other instruments. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has the largest field of view (FOV) for detecting GRBs as it views the entire unocculted sky, but as a non-imaging instrument it relies on the relative count rates observed in each of its 14 detectors to localize transients. Improving its ability to accurately locate GRBs and other transients is vital to the paradigm of multi-messenger astronomy, including the electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational wave signals. Here we present the BAyesian Location Reconstruction Of GRBs ({\\tt BALROG}) method for localizing and characterising GBM transients. Our approach eliminates the systematics of previous approaches by simultaneously fitting for the location and spectrum of a source. It also correctly incorporates the uncertainties in the location of a transient into the spectral parameters and produces reliable...

  15. IN-SITU ASSAY OF TRANSURANIC RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTRAL GAMMA LOGGING - A HANFORD CASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHAY VJ; HENWOOD P; MCCAIN R

    2009-11-30

    High-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes is used to detect and quantify transuranic radionuclides in the subsurface. Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-241, and Np-237 are identified based on characteristic decay gammas. Typical minimum detectable levels are on the order of 20 to 40 nCi/g. In intervals of high transuranic concentrations, gamma rays from other sources may complicate analysis and interpretation. Gamma rays detected in the borehole may originate from three sources: decay of the parent transuranic radionuclide or a daughter; alpha interactions; and interactions with neutrons resulting from either spontaneous fission or alpha particle interactions.

  16. A spectral study of gamma-ray emitting active galactic nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Hartman, R.C.; Jones, B.B.;

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a statistical analysis of the gamma-ray spectra of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) compared to those of BL Lacs. The average spectra and possible systematic deviations from power-law behaviour are investigated by summing up the intensity and the power-law fit statistic...... is not a one component spectrum....

  17. Characterization of Construction Material Properties through Gamma Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence, and Hyper-spectral Imagery for Background Correction Applications in Nuclear Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    spectroscopy, 2) X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and 3) hyper-spectral imagery. Gamma-spectroscopy focuses on the presence of potassium as well as uranium and...each material. Each materials hyper-spectral characteristics are compared to chemical composition and radioactive properties to determine if any...of bundling a variety of sensors onto a small number of vehicles. A MISTI vehicle carries a ten by ten sodium iodide detector array with a coded

  18. Correction methodology for the spectral interfering {gamma}-rays overlapping to the analytical peaks used in the analysis of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuecel, H., E-mail: haluk.yucel@ankara.edu.t [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ankara University (Australia), Besevler Yerleskesi, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Koese, E. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ankara University (Australia), Besevler Yerleskesi, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Esen, A.N. [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Bor, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ankara University (Australia), Besevler Yerleskesi, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    In the {gamma}-ray spectrometric analysis of the radionuclides, a correction factor is generally required for the spectral interfering {gamma}-rays in determining the net areas of the analytical peaks because some interfering {gamma}-rays often might contribute to the analytical peaks of interest. In present study, a correction methodology for the spectral interfering {gamma}-rays (CSI) is described. In particular, in the analysis of {sup 232}Th contained in samples, the interfering {gamma}-rays due to {sup 226}Ra, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and their decay products often overlap to the peaks of interest from {sup 232}Th decay products, and vise versa. For the validation of the proposed CSI method, several certified reference materials (CRM) containing U and Th were measured by using a 76.5% efficient n-type Ge detector. The required correction factors were quantified for spectral interference, self-absorption and true coincidence summing (TCS) effects for the relevant {gamma}-rays. The measured results indicate that if one ignores the contributions of the interfering {gamma}-rays to the analytical peaks at 583.2 keV of {sup 208}Tl and 727.3 keV of {sup 212}Bi, this leads to a significantly systematic influence on the resulted activities of {sup 232}Th. The correction factors required for spectral interference and TCS effects are estimated to be {approx}13.6% and {approx}15.4% for 583.2 keV peak. For the 727.3 keV peak, the correction factor is estimated to be {approx}15% for spectral interference, and {approx}5% for the TCS effects at the presently used detection geometry. On the other hand, the measured results also indicate that ignoring the contribution of the interfering {gamma}-rays to the areas of the analytical peaks at 860.6 keV of {sup 208}Tl, 338.3 and 911.2 keV of {sup 228}Ac does not lead to any significant systematic influence on the {sup 232}Th analysis. Because these factors are remained generally less than {approx}5%, i.e., within overall uncertainty

  19. Internal Luminosity Distribution of Bright Gamma-Ray Bursts and its Relation to Duration and Spectral Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horack, John M.; Hakkila, Jon

    1997-01-01

    We present first results from a comprehensive investigation into the distribution of luminosity within the 50 brightest cosmic gamma-ray bursts detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The internal luminosity function psi(L) is defined such that the quantity psi(L)dL represents the fraction of total emission time during which the burst possesses a luminosity between L and L + dL. For these brightest bursts, the psi(L) functions are quasi-power-law-like and decrease in amplitude with increasing luminosity. Through investigation of both individual psi(L) distributions and data from the ensemble of bursts, we demonstrate a high probability for correlation between the shape of the internal luminosity function as measured by the average logarithmic slope and the burst duration as measured by the T(sub 90) parameter and, with lower significance, between the shape of psi(L) and the burst photon-fluence spectral index. We furthermore demonstrate a correlation between burst hardness ratio and duration in these brightest bursts which is opposite to that of the entire gamma-ray burst ensemble.

  20. The Spectral SN-GRB Connection: Systematic Spectral Comparisons between Type Ic Supernovae, broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae with and without Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B; Graur, Or

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 10 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. We analyze a total of 396 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra data of Modjaz et al. (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, along with standard deviation and maximum deviation contours. We find that SN~1994I is not a typical SN Ic, in contrast to common belief, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities (as traced by FeII 5169) and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher ab...

  1. Development of a unique laboratory standard indium gallium arsenide detector for the 500 to 1700 micron spectral region, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Vladimir S.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of this work, 5 mm diameter InGaAs pin detectors were produced which met or exceeded all of the goals of the program. The best results achieved were: shunt resistance of over 300 K ohms; rise time of less than 300 ns; contact resistance of less than 20 ohms; quantum efficiency of over 50 percent in the 0.5 to 1.7 micron range; and devices were maintained and operated at 125 C without deterioration for over 100 hours. In order to achieve the goals of this program, several major technological advances were realized, among them: successful design, construction and operation of a hydride VPE reactor capable of growing epitaxial layers on 2 inch diameter InP substrates with a capacity of over 8 wafers per day; wafer processing was upgraded to handle 2 inch wafers; a double layer Si3N4/SiO2 antireflection coating which enhances response over the 0.5 to 1.7 micron range was developed; a method for anisotropic, precisely controlled CH4/H2 plasma etching for enhancement of response at short wavelengths was developed; and electronic and optical testing methods were developed to allow full characterization of detectors with size and spectral response characteristics. On the basis of the work and results achieved in this program, it is concluded that large size, high shunt resistance, high quantum efficiency InGaAs pin detectors are not only feasible but also manufacturable on industrial scale. This device spans a significant portion of visible and near infrared spectral range and it will allow a single detector to be used for the 0.5 to 1.7 micron spectral region, rather than the presently used silicon (for 0.5 to 1.1 microns) and germanium (0.8 to 1.7 microns).

  2. Time resolved spectral analysis of the prompt emission of long gamma ray bursts with GeV Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Bhattacharya, J; Chandra, S; Maheshwari, N; Choudhury, M; Misra, Ranjeev

    2013-01-01

    We make a detailed time resolved spectroscopy of bright long gamma ray bursts (GRBs) which show significant GeV emissions (GRB 080916C, GRB 090902B, and GRB 090926A). In addition to the standard Band model, we also use a model consisting of a blackbody and a power-law to fit the spectra. We find that for the latter model there are indications for an additional soft component in the spectra. While previous studies have shown that such models are required for GRB 090902B, here we find that a composite spectral model consisting of two black bodies and a power law adequately fit the data of all the three bright GRBs. We investigate the evolution of the spectral parameters and find several generic interesting features for all three GRBs, like a) temperatures of the black bodies are strongly correlated to each other, b) flux in the black body components are strongly correlated to each other, c) the temperatures of the black body trace the profile of the individual pulses of the GRBs, and d) the characteristics of t...

  3. A Comprehensive Statistical Description of Radio-Through-$\\gamma$-Ray Spectral Energy Distributions of All Known Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Peiyuan; Massaro, Francesco; Paggi, Alessandro; Cauteruccio, Joe; Künzel, Soren R

    2016-01-01

    We combined multi-wavelength data for blazars from the Roma-BZCAT catalog and analyzed hundreds of X-ray spectra. We present the fluxes and Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), in 12 frequency bands from radio to $\\gamma$-rays, for a final sample of 2214 blazars. Using a model-independent statistical approach, we looked for systematic trends in the SEDs; the most significant trends involved the radio luminosities and X-ray spectral indices of the blazars. We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to determine the basis vectors of the blazar SEDs and, in order to maximize the size of the sample, imputed missing fluxes using the K-nearest neighbors method. Using more than an order of magnitude more data than was available when Fossati et al. (1997, 1998) first reported trends of SED shape with blazar luminosity, we confirmed the anti-correlation between radio luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency, although with greater scatter than was seen in the smaller sample. The same trend can be seen between bolo...

  4. Spectral properties and shielding behavior of gamma irradiated MoO{sub 3}-doped silicophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdy, Y.M., E-mail: yousry_m_h@yahoo.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Marzouk, M.A.; ElBatal, H.A. [Glass Research Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-11-15

    Combined optical and infrared absorption spectra of prepared molybdenum ions in sodium silicophosphate host glasses were investigated before and after gamma irradiation with a dose of 8 Mrad (8×10{sup 4} Gy). The undoped base sodium silicophosphate glass reveals strong charge transfer ultraviolet absorption but with no visible bands. This strong UV absorption is related to the presence of contaminated trace iron impurities (mainly Fe{sup 3+} ions) within the raw materials used for the preparation of this host glass. The MoO{sub 3} doped glasses exhibit extra characteristic absorption bands due to the presence of molybdenum ions in three possible valence states, the trivalent, pentavalent and hexavalent forms. Gamma irradiation of the base undoped glass increases the extension of optical absorption within the UV spectrum and produces an extra broad visible band centered at 520 nm. Such radiation-induced spectra are interpreted by assuming the formation of new induced color centers through the absorption of released electrons and formed positive holes during the irradiation process. Also, the possible formation of induced centers through photochemical transformation of some Fe{sup 2+} ions to Fe{sup 3+} ions by accepting positive holes. The presence of molybdenum ions is assumed to compete with the suggested irradiation reactions by capturing electrons and positive holes during the irradiation process. Infrared absorption spectra of the undoped and MoO{sub 3}-doped glasses reveal broad IR vibrational bands which are attributed to the presence of combined characteristic vibrational IR modes due to main phosphate and partner silicate groups. The addition of MoO{sub 3} (0.5–1.5%) as dopant level causes no changes in the number and position of the main characteristic absorption bands. Gamma irradiation did not cause any marked changes in the IR spectra and the maintainance of the same main IR bands due to the stability of the network containing dual compact two glass

  5. Radio-Gamma-ray connection and spectral evolution in 4C +49.22 (S4 1150+49): the Fermi, Swift and Planck view

    CERN Document Server

    Cutini, S; Orienti, M; Tramacere, A; D'Ammando, F; Verrecchia, F; Polenta, G; Carrasco, L; D'Elia, V; Giommi, P; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Grandi, P; Harrison, D; Hays, E; Hoversten, E; Larsson, S; Lahteenmaki, A; Leon-Tavares, J; Lopez-Caniego, M; Natoli, P; Ojha, R; Partridge, B; Porras, A; Reyes, L; Recillas, E; Torresi, E

    2014-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a strong gamma-ray flare on 2011 May 15 from a source identified as 4C 49.22, a flat spectrum radio quasar also known as S4 1150+49. This blazar, characterised by a prominent radio-optical-X-ray jet, was in a low gamma-ray activity state during the first years of Fermi observations. Simultaneous observations during the quiescent, outburst and post-flare gamma-ray states were obtained by Swift, Planck and optical-IR-radio telescopes (INAOE, Catalina CSS, VLBA, Metsahovi). The flare is observed from microwave to X-ray bands with correlated variability and the Fermi, Swift and Planck data for this FSRQ show some features more typical of BL Lac objects, like the synchrotron peak in the optical band that outshines the thermal blue-bump emission, and the X-ray spectral softening. Multi-epoch VLBA observations show the ejection of a new component close in time with the GeV gamma-ray flare. The radio-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distributi...

  6. Spectral analysis of shielded gamma ray sources using precalculated library data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas Wesley; Gardner, Robin P.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, an approach has been developed for determining the intensity of a shielded source by first determining the thicknesses of three different shielding materials from a passively collected gamma-ray spectrum by making comparisons with predetermined shielded spectra. These evaluations are dependent on the accuracy and validity of the predetermined library spectra which were created by changing the thicknesses of the three chosen materials lead, aluminum and wood that are used to simulate any actual shielding. Each of the spectra produced was generated using MCNP5 with a sufficiently large number of histories to ensure a low relative error at each channel. The materials were held in the same respective order from source to detector, where each material consisted of three individual thicknesses and a null condition. This then produced two separate data sets of 27 total shielding material situations and subsequent predetermined libraries that were created for each radionuclide source used. The technique used to calculate the thicknesses of the materials implements a Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear search that employs a tri-linear interpolation with the respective predetermined libraries within each channel for the supplied input unknown spectrum. Given that the nonlinear parameters require an initial guess for the calculations, the approach demonstrates first that when the correct values are input, the correct thicknesses are found. It then demonstrates that when multiple trials of random values are input for each of the nonlinear parameters, the average of the calculated solutions that successfully converges also produced the correct thicknesses. Under situations with sufficient information known about the detection situation at hand, the method was shown to behave in a manner that produces reasonable results and can serve as a good preliminary solution. This technique has the capability to be used in a variety of full spectrum inverse analysis problems

  7. A Search for Discrete X-Ray Spectral Features in a Sample of Bright Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, M

    2004-09-09

    We present uniform, detailed spectral analyses of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows observed with ASCA, Beppo-SAX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton, and critically evaluate the statistical significances of X-ray emission and absorption features in these spectra. The sample consists of 21 X-ray afterglow observations up to and including that of GRB040106 with spectra of sufficient statistical quality to allow meaningful line searches, chosen here somewhat arbitrarily to be detections with more than 100 total (source plus background) counts. This sample includes all nine X-ray afterglows with published claims of line detections. Moderate resolution spectra are available for 16 of the 21 sources, and for the remaining five the Chandra transmission grating spectrometers obtained high-resolution data. All of the data are available from the public archive. We test a simple hypothesis in which the observed spectra are produced by a power-law continuum model modified by photoelectric absorption by neutral material both in our Galaxy and possibly also local to the burst. As a sample, these afterglow spectra are consistent with this relatively simple model. However, since the {chi}{sup 2} statistic is not sensitive to weak and/or localized fluctuations, we have performed Monte Carlo simulations to search for discrete features and to estimate their significances. Our analysis shows that there are four afterglows (GRB011211, GRB030227, GRB021004, and GRB040106) with line-like features that are significant at the 3 {sigma} level. We cautiously note that, in two cases, the features are associated with an unusual background feature; in the other two, the fractional magnitudes of the lines are small, and comparable to the expected level of systematic uncertainty in the spectral response. In addition, none of the statistically significant features are seen in more than one detector or spectral order where available. We conclude that, to date, no credible X-ray line feature has been

  8. A Spectral Feature of High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts Probing the Earliest Starlight Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Z G

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows at high redshifts have been widely believed to be detectable. Here we analyze a new feature of the MeV spectra of high-redshift GRBs, which is unlikely to appear in low-redshift GRBs. We generally discuss high-energy emission above a few decades of GeV due to synchrotron self-Compton scattering in the internal shock model. Our discussion seems to be supported by the high-energy spectra of several low-redshift GRBs. However, if GRBs originate at high redshifts (e.g., $z\\ge 6$), such photons cannot be detected because they may collide with cosmic optical and ultraviolet background photons, leading to electron/positron pair production. We show that inverse-Compton scattering of the resulting electron/positron pairs off cosmic microwave background photons will produce an additional multi-MeV component, resulting thus in a spectral "bump". We also derive the scattered photon spectrum of such a bump, $\

  9. Spectral shapes and a beta-gamma directional correlation in the beta decay of 172Tm (Jpi = 2-)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers Hansen, P.; Loft Nielsen, H.; Wilsky, K.;

    1966-01-01

    shape factor plots are taken relative to the 90Y shape factor measured in the same circumstances, and it is concluded that on this basis the shapes of all three 172Tm beta groups agree with the theoretical shape for a first-forbidden unique transition. The directional correlation for the 2-(beta)2......+(gamma)0+ cascade has been measured at six energies from 1010 to 1550 keV and these results too are consistent with the assumption that the 2- rarr 2+ beta transition is purely of tensor rank 2. The data for the 2- rarr 2+ transition are analysed on the basis of the modified Bij approximation, which...... defines parameters X and Y corresponding to the relative contributions of tensor ranks 0 and 1 respectively. The shape measurement provides the limit X2 + Y2 les 0.10, whereas the angular correlation measurement gives Y = 1.64X + (0.02 plusmn0.03). The reduced transition probabilities (f1t)-1 can...

  10. Laplacian Spectral Uniqueness Problems to Some Special θ-Graphs%几类特殊θ-图的Laplacian谱唯一性问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广军; 孟瑶

    2012-01-01

    通过θ-图中除了含有一个4圈的θ-图外,其余的θ-图都是邻接谱唯一图的有关结论,研究了几类特殊θ-图的Laplacian谱唯一性问题.即:θ-图θs1,s2,s3(|si-sj|≤2,1≤i≤3)、圈长为3或4的θ-图以及θ-图θ0,u,v(u+v=1(mod 2)).%According to the relevant conclusions that all θ-graphs are adjacency spectrum-unique graphs except for the θ-graph of containing just a 4-loop, we investigate Laplacian spectral uniqueness problems to some special θ-graphs. That is, θ-graph θa1, a2, a3 (∣si-sj∣ ≤ 2, 1 ≤ I ≤ 3), the θ-graph of loop-length is 3 or 4, and θ-graph θo, u, v ( u+v = 1( mod 2)).

  11. Time differential 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometer with unique 4π YAP:Ce 122.06 keV gamma-photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Petr; Pechousek, Jiri; Prochazka, Vit; Navarik, Jakub; Kouril, Lukas; Kohout, Pavel; Vrba, Vlastimil; Machala, Libor

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a conceptually new design of the 57Fe Time Differential Mössbauer Spectrometer (TDMS) with the gamma-photon detector optimized for registration of a radiation emitted in a maximum solid angle. A high detection efficiency of 80% in 4π region was achieved for 122.06 keV photons emitted from 57Co source. Detector parameters have been optimized for the use in the Time Differential Mössbauer Spectroscopy where the high time resolution in range of 176-200 ns is highly required. Technical concept of the TDMS is based on the virtual instrumentation technique and uses fast digital oscilloscope. Performance and detector utilization have been clarified by decreasing the Mössbauer spectral line-width of K2MgFe(CN)6 reference sample from 0.33 mm/s (integral mode) to 0.23 mm/s (time differential mode). This report also describes characterization and utilization of the detector together with additional electronic blocks and two-channel fast data-acquisition system construction.

  12. Time differential {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrometer with unique 4π YAP:Ce 122.06 keV gamma-photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Petr [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Pechousek, Jiri, E-mail: jiri.pechousek@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Prochazka, Vit [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Navarik, Jakub [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kouril, Lukas; Kohout, Pavel; Vrba, Vlastimil [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Machala, Libor [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a conceptually new design of the {sup 57}Fe Time Differential Mössbauer Spectrometer (TDMS) with the gamma-photon detector optimized for registration of a radiation emitted in a maximum solid angle. A high detection efficiency of 80% in 4π region was achieved for 122.06 keV photons emitted from {sup 57}Co source. Detector parameters have been optimized for the use in the Time Differential Mössbauer Spectroscopy where the high time resolution in range of 176–200 ns is highly required. Technical concept of the TDMS is based on the virtual instrumentation technique and uses fast digital oscilloscope. Performance and detector utilization have been clarified by decreasing the Mössbauer spectral line-width of K{sub 2}MgFe(CN){sub 6} reference sample from 0.33 mm/s (integral mode) to 0.23 mm/s (time differential mode). This report also describes characterization and utilization of the detector together with additional electronic blocks and two-channel fast data-acquisition system construction.

  13. Facile synthesis and unique physicochemical properties of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous magnesium oxide, gamma-alumina, and ceria-zirconia solid solutions with crystalline mesoporous walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huining; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Hongxing; He, Hong

    2009-05-18

    Three-dimensionally (3D) ordered macroporous (3DOM) MgO, gamma-Al(2)O(3), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.7)Zr(0.3)O(2) with polycrystalline mesoporous walls have been successfully fabricated with the triblock copolymer EO(106)PO(70)EO(106) (Pluronic F127) and regularly packed monodispersive polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres as the template and magnesium, aluminum, cerium and zirconium nitrate(s), or aluminum isopropoxide as the metal source. The as-synthesized metal oxides were characterized by means of techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/selected area electron diffraction (HRTEM/SAED), BET, carbon dioxide temperature-programmed desorption (CO(2)-TPD), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H(2)-TPR). It is shown that the as-fabricated MgO, gamma-Al(2)O(3), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.7)Zr(0.3)O(2) samples possessed single-phase polycrystalline structures and displayed a 3DOM architecture; the MgO, Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.7)Zr(0.3)O(2) samples exhibited worm-hole-like mesoporous walls, whereas the gamma-Al(2)O(3) samples exhibited 3D ordered mesoporous walls. The solvent (ethanol or water) nature and concentration, metal precursor, surfactant, and drying condition have an important impact on the pore structure and surface area of the final product. The introduction of surfactant F127 to the synthesis system could significantly enhance the surface areas of the 3DOM metal oxides. With PMMA and F127 in a 40% ethanol solution, one can generate well-arrayed 3DOM MgO with a surface area of 243 m(2)/g and 3DOM Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) with a surface area of 100 m(2)/g; with PMMA and F127 in an ethanol-HNO(3) solution, one can obtain 3DOM gamma-Al(2)O(3)with a surface area of 145 m(2)/g. The 3DOM MgO and 3DOM gamma-Al(2)O(3) samples showed

  14. A Search for Spectral Hysteresis and Energy-dependent Time Lags from X-Ray and TeV Gamma-Ray Observations of Mrk 421

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Flinders, A.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Griffin, S.; Håkansson, M. HN.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; Ong, S. OR. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pelassa, V.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; the VERITAS Collaboration; Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Nöthe, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres-Albà, N.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; the MAGIC Collaboration; Hovatta, T.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Smith, P. S.; Racero, E.; Baloković, M.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi-Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10‑4 Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  15. Empirical classification of VLT/Giraffe stellar spectra in the wavelength range 6440-6810 A in the gamma Vel cluster, and calibration of spectral indices

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, F; Micela, G; Randich, S; Gilmore, G; Drew, J E; Jeffries, R D; Frémat, Y; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Sacco, G G; Smiljanic, R; Jackson, R J; de Laverny, P; Morbidelli, L; Worley, C C; Hourihane, A; Costado, M T; Jofré, P; Lind, K; Maiorca, E

    2014-01-01

    We study spectral diagnostics available from optical spectra with R=17000 obtained with the VLT/Giraffe HR15n setup, using observations from the Gaia-ESO Survey, on the gamma Vel young cluster, in order to determine the fundamental parameters of these stars. We define a set of spectroscopic indices, sampling TiO bands, H-alpha core and wings, and many temperature- and gravity-sensitive lines. Combined indices tau (gamma) are also defined as Teff (log g) indicators over a wide spectral-type range. H-alpha emission-line indices are also chromospheric activity or accretion indicators. A metallicity-sensitive index is also defined. These indices enable us to find a clear difference between gravities of main-sequence and pre-main-sequence stars (as well as giant stars): the (gamma,tau) diagram is thus argued to be a promising distance-independent age measurement tool for young clusters. Our indices were quantitatively calibrated by means of photometry and literature reference spectra (from UVES-POP and ELODIE 3.1 ...

  16. A detailed spectral and morphological study of the gamma-ray supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946 with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Khelifi, B; Klages, S; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Theoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J

    2006-01-01

    We present results from deep observations of the Galactic shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 (also known as G347.3-0.5) conducted with the complete H.E.S.S. array in 2004. Detailed morphological and spatially resolved spectral studies reveal the very-high-energy (VHE -- Energies E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray aspects of this object with unprecedented precision. Since this is the first in-depth analysis of an extended VHE gamma-ray source, we present a thorough discussion of our methodology and investigations of possible sources of systematic errors. Gamma rays are detected throughout the whole SNR. The emission is found to resemble a shell structure with increased fluxes from the western and northwestern parts. The differential gamma-ray spectrum of the whole SNR is measured over more than two orders of magnitude, from 190 GeV to 40 TeV, and is rather hard with indications for a deviation from a pure power law at high energies. Spectra have also been determined for spatially separated regions of RX J1...

  17. Spectral interference corrections for the measurement of (238)U in materials rich in thorium by a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, H; Solmaz, A N; Köse, E; Bor, D

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the spectral interferences are investigated for the analytical peaks at 63.3 keV of (234)Th and 1001.0 keV of (234m)Pa, which are often used in the measurement of (238)U activity by the gamma-ray spectrometry. The correction methods are suggested to estimate the net peak areas of the gamma-rays overlapping the analytical peaks, due to the contribution of (232)Th that may not be negligible in materials rich in natural thorium. The activity results for the certified reference materials (CRMs) containing U and Th were measured with a well type Ge detector. The self-absorption and true coincidence-summing (TCS) effects were also taken into account in the measurements. It is found that ignoring the contributions of the interference gamma-rays of (232)Th and (235)U to the mixed peak at 63.3 keV of (234)Th ((238)U) leads to the remarkably large systematic influence of 0.8-122% in the measured (238)U activity, but in case of ignoring the contribution of (232)Th via the interference gamma-ray at 1000.7 keV of (228)Ac to the mixed peak at 1001 keV of (234m)Pa ((238)U) results in relatively smaller systematic influence of 0.05-3%, depending on thorium contents in the samples. The present results showed that the necessary correction for the spectral interferences besides self-absorption and TCS effects is also very important to obtain more accurate (238)U activity results. Additionally, if one ignores the contribution of (232)Th to both (238)U and (40)K activities in materials, the maximum systematic influence on the effective radiation dose is estimated to be ~6% and ~1% via the analytical peaks at 63.3 and 1001 keV for measurement of the (238)U activity, respectively.

  18. Spectral Cross-calibration of the Konus-Wind, the Suzaku/WAM, and the Swift/BAT Data using Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, T; Yamaoka, K; Ohno, M; Sato, G; Aptekar, R; Barthelmy, S; Baumgartner, W; Cummings, J; Fenimore, E; Frederiks, D; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Krimm, H; Markwardt, C; Onda, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Stamatikos, M; Sugita, S; Tashiro, M; Tueller, J; Ukwatta, T

    2010-01-01

    We report on the spectral cross-calibration results of the Konus-Wind, the Suzaku/WAM, and the Swift/BAT instruments using simultaneously observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This is the first attempt to use simultaneously observed GRBs as a spectral calibration source to understand systematic problems among the instruments. Based on these joint spectral fits, we find that 1) although a constant factor (a normalization factor) agrees within 20% among the instruments, the BAT constant factor shows a systematically smaller value by 10-20% compared to that of Konus-Wind, 2) there is a systematic trend that the low-energy photon index becomes steeper by 0.1-0.2 and Epeak becomes systematically higher by 10-20% when including the BAT data in the joint fits, and 3) the high-energy photon index agrees within 0.2 among the instruments. Our results show that cross-calibration based on joint spectral analysis is an important step to understanding the instrumental effects which could be affecting the scientific results fro...

  19. Lithofacies and spectral gamma-ray analysis of a potential outcrop analogue for a secondary reservoir in the McCully Gas Field, Sussex, NB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keighley, D.; Mohan, D. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Geology

    2006-07-01

    The McCully Gas Field in New Brunswick, comprises a succession of gas-filled sandstone units with organic shale. Core data from the reservoir interval in the gas field indicates that the sandstones are the deposits of lacustrine deltas, shorelines and fluvial systems. This study attempted to provide a more detailed interpretation of the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of outcrops and to better correlate the outcrops with producing horizons in the subsurface. The primary producing horizon in the McCully field is the A-sand, for which an equivalent outcrop analogue has yet to be identified. Overlying secondary targets include sandstone packages that appear to coarsen upward over a scale of several tens of metres. An outcrop of a coarsening upward succession within a roadcut has been identified as potentially correlative. Detailed sedimentological logging and spectral gamma ray data was collected over a 40 m thick interval of the outcrop succession. It appears that sedimentation occurred in a periodically and progressively shallowing wave-dominated lake shoreface. A possible root horizon near the top of the succession could indicate a temporary lowering of lake-level and development of a shallow lagoon. An overlying limestone conglomerate was identified as a storm-beach deposit. Conclusive evidence of fluvial deposition within the succession was not found. Spectral gamma-ray data suggests that radioactive uranium and thorium, as well as potassium all decrease upsection together with an overall increase in grain size.

  20. Fermi Study of gamma-ray Millisecond Pulsars: the Spectral Shape and Pulsed 25--200 GeV Emission from J0614-3329

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We report our analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope data for 39 millisecond pulsars (MSPs) listed in the second $\\gamma$-ray pulsar catalog. Spectra of the pulsars are obtained. We fit the spectra with a function of a power law with exponential cutoff, and find the best-fit parameters of photon index $\\Gamma = 1.54^{+0.10}_{-0.11}$ and cutoff energy $E_{c} = 3.70^{+0.95}_{-0.70}$ GeV. This spectral shape, which includes the intrinsic differences in the spectra of the MSPs, can be used for finding candidate MSPs and unidentified types of sources detected by Fermi at high Galactic latitudes. In one of the MSPs PSR J0614-3329, we find significant pulsed emission upto 200 GeV. The result has thus added this MSP to the group of the Crab and Vela pulsars that have been detected with >50 GeV pulsed emission. Comparing the $\\gamma$-ray spectrum of PSR J0614-3329 with those of the Crab and Vela pulsars, we discuss possible emission mechanisms for the very high-energy component.

  1. A search for spectral hysteresis and energy-dependent time lags from X-ray and TeV gamma-ray observations of Mrk 421

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Archer, A; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Eisch, J D; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Flinders, A; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Griffin, S; Hütten, M; Håkansson, N; Hanna, D; Hervet, O; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; O'Brien, S; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pelassa, V; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sadeh, I; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Wakely, S P; Weinstein, A; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Ahnen, M L; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Arcaro, C; Babic, A; Banerjee, B; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Berti, A; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carosi, R; Carosi, A; Chatterjee, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Cumani, P; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Di Pierro, F; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsaesser, D; Engelkemeier, M; Ramazani, V Fallah; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giammaria, P; Godinović, N; Gora, D; Guberman, D; Hadasch, D; Hahn, A; Hassan, T; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hughes, G; Idec, W; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lelas, D; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Manganaro, M; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Moretti, E; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nogués, L; Nöthe, M; Paiano, S; Palacio, J; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Pedaletti, G; Peresano, M; Perri, L; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Garcia, J R; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Saito, T; Satalecka, K; Schroeder, S; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Strzys, M; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Torres-Albà, N; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vanzo, G; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vovk, I; Ward, J E; Will, M; Wu, M H; Zanin, R; Hovatta, T; Perez, I de la Calle; Smith, P S; Racero, E; Baloković, M

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three "target-of-opportunity" (ToO) observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi-LAT) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultane...

  2. Optical counterparts of undetermined type $\\gamma$-ray Active Galactic Nuclei with blazar-like Spectral Energy Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    La Mura, G; Ciroi, S; Rafanelli, P; Salvetti, D; Berton, M; Cracco, V

    2015-01-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 $\\gamma$-ray sources above a 4$\\sigma$ significance level. Although most of the extra-Galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections ($\\sim 30\\%$) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN $\\gamma$-ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet that, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line of sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with $\\gamma$-rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of $\\gamma$-ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined Type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The...

  3. News from Cosmic Gamma-ray Line Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays at MeV energies from cosmic radioactivities is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and how they shape objects such as massive stars and supernova explosions. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this same astronomical window, and positrons are often produced from radioactive beta decays. Nuclear gamma-ray telescopes face instrumental challenges from penetrating gamma rays and cosmic-ray induced backgrounds. But the astrophysical benefits of such efforts are underlined by the discoveries of nuclear gamma~rays from the brightest of the expected sources. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivity gamma~rays have been measured in spectral detail, and complement conventional supernova observations with measurements of origins in deep supernova interiors, from the decay of $^{56}$Ni, $^{56}$Co, and $^{44}$Ti. The diffuse afterglow in gamma rays of radioa...

  4. Gamma-Ray Burst Luminosity Functions Based On a Newly Discovered Correlation Between Peak Spectral Energy and V/V_max

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    We have discovered a correlation between the observed peak spectral energy E_pk,obs and the average Euclidean value of V/V_max of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the evidence for the correlation in the GUSBAD catalog and use it to derive the luminosity function of GRBs without using any redshifts. The procedure involves dividing GUSBAD GRBs in five spectral classes based on their E_pk,obs. The overall luminosity function is derived assuming that each of the spectral classes contributes a gaussian luminosity function. Their central luminosity is derived from the average observed Euclidean V/V_max. We explore various forms for the GRB rate function GR(z) in predicting redshift distributions of GRBs detected by Swift. We find that GR(z) peaks at a higher redshift than the typical star formation history currently favored in the literature. We consider two examples of GR(z) that successfully predict the observed redshift distribution of Swift GRBs. With the luminosity functions in hand, we convert the E_pk,obs...

  5. Spectral interference corrections for the measurement of {sup 238}U in materials rich in thorium by a high resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuecel, H. [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), Besevler Yerleskesi, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: alfa.haluky@gmail.com; Solmaz, A.N.; Koese, E.; Bor, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences of Ankara University (AU-INS), Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, the spectral interferences are investigated for the analytical peaks at 63.3 keV of {sup 234}Th and 1001.0 keV of {sup 234m}Pa, which are often used in the measurement of {sup 238}U activity by the {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The correction methods are suggested to estimate the net peak areas of the {gamma}-rays overlapping the analytical peaks, due to the contribution of {sup 232}Th that may not be negligible in materials rich in natural thorium. The activity results for the certified reference materials (CRMs) containing U and Th were measured with a well type Ge detector. The self-absorption and true coincidence-summing (TCS) effects were also taken into account in the measurements. It is found that ignoring the contributions of the interference {gamma}-rays of {sup 232}Th and {sup 235}U to the mixed peak at 63.3 keV of {sup 234}Th ({sup 238}U) leads to the remarkably large systematic influence of 0.8-122% in the measured {sup 238}U activity, but in case of ignoring the contribution of {sup 232}Th via the interference {gamma}-ray at 1000.7 keV of {sup 228}Ac to the mixed peak at 1001 keV of {sup 234m}Pa ({sup 238}U) results in relatively smaller systematic influence of 0.05-3%, depending on thorium contents in the samples. The present results showed that the necessary correction for the spectral interferences besides self-absorption and TCS effects is also very important to obtain more accurate {sup 238}U activity results. Additionally, if one ignores the contribution of {sup 232}Th to both {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K activities in materials, the maximum systematic influence on the effective radiation dose is estimated to be {approx}6% and {approx}1% via the analytical peaks at 63.3 and 1001 keV for measurement of the {sup 238}U activity, respectively.

  6. Hard X-ray Spectral Investigations of Gamma-ray Bursts, 120521C and 130606A, at High-redshift z~6

    CERN Document Server

    Yasuda, Tetsuya; Enomoto, Junich; Tashiro, Makoto S

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the temporal and spectral analysis of the prompt emission of two high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), 120521C at $z\\sim6$ and 130606A at $z\\sim5.91$, which were performed using the Swift-XRT/BAT and the Suzaku-WAM simultaneously. Based on follow-up XRT observations, the longest durations of the prompt emissions were approximately $80$ s (120521C) and $360$ s (130606A) in the rest frame of each GRB, which are categorized as long-duration GRBs, but are insufficiently long compared with the predicted duration of GRBs that originate from first-generation stars. Because of the wide bandpass of the instruments covering the ranges of 15 keV--5 MeV (BAT-WAM) and 0.3 keV--5.0 MeV (XRT-BAT-WAM), we successfully determined the $\

  7. Probing the very-high-energy gamma-ray spectral curvature in the blazar PG 1553+113 with the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J.L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M.V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Will, M; Zanin, R; D'Ammando, F; Lähteenmäki, A; Tornikoski, M; Hovatta, T; Readhead, A C S; Max-Moerbeck, W; Richards, J.L

    2015-01-01

    PG 1553+113 is a very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter classified as a BL Lac object. Its redshift is constrained by intergalactic absorption lines in the range 0.40.2). The observed curvature is compatible with the extragalactic background light (EBL) imprint predicted by the current generation of EBL models assuming a redshift z~0.4. New constraints on the redshift were derived from the VHE spectrum. These constraints are compatible with previous limits and suggest that the source is most likely located around the optical lower limit, z=0.4. Finally, we find that the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model gives a satisfactory description of the observed multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution during the flare.

  8. A Determination of the Gamma-ray Flux and Photon Spectral Index Distributions of Blazars from the Fermi-LAT 3LAC

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, J

    2015-01-01

    We present a determination of the distributions of gamma-ray photon flux -- the so called LogN-LogS relation -- and photon spectral index for blazars, based on the third extragalactic source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Large Area Telescope, and considering the photon energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV. The dataset consists of the 774 blazars in the so-called "Clean" sample detected with a greater than approximately seven sigma detection threshold and located above $\\pm$20 deg Galactic latitude. We use non-parametric methods verified in previous works to reconstruct the intrinsic distributions from the observed ones which account for the data truncations introduced by observational bias and includes the effects of the possible correlation between the flux and photon index. The intrinsic flux distribution can be represented by a broken power law with a high flux power-law index of -2.43$\\pm$0.08 and a low flux power-law index of -1.87$\\pm$0.10. The intrinsic photon index distribution can ...

  9. AMBER/VLTI high spectral resolution observations of the Br$\\gamma$ emitting region in HD 98922. A compact disc wind launched from the inner disc region

    CERN Document Server

    Garatti, A Caratti o; Lopez, R Garcia; Kraus, S; Schertl, D; Grinin, V P; Weigelt, G; Hofmann, K -H; Massi, F; Lagarde, S; Vannier, M; Malbet, F

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the main physical parameters and the circumstellar environment of the young Herbig Be star HD 98922. We present AMBER/VLTI high spectral resolution (R =12000) interferometric observations across the Br$\\gamma$ line, accompanied by UVES high-resolution spectroscopy and SINFONI-AO assisted near-infrared integral field spectroscopic data. To interpret our observations, we develop a magneto-centrifugally driven disc-wind model. Our analysis of the UVES spectrum shows that HD 98922 is a young (~5x10^5 yr) Herbig Be star (SpT=B9V), located at a distance of 440(+60-50) pc, with a mass accretion rate of ~9+/-3x10^(-7) M_sun yr^(-1). SINFONI K-band AO-assisted imaging shows a spatially resolved circumstellar disc-like region (~140 AU in diameter) with asymmetric brightness distribution. Our AMBER/VLTI UT observations indicate that the Br$\\gamma$ emitting region (radius ~0.31+/-0.04 AU) is smaller than the continuum emitting region (inner dust radius ~0.7+/-0.2 AU), showing significant non-zero V-shaped diff...

  10. Spectral Properties of Prompt Emission of Four Short Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by the Suzaku-WAM and the Konus-Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Masanori; Takahashi, Takuya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Sugita, Satoshi; Pal'shin, Valentin; Sakamoto, Takanori; Sato, Goro; Hurley, Kevin; Frederiks, Dmitry; Oleynik, Philipp; Ulanov, Mikhail; Tashiro, Makoto; Urata, Yuji; Onda, Kaori; Tamagawa, Toru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Suzuki, Motoko; Soojing, Hong

    2008-01-01

    We have performed a joint analysis of prompt emission from four bright short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the Suzaku-WAM and the Konus-Wind experiments. This joint analysis allows us to investigate the spectral properties of short-duration bursts over a wider energy band with a higher accuracy. We find that these bursts have a high E$_{\\rm peak}$, around 1 MeV and have a harder power-law component than that of long GRBs. However, we can not determine whether these spectra follow the cut-off power-law model or the Band model. We also investigated the spectral lag, hardness ratio, inferred isotropic radiation energy and existence of a soft emission hump, in order to classify them into short or long GRBs using several criteria, in addition to the burst duration. We find that all criteria, except for the existence of the soft hump, support the fact that our four GRB samples are correctly classified as belonging to the short class. In addition, our broad-band analysis revealed that there is no evidence of GRBs wit...

  11. Temporal and spectral gamma-ray properties of Mkn421 above 250 GeV from CAT observations between 1996 and 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Piron, Frédéric; Punch, M; Tavernet, J P; Barrau, A; Bazer-Bachi, R; Chounet, L M; Debiais, G; Degrange, B; Dezalay, J P; Espigat, P; Fabre, B; Fleury, P; Fontaine, G; Goret, P; Gouiffes, C; Khelifi, B; Malet, I; Masterson, C; Mohanty, G B; Nuss, E; Renault, C; Rivoal, M; Rob, L; Vorobiov, S

    2001-01-01

    The gamma-ray emission above 250 GeV from the BL Lac object Markarian 421 was observed by the CAT Cherenkov imaging telescope between December, 1996, and June, 2000. In 1998, the source produced a series of small flares, making it the second extragalactic source detected by CAT. The time-averaged differential spectrum has been measured from 0.3 to 5 TeV, which is well fitted with a power law with an index of -2.88+-0.12(stat)+-0.06(syst). In 2000, the source showed an unprecedented activity, with variability time-scales as short as one hour, as for instance observed during the night between 4 and 5 February. The 2000 time-averaged spectrum measured is compatible with that of 1998, but some indication of a spectral curvature is found between 0.3 and 5 TeV. The possibility of TeV spectral hardening during flares is also discussed, and the results are compared to those obtained on the other TeV BL Lac, Markarian 501.

  12. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  13. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon. The r...

  14. Spectral and spatial variations of the diffuse gamma-ray background in the vicinity of the Galactic plane and possible nature of the feature at 130 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    We study the properties of the diffuse gamma-ray background around the Galactic plane at energies 60 - 200 GeV. We find that the spectrum of this emission possesses spacial variations having significant features (excesses and dips) as compared to the average smooth (power law) component. The positions and shapes of these spectral features change with direction on the sky. We therefore argue, that the spectral feature around 130 GeV, found in several regions around the Galactic Center and the Galactic plane in [1204.2797,1205.1045], can not be interpreted with confidence as a gamma-ray line, but may be a component of the diffuse background and can be of instrumental or astrophysical origin. Therefore, the dark matter origin of this spectral feature becomes dubious.

  15. Multi-frequency monitoring of gamma-ray loud blazars: I. Light curves and spectral energy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, U; Villata, M; Fuhrmann, L; Buemi, C S; Larionov, V M; Leto, P; Arkharov, A A; Coloma, J M; Di Paola, A; Dolci, M; Efimova, N; Forne, E; Ibrahimov, M A; Hagen-Thorn, V; Konstantinova, T; Kopatskaya, E; Lanteri, L; Kurtanidze, O M; Maccaferri, G; Nikolashvili, M G; Orlati, A; Ros, J A; Tosti, G; Trigilio, C; Umana, G

    2006-01-01

    Context: Being dominated by non-thermal emission from aligned relativistic jets, blazars allow us to elucidate the physics of extragalactic jets, and, ltimately, how the energy is extracted from the central black hole in radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Aims: Crucial information is provided by broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs), their trends with luminosity and correlated multi-frequency variability. With this study we plan to obtain a database of contemporaneous radio-to-optical spectra of a sample of blazars, which are and will be observed by current and future high-energy satellites. Methods: Since December 2004 we are performing a monthly multi-frequency radio monitoring of a sample of 35 blazars at the antennas in Medicina and Noto. Contemporaneous near-IR and optical observations for all our observing epochs are organised. Results: Until June 2006 about 4000 radio measurements and 5500 near-IR and optical measurements were obtained. Most of the sources show significant variability in all ...

  16. Search for gamma-ray spectral lines with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and dark matter implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Izaguirre, E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Snyder, A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2013-10-22

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a theoretical class of particles that are excellent dark matter candidates. WIMP annihilation or decay may produce essentially monochromatic γ rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) against the astrophysical γ -ray emission of the Galaxy. We have searched for spectral lines in the energy range 5–300 GeV using 3.7 years of data, reprocessed with updated instrument calibrations and an improved energy dispersion model compared to the previous Fermi-LAT Collaboration line searches. We searched in five regions selected to optimize sensitivity to different theoretically motivated dark matter density distributions. We did not find any globally significant lines in our a priori search regions and present 95% confidence limits for annihilation cross sections of self-conjugate WIMPs and decay lifetimes. Our most significant fit occurred at 133 GeV in our smallest search region and had a local significance of 3.3 standard deviations, which translates to a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations. We discuss potential systematic effects in this search, and examine the feature at 133 GeV in detail. We find that the use both of reprocessed data and of additional information in the energy dispersion model contributes to the reduction in significance of the linelike feature near 130 GeV relative to significances reported in other works. We also find that the feature is narrower than the LAT energy resolution at the level of 2 to 3 standard deviations, which somewhat disfavors the interpretation of the 133 GeV feature as a real WIMP signal.

  17. Integration of spectral domain optical coherence tomography with microperimetry generates unique datasets for the simultaneous identification of visual function and retinal structure in ophthalmological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulen, Peter; Gallimore, Gary; Vincent, Ryan D.; Sabates, Nelson R.; Sabates, Felix N.

    2011-06-01

    Conventional perimeters are used routinely in various eye disease states to evaluate the central visual field and to quantitatively map sensitivity. However, standard automated perimetry proves difficult for retina and specifically macular disease due to the need for central and steady fixation. Advances in instrumentation have led to microperimetry, which incorporates eye tracking for placement of macular sensitivity values onto an image of the macular fundus thus enabling a precise functional and anatomical mapping of the central visual field. Functional sensitivity of the retina can be compared with the observed structural parameters that are acquired with high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography and by integration of scanning laser ophthalmoscope-driven imaging. Findings of the present study generate a basis for age-matched comparison of sensitivity values in patients with macular pathology. Microperimetry registered with detailed structural data performed before and after intervention treatments provides valuable information about macular function, disease progression and treatment success. This approach also allows for the detection of disease or treatment related changes in retinal sensitivity when visual acuity is not affected and can drive the decision making process in choosing different treatment regimens and guiding visual rehabilitation. This has immediate relevance for applications in central retinal vein occlusion, central serous choroidopathy, age-related macular degeneration, familial macular dystrophy and several other forms of retina related visual disability.

  18. Two unique mutations in the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2RG) cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency arising in opposite parental germ lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puck, J.M.; Pepper, A.E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The gene encoding the gamma chain of the lymphocyte receptor for IL-2 lies in human X13.1 and is mutated in males with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). 27 X-linked SCID mutations have been found in our laboratory. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genomic DNA using primers flanking each of the 8 exons was followed by direct sequencing of abnormally migrating fragments from SCID patients and family members. A 9 bp in-frame duplication insertion was found in IL2RG exon 5 of a patient from a large X-linked SCID pedigree; the resulting duplication of 3 extracellular amino acids, including the first tryptophan of the {open_quotes}WSXWS{close_quotes} cytokine binding motif, is predicted to disrupt interaction of the cytokine receptor chain with its ligand. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated that the grandmaternal X chromosome associated with SCID was contributed to 3 daughters, 2 obligate carriers and 1 woman of unknown status. However, this grandmother`s genomic DNA did not contain the insertion mutation, nor did she have skewed X-chromosome inactivation in her lymphocytes. That both obligate carrier daughters, but not the third daughter, had the insertion proved the grandmother to be a germline mosaic. A second proband had X-linked SCID with a branch point mutation due to substitution of T for A 15 bp 5{prime} of the start of IL2RG exon 3. This mutation resulted in undetectable IL2RG mRNA by Northern blot. Linkage analysis and sequencing of IL2RG DNA in this family proved the mutation to have originated in the germline of the proband`s grandfather, an immunocompetent individual who contributed an X chromosome with normal IL2RG to one daughter and a mutated X to the another.

  19. Hard X-ray spectral investigations of gamma-ray bursts 120521C and 130606A at high-redshift z ˜ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, T.; Urata, Y.; Enomoto, J.; Tashiro, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a temporal and spectral analysis of the prompt emission of two high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), 120521C at z ˜ 6 and 130606A at z ˜ 5.91, using data obtained from the Swift-XRT/BAT and the Suzaku-WAM simultaneously. Based on follow-up XRT observations, the longest durations of the prompt emissions were approximately 80 s (120521C) and 360 s (130606A) in the rest-frames of the two GRBs. These objects are thus categorized as long-duration GRBs; however, the durations are short compared with the predicted duration of GRBs originating from first-generation stars. Because of the wide bandpass of the instruments, covering the ranges 15 keV-5 MeV (BAT-WAM) and 0.3 keV-5.0 MeV (XRT-BAT-WAM), we could successfully determine the νFν peak energies E_peak^src in the rest-frame and isotropic-equivalent radiated energies Eiso; E^src_peak = 682^{+845}_{-207} keV and E_iso = (8. 25^{+2.24}_{-1.96}) × 10^{52} erg for 120521C, and E^src_peak = 1209^{+553}_{-304} keV and E_iso = (2.82^{+0.17}_{-0.71}) × 10^{53} erg for 130606A. These obtained characteristic parameters are in accordance with the well-known relationship between E_peak^src and Eiso (Amati relationship). In addition, we examined the relationships between E_peak^src and the 1-s peak luminosity, Lp, and between E_peak^src and the geometrical corrected radiated energy, Eγ, and confirmed the E_peak^src-Lp (Yonetoku) and E_peak^src-Eγ (Ghirlanda) relationships. The results imply that these high-redshift GRBs at z ˜ 6, which are expected to have radiated during the reionization epoch, have properties similar to those of low-redshift GRBs regarding X-ray prompt emission.

  20. Temporal and spectral evolution in X- and gamma-rays of magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 since its October 2008 outburst: the discovery of a transient hard pulsed component after its January 2009 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Kuiper, L; Hartog, P R den; Urama, J O

    2012-01-01

    The magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 exhibited outbursts in October 2008 and January 2009. In this paper we present in great detail the evolution of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the persistent total and pulsed emission of 1E 1547.0-5408 between ~1 and 300 keV starting in October 3, 2008, and ending in January 2011. We analyzed data collected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and the Swift satellite.

  1. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Gehrels, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest gamma-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  2. Spectral Tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

    2003-05-01

    This research examines the feasibility of spectral tagging, which involves modifying the spectral signature of a target, e.g. by mixing an additive with the target's paint. The target is unchanged to the human eye, but the tag is revealed when viewed with a spectrometer. This project investigates a layer of security that is not obvious, and therefore easy to conceal. The result is a tagging mechanism that is difficult to counterfeit. Uniquely tagging an item is an area of need in safeguards and security and non-proliferation. The powdered forms of the minerals lapis lazuli and olivine were selected as the initial test tags due to their availability and uniqueness in the visible to near-infrared spectral region. They were mixed with paints and applied to steel. In order to verify the presence of the tags quantitatively, the data from the spectrometer was input into unmixing models and signal detection algorithms. The mixture with the best results was blue paint mixed with lapis lazuli and olivine. The tag had a 0% probability of false alarm and a 100% probability of detection. The research proved that spectral tagging is feasible, although certain tag/paint mixtures are more detectable than others.

  3. Dilations of \\Gamma-contractions by solving operator equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Tirthankar; Roy, Subrata Shyam

    2011-01-01

    For a contraction P and a bounded commutant S of P, we seek a solution X of the operator equation S-S*P = (I-P*P)^1/2 X(I-P*P) 1/2, where X is a bounded operator on Ran(I-P*P) 1/2 with numerical radius of X being not greater than 1. A pair of bounded operators (S,P) which has the domain \\Gamme = {(z 1 +z 2, z 1z 2) : |z1|{\\leq} 1, |z2| {\\leq}1} {\\subseteq} C2 as a spectral set, is called a \\Gamme-contraction in the literature. We show the existence and uniqueness of solution to the operator equation above for a \\Gamma-contraction (S,P). This allows us to construct an explicit \\Gamma-isometric dilation of a \\Gamma-contraction (S,P). We prove the other way too, i.e, for a commuting pair (S,P) with |P|| {\\leq} 1 and the spectral radius of S being not greater than 2, the existence of a solution to the above equation implies that (S,P) is a \\Gamma-contraction. We show that for a pure \\Gamma-contraction (S,P), there is a bounded operator C with numerical radius not greater than 1, such that S = C +C*P. Any \\Gamma-i...

  4. Gamma watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  5. Gamma watermarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  6. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  7. H.E.S.S. observations of RX J1713.7-3946 with improved angular and spectral resolution; evidence for gamma-ray emission extending beyond the X-ray emitting shell

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Andersson, T; Angüner, E O; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Büchele, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Coffaro, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Decock, J; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Devin, J; deWilt, P; Dirson, L; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J -P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fern, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M -H; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Haupt, M; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J -P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Liu, R; López-Coto, R; Lypova, I; Mar, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Mohrmann, L; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; O'Brien, P; Odaka, H; Öttl, S; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perennes, C; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Piel, Q; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seglar-Arroyo, L; Settimo, M; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tibaldo, L; Tiziani, D; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; Uchiyama, Y; van der Walt, D J; van Eldik, C; van Rensburg, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zanin, R; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants exhibit shock fronts (shells) that can accelerate charged particles up to very high energies. In the past decade, measurements of a handful of shell-type supernova remnants in very-high-energy gamma rays have provided unique insights into the acceleration process. Among those objects, RX$~$J1713.7-3946 (also known as G347.3-0.5) has the largest surface brightness, allowing us in the past to perform the most comprehensive study of morphology and spatially resolved spectra of any such very-high-energy gamma-ray source. Here we present extensive new H.E.S.S. measurements of RX$~$J1713.7-3946, almost doubling the observation time compared to our previous publication. Combined with new improved analysis tools, the previous sensitivity is more than doubled. The H.E.S.S. angular resolution of $0.048^\\circ$ ($0.036^\\circ$ above 2 TeV) is unprecedented in gamma-ray astronomy and probes physical scales of 0.8 (0.6) parsec at the remnant's location. The new H.E.S.S. image of RX$~$J1713.7-3946 allows u...

  8. Long-term monitoring of PKS 2155$-$304 with ATOM and H.E.S.S.: investigation of optical/$\\gamma$-ray correlations in different spectral states

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Backes, M; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Dalton, M; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Hadsch, D; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Rob, L; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy $\\gamma$-ray ($>$200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155$-$304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy $\\gamma$-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states,and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy $\\gamma$-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which see...

  9. IceCube astrophysical neutrinos without a spectral cutoff and (10^15-10^17) eV cosmic gamma radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, O E

    2014-01-01

    We present a range of unbroken power-law fits to the astrophysical-neutrino spectrum consistent with the most recent published IceCube data at the 68\\% confidence level. Assuming that the neutrinos originate in decays of pi mesons, we estimate accompanying gamma-ray fluxes for various distributions of sources, taking propagation effects into account. We then briefly discuss existing experimental results constraining PeV to EeV diffuse gamma-ray flux and their systematic uncertainties. Several scenarios are marginally consistent both with the KASKADE and CASA-MIA upper limits at (10^15-10^16) eV and with the EAS-MSU tentative detection at ~10^17 eV, given large systematic errors of the measurements. Future searches for the diffuse gamma-ray background at sub-PeV to sub-EeV energies just below present upper limits will give a crucial diagnostic tool for distinguishing between the Galactic and extragalactic models of the origin of the IceCube events.

  10. Probing cluster environments of blazars through gamma-gamma absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Sushch, Iurii

    2014-01-01

    Most blazars are known to be hosted in giant elliptic galaxies, but their cluster environments have not been thoroughly investigated. Cluster environments may contain radiation fields of low-energy photons created by nearby galaxies and/or stars in the intracluster medium that produce diffuse intracluster light. These radiation fields may absorb very high energy gamma rays ($E\\gtrsim100$ GeV; VHE) and trigger pair cascades with further production of subsequent generations of gamma rays with lower energies via inverse Compton scattering on surrounding radiation fields leaving a characteristic imprint in the observed spectral shape. The change of the spectral shape of the blazar reflects the properties of its ambient medium. We show, however, that neither intracluster light nor the radiation field of an individual nearby galaxy can cause substantial gamma-gamma absorption. Substantial gamma-gamma absorption is possible only in the case of multiple, $\\gtrsim5$, luminous nearby galaxies. This situation is not fou...

  11. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  12. Interferon-gamma up-regulates a unique set of proteins in human keratinocytes. Molecular cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding the RGD-sequence-containing protein IGUP I-5111

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Leffers, H; Madsen, Peder

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of proliferating and quiescent primary human keratinocytes with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (100 U/ml, 23.5 h) followed by two-dimensional gel analysis revealed three proteins, IGUP I-3421 (M(r) = 48,200, pI = 6.06); IGUP I-3524 (M(r) = 56,900, pI = 5.92), a protein homologous to peptide......, which migrated with the AMA variant of keratinocyte protein IEF SSP 5111, is novel although it exhibits weak similarity to cytoskeletal proteins. IGUP I-5111 contains the RGD sequence found in many extracellular glycoprotein ligands of the integrin receptor family and it is found at least partially......-cultured, unfractionated psoriatic keratinocytes failed to reveal up-regulation of any of the three IFN-gamma-induced proteins suggesting that the effect of IFN-gamma in vivo may be modulated by the activity of other cytokine(s) or growth factor(s). Psoriatic keratinocytes were equally sensitive to IFN...

  13. Locating the Gamma-ray Flaring Emission of Blazar AO 0235+164 in the Jet at Parsec Scales Through Multi Spectral Range Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, Ivan; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Larionov, Valeri M; Gomez, Jose L; Lahteenmaki, Anne; Smith, Paul S; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C S; Aller, Margo F; Heidt, Jochen; Gurwell, Mark; Thum, Clemens; Wehrle, Ann E; Kurtanidze, Omar M

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 in 2008. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images at 7mm with ~0.15 milliarcsecond resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte-Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary core and in the superluminal knot, both at >12 parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the l...

  14. Epileptic Seizure Detection based on Wavelet Transform Statistics Map and EMD Method for Hilbert-Huang Spectral Analyzing in Gamma Frequency Band of EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behnam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seizure detection using brain signal (EEG analysis is the important clinical methods in drug therapy and the decisions before brain surgery. In this paper, after signal conditioning using suitable filtering, the Gamma frequency band has been extracted and the other brain rhythms, ambient noises and the other bio-signal are canceled. Then, the wavelet transform of brain signal and the map of wavelet transform in multi levels are computed. By dividing the color map to different epochs, the histogram of each sub-image is obtained and the statistics of it based on statistical momentums and Negentropy values are calculated. Statistical feature vector using Principle Component Analysis (PCA is reduced to one dimension. By EMD algorithm and sifting procedure for analyzing the data by Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF and computing the residues of brain signal using spectrum of Hilbert transform and Hilbert – Huang spectrum forming, one spatial feature based on the Euclidian distance for signal classification is obtained. By K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classifier and by considering the optimal neighbor parameter, EEG signals are classified in two classes, seizure and non-seizure signal, with the rate of accuracy 76.54% and with variance of error 0.3685 in the different tests.

  15. Standard test method for determining the content of cesium-137 in irradiated nuclear fuels by high-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the number of atoms of 137Cs in aqueous solutions of irradiated uranium and plutonium nuclear fuel. When combined with a method for determining the initial number of fissile atoms in the fuel, the results of this analysis allows atom percent fission (burn-up) to be calculated (1). The determination of atom percent fission, uranium and plutonium concentrations, and isotopic abundances are covered in Test Methods E 267 and E 321. 1.2 137Cs is not suitable as a fission monitor for samples that may have lost cesium during reactor operation. For example, a large temperature gradient enhances 137Cs migration from the fuel region to cooler regions such as the radial fuel-clad gap, or, to a lesser extent, towards the axial fuel end. 1.3 A nonuniform 137Cs distribution should alert the analyst to the potential loss of the fission product nuclide. The 137Cs distribution may be ascertained by an axial gamma-ray scan of the fuel element to be assayed. In a mixed-oxide fu...

  16. Study of influence of plastic scintillators thicknesses to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa; Santos, Brianna B. dos; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Santos, Lucas Rodrigues dos; Lopes, Anderson Figueredo; Silva, Alexandre F.P. da; Santos, Diogo F. dos; Camilo, Douglas de S.; Purgato, Rafael T.; Aredes, Vitor O.G. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 Cid Universitaria CEP: 05508-000- Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN, offers post-graduate programs, namely: Nuclear Technology - Applications (TNA), Nuclear Technology - Materials (TNM), Nuclear Technology - Reactors (TNR). The Institute programs mission is to form expert technicians, physicists and engineers with a strong knowledge in their discipline to work in the nuclear area. The course: 'Theoretical Fundamentals and Practices of the Instrumentation used in Nuclear Data Acquisition' covers the use of laboratory nuclear instrumentation and the accomplishment of experiments to obtain nuclear parameters. One of these experimental exercises is object of this work: 'Study of influence of plastic scintillators to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources'. The use of scintillators plastic for the detection has the advantage of low cost, high mechanical strength, is not hygroscopic and can be manufactured in large volumes. This work aims to present the analysis of relative efficiency of detection of plastic scintillators of various thicknesses for beta particles and gamma radiation by the spectrum of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Due to lack of resolution of the detectors plastic scintillators we worked with relative efficiency. The evaluation was done by reading deposited energy, using the software MAESTRO, for each detector thickness. For beta particles was observed an ideal thickness around 3 mm and the better photon efficiency was observed with increasing the thickness of the detector. The present experiment does not intend to establish a new technique for this subject: it solely aims student's practical exercises in nuclear properties of elements and detectors being part of the nuclear experimental course. (authors)

  17. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  18. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The use of spectral natural gamma-ray analysis in reservoir evaluation of siliciclastic sediments: a case study from the Middle Jurassic of the Harald Field, Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricius, Ida L.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A cored sandstone interval from the Middle Jurassic Harald Field of the Danish North Sea was chosen for an investigation of the mineralogical sources for the gamma-ray activity, and with the purpose of determining how the Spectral Natural Gamma (SNG log could be used as an indicator of reservoir quality. Core intervals of quartz arenites and quartz wackes were selected. Although no linear relationship was found between clay content and potassium (K, thorium (Th, or uranium (U, the K content characterises three discrete lithofacies. Lithofacies I has a grain-supported texture, with a predominance of quartz grains; only minor fine-grained matrix is present. Sandstones of lithofacies I have a low K content and most of the K is hosted in feldspar. Porosity varies between 23% and 28% and permeability is in the range 200-2000 mD. Lithofacies II sandstones have a grain-supported texture, with a predominance of quartz grains; fine-grained matrix fills the intergranular volume. Sandstones of lithofacies II have an intermediate K content, with K-feldspar, mica, and illite as the main sources. Porosity varies between 11% and 17% and permeability is in the range 0.4-25 mD. Lithofacies III has a matrix-supported texture with quartz grains floating in a clay-rich matrix. Samples from lithofacies III have the highest K signal. Illite and illitised kaolinite are roughly equal in importance as sources of K. Porosity is up to 11% and permeability up to 0.5 mD. The Th and U content of all lithofacies is governed primarily by the presence of heavy minerals; no apparent general relationship between U and Total Organic Carbon (TOC was found. Comparisons between the core measurements of K, Th, and U, and the SNG log disclosed a discrepancy between the calibrations of laboratory and borehole measurements. For U the discrepancy contains an erratic element, whereas the difference for K and Th can be eliminated by correction factors. Thus, the conclusions based on

  19. Hadronic modeling of TeV AGN: gammas and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, M; Emery, G; Guarin, D

    2016-01-01

    Blazar emission models are usually divided into two big families, leptonic and hadronic, according to the particles which are responsible for the gamma-ray component of their spectral energy distributions. Even though leptonic models have been successful in explaining the gamma-ray emission from most blazars, hadronic models still present an intriguing alternative. They have the unique advantage to link the emission of photons, neutrinos, and cosmic rays from the astrophysical source. We have developed a stationary one-zone lepto-hadronic code to model the emission from blazars in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios. In this contribution we focus on hadronic modeling of a few selected TeV blazars of the BL Lac type and the radio galaxy Centaurus A detected by Cherenkov telescopes. We study in particular their associated neutrino emission, for different hadronic scenarios, and how it compares to the sensitivity of current neutrino detectors.

  20. INTEGRAL: the INTERnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, P.; INTEGRAL Team

    2000-10-01

    Integral is the next ESA high energy mission planned with contribution from RSA (Russia) and NASA (USA). The observatory will be placed in orbit in April 2002 with a Proton launcher and the astrophysical payload will comprise two mail instruments, IBIS and SPI, and two monitors covering the X-Ray (Jem-X) and optical (OMC) wavelenghts. The two main instrument will provide wide spectral response (20 keV to 10 MeV), fine Gamma-Ray imaging capability (angular resolution ~ 12 arcmin, new source location up to 30 arcsec) and high resolution spectroscopy (2 keV FWHM at ~ 1MeV) and high resolution timing ( ~ 100 ms). The INTEGRAL observatory will serve the scientific community at large providing a unique combination of high energy imaging and spectroscopy over the energy range form X to Gamma Rays, with optical monitoring.

  1. Spectral Shifting in Nondestructive Assay Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nettleton, Anthony Steven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tutt, James Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaFleur, Adrienne Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-17

    This project involves spectrum tailoring research that endeavors to better distinguish energies of gamma rays using different spectral material thicknesses and determine neutron energies by coating detectors with various materials.

  2. Large Spectral Library Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  3. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized treatment planning software to help ... sparing surrounding tissue. If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation ...

  4. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized treatment ... If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation oncologist, ...

  5. Low-Energy Spectral Features in GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Briggs, M S

    1996-01-01

    I discuss low-energy lines in gamma-ray bursts. The process of deconvolving gamma-ray spectral data and the steps needed to demonstrate the existence of a line are explained. Previous observations and the current status of the analysis of the BATSE data are described.

  6. AGATA - Advanced Gamma Tracking Array

    CERN Document Server

    Akkoyun, S; Alikhani, B; Ameil, F; de Angelis, G; Arnold, L; Astier, A; Ataç, A; Aubert, Y; Aufranc, C; Austin, A; Aydin, S; Azaiez, F; Badoer, S; Balabanski, D L; Barrientos, D; Baulieu, G; Baumann, R; Bazzacco, D; Beck, F A; Beck, T; Bednarczyk, P; Bellato, M; Bentley, M A; Benzoni, G; Berthier, R; Berti, L; Beunard, R; Bianco, G Lo; Birkenbach, B; Bizzeti, P G; Bizzeti-Sona, A M; Blanc, F Le; Blasco, J M; Blasi, N; Bloor, D; Boiano, C; Borsato, M; Bortolato, D; Boston, A J; Boston, H C; Bourgault, P; Boutachkov, P; Bouty, A; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Brawn, I P; Brondi, A; Broussard, S; Bruyneel, B; Bucurescu, D; Burrows, I; Bürger, A; Cabaret, S; Cahan, B; Calore, E; Camera, F; Capsoni, A; Carrió, F; Casati, G; Castoldi, M; Cederwall, B; Cercus, J -L; Chambert, V; Chambit, M El; Chapman, R; Charles, L; Chavas, J; Clément, E; Cocconi, P; Coelli, S; Coleman-Smith, P J; Colombo, A; Colosimo, S; Commeaux, C; Conventi, D; Cooper, R J; Corsi, A; Cortesi, A; Costa, L; Crespi, F C L; Cresswell, J R; Cullen, D M; Curien, D; Czermak, A; Delbourg, D; Depalo, R; Descombes, T; Désesquelles, P; Detistov, P; Diarra, C; Didierjean, F; Dimmock, M R; Doan, Q T; Domingo-Pardo, C; Doncel, M; Dorangeville, F; Dosme, N; Drouen, Y; Duchêne, G; Dulny, B; Eberth, J; Edelbruck, P; Egea, J; Engert, T; Erduran, M N; Ertürk, S; Fanin, C; Fantinel, S; Farnea, E; Faul, T; Filliger, M; Filmer, F; Finck, Ch; de France, G; Gadea, A; Gast, W; Geraci, A; Gerl, J; Gernhäuser, R; Giannatiempo, A; Giaz, A; Gibelin, L; Givechev, A; Goel, N; González, V; Gottardo, A; Grave, X; Grȩbosz, J; Griffiths, R; Grint, A N; Gros, P; Guevara, L; Gulmini, M; Görgen, A; Ha, H T M; Habermann, T; Harkness, L J; Harroch, H; Hauschild, K; He, C; Hernández-Prieto, A; Hervieu, B; Hess, H; Hüyük, T; Ince, E; Isocrate, R; Jaworski, G; Johnson, A; Jolie, J; Jones, P; Jonson, B; Joshi, P; Judson, D S; Jungclaus, A; Kaci, M; Karkour, N; Karolak, M; Kaşkaş, A; Kebbiri, M; Kempley, R S; Khaplanov, A; Klupp, S; Kogimtzis, M; Kojouharov, I; Korichi, A; Korten, W; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Kurz, N; Ky, B Y; Labiche, M; Lafay, X; Lavergne, L; Lazarus, I H; Leboutelier, S; Lefebvre, F; Legay, E; Legeard, L; Lelli, F; Lenzi, S M; Leoni, S; Lermitage, A; Lersch, D; Leske, J; Letts, S C; Lhenoret, S; Lieder, R M; Linget, D; Ljungvall, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Lotodé, A; Lunardi, S; Maj, A; van der Marel, J; Mariette, Y; Marginean, N; Marginean, R; Maron, G; Mather, A R; Mȩczyński, W; Mendéz, V; Medina, P; Melon, B; Menegazzo, R; Mengoni, D; Merchan, E; Mihailescu, L; Michelagnoli, C; Mierzejewski, J; Milechina, L; Million, B; Mitev, K; Molini, P; Montanari, D; Moon, S; Morbiducci, F; Moro, R; Morrall, P S; Möller, O; Nannini, A; Napoli, D R; Nelson, L; Nespolo, M; Ngo, V L; Nicoletto, M; Nicolini, R; Noa, Y Le; Nolan, P J; Norman, M; Nyberg, J; Obertelli, A; Olariu, A; Orlandi, R; Oxley, D C; Özben, C; Ozille, M; Oziol, C; Pachoud, E; Palacz, M; Palin, J; Pancin, J; Parisel, C; Pariset, P; Pascovici, G; Peghin, R; Pellegri, L; Perego, A; Perrier, S; Petcu, M; Petkov, P; Petrache, C; Pierre, E; Pietralla, N; Pietri, S; Pignanelli, M; Piqueras, I; Podolyak, Z; Pouhalec, P Le; Pouthas, J; Pugnére, D; Pucknell, V F E; Pullia, A; Quintana, B; Raine, R; Rainovski, G; Ramina, L; Rampazzo, G; La Rana, G; Rebeschini, M; Recchia, F; Redon, N; Reese, M; Reiter, P; Regan, P H; Riboldi, S; Richer, M; Rigato, M; Rigby, S; Ripamonti, G; Robinson, A P; Robin, J; Roccaz, J; Ropert, J -A; Rossé, B; Alvarez, C Rossi; Rosso, D; Rubio, B; Rudolph, D; Saillant, F; Şahin, E; Salomon, F; Salsac, M -D; Salt, J; Salvato, G; Sampson, J; Sanchis, E; Santos, C; Schaffner, H; Schlarb, M; Scraggs, D P; Seddon, D; Şenyiğit, M; Sigward, M -H; Simpson, G; Simpson, J; Slee, M; Smith, J F; Sona, P; Sowicki, B; Spolaore, P; Stahl, C; Stanios, T; Stefanova, E; Stézowski, O; Strachan, J; Suliman, G; Söderström, P -A; Tain, J L; Tanguy, S; Tashenov, S; Theisen, Ch; Thornhill, J; Tomasi, F; Toniolo, N; Touzery, R; Travers, B; Triossi, A; Tripon, M; Tun-Lanoë, K M M; Turcato, M; Unsworth, C; Ur, C A; Valiente-Dobon, J J; Vandone, V; Vardaci, E; Venturelli, R; Veronese, F; Veyssiere, Ch; Viscione, E; Wadsworth, R; Walker, P M; Warr, N; Weber, C; Weisshaar, D; Wells, D; Wieland, O; Wiens, A; Wittwer, G; Wollersheim, H J; Zocca, F; Zamfir, N V; Ziȩbliński, M; Zucchiatti, A

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realization of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly-segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterization of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorith...

  7. Gamma-Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The expected level of gamma-gamma absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of gamma-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs)is evaluated as a function of the location of the gamma-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the gamma-gamma opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to $\\gamma\\gamma$ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the gamma-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the cen...

  8. Two-body threshold spectral analysis, the critical case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Erik; Wang, Xue Ping

    We study in dimension $d\\geq2$ low-energy spectral and scattering asymptotics for two-body $d$-dimensional Schrödinger operators with a radially symmetric potential falling off like $-\\gamma r^{-2},\\;\\gamma>0$. We consider angular momentum sectors, labelled by $l=0,1,\\dots$, for which $\\gamma...

  9. TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION IN X- AND {gamma}-RAYS OF MAGNETAR 1E 1547.0-5408 SINCE ITS 2008 OCTOBER OUTBURST: THE DISCOVERY OF A TRANSIENT HARD PULSED COMPONENT AFTER ITS 2009 JANUARY OUTBURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W. [SRON-National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Den Hartog, P. R. [Stanford University HEPL/KIPAC Physics, 382 via Pueblo Mall Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Urama, J. O., E-mail: L.M.Kuiper@sron.nl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2012-04-01

    The magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 exhibited outbursts in 2008 October and 2009 January. In this paper, we present in great detail the evolution of the temporal and spectral characteristics of the persistent total and pulsed emission of 1E 1547.0-5408 between {approx}1 and 300 keV starting on 2008 October 3 and ending in 2011 January. We analyzed data collected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), and the Swift satellite. We report the evolution of the pulse frequency, and the measurement at the time of the onset of the 2009 January outburst of an insignificant jump in frequency, but a major frequency derivative jump {Delta}{nu}-dot of +(1.30 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} Hz s{sup -1} ({Delta}{nu}-dot/{nu}-dot of -0.69 {+-} 0.07). Before this {nu}-dot glitch, a single broad pulse is detected, mainly for energies below {approx}10 keV. Surprisingly, {approx}11 days after the glitch a new transient high-energy (up to {approx}150 keV) pulse appears with a Gaussian shape and width 0.23, shifted in phase by {approx}0.31 compared to the low-energy pulse, which smoothly fades to undetectable levels in {approx}350 days. We report the evolution of the pulsed-emission spectra. For energies 2.5-10 keV all pulsed spectra are very soft with photon indices {Gamma} between -4.6 and -3.9. For {approx}10-150 keV, after the {nu}-dot glitch, we report hard non-thermal pulsed spectra, similar to what has been reported for the persistent pulsed emission of some anomalous X-ray pulsars. This pulsed hard X-ray emission reached maximal luminosity 70 {+-} 30 days after the glitch epoch, followed by a gradual decrease by more than a factor of 10 over {approx}300 days. These characteristics differ from those of the total emission. Both, the total soft X-ray (1-10 keV) and hard X-ray (10-150 keV) fluxes, were maximal already 2 days after the 2009 January outburst, and decayed by a factor of {approx}>3 over {approx}400

  10. Spectral Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Jie; Wang, Li-Lian

    2011-01-01

    Along with finite differences and finite elements, spectral methods are one of the three main methodologies for solving partial differential equations on computers. This book provides a detailed presentation of basic spectral algorithms, as well as a systematical presentation of basic convergence theory and error analysis for spectral methods. Readers of this book will be exposed to a unified framework for designing and analyzing spectral algorithms for a variety of problems, including in particular high-order differential equations and problems in unbounded domains. The book contains a large

  11. Broadband Spectral Investigations of SGR J1550-5418 Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin; Baring, Matthew G; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaneko, Yuki; van der Horst, Alexander; Gruber, David; von Kienlin, Andreas; Younes, George; Watts, Anna L; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of our broadband spectral analysis of 42 SGR J1550-5418 bursts simultaneously detected with the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), during the 2009 January active episode of the source. The unique spectral and temporal capabilities of the XRT Windowed Timing mode have allowed us to extend the GBM spectral coverage for these events down to the X-ray domain (0.5-10 keV). Our earlier analysis of the GBM data found that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra were described equally well with a Comptonized model or with two blackbody functions; the two models were statistically indistinguishable. Our new broadband (0.5 - 200 keV) spectral fits show that, on average, the burst spectra are better described with two blackbody functions than with the Comptonized model. Thus, our joint XRT/GBM analysis clearly shows for the first time that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra might naturally be expected to exhibit a more truly thermalized character, such as a two-blackbo...

  12. The Infrared-Gamma-Ray Connection: A WISE View of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the WISE all-sky survey we discovered that the non-thermal infrared (IR) emission of blazars, the largest known population of extragalactic gamma-ray sources, has peculiar spectral properties. In this work, we confirm and strengthen our previous analyses using the latest available releases of both the WISE and the Fermi source catalogs. We also show that there is a tight correlation between the mid-IR colors and the gamma-ray spectral index of Fermi blazars. We name this correlation "the infrared--gamma-ray connection". We discuss how this connection links both the emitted powers and the spectral shapes of particles accelerated in jets arising from blazars over ten decades in energy. Based on this evidence, we argue that the infrared--gamma-ray connection is stronger than the well known radio--gamma-ray connection.

  13. GAMMA-RAY AND X-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY-LOUD BLAZARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XIONG; ZHAO GANG; XIE GUANG-ZHONG; ZHENG GUANG-SHENG; ZHANG LI

    2001-01-01

    We present a strong correlation of the gamma-ray (above 100 MeV) mean spectral indices aγ and X-ray (1 keV)mean spectral indices cX for 34 gamma-ray-loud blazars (16 BL Lac objects and 18 flat spectrum radio quasars). Astrong correlation is also found between the gamma-ray flux densities F-γ and X-ray flux densities Fx in the low state for 47 blazars (17 BL Lac and 30 flat spectrum radio quasars). Possible correlation on the gamma-ray emission mechanism is discussed. We suggest that the main gamma-ray radiation mechanism is probably the synchrotron process. The gamma-ray emission may be somewhat different from that of BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars.

  14. Spectral Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cecconi, Jaures

    2011-01-01

    G. Bottaro: Quelques resultats d'analyse spectrale pour des operateurs differentiels a coefficients constants sur des domaines non bornes.- L. Garding: Eigenfuction expansions.- C. Goulaouic: Valeurs propres de problemes aux limites irreguliers: applications.- G. Grubb: Essential spectra of elliptic systems on compact manifolds.- J.Cl. Guillot: Quelques resultats recents en Scattering.- N. Schechter: Theory of perturbations of partial differential operators.- C.H. Wilcox: Spectral analysis of the Laplacian with a discontinuous coefficient.

  15. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  16. Integration of the Ultraviolet-Visible Spectral Clementine Data and the Gamma-Ray Lunar Prospector Data: Preliminary Results Concerning FeO, TiO2, and Th Abundances of the Lunar Surface at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrel, S. D.; Pinet, P. C.; Barreau, G.; Daydou, Y.; Richard, G.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Clementine mission (CLM) produced global multispectral data that resulted in a map of FeO and Ti02 concentrations of the lunar surface. The recent Lunar Prospector (LP) mission returned the first global data for the distribution of surface abundances of key elements in lunar rocks, using a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) and neutron spectrometer(NS). Integrating CLM mineralogical spectral reflectance and LP chemical data is important to enhance our view of lunar crust origin and evolution, lunar volcanism, and surface processes. Iron, Ti, and Th having relatively large compositional variation over the lunar surface, as well as strong isolated peaks in the GRS spectra, information concerning the distribution and concentration of these elements has been derived from maps of corrected (cosmic ray, nonsymmetric response of the instrument) counting rates only, without converting them into absolute abundances. Maps produced contain count rates in equal-area projection averaged into 5 x 5 degrees latitude/longitude bins, from -90 to +90 degrees latitude and -180 to +180 degrees longitude. In this work, we have used the CLM global FeO and Ti02 abundances (wt%) maps converted at the LP spatial resolution (about 150 km/pixel) to produce FeO and TiO2 GRS abundance maps, through a linear regression based on the analysis of the scatter distribution of both datasets. The regression coefficients have been determined from the data taken between -60 and +60 degrees latitude to avoid uncertainties in the CLM spectral data due to nonnominal conditions of observation at high latitudes. After a critical assessment of the validity of these coefficients for every class of absolute abundance, the LP data have been transformed into absolute abundances for the whole Moon. The Th LP data have been converted into abundances (ppm) using Th concentrations in average soils from the Apollo and Luna sites given. Values of Th abundances for these samples range between 0.5 and 13 ppm. A nonlinear

  17. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kadler, M; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broad-band spectral properties of the \\gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical and other hard X-ray/gamma-ray data, collected within three months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars.The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual Log $\

  18. Spectral gamma-ray signature of fluvial deposits: a case study from the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation, Parana Basin, Brazil; Assinatura gamaespectrometrica de depositos fluviais: estudo de caso na Formacao do Rio do Rasto, Permiano Superior da Bacia do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowek, Guilherme Arruda, E-mail: arruda@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca; Vesely, Fernando Farias, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br, E-mail: vesely@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Setor de Ciencias da Terra; Berton, Fabio, E-mail: fabioberton1@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Fluvial channel-fill deposits form highly heterogeneous hydrocarbon reservoirs. The study of outcrop analogs can help in the characterization of these heterogeneities, which are usually not detected by subsurface geophysical methods. The aim of this research is to compare outcrop log signatures with grain size trends and depositional elements of the fluvial deposits of the Late Permian Rio do Rasto Formation. A series of vertical gamma-ray logs were assembled in two outcrops in order to: 1) characterize log-facies in a succession composed of alternated flood plain, channel fill and eolian strata; 2) define within-channel spectral gamma-ray variability of a mixed-load composite point bar deposit and its relationship with grain size trends and lithofacies; 3) correlate log signatures observed in the outcrop sections with deep exploratory wells drilled several tens of kilometers from the study area. The results of this study show that gamma-ray logs have good correlation with grain size trends and that different depositional elements have distinct signatures. On the other hand, point bar deposits exhibit strong lateral changes in log signature due variations in grain size and mud content within lateral accretion strata. Although frequent, the classic bell-shaped log motif was not always detected, which means that the amount of fluvial channel-fill deposits recognized in subsurface can be underestimated. Similar log signatures were detected in the boreholes, at least in the closest ones, helping in paleoenvironmental interpretation in the subsurface. (author)

  19. Gamma-Rays from Non-Blazar AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Non-blazar Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) have emerged as a new gamma-ray emitting source class on the extragalactic sky and started to deepen our understanding of the physical processes and the nature of AGN in general. The detection of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies in the Fermi-LAT energy regime, for example, offers important information for our understanding of jet formation and radio-loudness. Radio galaxies, on the other hand, have become particularly interesting at high (HE) and very high (VHE) gamma-ray energies. With their jets not directly pointing towards us (i.e. misaligned), they offer a unique tool to probe into the nature of the fundamental (and often hidden) physical processes in AGN. This review highlights and discusses some of the observational and theoretical progress achieved in the gamma-ray regime during recent years, including the evidence for unexpected spectral hardening in Centaurus A and extreme short-term variability as seen in IC 310 and M87.

  20. Spectral Ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vigna, Sebastiano

    2009-01-01

    This note tries to attempt a sketch of the history of spectral ranking, a general umbrella name for techniques that apply the theory of linear maps (in particular, eigenvalues and eigenvectors) to matrices that do not represent geometric transformations, but rather some kind of relationship between entities. Albeit recently made famous by the ample press coverage of Google's PageRank algorithm, spectral ranking was devised more than fifty years ago, almost exactly in the same terms, and has been studied in psychology and social sciences. I will try to describe it in precise and modern mathematical terms, highlighting along the way the contributions given by previous scholars.

  1. Hourly Spectral Variability of Mrk 421

    CERN Document Server

    Krennrich, F; Boyle, P J; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H

    2003-01-01

    Mrk 421 is the first TeV blazar found to exhibit significant spectral variability during strong flaring activity, showing hardening of the TeV spectrum in high emission states. Mrk 421 is also known to exhibit flux variability on time scales as short as 15 minutes. In this paper we present studies of hourly spectral variability of Mrk 421 in 2001 using data from the Whipple Observatory 10m gamma-ray telescope.

  2. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  3. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF RADIOXENON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2008-09-23

    Monitoring changes in atmospheric radioxenon concentrations is a major tool in the detection of an underground nuclear explosion. Ground based systems like the Automated Radioxenon Sampler /Analyzer (ARSA), the Swedish Unattended Noble gas Analyzer (SAUNA) and the Automatic portable radiometer of isotopes Xe (ARIX), can collect and detect several radioxenon isotopes by processing and transferring samples into a high efficiency beta-gamma coincidence detector. The high efficiency beta-gamma coincidence detector makes these systems highly sensitive to the radioxenon isotopes 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe and 135Xe. The standard analysis uses regions of interest (ROI) to determine the amount of a particular radioxenon isotope present. The ROI method relies on the peaks of interest falling within energy limits of the ROI. Some potential problems inherent in this method are the reliance on stable detector gains and a fixed resolution for each energy peak. In addition, when a high activity sample is measured there will be more interference among the ROI, in particular within the 133Xe, 133mXe, and 131mXe regions. A solution to some of these problems can be obtained through spectral fitting of the data. Spectral fitting is simply the fitting of the peaks using known functions to determine the number and relative peak positions and widths. By knowing this information it is possible to determine which isotopes are present. Area under each peak can then be used to determine an overall concentration for each isotope. Using the areas of the peaks several key detector characteristics can be determined: efficiency, energy calibration, energy resolution and ratios between interfering isotopes (Radon daughters).

  4. Spectral Predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  5. BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Juan C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Baciak, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Johns, Paul [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sulekar, Soumitra [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Totten, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Nimmagadda, Jyothir [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-04-12

    BiI3 had been investigated for its unique properties as a layered compound semiconductor for many decades. However, despite the exceptional atomic, physical, and electronic properties of this material, good resolution gamma ray spectra had never been reported for BiI3. The shortcomings that previously prevented BiI3 from reaching success as a gamma ray sensor were, through this project, identified and suppressed to unlock the performance of this promising compound. Included in this work were studies on a number of methods which have, for the first time, enabled BiI3 to exhibit spectral performance rivaling many other candidate semiconductors for room temperature gamma ray sensors. New approaches to crystal growth were explored that allow BiI3 spectrometers to be fabricated with up to 2.2% spectral resolution at 662 keV. Fundamental studies on trap states, dopant incorporation, and polarization were performed to enhance performance of this compound. Additionally, advanced detection techniques were applied to display the capabilities of high quality BiI3 spectrometers. Overall, through this work, BiI3 has been revealed as a potentially transformative material for nuclear security and radiation detection sciences.

  6. Imaging, Detection, and Identification Algorithms for Position-Sensitive Gamma-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Christopher G.

    Three-dimensional-position-sensitive semiconductors record both the locations and energies of gamma-ray interactions with high resolution, enabling spectroscopy and imaging of gamma-ray-emitting materials. Imaging enables the detection of point sources of gamma rays in an otherwise extended-source background, even when the background spectrum is unknown and may share the point source's spectrum. The generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) and source-intensity test (SIT) are applied to this situation to detect one-or-more unshielded point sources from a library of isotopes in a spectrally unknown or known background when the background intensity varies spatially by a factor of two or less. In addition to estimating the number of sources present, their activities, isotopes, and directions from the detector are estimated. Experimental and some simulated results are presented for a single detector and an 18-detector array of 2 cm by 2 cm by 1.5 cm CdZnTe crystals and compared with the performance of spectral-only detection when the background and source are assumed to be spectrally different. Furthermore, the expected detection performance of the 18-detector array system is investigated statistically using experimental data in the case where the background is distinct spectrally from the point source and the possible source location and isotopic identity are known. Including imaging gave at least 7% higher SNR compared to ignoring the image dimension. Also, imaging methods based on the maximum-likelihood, expectation-maximization method are introduced to determine the spatial distribution of isotopes and to find the activity distributions within targets moving with known motion through a radioactive background. Software has also been developed to support the analysis of the data from 3D-position-sensitive spectroscopic systems, for a range of detector designs and applications. The software design and unique features that allow fast multidimensional data analysis are

  7. Spectral analysis of individual realization LDA data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Passchier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The estimation of the autocorrelation function (act) or the spectral density function (sdt) from LDA data poses unique data-processing problems. The random sampling times in LDA preclude the use of the spectral methods for equi-spaced samples. As a consequence, special data-processing algorithms are

  8. Gamma oscillations correlate with working memory load in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Marc W; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Caplan, Jeremy B; Madsen, Joseph R; Lisman, John; Aschenbrenner-Scheibe, Richard; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Kahana, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    .... Spectral analyses revealed that, in both patients, gamma (30-60 Hz) oscillations increased approximately linearly with memory load, tracking closely with memory load over the course of the trial...

  9. Atmospheric Cherenkov Gamma-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique, developed in the 1980s and 1990s, is now used by a number of existing and planned gamma-ray observatories around the world. It provides the most sensitive view of the very high energy gamma-ray sky (above 30 GeV), coupled with relatively good angular and spectral resolution over a wide field-of-view. This Chapter summarizes the details of the technique, including descriptions of the telescope optical systems and cameras, as well as the most common approaches to data analysis and gamma-ray reconstruction.

  10. Shape flows for spectral optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Dorin; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2011-01-01

    We consider a general formulation of gradient flow evolution for problems whose natural framework is the one of metric spaces. The applications we deal with are concerned with the evolution of {\\it capacitary measures} with respect to the $\\gamma$-convergence dissipation distance and with the evolution of domains in spectral optimization problems.

  11. AGATA - Advanced GAmma Tracking Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkoyun, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Algora, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Alikhani, B. [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ameil, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Angelis, G. de [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Arnold, L. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR 7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Astier, A. [CSNSM, CNRS, IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Atac, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Aubert, Y. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Aufranc, C. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS-IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Austin, A. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Aydin, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, IT-35131 Padova (Italy); Azaiez, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Badoer, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, IT-35020 Padova (Italy); Balabanski, D.L. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Barrientos, D. [IFIC, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); and others

    2012-03-11

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation {gamma}-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of {gamma}-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a {gamma} ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of {gamma}-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterisation of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximise its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer.

  12. A new processing technique for airborne gamma-ray data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical-statistical background for at new technique for processing gamma-ray spectra is presented. The technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - decomposes at set of gamma-ray spectra into a few basic spectra - the spectral components. The spectral components can be proce...... be processed in different ways aiming at getting new information that cannot be directly extracted from the original spectra....

  13. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral-factorize i......In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral......-factorize in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...

  14. Spectral factorization using the delta operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Morten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    1994-01-01

    In recent years many papers have been published abouth the gamma-operator, mostly caused by the better numerical properties and the rapprochement between continuous and discrete time. A major problem within the LQG-design of a delta-based input-output relation has been how to spectral......-factorize in an efficient way. The discrete-time method of Kuccera will not be applied since numerical word-length characteristics will be poor for fast sampling rates. In this paper a new approach is considered. A new gamma-operator (Tustin operator) is introduced, in order to make an iterative and numerical stable...... solution to the spectral factorization problem. The key idea is to use the gamma-operator resembled by its behavior to the differential operator....

  15. BROADBAND SPECTRAL INVESTIGATIONS OF SGR J1550-5418 BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Lin; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Baring, Matthew G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander; Watts, Anna L. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gruber, David; Von Kienlin, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Younes, George [USRA, National Space Science and Technology Center, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: linlin@sabanciuniv.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We present the results of our broadband spectral analysis of 42 SGR J1550-5418 bursts simultaneously detected with the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), during the 2009 January active episode of the source. The unique spectral and temporal capabilities of the XRT windowed timing mode have allowed us to extend the GBM spectral coverage for these events down to the X-ray domain (0.5-10 keV). Our earlier analysis of the GBM data found that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra were described equally well with either a Comptonized model or with two blackbody functions; the two models were statistically indistinguishable. Our new broadband (0.5-200 keV) spectral fits show that, on average, the burst spectra are better described with two blackbody functions than with the Comptonized model. Thus, our joint XRT-GBM analysis clearly shows for the first time that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra might naturally be expected to exhibit a more truly thermalized character, such as a two-blackbody or even a multi-blackbody signal. Using the Swift and RXTE timing ephemeris for SGR J1550-5418 we construct the distribution of the XRT burst counts with spin phase and find that it is not correlated with the persistent X-ray emission pulse phase from SGR J1550-5418. These results indicate that the burst emitting sites on the neutron star need not to be co-located with hot spots emitting the bulk of the persistent X-ray emission. Finally, we show that there is a significant pulse phase dependence of the XRT burst counts, likely demonstrating that the surface magnetic field of SGR J1550-5418 is not uniform over the emission zones, since it is anticipated that regions with stronger surface magnetic field could trigger bursts more efficiently.

  16. Broadband Spectral Investigations of SGR J1550-5418 Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Goegues, Ersin; Baring, Matthew G.; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaneko, Yuki; van der Horst, Alexander; Gruber, David; von Kienlin, Andreas; Younes, George; Watts, Anna L.; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of our broadband spectral analysis of 42 SGR J1550-5418 bursts simultaneously detected with the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), during the 2009 January active episode of the source. The unique spectral and temporal capabilities of the XRT windowed timing mode have allowed us to extend the GBM spectral coverage for these events down to the X-ray domain (0.5-10 keV). Our earlier analysis of the GBM data found that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra were described equally well with either a Comptonized model or with two blackbody functions; the two models were statistically indistinguishable. Our new broadband (0.5-200 keV) spectral fits show that, on average, the burst spectra are better described with two blackbody functions than with the Comptonized model. Thus, our joint XRT-GBM analysis clearly shows for the first time that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra might naturally be expected to exhibit a more truly thermalized character, such as a two-blackbody or even a multi-blackbody signal. Using the Swift and RXTE timing ephemeris for SGR J1550-5418 we construct the distribution of the XRT burst counts with spin phase and find that it is not correlated with the persistent X-ray emission pulse phase from SGR J1550-5418. These results indicate that the burst emitting sites on the neutron star need not to be co-located with hot spots emitting the bulk of the persistent X-ray emission. Finally, we show that there is a significant pulse phase dependence of the XRT burst counts, likely demonstrating that the surface magnetic field of SGR J1550-5418 is not uniform over the emission zones, since it is anticipated that regions with stronger surface magnetic field could trigger bursts more efficiently.

  17. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  18. Perspectives of the GAMMA-400 space observatory for high-energy gamma rays and cosmic rays measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is intended to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV. Such measurements concern the following scientific tasks: investigation of point sources of gamma-rays, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, studies of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun, as well as high precision measurements of spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons. Also the GAMMA- 400 instrument provides the possibility for protons and nuclei measurements up to knee. But the main goal for the GAMMA-400 mission is to perform a sensitive search for signatures of dark matter particles in high-energy gamma-ray emission. To fulfill these measurements the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics in comparison with previous and present experiments. The major advantage of the GAMMA-400 instrument is excellent angular and energy resolution for gamma-rays above 10 GeV. The GAMMA-400 experiment will be installed onboard of the Navigator space platform, manufactured by the NPO Lavochkin Association. The expected orbit will be a highly elliptical orbit (with apogee 300.000 km and perigee 500 km) with 7 days orbital period. An important profit of such an orbit is the fact that the full sky coverage will always be available for gamma ray astronomy.

  19. QCD and $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ studies at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is a post-LHC project aiming at searches for physics beyond the SM in a new 80--100~km tunnel at CERN. Running in its first phase as a very-high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), it will provide unique possibilities for indirect searches of new phenomena through high-precision tests of the SM. In addition, by collecting tens of ab$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity in the range of center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$~=90--350~GeV, the FCC-ee also offers unique physics opportunities for precise measurements of QCD phenomena and of photon-photon collisions through, literally, billions of hadronic final states as well as unprecedented large fluxes of quasireal $\\gamma$'s radiated from the $\\rm e^+e^-$ beams. We succinctly summarize the FCC-ee perspectives for high-precision extractions of the QCD coupling, for detailed analyses of parton radiation and fragmentation, and for SM and BSM studies through $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions.

  20. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope characteristics. Angular resolution and electrons/protons separation

    CERN Document Server

    Leonov, A A; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Boyarchuk, K A; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Cumani, P; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2014-01-01

    The measurements of gamma-ray fluxes and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV, which will be implemented by the specially designed GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope, concern with the following broad range of science topics. Searching for signatures of dark matter, surveying the celestial sphere in order to study gamma-ray point and extended sources, measuring the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, studying gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun, as well as high precision measuring spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons, protons and nuclei up to the knee. To clarify these scientific problems with the new experimental data the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics comparing with previous and present experiments. For gamma-ray energies more than 100 GeV GAMMA-400 provides the energy resolution of ~1% and angular resolution better than 0.02 deg. The methods developed to reconstru...

  1. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  2. Discovery of a new soft gamma repeater: SGR J0418 + 5729

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Horst; V. Connaughton; C. Kouveliotou; E. Göğüş; Y. Kaneko; S. Wachter; M.S. Briggs; J. Granot; E. Ramirez-Ruiz; P.M. Woods; R.L. Aptekar; S.D. Barthelmy; J.R. Cummings; M.H. Finger; D.D. Frederiks; N. Gehrels; C.R. Gelino; D.M. Gelino; S. Golenetskii; K. Hurley; H.A. Krimm; E.P. Mazets; J.E. McEnery; C.A. Meegan; P.P. Oleynik; D.M. Palmer; V.D. Pal'shin; A. Pe'er; D. Svinkin; M.V. Ulanov; M. van der Klis; A. von Kienlin; A.L. Watts; C.A. Wilson-Hodge

    2010-01-01

    On 2009 June 5, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope triggered on two short and relatively dim bursts with spectral properties similar to soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts. Independent localizations of the bursts by triangulation with the Konus-RF and with the

  3. The Homunculus: a Unique Astrophysical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.

    η Car is surrounded by bipolar shells, the Homunculus and the internal Little Homunculus, that are observed in both emission and absorption. Thin disks, located between the bipolar lobes, include the very bright Weigelt blobs and the neutral emission structure called the Strontium filament. All are affected by changes in UV and X-Ray flux of the binary system. For example, the normally ionized Little Homunculus recombines during the few month long spectroscopic minimum and then reionizes. Spectral data, obtained with Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and with Very Large Telescope UltraViolet Echelle Spectrograph (VLT/UVES), provide a wealth of information on spectroscopic properties of neutral and singly-ionized metals and on chemistry of nitrogen rich, carbon, oxygen poor, dense, warm gas. This information is important to understand gamma ray bursters (GRB) that reveal red-shifted near-UV metallic absorptions from pre-GRB stellar ejecta.

  4. Gamma-ray pulsars: a gold mine

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    The most energetic neutron stars, powered by their rotation, are capable of producing pulsed radiation from the radio up to gamma rays with nearly TeV energies. These pulsars are part of the universe of energetic and powerful particle accelerators, using their uniquely fast rotation and formidable magnetic fields to accelerate particles to ultra-relativistic speed. The extreme properties of these stars provide an excellent testing ground, beyond Earth experience, for nuclear, gravitational, and quantum-electrodynamical physics. A wealth of gamma-ray pulsars has recently been discovered with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The energetic gamma rays enable us to probe the magnetospheres of neutron stars and particle acceleration in this exotic environment. We review the latest developments in this field, beginning with a brief overview of the properties and mysteries of rotation-powered pulsars, and then discussing gamma-ray observations and magnetospheric models in more detail.

  5. gamma-gamma Interactions from Real to Virtual Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    A `complete' framework for gamma-gamma / gamma*-gamma / gamma*-gamma* interactions is presented. The emphasis is on providing a model for gamma-gamma physics at all photon virtualities, including the difficult transition region around the rho meson mass.

  6. {rho}{sup 0}-{gamma} mixing in the neutral channel pion form factor F{sub {pi}}{sup (e)}(s) and its role in comparing e{sup +}e{sup -} with {tau} spectral functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Szafron, Robert [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    2011-01-15

    We study the effect of {rho}{sup 0}-{gamma} mixing in e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and its relevance for the comparison of the square modulus of the pion form-factor vertical stroke F{sub {pi}}{sup (e)}(s) vertical stroke {sup 2}, as measured in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation experiments, and vertical stroke F{sub {pi}}{sup ({tau})}(s) vertical stroke {sup 2} the corresponding quantity obtained after accounting for known isospin breaking effects by an isospin rotation from the {tau}-decay spectra. After correcting the {tau} data for the missing {rho}-{gamma} mixing contribution, besides the other known isospin symmetry violating corrections, the {pi}{pi} I=1 part of the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the muon g - 2 are fully compatible between {tau} based and e{sup +}e{sup -} based evaluations. {tau} data thus confirm result obtained with e{sup +}e{sup -} data. Our evaluation of the leading order vacuum polarization contribution, based on all e{sup +}e{sup -} data including more recent BaBar and KLOE data, yields a{sub {mu}}{sup had,LO}[e]=690.75(4.72) x 10{sup -10} (e{sup +}e{sup -} based), while including {tau} data we find a{sub {mu}}{sup had,LO}[e, {tau}]=690.96(4.65) x 10{sup -10} (e{sup +}e{sup -} + {tau} based). This backs the {proportional_to}3{sigma} deviation between a{sub {mu}}{sup experiment} and a{sub {mu}}{sup theory}. For the {tau} di-pion branching fraction we find B{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}{sup CVC} = 25.20 {+-} 0.0.17 {+-} 0.28 from e{sup +}e{sup -}+CVC, while B{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}0 = 25.34 {+-} 0.0.06 {+-} 0.08 is evaluated directly from the {tau} spectra. (orig.)

  7. Gamma-Ray Observations of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant with VERITAS and Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bourbeau, E.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Griffin, S.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Slane, P.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Trepanier, S.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2017-02-01

    High-energy gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) has provided a unique perspective for studies of Galactic cosmic-ray acceleration. Tycho’s SNR is a particularly good target because it is a young, type Ia SNR that has been well-studied over a wide range of energies and located in a relatively clean environment. Since the detection of gamma-ray emission from Tycho’s SNR by VERITAS and Fermi-LAT, there have been several theoretical models proposed to explain its broadband emission and high-energy morphology. We report on an update to the gamma-ray measurements of Tycho’s SNR with 147 hr of VERITAS and 84 months of Fermi-LAT observations, which represent about a factor of two increase in exposure over previously published data. About half of the VERITAS data benefited from a camera upgrade, which has made it possible to extend the TeV measurements toward lower energies. The TeV spectral index measured by VERITAS is consistent with previous results, but the expanded energy range softens a straight power-law fit. At energies higher than 400 GeV, the power-law index is 2.92 ± 0.42stat ± 0.20sys. It is also softer than the spectral index in the GeV energy range, 2.14 ± 0.09stat ± 0.02sys, measured in this study using Fermi-LAT data. The centroid position of the gamma-ray emission is coincident with the center of the remnant, as well as with the centroid measurement of Fermi-LAT above 1 GeV. The results are consistent with an SNR shell origin of the emission, as many models assume. The updated spectrum points to a lower maximum particle energy than has been suggested previously.

  8. GAMMA-400 gamma-ray observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Topchiev, N P; Bonvicini, V; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bakaldin, A V; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Cumani, P; Dalkarov, O D; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Finetti, N; Gascon, D; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Martinez, M; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Paredes, J M; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Yu I; Suchkov, S I; Taraskin, A A; Tavani, M; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Ward, J E; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The energy range of GAMMA-400 is expected to be from ~20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 20 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 10E15 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For high-energy gamma rays with energy from 10 to 100 GeV, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution improves from 0.1{\\deg} to ~0.01{\\deg} and energy resolution from 3% to ~1%; the proton rejection factor is ~5x10E5. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  9. Gamma rays from dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    A leading hypothesis for the nature of the elusive dark matter are thermally produced, weakly interacting massive particles that arise in many theories beyond the standard model of particle physics. Their self-annihilation in astrophysical regions of high density provides a potential means of indirectly detecting dark matter through the annihilation products, which nicely complements direct and collider searches. Here, I review the case of gamma rays which are particularly promising in this respect: distinct and unambiguous spectral signatures would not only allow a clear discrimination from astrophysical backgrounds but also to extract important properties of the dark matter particles; powerful observational facilities like the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope or upcoming large, ground-based Cherenkov telescope arrays will be able to probe a considerable part of the underlying, e.g. supersymmetric, parameter space. I conclude with a more detailed comparison of indirect and direct dark matter searches, showing...

  10. Gamma beam system at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ur, Calin Alexandru, E-mail: calin.ur@eli-np.ro [Extreme Light Infrastructure, IFIN-HH, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce brilliant, quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beams via Inverse Compton Scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The scattered radiation is Doppler upshifted by more than 1,000,000 times and is forward focused in a narrow, polarized, tunable, laser-like beam. The gamma-ray beam at ELI-NP will be characterized by large spectral density of about 10{sup 4} photons/s/eV, narrow bandwidth (< 0.5%) and tunable energy from 200 keV up to about 20 MeV. The Gamma Beam System is a state-of-the-art equipment employing techniques and technologies at the limits of the present-day's knowledge.

  11. A broadband gamma-ray spectrometry using novel unfolding algorithms for characterization of laser wakefield-generated betatron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong Ho; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kim, Hyung Taek; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Hojbota, Calin; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seung Ku; Cho, Byeoung Ick; Choi, Il Woo; Nam, Chang Hee

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-flux, broadband gamma-ray spectrometry capable of characterizing the betatron radiation spectrum over the photon energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV with respect to the peak photon energy, spectral bandwidth, and unique discrimination from background radiations, using a differential filtering spectrometer and the unfolding procedure based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. These properties are experimentally verified by measuring betatron radiation from a cm-scale laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) driven by a 1-PW laser, using a differential filtering spectrometer consisting of a 15-filter and image plate stack. The gamma-ray spectra were derived by unfolding the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) values recorded on the image plates, using the spectrometer response matrix modeled with the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The accuracy of unfolded betatron radiation spectra was assessed by unfolding the test PSL data simulated with GEANT4, showing an ambiguity of less than 20% and clear discrimination from the background radiation with less than 10%. The spectral analysis of betatron radiation from laser wakefield-accelerated electron beams with energies up to 3 GeV revealed radiation spectra characterized by synchrotron radiation with the critical photon energy up to 7 MeV. The gamma-ray spectrometer and unfolding method presented here facilitate an in-depth understanding of betatron radiation from LWFA process and a novel radiation source of high-quality photon beams in the MeV regime.

  12. A broadband gamma-ray spectrometry using novel unfolding algorithms for characterization of laser wakefield-generated betatron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jong Ho, E-mail: jhjeon07@ibs.re.kr; Nakajima, Kazuhisa, E-mail: naka115@dia-net.ne.jp; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Yoo, Byung Ju; Shin, Kang Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seung Ku; Choi, Il Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Yong Joo [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jung Hun; Jo, Sung Ha [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hojbota, Calin; Cho, Byeoung Ick; Nam, Chang Hee [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We present a high-flux, broadband gamma-ray spectrometry capable of characterizing the betatron radiation spectrum over the photon energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV with respect to the peak photon energy, spectral bandwidth, and unique discrimination from background radiations, using a differential filtering spectrometer and the unfolding procedure based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. These properties are experimentally verified by measuring betatron radiation from a cm-scale laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) driven by a 1-PW laser, using a differential filtering spectrometer consisting of a 15-filter and image plate stack. The gamma-ray spectra were derived by unfolding the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) values recorded on the image plates, using the spectrometer response matrix modeled with the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The accuracy of unfolded betatron radiation spectra was assessed by unfolding the test PSL data simulated with GEANT4, showing an ambiguity of less than 20% and clear discrimination from the background radiation with less than 10%. The spectral analysis of betatron radiation from laser wakefield-accelerated electron beams with energies up to 3 GeV revealed radiation spectra characterized by synchrotron radiation with the critical photon energy up to 7 MeV. The gamma-ray spectrometer and unfolding method presented here facilitate an in-depth understanding of betatron radiation from LWFA process and a novel radiation source of high-quality photon beams in the MeV regime.

  13. A spectral invariant representation of spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelhameed; Tominaga, Shoji; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2011-03-01

    Spectral image acquisition as well as color image is affected by several illumination factors such as shading, gloss, and specular highlight. Spectral invariant representations for these factors were proposed for the standard dichromatic reflection model of inhomogeneous dielectric materials. However, these representations are inadequate for other characteristic materials like metal. This paper proposes a more general spectral invariant representation for obtaining reliable spectral reflectance images. Our invariant representation is derived from the standard dichromatic reflection model for dielectric materials and the extended dichromatic reflection model for metals. We proof that the invariant formulas for spectral images of natural objects preserve spectral information and are invariant to highlights, shading, surface geometry, and illumination intensity. It is proved that the conventional spectral invariant technique can be applied to metals in addition to dielectric objects. Experimental results show that the proposed spectral invariant representation is effective for image segmentation.

  14. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  15. Spectral properties of large gradual solar energetic particle events - II -Systematic Q/M-dependence of heavy ion spectral breaks

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, M I; Dayeh, M A; Ebert, R W; McComas, D J; Li, G; Cohen, C M S; Mewaldt, R A; Schwadron, N A; Smith, C W

    2016-01-01

    We fit the $\\sim$0.1-500 MeV/nucleon H-Fe spectra in 46 large SEP events surveyed by Desai et al. (2016) with the double power-law Band function to obtain a normalization constant, low- and high-energy parameters $\\gamma_a$ and $\\gamma_b$; and break energy $E_B$. We also calculate the low-energy power-law spectral slope $\\gamma_1$. We find that: 1) $\\gamma_a$, $\\gamma_1$, and $\\gamma_b$ are species-independent within a given SEP event, and the spectra steepen with increasing energy; 2) $E_B$'s are well ordered by Q/M ratio, and decrease systematically with decreasing Q/M, scaling as (Q/M)$^\\alpha$ with $\\alpha$ varying between $\\sim$0.2-3; 3) $\\alpha$ is well correlated with Fe/O at $\\sim$0.16-0.23 MeV/nucleon and CME speed; 4) In most events: $\\alpha$3; and 5) Seven out of 9 extreme SEP events (associated with faster CMEs and GLEs) are Fe-rich, have $\\alpha >$1.4, have flatter spectra at low and high energies with $\\gamma_b$-$\\gamma_a <$3. The species-independence of $\\gamma_a$, $\\gamma_1$, and $\\gamma_b$...

  16. On Uniqueness of coalitional equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finus, M.; Mouche, van P.H.M.; Rundshagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    For the so-called "new approach" of coalitio formation it is important that coalitional equilibria are unique. Uniqueness comes down to existene and to semi-uniqueness, i.e.\\\\that there exists at most one equilibrium. Although conditions for existence are not problematic, conditions for semi-uniquen

  17. X-ray spectral and timing behavior of Scorpius X-1. Spectral hardening during the flaring branch

    CERN Document Server

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shrader, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spectral and timing properties of X-ray emission from the Z-source Sco~X-1 during its evolution between the Horizontal (HB) and Flaring(FB) branches observed with the RXTE during the 1996 -- 2002 period. We find that the broad-band (3 - 250 keV) energy spectra during all spectral states can be adequately reproduced by a model, consisting of two Comptonized components and an iron-line. We suggest that the seed photons of kT_s1~0.7 keV coming from the disk and of temperature kT_s2~1.8 keV coming from the neutron star (NS) are each upscattered by hot electrons of a "Compton cloud" (herein Comptb1 and Comptb2 components respectively with which are associated similarly subscripted parameters). The photon power-law index Gamma_{2} is almost constant (Gamma_{2}~2) for all spectral states. In turn, Gamma_{1} demonstrates a two-phase behavior with the spectral state: Gamma_{1} is quasi-constant at the level Gamma_{1}~2 for the HB-NB and Gamma_{1} is less than 2, namely in the range of 1.3...

  18. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather

  19. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  20. The Connection between Radio and Gamma Ray Emission in Fermi/LAT Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Xu-Liang, Fan; Hong-Tao, Liu; Liang, Chen; Neng-Hui, Liao

    2012-01-01

    We collect the 2LAC and MOJAVE quasi-simultaneous data to investigate the radio-gamma connection of blazars. The cross sample contains 166 sources. The statistic analysis based on this sample confirms positive correlations between these two bands, but the correlations become weaker as the gamma-ray energy increases. The statistic results between various parameters show negative correlations of gamma-ray photon spectral index with gamma-ray loudness for both FSRQs and BL Lacertae objects, positive correlations of gamma-ray variability index with the gamma-ray loudness for FSRQs, a negative correlation of the gamma-ray variability index with the gamma-ray photon spectral index for FSRQs, and negative correlations of gamma-ray photon spectral index with gamma-ray luminosity for FSRQs. These results suggest that the gamma-ray variability may be due to changes inside the gamma-ray emission region like the injected power, rather than changes in the photon density of the external radiation fields, and the variabilit...

  1. Cosmic Ray-Dark Matter Scattering: a New Signature of (Asymmetric) Dark Matter in the Gamma Ray Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Profumo, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We consider the process of scattering of Galactic cosmic-ray electrons and protons off of dark matter with the radiation of a final-state photon. This process provides a novel way to search for Galactic dark matter with gamma rays. We argue that for a generic weakly interacting massive particle, barring effects such as co-annihilation or a velocity-dependent cross section, the gamma-ray emission from cosmic-ray scattering off of dark matter is typically smaller than that from dark matter pair-annihilation. However, if dark matter particles cannot pair-annihilate, as is the case for example in asymmetric dark matter scenarios, cosmic-ray scattering with final state photon emission provides a unique window to detect a signal from dark matter with gamma rays. We estimate the expected flux level and its spectral features for a generic supersymmetric setup, and we also discuss dipolar and luminous dark matter. We show that in some cases the gamma-ray emission might be large enough to be detectable with the Fermi L...

  2. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  3. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  4. On the Fast Spectral Variability of GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Mazets, E P; Butterworth, P S; Cline, T L; Frederiks, D D; Golenetskii, S V; Ilinskii, V N; Palshin, V D

    2001-01-01

    Fast spectral variability of gamma-ray burst emission is considered for a number of events seen by the Konus-Wind experiment. The variability manifests itself as a strong correlation between instantaneous energy flux $F$ and peak energy $E_p$. In the ($F,E_p$) plane, the correlation produces distinct tracks in the form of branches and loops representing the different parts of a burst time history. Despite the variety of features seen in different events, the main characteristics of the spectral evolution produce a quite consistent pattern.

  5. Novae in gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Hernanz, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission (511 keV line and a continuum below this energy, with a cut-off at 20-30 keV). The analysis of gamma-ray spectra and light curves is a potential unique and powerful tool both to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope determining its transparency. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected in some particular novae, in symbiotic binaries, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main ...

  6. Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C. B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.

  7. Radio spectral index from NVSS and TGSS

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    We extract the radio spectral index, $\\alpha$, from the 541,195 common sources observed in 150 MHz TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS) and 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). These catalogs cover about $80\\%$ of the sky and represent the largest radio population. We confirm the steepening of $\\alpha$ with increasing flux density. Further, we observe an increase in $\\alpha$ with source size (TGSS measured) saturating araound size 50 arcsec to $0.83\\pm0.01$. From this saturated value, we constrain the electron energy injection spectral index, $\\gamma$, and the fractional contribution of supernova remnants to the total radio flux. Our results indicate relatively low $\\gamma \\sim 1.8-1.9$ and a large supernova remnants contribution ($\\sim 15-25\\%$). For very compact sources the convection and the thermal radio emission are likely to be important.

  8. Spectral characteristics of Compton backscattering sources. Linear and nonlinear modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potylitsyn, A.P., E-mail: potylitsyn@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolchuzhkin, A.M. [Moscow State University of Technology “STANKIN”, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons by relativistic electrons is widely used to design X-ray and gamma sources with a bandwidth better than 1% using a tight collimation. In order to obtain a reasonable intensity of the resulting beam one has to increase power of a laser pulse simultaneously with narrowing of the waist in the interaction point. It can lead to nonlinearity of CBS process which is affected on spectral characteristics of the collimated gamma beam (so-called “red-shift” of the spectral line, emission of “soft” photons with energy much less than the spectral line energy). In this paper we have analyzed such an influence using Monte-Carlo technique and have shown that even weak nonlinearity should be taken into account if the gamma beam is formed by a narrow aperture.

  9. Broadband Spectral Study of Magnetar Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizibayrak, Demet; Gogus, Ersin; Sasmaz Mus, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki

    2016-07-01

    Magnetar bursts occur sporadically on random occasions, and every burst-active episode carries unique information about the bursting magnetar. Therefore, in-depth spectral and temporal analyses of each of the magnetar bursts provide new insights into the bursting and radiation mechanisms. There have been a number of studies over the last decade, investigating the spectral and temporal properties of magnetar bursts. The spectra of typical magnetar bursts were generally described with the Comptonized model or the sum of two blackbody functions. However, it was recently shown that the actual spectral nature of these bursts can be conclusively determined if the spectral analysis is performed on a wide energy coverage. We present the results of in-depth systematic broadband (2 - 250 keV) spectral analysis of a large number of bursts originated from three magnetars: SGR 1806-20, SGR 1900+14, and SGR J1550-5418, observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer.

  10. A New Test of Lorentz Invariance Violation: The Spectral Lag Transition of GRB 160625B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Shao, Lang; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Possible violations of Lorentz invariance (LIV) have been investigated for a long time using the observed spectral lags of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, these generally have relied on using a single photon in the highest energy range. Furthermore, the search for LIV lags has been hindered by our ignorance concerning the intrinsic time lag in different energy bands. GRB 160625B, the only burst so far with a well-defined transition from positive lags to negative lags provides a unique opportunity to put new constraints on LIV. Using multi-photon energy bands we consider the contributions to the observed spectral lag from both the intrinsic time lag and the lag by LIV effects, and assuming the intrinsic time lag to have a positive dependence on the photon energy, we obtain robust limits on LIV by directly fitting the spectral lag data of GRB 160625B. Here we show that these robust limits on the quantum gravity energy scales are {E}{QG,1}≥slant 0.5× {10}16 GeV for the linear, and {E}{QG,2}≥slant 1.4× {10}7 GeV for the quadratic LIV effects, respectively. In addition, we give, for the first time, a reasonable formulation of the intrinsic energy-dependent time lag.

  11. Quantum Spectral Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Turilova, Ekaterina

    2017-02-01

    Quantum symmetries of spectral lattices are studied. Basic properties of spectral order on A W ∗-algebras are summarized. Connection between projection and spectral automorphisms is clarified by showing that, under mild conditions, any spectral automorphism is a composition of function calculus and Jordan ∗-automorphism. Complete description of quantum spectral symmetries on Type I and Type II A W ∗-factors are completely described.

  12. $\\gamma$-Ray Absorption at High Redshifts and the $\\gamma$-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of absorption of 10-500 GeV gamma-rays at high redshifts. This calculation requires the determination of the high- redshift evolution of the full spectral energy distribution of the intergalactic photon field. For this, we have primarily followed the recent analysis of Fall, Charlot and Pei. We give our results for the gamma-ray opacity as a function of redshift out to a redshift of 3. We then give predicted gamma-ray spectra for selected blazars and also extend our results on the background from unresolved blazars to an energy of 500 GeV. Absorption effects are predicted to significantly steepen the background spectrum above 20 GeV. Our absorption calculations can be used to place limits on the redshifts of gamma-ray bursts. Our background calculations can be used to determine the observability of multi-GeV lines from dark matter neutralino particles.

  13. Parametric variation of gamma frequency and power with luminance contrast: A comparative study of human MEG and monkey LFP and spike responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipapas, A; Lowet, E; Roberts, M J; Peter, A; De Weerd, P

    2015-05-15

    Gamma oscillations contribute significantly to the manner in which neural activity is bound into functional assemblies. The mechanisms that underlie the human gamma response, however, are poorly understood. Previous computational models of gamma rely heavily on the results of invasive recordings in animals, and it is difficult to assess whether these models hold in humans. Computational models of gamma predict specific changes in gamma spectral response with increased excitatory drive. Hence, differences and commonalities between spikes, LFPs and MEG in the spectral responses to changes in excitatory drive can lead to a refinement of existing gamma models. We compared gamma spectral responses to varying contrasts in a monkey dataset acquired previously (Roberts et al., 2013) with spectral responses to similar contrast variations in a new human MEG dataset. We found parametric frequency shifts with increasing contrast in human MEG at the single-subject and the single-trial level, analogous to those observed in the monkey. Additionally, we observed parametric modulations of spectral asymmetry, consistent across spikes, LFP and MEG. However, while gamma power scaled linearly with contrast in MEG, it saturated at high contrasts in both the LFP and spiking data. Thus, while gamma frequency changes to varying contrasts were comparable across spikes, LFP and MEG, gamma power changes were not. This indicates that gamma frequency may be a more stable parameter across scales of measurements and species than gamma power. The comparative approach undertaken here represents a fruitful path towards a better understanding of gamma oscillations in the human brain.

  14. The Spectral Shift Function and Spectral Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.

    2007-11-01

    At the 1974 International Congress, I. M. Singer proposed that eta invariants and hence spectral flow should be thought of as the integral of a one form. In the intervening years this idea has lead to many interesting developments in the study of both eta invariants and spectral flow. Using ideas of [24] Singer’s proposal was brought to an advanced level in [16] where a very general formula for spectral flow as the integral of a one form was produced in the framework of noncommutative geometry. This formula can be used for computing spectral flow in a general semifinite von Neumann algebra as described and reviewed in [5]. In the present paper we take the analytic approach to spectral flow much further by giving a large family of formulae for spectral flow between a pair of unbounded self-adjoint operators D and D + V with D having compact resolvent belonging to a general semifinite von Neumann algebra {mathcal{N}} and the perturbation V in {mathcal{N}} . In noncommutative geometry terms we remove summability hypotheses. This level of generality is made possible by introducing a new idea from [3]. There it was observed that M. G. Krein’s spectral shift function (in certain restricted cases with V trace class) computes spectral flow. The present paper extends Krein’s theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples where D has compact resolvent belonging to {mathcal{N}} and V is any bounded self-adjoint operator in {mathcal{N}} . We give a definition of the spectral shift function under these hypotheses and show that it computes spectral flow. This is made possible by the understanding discovered in the present paper of the interplay between spectral shift function theory and the analytic theory of spectral flow. It is this interplay that enables us to take Singer’s idea much further to create a large class of one forms whose integrals calculate spectral flow. These advances depend critically on a new approach to the calculus of functions of non

  15. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul;

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activitie...

  16. Quantum unique ergodicity on locally symmetric spaces: the degenerate lift

    CERN Document Server

    Silberman, Lior

    2011-01-01

    Given a measure $\\bar\\mu$ on a locally symmetric space $Y=\\Gamma\\backslash G/K$, obtained as a weak-{*} limit of probability measures associated to eigenfunctions of the ring of invariant differential operators, we construct a measure $\\mu$ on the homogeneous space $X=\\Gamma\\backslash G$ which lifts $\\bar\\mu$ and which is invariant by a connected subgroup $A_{1}\\subset A$ of positive dimension, where $G=NAK$ is an Iwasawa decomposition. If the functions are, in addition, eigenfunctions of the Hecke operators, then $\\mu$ is also the limit of measures associated to Hecke eigenfunctions on $X$. This generalizes previous results of the author and A.\\ Venkatesh to the case of "degenerate" limiting spectral parameters.

  17. GIARPS: the unique VIS-NIR high precision radial velocity facility in this world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Benatti, S.; Carleo, I.; Ghedina, A.; Molinari, E.; Oliva, E.; Tozzi, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Cecconi, M.; Cosentino, R.; Fantinel, D.; Fini, L.; Ghinassi, F.; Gonzalez, M.; Gratton, R.; Guerra, J.; Harutyunyan, A.; Hernandez, N.; Iuzzolino, M.; Lodi, M.; Malavolta, L.; Maldonado, J.; Micela, G.; Sanna, N.; Sanjuan, J.; Scuderi, S.; Sozzetti, A.; Pérez Ventura, H.; Diaz Marcos, H.; Galli, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Riverol, L.; Riverol, C.

    2016-08-01

    GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both the high resolution spectrographs HARPS-N (VIS) and GIANO (NIR) working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a high resolution (R=115,000 in the visual and R=50,000 in the IR) and over in a wide spectral range (0.383 - 2.45 μm) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and the large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planet search and hot Jupiters, atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instrument can measure high precision radial velocity by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS - N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. Young stars and proto- planetary disks, cool stars and stellar populations, moving minor bodies in the solar system, bursting young stellar objects, cataclysmic variables and X-ray binary transients in our Galaxy, supernovae up to gamma-ray bursts in the very distant and young Universe, can take advantage of the unicity of this facility both in terms of contemporaneous wide wavelength range and high resolution spectroscopy.

  18. Frequency spectrum analysis for spectrum stabilization in airborne gamma-ray spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guoqiang; Tan, Chengjun; Ge, Liangquan; Zhang, Qingxian; Gu, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal multi-crystal spectral drifts often can be observed when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer. Currently, these spectral drifts of each crystal are generally eliminated through manual adjustment, which is time-consuming and labor-ineffective. To realize this quick automatic spectrum stabilization of multi-crystal, a frequency spectrum analysis method for natural gamma-ray background spectrum is put forward in this paper to replace traditional spectrum stabilization method used characteristic peak. Based on the polynomial fitting of high harmonics in frequency spectrum and gamma-ray spectral drift, it calculates overall spectral drift of natural gamma-ray spectrum and adjusts the gain of spectrometer by this spectral drift value, thus completing quick spectrum stabilization in the power on stage of spectrometer. This method requires no manual intervention and can obtain the overall spectral drift value automatically under no time-domain pre-processing to the natural gamma-ray spectra. The spectral drift value calculated by this method has an absolute error less than five channels (1024 resolution) and a relative error smaller than 0.80%, which can satisfy the quick automatic spectrum stabilization requirement when power on the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer instead of manual operation.

  19. The Gamma-Ray Emitting Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS 2004-447 II. The Radio View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Carpenter, B.; Elsaesser, D.; Gehrels, N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Context. gamma-ray-detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (gamma-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the gamma-ray-loud AGN. The radio-loudest gamma-NLS1 known, PKS2004447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring programme TANAMI. Aims. We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS2004447, which are essential for understanding the diversity of the radio properties of gamma-NLS1s. Methods. The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Results. The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightness temperature is consistent with equipartition, but it is an order of magnitude below other gamma-NLS1s with the sample value varying over two orders of magnitude. We find a compact morphology with a projected large-scale size 11 kpc and a persistent steep radio spectrum with moderate flux-density variability. Conclusions. PKS2004447 appears to be a unique member of the gamma-NLS1 sample. It exhibits blazar-like features, such as a flat featureless X-ray spectrum and a core-dominated, one-sided parsec-scale jet with indications for relativistic beaming. However, the data also reveal properties atypical for blazars, such as a radio spectrum and large-scale size consistent with compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) objects, which are usually associated with young radio sources. These characteristics are unique among all gamma-NLS1s and extremely rare among gamma-ray-loud AGN.

  20. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results. 2. Localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR1818-04 and PSR1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma-ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Since the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma-ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma-ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. Using distance estimates it is found that PSR1818-04 has a gamma-ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, while the luminosities of PSR1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. This survey of SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations has also yielded upper limits to gamma-ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars.

  1. The Spectral Index Distribution of EGRET Blazars: Prospects for GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; /SLAC

    2011-11-29

    The intrinsic distribution of spectral indices in GeV energies of gamma-ray-loud blazars is a critical input in determining the spectral shape of the unresolved blazar contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, as well as an important test of blazar emission theories. We present a maximum-likelihood method of determining the intrinsic spectral index distribution (ISID) of a population of {gamma}-ray emitters which accounts for error in measurement of individual spectral indices, and we apply it to EGRET blazars. We find that the most likely Gaussian ISID for EGRET blazars has a mean of 2.27 and a standard deviation of 0.20. We additionally find some indication that FSRQs and BL Lacs may have different ISIDs (with BL Lacs being harder). We also test for spectral index hardening associated with blazar variability for which we find no evidence. Finally, we produce simulated GLAST spectral index datasets and perform the same analyses. With improved statistics due to the much larger number of resolvable blazars, GLAST data will help us determine the ISIDs with much improved accuracy. Should any difference exist between the ISIDs of BL Lacs and FSRQs or between the ISIDs of blazars in the quiescent and flaring states, GLAST data will be adequate to separate these ISIDs at a significance better than 3{sigma}.

  2. Uniqueness property for quasiharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdiyor A. Imomkulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a class of continuous functions, called quasiaharmonic functions, admitting best approximations by harmonic polynomials. In this class we prove a uniqueness theorem by analogy with the analytic functions.

  3. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  4. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  5. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  6. Rehabilitation of gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Charles A.

    1998-07-01

    Gamma characterizes the reproduction of tone scale in an imaging system. Gamma summarizes, in a single numerical parameter, the nonlinear relationship between code value--in an 8-bit system, from 0 through 255--and physical intensity. Nearly all image coding systems are nonlinear, and so involve values of gamma different from unity. Owing to poor understanding of tone scale reproduction, and to misconceptions about nonlinear coding, gamma has acquired a terrible reputation in computer graphics and image processing. In addition, the world-wide web suffers from poor reproduction of grayscale and color images, due to poor handling of nonlinear image coding. This paper aims to make gamma respectable again.

  7. Gamma-Ray Variability of Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark; Ryan, James; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Bennett, Kevin; Bloemen, Hans; Hermsen, Wim; Kuiper, Lucien; Collmar, Werner; Schoenfelder, Volker; Steinle, Helmut; Strong, Andrew; Paciesas, William; Phlips, Bernard; Poutanen, Juri

    2002-04-01

    We have used observations of Cygnus X-1 from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and BeppoSAX to study the variation in the MeV gamma-ray emission between the hard and soft spectral states, using spectra that cover the energy range 20 keV up to 10 MeV. These data provide evidence for significant spectral variability at energies above 1 MeV. In particular, whereas the hard X-ray flux decreases during the soft state, the flux at energies above 1 MeV increases, resulting in a significantly harder gamma-ray spectrum at energies above 1 MeV. This behavior is consistent with the general picture of galactic black hole candidates having two distinct spectral forms at soft gamma-ray energies. These data extend this picture, for the first time, to energies above 1 MeV. We have used two different hybrid thermal/non-thermal Comptonization models to fit broad band spectral data obtained in both the hard and soft spectral states. These fits provide a quantitative estimate of the electron distribution and allow us to probe the physical changes that take place during transitions between the low and high X-ray states. We find that there is a significant increase (by a factor of 4) in the bolometric luminosity as the source moves from the hard state to the soft state.

  8. Development of a Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunter, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of AGILE and FERMI, the scientific progress in high-energy (Eg greater than approximately 200 MeV) gamma-ray science has been, and will continue to be dramatic. Both of these telescopes cover a broad energy range from approximately 20 MeV to greater than 10 GeV. However, neither instrument is optimized for observations below approximately 200 MeV where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Hence, while significant progress from current observations is expected, there will nonetheless remain a significant sensitivity gap in the medium-energy (approximately 0.1-200 MeV) regime; the lower end of this range remains largely unexplored whereas the upper end will allow comparison with FERMI data. Tapping into this unexplored regime requires significant improvements in sensitivity. A major emphasis of modern detector development, with the goal of providing significant improvements in sensitivity in the medium-energy regime, focuses on high-resolution electron tracking. The Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology being developed at GSFC provides high resolution tracking of the electron-positron pair from gamma-ray interactions from 5 to 200 MeV. The 3-DTI consists of a time projection chamber (TPC) and 2-D cross-strip microwell detector (MWD). The low-density and homogeneous design of the 3-DTI, offers unprecedented sensitivity by providing angular resolution near the kinematic limit. Electron tracking also enables measurement of gamma-ray polarization, a new tool to study astrophysical phenomenon. We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 3-DTI detector prototype of a medium-energy gamma-ray telescope.

  9. Status of the Milagro $\\gamma$ Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    2001-01-01

    The Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is the world's first large-area water Cherenkov detector capable of continuously monitoring the sky at TeV energies. Located in northern New Mexico, Milagro will perform an all sky survey of the Northern Hemisphere at energies between ~250 GeV and 50 TeV. With a high duty cycle, large detector area (~5000 square meters), and a wide field-of-view (~1 sr), Milagro is uniquely capable of searching for transient and DC sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission. Milagro has been operating since February, 1999. The current status of the Milagro Observatory and initial results will be discussed.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of fucoidan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Gu Lee, Sung; Jong Han, Se; Cho, Minho; Cheon Lee, Pyung

    2014-07-01

    The change of molecular structure of fucoidan by gamma irradiation was analyzed by spectral and chemical methods. Fucoidan samples with different molecular weights of 85, 30, 15, and 7 kDa were prepared by radiation degradation of 217 kDa fucoidan. In the molecular weight analysis, the polydispersity decreased by gamma radiation because of further degradation of higher weight molecules. Ultraviolet absorption and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were carried out to define the changes of the functional groups in fucoidan by gamma irradiation. Carboxyl groups and carbon double bonds increased by gamma irradiation; however, sulfate content remained unchanged. The granular fissures were observed from scanning electron microscopy in gamma-irradiated fucoidan.

  11. The AGATA Spectrometer: next generation gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; AGATA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. The spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for electromagnetic nuclear radiation. The tracking technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances and the spectrometer is now operational. AGATA has been operated in a series of scientific campaigns at Legnaro National Laboratory in Italy and GSI in Germany and is presently being assembled at GANIL in France. The status of the instrument will be reviewed.

  12. An Unusual Burst from Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 Comparisons with Giant Flares and Implications for the Magnetar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, A I; Woods, P M; Kouveliotou, C; Thompson, C; Duncan, R C; Dieters, S W; Van Paradijs, J; Finger, M H; Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.; Dieters, Stefan; Paradijs, Jan van; Finger, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 entered a remarkable phase of activity during the summer of 1998. This activity peaked on August 27, 1998 when a giant periodic gamma-ray flare resembling the famous March 5, 1979 event from SGR 0526-66 was recorded. Two days later (August 29), a strong, bright burst was detected with RXTE and BATSE. This event reveals several similarities to the giant flares of August 27 and March 5, and shows a number of unique features not previously seen in SGR bursts. Unlike typically short SGR bursts, this event features a 3.5 s burst peak that was preceded by an extended (~ 1 s) complex precursor, and followed by a long (~ 1000 s) periodic tail modulated at the 5.16 s stellar rotation period. Spectral analysis shows a striking distinction between the spectral behavior of the precursor, burst peak and extended tail. While the spectrum during the peak is uniform, a significant spectral evolution is detected in both the precursor and tail emissions. Temporal behavior shows a sharp rise ...

  13. Networked alpha and gamma spectral acquisition and analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.M.; Gross, J.M.

    1993-10-01

    This manual assumes a knowledge of (terminology used and a working familiarity with) the windowing system and mouse of the Sun computer workstation. See the appropriate Sun manuals for additional information. ALDO, the alpha detector control program, is used to control, monitor, and edit log information associated with the collection of alpha spectra. Actual data collection and control functions are performed by Mizar Real-Time computers for which ALDO acts as a friendly user command interface and status display. It is normally started as part of your login procedure, but may also be started from the ``NETSPEC Utilities`` submenu of the root menu. The root menu is obtained by pushing the right mouse button when the cursor is over the root window (background picture). To become a user of ALDO and the other programs in the NETSPEC system, contact the person who performs systems administration tasks for the Sun computers. Most user interaction with ALDO is by means of mouse manipulation of screen items such as buttons, checkboxes, and sliders. The action of pushing the left mouse button when the cursor is over an item is called selecting that item. The left mouse button is therefore called the select button. The right mouse button is the menu button because a limited number of options may be displayed when that button is pressed when the cursor is over an item with a triangle (inverted delta). In this document, names of selectable items are printed in bold when they are first mentioned or when emphasis is helpful. In general, items which do not apply to the current context are either disabled or made invisible in order to prevent selection.

  14. Measurement of. gamma. gamma. widths of charmonium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.Y.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Ng, C.R.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Yao, W.M. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA)); Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Li, W.C.; Lou, X.C.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.N.; Zoeller, M.I. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA)); Bortoletto, D.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Jain, V.; Mestayer, M.D.; Moneti, G.C.; Sharma, V.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Skwarnicki, T.; Thulasidas, M. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Csorna, S.E.; Letson, T. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA)); Alexander, J.; Artuso, M.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Crawford, G.; DeWire, J.W.; Dell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Halling, A.M.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lewis, J.D.; Mistry, N.B.; Mueller, J.; Namjoshi, R.; Nandi, S.; Nordberg, E.; O' Grady, C.; Peterson, D.; Pisharody, M.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Silverman, A.

    1990-06-21

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have searched for two-phonon production of charmonium in four-track final states. We have measured {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({eta}{sub c})=5.9{sub -1.8}{sup +2.1}{plus minus}1.9 keV, and we have obtained 95% CL upper limits of {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({chi}{sub c0})<6.2 keV and {Gamma}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}({chi}{sub c2})<1.0 keV. (orig.).

  15. The JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Plume, R; Helmich, F; Van der Tak, F F S; Roberts, H; Bowey, J; Buckle, J; Butner, H; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Van Dishoeck, E F; Friberg, P; Gibb, A G; Hatchell, J; Hogerheijde, M R; Matthews, H; Millar, T; Mitchell, G; Moore, T J T; Ossenkopf, V; Rawlings, J; Richer, J; Roellig, M; Schilke, P; Spaans, M; Tielens, A G G M; Thompson, M A; Viti, S; Weferling, B; White, G J; Wouterloot, J; Yates, J; Zhu, M; White, Glenn J.

    2006-01-01

    Stars form in the densest, coldest, most quiescent regions of molecular clouds. Molecules provide the only probes which can reveal the dynamics, physics, chemistry and evolution of these regions, but our understanding of the molecular inventory of sources and how this is related to their physical state and evolution is rudimentary and incomplete. The Spectral Legacy Survey (SLS) is one of seven surveys recently approved by the JCMT Board. Starting in 2007, the SLS will produce a spectral imaging survey of the content and distribution of all the molecules detected in the 345 GHz atmospheric window (between 332 GHz and 373 GHz) towards a sample of 5 sources. Our intended targets are: a low mass core (NGC1333 IRAS4), 3 high mass cores spanning a range of star forming environments and evolutionary states (W49, AFGL2591, and IRAS20126), and a PDR (the Orion Bar). The SLS will use the unique spectral imaging capabilities of HARP-B/ACSIS to study the molecular inventory and the physical structure of these objects, w...

  16. Positional correlation between low-latitude gamma-ray sources and SNRs

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Romero, G E; Benaglia, P; Torres, Diego F.; Combi, Jorge A.; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a spatial correlation analysis between unidentified gamma-ray sources in the 3EG catalog and candidates to supernova remnants. This work extends a previous study made by Romero, Benaglia & Torres (1999). We also consider the gamma-ray emission variability and the spectral index for the sources with positional coincidence.

  17. Development of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (approx.0.3< E(sub gamma)< approx.200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, medium-energy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  18. Gamma Rays from the Inner Milky Way: Dark Matter or Point Sources?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Studies of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope have revealed bright gamma-ray emission from the central regions of our galaxy, with a spatial and spectral profile consistent with annihilating dark matter. I will present a new model-independent analysis that suggests that rather than originating from dark matter, the GeV excess may arise from a surprising new population of as-yet-unresolved gamma-ray point sources in the heart of the Milky Way.

  19. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from beta-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured, and complement conventional supernova observations with measurements of their prime energy sources. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massi...

  20. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  1. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  2. Uniqueness of PL Minimal Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi NI

    2007-01-01

    Using a standard fact in hyperbolic geometry, we give a simple proof of the uniqueness of PL minimal surfaces, thus filling in a gap in the original proof of Jaco and Rubinstein. Moreover, in order to clarify some ambiguity, we sharpen the definition of PL minimal surfaces, and prove a technical lemma on the Plateau problem in the hyperbolic space.

  3. On the Nagumo uniqueness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian G. Mustafa; O'Regan, Donal

    2011-01-01

    By a convenient reparametrisation of the integral curves of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), we are able to improve the conclusions of the recent contribution [A. Constantin, Proc. Japan Acad. {\\bf 86(A)} (2010), 41--44]. In this way, we establish a flexible uniqueness criterion for ODEs without Lipschitz-like nonlinearities.

  4. The Lasso Problem and Uniqueness

    CERN Document Server

    Tibshirani, Ryan J

    2012-01-01

    The lasso is a popular tool for sparse linear regression, especially for problems in which the number of variables p exceeds the number of observations n. But when p>n, the lasso criterion is not strictly convex, and hence it may not have a unique minimum. An important question is: when is the lasso solution well-defined (unique)? We review results from the literature, which show that if the predictor variables are drawn from a continuous probability distribution, then there is a unique lasso solution with probability one, regardless of the sizes of n and p. We also show that this result extends easily to $\\ell_1$ penalized minimization problems over a wide range of loss functions. A second important question is: how can we deal with the case of non-uniqueness in lasso solutions? In light of the aforementioned result, this case really only arises when some of the predictor variables are discrete, or when some post-processing has been performed on continuous predictor measurements. Though we certainly cannot c...

  5. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.;

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  6. Genetic variation in the fibrinogen gamma gene increases the risk for deep venous thrombosis by reducing plasma fibrinogen gamma' levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitte de Willige, Shirley; de Visser, Marieke C H; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Rosendaal, Frits R; Vos, Hans L; Bertina, Rogier M

    2005-12-15

    We investigated the association between haplotypes of fibrinogen alpha (FGA), beta (FGB), and gamma (FGG), total fibrinogen levels, fibrinogen gamma' (gammaA/gamma' plus gamma'/gamma') levels, and risk for deep venous thrombosis. In a population-based case-control study, the Leiden Thrombophilia Study, we typed 15 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in this gene cluster. None of these haplotypes was associated with total fibrinogen levels. In each gene, one haplotype increased the thrombosis risk approximately 2-fold. After adjustment for linkage disequilibrium between the genes, only FGG-H2 homozygosity remained associated with risk (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5-3.9). FGG-H2 was also associated with reduced fibrinogen gamma' levels and reduced ratios of fibrinogen gamma' to total fibrinogen. Multivariate analysis showed that reduced fibrinogen gamma' levels and elevated total fibrinogen levels were both associated with an increased risk for thrombosis, even after adjustment for FGG-H2. A reduced fibrinogen gamma' to total fibrinogen ratio (less than 0.69) also increased the risk (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.5). We propose that FGG-H2 influences thrombosis risk through htSNP 10034C/T [rs2066865] by strengthening the consensus of a CstF site and thus favoring the formation of gammaA chain above that of gamma' chain. Fibrinogen gamma' contains a unique high-affinity, nonsubstrate binding site for thrombin, which seems critical for the expression of the antithrombin activity that develops during fibrin formation (antithrombin 1).

  7. How the $\\gamma \\gamma$ Resonance Stole Christmas

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Kilic, Can; Thomas, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical implications of heavy di-gauge boson resonances that couple to, or are comprised of, new charged and strongly interacting matter are investigated. Observation and measurement of ratios of the resonant di-gauge boson channels $WW$, $ZZ$, $\\gamma \\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, and $gg$ in the form of di-jets, provide a rather direct -- and for some ratios a rather robust -- probe of the gauge representations of the new matter. For a spin-zero resonance with the quantum numbers of the vacuum, the ratios of resonant $WW$ and $ZZ$ to $\\gamma \\gamma$ channels, as well as the longitudinal versus transverse polarization fractions in the $WW$ and $ZZ$ channels, provide extraordinarily sensitive probes for possible mixing with the Higgs boson, while di-Higgs and di-top resonant channels, $hh$ and $tt$, provide somewhat less sensitivity. We present a survey of possible underlying models for di-gauge boson resonances by considering various limits for the mass of the new charged and strongly interac...

  8. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  9. Full-spectrum analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Peter; Limburg, J; de Meijer, RJ

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new system to measure natural gamma -radiation in situ will be presented. This system combines a high-efficiency EGO scintillation detector with full-spectrum data analysis (FSA). This technique uses the (nearly) full spectral shape and the so-called 'standard spectra' to calculate

  10. Solar hard X-rays and gamma-rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘为群; 常进; 李友平; 林春梅

    2002-01-01

    We briefly introduce our recent work on the spectral evolution of energetic protons, the beam property of accelerated electrons, the gamma-ray flare classification, the temporal features of the annihilation line, the hard X-ray delayed events, the hydrodynamic process, and the continuum emission in solar flares.

  11. Multi-spectral pyrometry—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, António

    2017-08-01

    In pyrometry measurements, the unknown target emissivity is a critical source of uncertainty, especially when the emissivity is low. Aiming to overcome this problem, various multi-spectral pyrometry systems and processing techniques have been proposed in the literature. Basically, all multi-spectral systems are based on the same principle: the radiation emitted by the target is measured at different channels having different spectral characteristics, and the emissivity is modelled as a function of wavelength with adjustable parameters to be obtained empirically, resulting in a system of equations whose solution is the target temperature and the parameters of the emissivity function. The present work reviews the most important multi-spectral developments. Concerning the spectral width of the measurement channels, multi-spectral systems are divided into multi-wavelength (monochromatic channels) and multi-band (wide-band channels) systems. Regarding the number of unknowns and equations (one equation per channel), pyrometry systems can either be determined (same number of unknowns and equations, having a unique solution) or overdetermined (more equations than unknowns, to be solved by least-squares). Generally, higher-order multi-spectral systems are overdetermined, since the uncertainty of the solutions obtained from determined systems increases as the number of channels increases, so that determined systems normally have less than four channels. In terms of the spectral characteristics of the measurement channels, narrow bands, far apart from each other and shifted towards lower wavelengths, seem to provide more accurate solutions. Many processing techniques have been proposed, but they strongly rely on the relationship between emissivity and wavelength, which is, in turn, strongly dependent on the characteristics of a particular target. Several accurate temperature and/or emissivity results have been reported, but no universally accepted multi-spectral technique has

  12. GAMMA-RAY BURSTS, NEW COSMOLOGICAL BEACONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Avila-Reese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs are the brightest electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, associated to the death of massive stars. As such, GRBs are potential tracers of the evolution of the cosmic massive star formation, metallicity, and Initial Mass Function. GRBs also proved to be appealing cosmological distance indicators. This opens a unique opportunity to constrain the cosmic expansion history up to redshifts 5-6. A brief review on both subjects is presented here.

  13. Aberrant gamma band cortical sources and functional connectivity in adolescents with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Shreekantiah; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Nizamie, Shamshul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) resemble epileptic seizures, but lack clinically evident abnormal electrical activity in the brain. We aimed to assess resting gamma spectral power, current source distribution and functional connectivity in adolescents with PNES. Interictal, 32 channels electroencephalographic recording of 15 adolescents with PNES was compared with 10 matched healthy controls. Spectral power, current source distribution and lagged linear coherence were assessed. Statistically significant gamma spectral power, cortical sources and connectivity pattern was found in some brain areas. Region specific aberrant gamma activity and its relationship to psychopathology are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) 1.53.69.71.55 - Fax. +33 (0) 1.53.69.76.90. For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  15. The other spectral flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Gato-Rivera, Beatriz; Rosado, Jose Ignacio

    1995-01-01

    Recently we showed that the spectral flow acting on the N=2 twisted topological theories gives rise to a topological algebra automorphism. Here we point out that the untwisting of that automorphism leads to a spectral flow on the untwisted N=2 superconformal algebra which is different from the usual one. This "other" spectral flow does not interpolate between the chiral ring and the antichiral ring. In particular, it maps the chiral ring into the chiral ring and the antichiral ring into the antichiral ring. We discuss the similarities and differences between both spectral flows. We also analyze their action on null states.

  16. Constraining Anisotropic Lorentz Violation via the Spectral-lag Transition of GRB 160625B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Shao, Lang; Mészáros, Peter; Kostelecký, V. Alan

    2017-06-01

    Violations of Lorentz invariance can lead to an energy-dependent vacuum dispersion of light, which results in arrival-time differences of photons with different energies arising from a given transient source. In this work, direction-dependent dispersion constraints are obtained on nonbirefringent Lorentz-violating effects using the observed spectral lags of the gamma-ray burst GRB 160625B. This burst has unusually large high-energy photon statistics, so we can obtain constraints from the true spectral time lags of bunches of high-energy photons rather than from the rough time lag of a single highest-energy photon. Also, GRB 160625B is the only burst to date having a well-defined transition from positive lags to negative lags, providing a unique opportunity to distinguish Lorentz-violating effects from any source-intrinsic time lag in the emission of photons of different energy bands. Our results place comparatively robust two-sided constraints on a variety of isotropic and anisotropic coefficients for Lorentz violation, including the first bounds on Lorentz-violating effects from operators of mass dimension 10 in the photon sector.

  17. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  18. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  19. Transition Distribution Amplitudes for gamma* gamma collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P; Szymanowski, L

    2008-01-01

    We study the exclusive production of pi-pi and rho-pi in hard gamma* gamma scattering in the forward kinematical region where the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process. The newly introduced concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA) is used to perform a QCD calculation of these reactions thanks to two simple models for TDAs. The sizable cross sections for rho-pi and pi-pi production may be tested at intense electron-positron colliders such as CLEO and B factories (Belle and BaBar).

  20. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness in the Einstein Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, H P; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; York, James W.

    2005-01-01

    We examine numerically a sequence of free data for the conformal thin sandwich (CTS) equations representing non-linearly perturbed Minkowski spacetimes. We find only one solution for the standard (four) CTS equations; however, we find {\\em two} distinct solutions for the same free data when the lapse is determined by a fifth elliptic equation arising from specification of the time derivative of the mean curvature. For a given {\\em physical} (conformally scaled) amplitude of the perturbation, the solution for the physical data $g_{ij}, K_{ij}$ nevertheless appears to be unique.

  1. Galactic gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1982-05-01

    During the last decade the exploration of the sky in the light of gamma rays has begun by means of satellite-and balloon-borne instruments. Like in other ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum the Milky Way clearly stands out against the rest of the sphere. Part of the galactic ..gamma..-ray emission is due to discrete sources, part is diffuse in origin and is produced in interstellar space. Some of the discrete ..gamma..-ray sources are radio pulsars, the nature of the other sources is still unknown. The intensity distribution of the diffuse galactic ..gamma..-ray component is consistent with a decrease of the cosmic-ray intensity towards the outer part of the galaxy. The identification of the cosmic-ray sources will be one of the main objectives of the next generation of ..gamma..-ray telescopes.

  2. Egret observations of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreekumar, P.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    with the local interstellar gas and radiation, as well as an almost uniformly distributed component that is generally believed to originate outside the Galaxy. Through a careful study and removal of the Galactic diffuse emission, the flux, spectrum, and uniformity of the extragalactic emission are deduced......The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E > 30 MeV) carried out by EGRET aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions...

  3. A uniform spectral gap for congruence covers of a hyperbolic manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Kelmer, Dubi

    2010-01-01

    Let $G$ be $\\SO(n,1)$ or $\\SU(n,1)$ and let $\\Gamma\\subset G$ denote an arithmetic lattice. The hyperbolic manifold $\\Gamma\\backslash \\calH$ comes with a natural family of covers, coming from the congruence subgroups of $\\Gamma$. In many applications, it is useful to have a bound for the spectral gap that is uniform for this family. When $\\Gamma$ is itself a congruence lattice, there are very good bounds coming from known results towards the Ramanujan conjectures. In this paper, we establish an effective bound that is uniform for congruence subgroups of a non-congruence lattice.

  4. Momentum Dependent Vertices $\\sigma \\gamma \\gamma$, $\\sigma \\rho \\gamma$ and $\\sigma \\rho \\rho$ : The NJL Scalar Hidden by Chiral Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bajc, B.; Blin, A. H.; Hiller, B.; Nemes, M. C.; Rosina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the momentum dependence of three particle vertices $\\sigma \\gamma \\gamma$, $\\sigma \\rho \\gamma$ and $\\sigma \\rho \\rho$ in the context of a Nambu Jona Lasinio type model. We show how they influence the processes $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\sigma \\rightarrow \\pi \\pi$, $\\rho \\rightarrow \\gamma \\sigma$ and $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\rho \\rho$ and how chiral symmetry shadows the presence of the $\\sigma$.

  5. Colliding. gamma. e- and. gamma gamma. -beams on the basis of electron-positron linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1983-08-01

    Main properties of the ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. collisions are discussed in some detail with application to the generation of colliding ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams basing on the designed linear accelerators with colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams, VLEEP and SLC, as it was proposed in a previous work. Intensive ..gamma.. beams with the energy 50 GeV would be produced from scattering of the laser light focused to the electron beams of the accelerators. Laser radiation is focused to the electron beam in the conversion region at a distance of about 10 cm from the place of collision. After scattering on electrons high-energy photons move practically along the electron primary trajectories and are focused in the collision region. The electrons are deflected from the collision region by means of approximately 1 T magnetic field. Then the produced ..gamma..-beam collides with an electron beam or a similar ..gamma..-beam. In the case when the maximum luminosity (L) is attained, the luminosity distribution in the invariant mass of the ..gamma..e or ..gamma gamma.. systems is wide. A monochromatization of the collisions up to the level of 5-10% is possible. That will entail a decrease in the luminosity, the procedure is most effective if one uses the electrons and the laser photons with opposite helicities. Examples of physically interesting problems to be investigated with the proposed ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams are suggested.

  6. The Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Porter, Troy A.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2007-09-28

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of {gamma}-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3-4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disk) and exhibits a narrow pion-decay line at 67.5 MeV, perhaps unique in astrophysics. Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalization; this makes it a useful 'standard candle' for {gamma}-ray telescopes. The steep albedo spectrum also provides a unique opportunity for energy calibration of {gamma}-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). Since the albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo {gamma}-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo {gamma}-rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of the PAMELA.

  7. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between...

  8. Spectral geometry of spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Kopf, T

    2000-01-01

    Spacetime, understood as a globally hyperbolic manifold, may be characterized by spectral data using a 3+1 splitting into space and time, a description of space by spectral triples and by employing causal relationships, as proposed earlier. Here, it is proposed to use the Hadamard condition of quantum field theory as a smoothness principle.

  9. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  10. High-resolution spectroscopy of gamma-ray transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, T.L.

    1988-09-25

    The first high-resolution spectrometer flown to observe gamma-ray bursts was launched on the ISEE-3 spacecraft over nine years ago. It recorded two events before instrument failure, giving results that were suggestive but marginal. Other studies, with coarser energy resolution, also show evidence for spectral features as well as for spectral evolution on short time scales. Absolute source strength calibration will be possible only with source identification, but understanding of the burst emission processes will surely come only from the measurements having the best spectral and temporal precision. The only high- resolution gamma-ray spectrometer now planned, here or abroad, for space flight is an instrument sequel to the ISEE-3 spectrometer, to be flown on the interplanetary 'GGS Wind' mission. Much larger and higher-sensitivity, high-resolution instruments may have their optimum opportunities in conjunction with studies of solar flares in the time frame of the solar maximum of 2002.

  11. Spectral Geometry and Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Kopf, T

    1996-01-01

    For a physical interpretation of a theory of quantum gravity, it is necessary to recover classical spacetime, at least approximately. However, quantum gravity may eventually provide classical spacetimes by giving spectral data similar to those appearing in noncommutative geometry, rather than by giving directly a spacetime manifold. It is shown that a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold can be given by spectral data. A new phenomenon in the context of spectral geometry is observed: causal relationships. The employment of the causal relationships of spectral data is shown to lead to a highly efficient description of Lorentzian manifolds, indicating the possible usefulness of this approach. Connections to free quantum field theory are discussed for both motivation and physical interpretation. It is conjectured that the necessary spectral data can be generically obtained from an effective field theory having the fundamental structures of generalized quantum mechanics: a decoherence functional and a choice of...

  12. Gamma Rays From Rotation-Powered Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2002-01-01

    The seven known gamma-ray pulsars represent a very small fraction of the more than 1000 presently known radio pulsars, yet they can give us valuable information about pulsar particle acceleration and energetics. Although the theory of acceleration and high-energy emission in pulsars has been studied for over 25 years, the origin of the pulsed gamma rays is a question that remains unanswered. Characteristics of the pulsars detected by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory could not clearly distinguish between an emission site at the magnetic poles (polar cap models) and emission from the outer magnetosphere (outer gap models). There are also a number of theoretical issues in both type of model which have yet to be resolved. The two types of models make contrasting predictions for the numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars and of their spectral characteristics. GLAST will probably detect at least 50 radio-selected pulsars and possibly many more radio-quiet pulsars. With this large sample, it will b...

  13. Snapshot spectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; McGunnigle, Gerald; Leitner, Raimund

    2010-02-01

    Spectral imaging is the combination of spectroscopy and imaging. These fields are well developed and are used intensively in many application fields including industry and the life sciences. The classical approach to acquire hyper-spectral data is to sequentially scan a sample in space or wavelength. These acquisition methods are time consuming because only two spatial dimensions, or one spatial and the spectral dimension, can be acquired simultaneously. With a computed tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) it is possible to acquire two spatial dimensions and a spectral dimension during a single integration time, without scanning either spatial or spectral dimensions. This makes it possible to acquire dynamic image scenes without spatial registration of the hyperspectral data. This is advantageous compared to tunable filter based systems which need sophisticated image registration techniques. While tunable filters provide full spatial and spectral resolution, for CTIS systems there is always a tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolution as the spatial and spectral information corresponding to an image cube is squeezed onto a 2D image. The presented CTIS system uses a spectral-dispersion element to project the spectral and spatial image information onto a 2D CCD camera array. The system presented in this paper is designed for a microscopy application for the analysis of fixed specimens in pathology and cytogenetics, cell imaging and material analysis. However, the CTIS approach is not limited to microscopy applications, thus it would be possible to implement it in a hand-held device for e.g. real-time, intra-surgery tissue classification.

  14. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitiez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Marshall, F.; Scargle, J. D.; Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray /gamma-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log v-log v Fv representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, alpha(sub ro) , and optical to X-ray, alpha(sub ox), spectral slopes) and from the gamma-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup S) (sub peak)) is positioned between 10(exp 12.5) and 10(exp 14) Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 17) Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the gamma-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than

  15. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray /gamma-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log v-log v Fv representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, alpha(sub ro) , and optical to X-ray, alpha(sub ox), spectral slopes) and from the gamma-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup S) (sub peak)) is positioned between 10(exp 12.5) and 10(exp 14) Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 17) Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the gamma-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than

  16. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  17. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  18. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  19. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  20. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India.

  1. UNIQUE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael M. Ottenbrite; ZHAO Ruifeng; Sam Milstein

    1995-01-01

    An oral drug delivery system using proteinoid microspheres is discussed with respect to its unique dependence on pH. It has been found that certain drugs such as insulin and heparin can be encapsulated in proteinoid spheres at stomach pH's (1-3). These spheres also dissemble at intestinal pH's (6-7) releasing the drug for absorption. Using this technique low molecular weight heparin and human growth hormone have been orally delivered successfully to several animal species. Future work has been proposed to study the interaction and binding of the specific drugs with synthesized oligopeptides.

  2. Analysis of unique beta transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eman, B.; Krmpotic, F.; Tadic, D;

    1967-01-01

    The Heidelberg group measurements [For abstr. see Phys. Rev. Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15 (1965)] of unique forbidden transitions have been analysed. It has been found that experimental shape factors can be reproduced only with the induced pseudoscalar form factor d ...-non-conserving tensor form factor b > 0. In the former case they contradict Daniel's results [See abstr. 1966A10720] for 0- rarr 0+ transitions, whereas in the latter they are in disagreement with other known analyses of mu-meson capture, allowed and forbidden transitions. The conclusion appears to be independent...

  3. Next Generation Gamma Ray Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Young, C. S.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Barlow, D. B.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Hernandez, J. E.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Moy, K.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.

    Fusion reaction history and ablator areal density measurements based on gamma ray detection are an essential part of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Capability improvements are being implemented in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m). The ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will provide 200x more sensitivity, reduce the effective temporal resolution from 100 to 10 ps, and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV, relative to GRH-6m. The Gamma-to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS) - a Compton spectrometer intended to provide true gamma energy resolution (<=5%) for isolation of specific lines such as t(d, γ) , D(n, γ) , 12C(n,n' γ) and energetic charged particle nuclear reactions indicative of ablator/fuel mix

  4. Spectral Control of Mobile Robot Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zavlanos, Michael M; Jadbabaie, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The eigenvalue spectrum of the adjacency matrix of a network is closely related to the behavior of many dynamical processes run over the network. In the field of robotics, this spectrum has important implications in many problems that require some form of distributed coordination within a team of robots. In this paper, we propose a continuous-time control scheme that modifies the structure of a position-dependent network of mobile robots so that it achieves a desired set of adjacency eigenvalues. For this, we employ a novel abstraction of the eigenvalue spectrum by means of the adjacency matrix spectral moments. Since the eigenvalue spectrum is uniquely determined by its spectral moments, this abstraction provides a way to indirectly control the eigenvalues of the network. Our construction is based on artificial potentials that capture the distance of the network's spectral moments to their desired values. Minimization of these potentials is via a gradient descent closed-loop system that, under certain convex...

  5. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  6. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given.

  7. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  8. Compton scattering in terrestrial gamma-ray flashes detected with the Fermi gamma-ray burst monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Gerard; McBreen, Sheila; Briggs, Michael S; Foley, Suzanne; Tierney, David; Chaplin, Vandiver L; Connaughton, Valerie; Stanbro, Matthew; Xiong, Shaolin; Dwyer, Joseph; Fishman, Gerald J; Roberts, Oliver J; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are short intense flashes of gamma rays associated with lightning activity in thunderstorms. Using Monte Carlo simulations of the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) process, theoretical predictions for the temporal and spectral evolution of TGFs are compared to observations made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Assuming a single source altitude of 15 km, a comparison of simulations to data is performed for a range of empirically chosen source electron variation time scales. The data exhibit a clear softening with increased source distance, in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The simulated spectra follow this trend in the data, but tend to underestimate the observed hardness. Such a discrepancy may imply that the basic RREA model is not sufficient. Alternatively, a TGF beam that is tilted with respect to the zenith could produce an evolution with source distance that is compatible with the da...

  9. SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 2: Localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Because the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. PSR 1818-04 has a gamma ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, whereas the luminosities of PSR 1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations yielded upper limits to gamma ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars. For five of the closest pulsars, upper limits for gamma ray luminosity are found to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Crab pulsar. Gamma ray enhancement near the Milky Way satellite galaxy and the galactic plane in the Cygnus region is also discussed.

  10. The surface brightness of dark matter unique signatures of neutralino annihilation in the Galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Calcaneo-Roldan, C; Calcaneo-Roldan, Carlos; Moore, Ben

    2000-01-01

    We use high resolution numerical simulations of the formation of cold dark matter halos to simulate the background of decay products from neutralino annihilation, such as gamma-rays or neutrinos. Halos are non-spherical, have steep singular density profiles and contain many thousands of surviving dark matter substructure clumps. This leads to several unique signatures in the gamma-ray background that may be confirmed or rejected by the next generation of gamma-ray experiments. Most importantly, the diffuse background is enhanced by over two orders of magnitude due to annihilation within substructure halos. The largest dark substructures are easily visibly above the background and may account for the unidentified EGRET sources. A deep strip survey of the gamma-ray background would allow the shape of the Galactic halo to be quantified.

  11. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energ...

  12. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  13. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  14. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  15. The Hard VHE Gamma-ray Emission in High-Redshift TeV Blazars: Comptonization of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation in an Extended Jet?

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus; Finke, Justin D

    2008-01-01

    Observations of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 250 GeV) gamma-ray emission from several blazars at z > 0.1 have placed stringent constraints on the elusive spectrum and intensity of the intergalactic infrared background radiation (IIBR). Correcting their observed VHE spectrum for gamma-gamma absorption even by the lowest plausible level of the IIBR provided evidence for a very hard (photon spectral index Gamma_{ph} 4 X 10^6) on kiloparsec scales along the jet.

  16. Spectral distribution of local field potential responses to electrical stimulation of the retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yan T.; Halupka, Kerry; Kameneva, Tatiana; Cloherty, Shaun L.; Grayden, David B.; Burkitt, Anthony N.; Meffin, Hamish; Shivdasani, Mohit N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP) have been shown to reflect neuronal activity occurring at varying cortical scales. As such, recordings of the LFP may offer a novel way to test the efficacy of neural prostheses and allow improvement of stimulation strategies via neural feedback. Here we use LFP measurements from visual cortex to characterize neural responses to electrical stimulation of the retina. We aim to show that the LFP is a viable signal that contains sufficient information to optimize the performance of sensory neural prostheses. Approach. Clinically relevant electrode arrays were implanted in the suprachoroidal space of one eye in four felines. LFPs were simultaneously recorded in response to stimulation of individual electrodes using penetrating microelectrode arrays from the visual cortex. The frequency response of each electrode was extracted using multi-taper spectral analysis and the uniqueness of the responses was determined via a linear decoder. Main results. We found that cortical LFPs are reliably modulated by electrical stimulation of the retina and that the responses are spatially localized. We further characterized the spectral distribution of responses, with maximum information being contained in the low and high gamma bands. Finally, we found that LFP responses are unique to a large range of stimulus parameters (∼40) with a maximum conveyable information rate of 6.1 bits. Significance. These results show that the LFP can be used to validate responses to electrical stimulation of the retina and we provide the first steps towards using these responses to provide more efficacious stimulation strategies.

  17. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  18. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  19. A Correlation of Spectral Lag Evolution with Prompt Optical Emission in GRBs?

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatikos, Michael; Sakamoto, Takanori; Dhuga, Kalvir S

    2008-01-01

    We report on observations of correlated behavior between the prompt gamma-ray and optical emission from GRB 080319B, which (i) strongly suggest that they occurred within the same astrophysical source region and (ii) indicate that their respective radiation mechanisms were most likely dynamically coupled. Our preliminary results, based upon a new cross-correlation function (CCF) methodology for determining the time-resolved spectral lag, are summarized as follows. First, the evolution in the arrival offset of prompt gamma-ray photon counts between Swift-BAT 15-25 keV and 50-100 keV energy bands (intrinsic gamma-ray spectral lag) appears to be anti-correlated with the arrival offset between prompt 15-350 keV gamma-rays and the optical emission observed by TORTORA (extrinsic optical/gamma-ray spectral lag), thus effectively partitioning the burst into two main episodes at ~T+28+/-2 sec. Second, prompt optical emission is nested within intervals of (a) trivial intrinsic gamma-ray spectral lag (~T+12+-2 and ~T+50+...

  20. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  1. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  2. The probabilities of unique events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet S Khemlani

    Full Text Available Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

  3. The Evolution of Human Uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-09

    The human species is an outlier in the natural world. Two million years ago our ancestors were a slightly odd apes. Now we occupy the largest ecological and geographical range of any species, have larger biomass, and process more energy. Usually, this transformation is explained in terms of cognitive ability-people are just smarter than all the rest. In this paper I argue that culture, our ability to learn from each other, and cooperation, our ability to make common cause with large groups of unrelated individuals are the real roots of human uniqueness, and sketch an evolutionary account of how these crucial abilities co-evolved with each other and with other features of our life histories.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery - Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... being treated. As compared to other types of radiation therapy, Gamma Knife treatment is much less likely to damage ... of radiosurgery alone vs radiosurgery with whole brain radiation ... Knife radiosurgery patient resource center. 2015. www.elekta. ...

  5. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  6. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Lijun

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C and Perfexion units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and the dose

  7. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Lijun

    2009-03-01

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C™ and Perfexion™ units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and the

  8. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  9. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  10. Temporal Lorentzian spectral triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    We present the notion of temporal Lorentzian spectral triple which is an extension of the notion of pseudo-Riemannian spectral triple with a way to ensure that the signature of the metric is Lorentzian. A temporal Lorentzian spectral triple corresponds to a specific 3 + 1 decomposition of a possibly noncommutative Lorentzian space. This structure introduces a notion of global time in noncommutative geometry. As an example, we construct a temporal Lorentzian spectral triple over a Moyal-Minkowski spacetime. We show that, when time is commutative, the algebra can be extended to unbounded elements. Using such an extension, it is possible to define a Lorentzian distance formula between pure states with a well-defined noncommutative formulation.

  11. Advanced Spacecraft Navigation and Timing Using Celestial Gamma-Ray Sources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed novel program will use measurements of the high-energy photon output from gamma-ray celestial sources to design a new, unique navigation system. This...

  12. Deep Space CubeSat Gamma-ray Navigation Technology Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed novel program will use measurements of high-energy photon output from celestial gamma-ray sources to design a new, unique navigation system for a deep...

  13. Spectral ladar: towards active 3D multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael A.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present our Spectral LADAR concept, an augmented implementation of traditional LADAR. This sensor uses a polychromatic source to obtain range-resolved 3D spectral images which are used to identify objects based on combined spatial and spectral features, resolving positions in three dimensions and up to hundreds of meters in distance. We report on a proof-of-concept Spectral LADAR demonstrator that generates spectral point clouds from static scenes. The demonstrator transmits nanosecond supercontinuum pulses generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Currently we use a rapidly tuned receiver with a high-speed InGaAs APD for 25 spectral bands with the future expectation of implementing a linear APD array spectrograph. Each spectral band is independently range resolved with multiple return pulse recognition. This is a critical feature, enabling simultaneous spectral and spatial unmixing of partially obscured objects when not achievable using image fusion of monochromatic LADAR and passive spectral imagers. This enables higher identification confidence in highly cluttered environments such as forested or urban areas (e.g. vehicles behind camouflage or foliage). These environments present challenges for situational awareness and robotic perception which can benefit from the unique attributes of Spectral LADAR. Results from this demonstrator unit are presented for scenes typical of military operations and characterize the operation of the device. The results are discussed here in the context of autonomous vehicle navigation and target recognition.

  14. Spectral recognition of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At some time, in the childhood of spectral graph theory, it was conjectured that non-isomorphic graphs have different spectra, i.e. that graphs are characterized by their spectra. Very quickly this conjecture was refuted and numerous examples and families of non-isomorphic graphs with the same spectrum (cospectral graphs were found. Still some graphs are characterized by their spectra and several mathematical papers are devoted to this topic. In applications to computer sciences, spectral graph theory is considered as very strong. The benefit of using graph spectra in treating graphs is that eigenvalues and eigenvectors of several graph matrices can be quickly computed. Spectral graph parameters contain a lot of information on the graph structure (both global and local including some information on graph parameters that, in general, are computed by exponential algorithms. Moreover, in some applications in data mining, graph spectra are used to encode graphs themselves. The Euclidean distance between the eigenvalue sequences of two graphs on the same number of vertices is called the spectral distance of graphs. Some other spectral distances (also based on various graph matrices have been considered as well. Two graphs are considered as similar if their spectral distance is small. If two graphs are at zero distance, they are cospectral. In this sense, cospectral graphs are similar. Other spectrally based measures of similarity between networks (not necessarily having the same number of vertices have been used in Internet topology analysis, and in other areas. The notion of spectral distance enables the design of various meta-heuristic (e.g., tabu search, variable neighbourhood search algorithms for constructing graphs with a given spectrum (spectral graph reconstruction. Several spectrally based pattern recognition problems appear in many areas (e.g., image segmentation in computer vision, alignment of protein-protein interaction networks in bio

  15. Low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for an information barrier based on a multi-criteria template-matching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttsche, Malte; Schirm, Janet; Glaser, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry has been successfully employed to identify unique items containing special nuclear materials. Template information barriers have been developed in the past to confirm items as warheads by comparing their gamma signature to the signature of true warheads. Their development has, however, not been fully transparent, and they may not be sensitive to some relevant evasion scenarios. We develop a fully open template information barrier concept, based on low-resolution measurements, which, by design, reduces the extent of revealed sensitive information. The concept is based on three signatures of an item to be compared to a recorded template. The similarity of the spectrum is assessed by a modification of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to confirm the isotopic composition. The total gamma count rate must agree with the template as a measure of the projected surface of the object. In order to detect the diversion of fissile material from the interior of an item, a polyethylene mask is placed in front of the detector. Neutrons from spontaneous and induced fission events in the item produce 2.223 MeV gamma rays from neutron capture by hydrogen-1 in the mask. This peak is detected and its intensity scales with the item's fissile mass. The analysis based on MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of various plutonium configurations suggests that this concept can distinguish a valid item from a variety of invalid ones. The concept intentionally avoids any assumptions about specific spectral features, such as looking for specific gamma peaks of specific isotopes, thereby facilitating a fully unclassified discussion. By making all aspects public and allowing interested participants to contribute to the development and benchmarking, we enable a more open and inclusive discourse on this matter.

  16. Multiwavelength observations of a VHE gamma-ray flare from PKS 1510-089 in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Antonelli, L A; Arcaro, C; Babić, A; Banerjee, B; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Berti, A; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carosi, R; Carosi, A; Chatterjee, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Cumani, P; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Di Pierro, F; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsaesser, D; Engelkemeier, M; Ramazani, V Fallah; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giammaria, P; Godinović, N; Gora, D; Guberman, D; Hadasch, D; Hahn, A; Hassan, T; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hughes, G; Ishio, K; Konno, Y; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Kuveždić, D; Lelas, D; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Manganaro, M; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Moretti, E; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nogués, L; Paiano, S; Palacio, J; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Pedaletti, G; Peresano, M; Perri, L; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Garcia, J R; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Saito, T; Satalecka, K; Schroeder, S; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Šnidarić, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Strzys, M; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Torres-Albà, N; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vanzo, G; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vovk, I; Ward, J E; Will, M; Wu, M H; Zarić, D; Desiante, R; González, J Becerra; D'Ammando, F; Larsson, S; Raiteri, C M; Reinthal, R; Lähteenmäki, A; Järvelä, E; Tornikoski, M; Ramakrishnan, V; Jorstad, S G; Marscher, A P; Bala, V; MacDonald, N R; Kaur, N; Sameer,; Baliyan, K; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Lazaro, C; Martínez-Lombilla, C; Grinon-Marin, A B; Yabar, A Pastor; Protasio, C; Carnerero, M I; Jermak, H; Steele, I A; Larionov, V M; Borman, G A; Grishina, T S

    2016-01-01

    Context. PKS 1510-089 is one of only a few flat spectrum radio quasars detected in the VHE (very-high-energy, > 100 GeV) gamma-ray band. Aims. We study the broadband spectral and temporal properties of the PKS 1510-089 emission during a high gamma-ray state. Methods. We performed VHE gamma-ray observations of PKS 1510-089 with the MAGIC telescopes during a high gamma-ray state in May 2015. In order to perform broad-band modelling of the source, we have also gathered contemporaneous multiwavelength data in radio, IR, optical photometry and polarization, UV, X-ray and GeV gamma-ray ranges. We construct a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) in two periods, selected according to VHE gamma-ray state. Results. PKS 1510-089 has been detected in a high optical and gamma-ray state, showing for the first time a significant VHE gamma-ray variability. Similarly to the optical and gamma-ray high state of the source detected in 2012, it was accompanied by a rotation of the optical polarization angle and the emissi...

  17. Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the FSRQ 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, B; Krichbaum, T P; Fuhrmann, L; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    We present a \\gamma-ray photon flux and spectral variability study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 over a rapid flaring activity period between September 2009 to April 2010. Five major flares are observed in the source during this period. The most rapid flare observed in the source has a flux doubling time of 1.1 hr. The rapid \\gamma-ray flares allow us to constrain the location and size of the \\gamma-ray emission region in the source. The \\gamma \\gamma-opacity constrains the Doppler factor, $\\delta_{\\gamma} \\geq$ 10 for the highest energy (15 GeV) photon observed by the {\\it Fermi}-Large Area Telescope (LAT). Causality arguments constrain the size of the emission region to 1.6$\\times 10^{15}$ cm. The \\gamma-ray spectra measured over this period show clear deviations from a simple power law with a break in 1-2 GeV energy range. We discuss possible explanations for the origin of the \\gamma-ray spectral breaks. Our study suggests that the \\gamma-ray emission region in 3C 273 is located within the broad...

  18. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  19. Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DM DePoy; PM Fourspring; PF Baldasaro; JF Beausang; EJ Brown; MW Dashiel; KD Rahner; TD Rahmlow; JE Lazo-Wasem; EJ Gratrix; B Wemsman

    2004-06-09

    Spectral control is a key technology for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion systems because only a fraction (typically less than 25%) of the incident thermal radiation has energy exceeding the diode bandgap energy, E{sub g}, and can thus be converted to electricity. The goal for TPV spectral control in most applications is twofold: (1) Maximize TPV efficiency by minimizing transfer of low energy, below bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. (2) Maximize TPV surface power density by maximizing transfer of high energy, above bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. TPV spectral control options include: front surface filters (e.g. interference filters, plasma filters, interference/plasma tandem filters, and frequency selective surfaces), back surface reflectors, and wavelength selective radiators. System analysis shows that spectral performance dominates diode performance in any practical TPV system, and that low bandgap diodes enable both higher efficiency and power density when spectral control limitations are considered. Lockheed Martin has focused its efforts on front surface tandem filters which have achieved spectral efficiencies of {approx}83% for E{sub g} = 0.52 eV and {approx}76% for E{sub g} = 0.60 eV for a 950 C radiator temperature.

  20. Gamma-ray emission from nova outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hernanz, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission, with the 511 keV line and a continuum. Gamma-ray spectra and light curves are potential unique tools to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected with the Fermi satellite in V407 Cyg, a nova in a symbiotic binary, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main sequence star as in the cataclysmic variables hosting classical novae. Two more nov...

  1. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  2. Rapid spectral analysis for spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L; Samatham, Ravikant; Choudhury, Niloy

    2010-07-15

    Spectral imaging requires rapid analysis of spectra associated with each pixel. A rapid algorithm has been developed that uses iterative matrix inversions to solve for the absorption spectra of a tissue using a lookup table for photon pathlength based on numerical simulations. The algorithm uses tissue water content as an internal standard to specify the strength of optical scattering. An experimental example is presented on the spectroscopy of portwine stain lesions. When implemented in MATLAB, the method is ~100-fold faster than using fminsearch().

  3. ASTRO-H White Paper - New Spectral Features

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, R K; Audard, M; Brown, G V; Eckart, M E; Ezoe, Y; Foster, A; Galeazzi, M; Hamaguchi, K; Ishibashi, K; Ishikawa, K; Kaastra, J; Katsuda, S; Leutenegger, M; Miller, E; Mitsuishi, I; Nakajima, H; Ogawa, T; Paerels, F; Porter, F S; Sakai, K; Sawada, M; Takei, Y; Tanaka, Y; Tsuboi, Y; Uchida, H; Ursino, E; Watanabe, S; Yamaguchi, H; Yamasaki, N

    2014-01-01

    This white paper addresses selected new (to X-ray astronomy) physics and data analysis issues that will impact ASTRO-H SWG observations as a result of its high-spectral-resolution X-ray microcalorimeter, the focussing hard X-ray optics and corresponding detectors, and the low background soft gamma-ray detector. We concentrate on issues of atomic and nuclear physics, including basic bound-bound and bound-free transitions as well as scattering and radiative transfer. The major topic categories include the physics of charge exchange, solar system X-ray sources, advanced spectral model, radiative transfer, and hard X-ray emission lines and sources.

  4. Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral.

  5. SPECTRAL STATE EVOLUTION OF 4U 1820-30: THE STABILITY OF THE SPECTRAL INDEX OF THE COMPTONIZATION TAIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Frontera, Filippo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Seifina, Elena, E-mail: titarchuk@fe.infn.it, E-mail: lev@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: frontera@fe.infn.it, E-mail: seif@sai.msu.ru [Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University/Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetsky Prospect 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-20

    We analyze the X-ray spectra and their timing properties of the compact X-ray binary 4U 1820-30. We establish spectral transitions in this source seen with BeppoSAX and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). During the RXTE observations (1996-2009), the source was in the soft state approximately {approx}75% of the time making the lower banana and upper banana transitions combined with long-term low-high state transitions. We reveal that all of the X-ray spectra of 4U 1820-30 are fit by a combination of a thermal (Blackbody) component, a Comptonization component (COMPTB), and a Gaussian-line component. Thus, using this spectral analysis, we find that the photon power-law index {Gamma} of the Comptonization component is almost unchangeable ({Gamma} {approx} 2), while the electron temperature kT{sub e} changes from 2.9 to 21 keV during these spectral events. We also establish that for these spectral events the normalization of the COMPTB component (which is proportional to the mass accretion rate M-dot ) increases by a factor of eight when kT{sub e} decreases from 21 keV to 2.9 keV. Previously, this index stability effect was also found analyzing X-ray data for the Z-source GX 340+0 and for the atolls 4U 1728-34 and GX 3+1. Thus, we can suggest that this spectral stability property is a spectral signature of an accreting neutron star source. On the other hand, in a black hole binary {Gamma} monotonically increases with M-dot and ultimately its value saturates at large M-dot .

  6. Characterizations of {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids by their {\\Gamma}-ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Madad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have discusses {\\Gamma}-left, {\\Gamma}-right, {\\Gamma}-bi-, {\\Gamma}-quasi-, {\\Gamma}-interior and {\\Gamma}-ideals in {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids and regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids. Moreover we have proved that the set of {\\Gamma}-ideals in a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid form a semilattice structure. Also we have characterized a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid in terms of left ideals.

  7. Characterizations of gamma-AG^{**}-groupoids by the properties their gamma-ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Madad; Rehman, Inayatur

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have discusses {\\Gamma}-left, {\\Gamma}-right, {\\Gamma}-bi-, {\\Gamma}-quasi-, {\\Gamma}-interior and {\\Gamma}-ideals in {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids and regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids. Moreover we have proved that the set of {\\Gamma}-ideals in a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid form a semilattice structure. Also we have characterized a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid in terms of left ideals.

  8. Spectral properties and stability of perturbed Cartesian product

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH A DABHI; SAVAN K PATEL

    2017-09-01

    Let $\\mathcal{A}$ and $\\mathcal{B}$ be commutative Banach algebras, and let $T : \\mathcal{B → A}$ be an algebra homomorphism with $\\|T\\| \\leq 1$. Then $T$ induces a Banach algebra product $^\\times{T}$ perturbing the coordinatewise product on the Cartesian product space $\\mathcal{A \\times B}$. We show that the spectral properties like spectral extension property, unique uniform norm property, regularity, weak regularity as well as Ditkin’s condition are stable with respectto this product.

  9. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  10. Energy spectra of secondary gamma rays at different atmospheric depths

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1979-01-01

    The CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR) data for p+p to pi /sup 0/+X inclusive reaction have been used to derive the spectrum of secondary gamma rays at the top of the atmosphere. The measured primary nucleon spectrum of the Goddard Space Flight Group has been taken as a nucleon source spectrum. Using the cascade theory, the gamma ray spectra at the atmospheric depths 540, 650, and 735 g cm/sup -2/ have been calculated. The results are approximately in accord with the emulsion chamber data at Mt Chacaltaya, Mt. Norikura, and Mt. Fuji in the spectral range 0.2-4 TeV. (10 refs).

  11. Low and medium energy gamma-ray astronomy: present status and future aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1983-01-01

    The present assessment of progress and prospects in gamma-ray astronomy notes that the exploration of the sky in the low and medium energy gamma ray range (below approximately 30 MeV) lags far behind the exploration of the X-ray and high energy gamma ray bands. The only galactic source which has been detected at low gamma energies remains the Crab Nebula. In the extragalactic sky, active galaxies have come to have special significance for researchers in gamma-ray astronomy in virtue of a luminosity maximum in the several hundreds of keV-several MeV range. The problem posed by the diffuse cosmic gamma ray component, with its spectral bump at MeV energies, is not yet solved.

  12. Neutrino production in nucleonic interactions in gamma-ray bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Koers, Hylke B J

    2008-01-01

    Neutrinos produced in gamma-ray bursters (GRBers) may provide a unique probe for the physics of these extreme astrophysical systems. Here we discuss neutrino production in inelastic neutron-proton collisions within the relativistic outflows associated with GRBers. We consider both the widely used fireball model and a recently proposed magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model for the GRB outflow.

  13. A tool for manual endmember selection and spectral unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, C. Ann; Curtiss, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Sampling a continuous radiance spectrum in many narrow contiguous spectral bands results in a high covariance between the bands. Hence, the true dimensionality of imaging spectrometer data is not determined by the number of spectral bands, but by the number of spectrally unique signatures whose mixtures reproduce the spectral variance observed in an image. Methods to unmix high dimensional multispectral data use principal components analysis to reduce the dimensionality. The variance of the spectral data is modeled as a linear combination of a finite set of endmembers in the space of the eigen-vectors that account for most of the variance. The number and characteristics of these endmembers are determined not only by the number and characteristics of the spectrally unique materials on the surface but also by processes (e.g., illumination, atmospheric scattering and absorption) affecting the signal received by the sensor. Selection of endmember spectra has typically been from a library. However, since most libraries are incomplete and do not account for the processes mentioned above, we have devised a computer display that allows researchers to explore interactively the eigenvector space of a representative and mean-corrected subset of the image data in search of extreme spectra to designate as endmembers. This display, which is based on parallel coordinates, is unique in the area of multidimensional visualization in that it includes not only a passive view of higher dimensional data but also the capability to interact and move geometrical objects in higher dimensional spaces.

  14. Location and origin of gamma-rays in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, B; Hodgson, J A; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intriguing and challenging quests of current astrophysics is to understand the physical conditions and processes responsible for production of high-energy particles, and emission of \\gamma-rays. A combination of high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images with broadband flux variability measurements is a unique way to probe the emission mechanisms at the bases of jets. Our analysis of \\gamma-ray flux variability observed by the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) along with the parsec-scale jet kinematics suggests that the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar S5 0716+714 has a significant correlation with the mm-VLBI core flux and the orientation of jet outflow on parsec scales. These results indicate that the inner jet morphology has a tight connection with the observed $\\gamma$-ray flares. An overview of our current understanding on high-energy radiation processes, their origin, and location is presented here.

  15. Bipolar spectral associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R G

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear spectral associative memories are proposed as quantized frequency domain formulations of nonlinear, recurrent associative memories in which volatile network attractors are instantiated by attractor waves. In contrast to conventional associative memories, attractors encoded in the frequency domain by convolution may be viewed as volatile online inputs, rather than nonvolatile, off-line parameters. Spectral memories hold several advantages over conventional associative memories, including decoder/attractor separability and linear scalability, which make them especially well suited for digital communications. Bit patterns may be transmitted over a noisy channel in a spectral attractor and recovered at the receiver by recurrent, spectral decoding. Massive nonlocal connectivity is realized virtually, maintaining high symbol-to-bit ratios while scaling linearly with pattern dimension. For n-bit patterns, autoassociative memories achieve the highest noise immunity, whereas heteroassociative memories offer the added flexibility of achieving various code rates, or degrees of extrinsic redundancy. Due to linear scalability, high noise immunity and use of conventional building blocks, spectral associative memories hold much promise for achieving robust communication systems. Simulations are provided showing bit error rates for various degrees of decoding time, computational oversampling, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Noncomputable Spectral Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Teutsch, J

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to enumerate all computer programs. In particular, for every partial computable function, there is a shortest program which computes that function. f-MIN is the set of indices for shortest programs. In 1972, Meyer showed that f-MIN is Turing equivalent to 0'', the halting set with halting set oracle. This paper generalizes the notion of shortest programs, and we use various measures from computability theory to describe the complexity of the resulting "spectral sets." We show that under certain Godel numberings, the spectral sets are exactly the canonical sets 0', 0'', 0''', ... up to Turing equivalence. This is probably not true in general, however we show that spectral sets always contain some useful information. We show that immunity, or "thinness" is a useful characteristic for distinguishing between spectral sets. In the final chapter, we construct a set which neither contains nor is disjoint from any infinite arithmetic set, yet it is 0-majorized and contains a natural spectral set. Thus ...

  17. $\\gamma$-Ray Bursts the Four Crises

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, M

    1998-01-01

    We discuss some open problems concerning the origin and the emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in light of recent developments. If GRBs originate at extragalactic distances, we are facing four crises: (1) an energy crisis, models have to account for more than 10^{53} ergs of energy emitted in the gamma-ray energy band; (2) a spectral crisis, emission models have to account for the surprising `smoothness' of GRB broad-band spectra, with no indication of the predicted spectral `distorsions' caused by inverse Compton scattering in large radiation energy density media, and no evidence for beaming; (3) an afterglow crisis, relativistic shock models have to explain the complexity of the afterglow behavior, the longevity of optical transients detectable up to six months after the burst, the erratic behavior of the radio emission, and the lack of evidence for substantial beaming as indicated by recent searches for GRB afterglows in the X-ray band; (4) a population crisis, from data clearly indicating that ...

  18. Luminescence from {gamma}-irradiated humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, Wieslaw [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Radio- and Photochemistry Department, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)], E-mail: wieslaw.goraczko@put.poznan.pl; Slawinski, Janusz [Institute of Ecotechnology, State Higher Vocational School, ul. Ks. Kard. S.Wyszynskiego 38, 62-200 Gniezno (Poland)

    2008-07-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the ultraweak delayed radiochemiluminescence (RCL) spectra, kinetics and spectroscopic properties of humic acids (HAs) after {gamma}-radiation exposure (absorbed doses of 1-10 kGy, Co-60) in model systems. The kinetics and spectral distribution of RCL (340-650 nm) were measured using the single photon counting (SPC) method and cut-off filters. The intensity of fluorescence ({lambda}{sub ex}=390, 440, 490 and 540 nm) covering the spectral range 400-580 nm was heavily dependent on the {lambda}{sub ex} and slightly increased with the absorbed dose of {gamma}-radiation. Absorption spectra (the range 240-800 nm) and color coefficients E{sub 2.6/4} and E{sub 4/6} of irradiated solutions indicated that post-radiative degradation/polymerization processes take place in the HA, changing their macromolecule size or properties. Comparison of FTIR spectra and elemental analysis proved an increased O and decreased C atoms in irradiated samples. The data indicate on the radiolysis-induced degradation of native HA into fulvic-like acids with higher hydrophilicity and lower molecular size.

  19. Gamma delta T cells recognize a microbial encoded B Cell antigen to initiate a rapid antigen-specific Interleukin-17 response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma delta T cells contribute uniquely to host immune defense, but the way in which they do so remains an enigma. Here we show that an algae protein, phycoerythrin (PE) is recognized by gamma delta T cells from mice, bovine and humans and binds directly to specific gamma delta T cell antigen recept...

  20. Gamma ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-21

    A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

  1. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  2. Gamma ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  3. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  4. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  5. Multitemporal spectral analysis for cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) classification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Glenn, Nancy F [Idaho State University

    2009-07-01

    Operational satellite remote sensing data can provide the temporal repeatability necessary to capture phenological differences among species. This study develops a multitemporal stacking method coupled with spectral analysis for extracting information from Landsat imagery to provide species-level information. Temporal stacking can, in an approximate mathematical sense, effectively increase the 'spectral' resolution of the system by adding spectral bands of several multitemporal images. As a demonstration, multitemporal linear spectral unmixing is used to successfully delineate cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) from soil and surrounding vegetation (77% overall accuracy). This invasive plant is an ideal target for exploring multitemporal methods because of its phenological differences with other vegetation in early spring and, to a lesser degree, in late summer. The techniques developed in this work are directly applicable for other targets with temporally unique spectral differences.

  6. Spectral variability of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kajava, Jari J E

    2008-01-01

    We study spectral variability of 11 ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) using archived XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We use three models to describe the observed spectra; a power-law, a multi-colour disk (MCD) and a combination of these two models. We find that out of the 11 ULXs in our sample, 7 ULXs show a correlation between the luminosity and the photon index Gamma (hereafter L-Gamma correlation). Furthermore, out of the 7 ULXs that have the L-Gamma correlation, 4 ULXs also show spectral pivoting in the observed energy band. We also find that two ULXs show an L-Gamma anti-correlation. The spectra of 4 ULXs in the sample can be adequately fitted with a MCD model. We compare these sources to known black hole binaries (BHB) and find that they follow similar paths in their luminosity-temperature (hereafter L-T) diagrams. Finally we show that the 'soft excess' reported for many of these ULXs at 0.2 keV seem to follow a trend L \\propto T^{-4} when modeled with a power-law plus a 'cool' MCD model. This is c...

  7. Spectral Networks and Snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaiotto, Davide; Neitzke, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We apply and illustrate the techniques of spectral networks in a large collection of A_{K-1} theories of class S, which we call "lifted A_1 theories." Our construction makes contact with Fock and Goncharov's work on higher Teichmuller theory. In particular we show that the Darboux coordinates on moduli spaces of flat connections which come from certain special spectral networks coincide with the Fock-Goncharov coordinates. We show, moreover, how these techniques can be used to study the BPS spectra of lifted A_1 theories. In particular, we determine the spectrum generators for all the lifts of a simple superconformal field theory.

  8. Stimulus Dependence of Gamma Oscillations in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, D; Miller, K J; Wandell, B A; Winawer, J

    2015-09-01

    A striking feature of some field potential recordings in visual cortex is a rhythmic oscillation within the gamma band (30-80 Hz). These oscillations have been proposed to underlie computations in perception, attention, and information transmission. Recent studies of cortical field potentials, including human electrocorticography (ECoG), have emphasized another signal within the gamma band, a nonoscillatory, broadband signal, spanning 80-200 Hz. It remains unclear under what conditions gamma oscillations are elicited in visual cortex, whether they are necessary and ubiquitous in visual encoding, and what relationship they have to nonoscillatory, broadband field potentials. We demonstrate that ECoG responses in human visual cortex (V1/V2/V3) can include robust narrowband gamma oscillations, and that these oscillations are reliably elicited by some spatial contrast patterns (luminance gratings) but not by others (noise patterns and many natural images). The gamma oscillations can be conspicuous and robust, but because they are absent for many stimuli, which observers can see and recognize, the oscillations are not necessary for seeing. In contrast, all visual stimuli induced broadband spectral changes in ECoG responses. Asynchronous neural signals in visual cortex, reflected in the broadband ECoG response, can support transmission of information for perception and recognition in the absence of pronounced gamma oscillations.

  9. ICF Gamma-Ray measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Y.; Hoffman, N. M.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Liebman, J. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Carpenter, A. C.; Grafil, E. M.; Khater, H. Y.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is to provide bang time and burn width information in order to constrain implosion simulation parameters such as shell velocity and confinement time. This is accomplished by measuring DT fusion gamma-rays with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. Burn-weighted CH ablator areal density is also inferred based on measurement of the 12C(n,n') gammas emitted at 4.44 MeV from DT neutrons inelastically scattering off carbon nuclei as they pass through the plastic ablator. This requires that the four independent GRH gas cells be set to differing Cherenkov thresholds (e.g., 2.9, 4.5, 8 & 10 MeV) in order to be able to unfold the primary spectral components predicted to be in the gamma ray energy spectrum (i.e., DT γ 27Al & 28Si (n,n') γ from the thermo-mechanical package (TMP); and 12C(n,n' γ from the ablator). The GRH response to 12C(n,n') γ is calibrated in-situ by placing a known areal density of carbon in the form of a puck placed ~6 cm from a DT exploding pusher implosion. Comparisons between inferred gamma fluences and simulations based on the nuclear cross sections databases will be presented. Supported by US DOE NNSA.

  10. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data.

  11. UNIQUENESS ON ZERO PRESSURE GAS DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞敏; 王振

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a new idea, the authors prove the uniqueness of weak solution of pressureless gases with the large initial data. In particular, uniqueness theorem is obtained in the same functional space as the existence theorem.

  12. Principal Component Analysis of Long-Lag, Wide-Pulse Gamma-Ray Burst Data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhao-Yang Peng; Wen-Shuai Liu

    2014-09-01

    We have carried out a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the temporal and spectral variables of 24 long-lag, wide-pulse gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) presented by Norris et al. (2005). Taking all eight temporal and spectral parameters into account, our analysis shows that four principal components are enough to describe the variation of the temporal and spectral data of long-lag bursts. In addition, the first-two principal components are dominated by the temporal variables while the third and fourth principal components are dominated by the spectral parameters.

  13. SVOM Gamma Ray Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yongwei; Li, Yanguo; Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    The Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor (SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection, localization and broad-band study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena. The Gamma Ray Monitor (GRM) onboard is designed to observe the GRBs up to 5 MeV. With this instrument one of the key GRB parameter, Epeak, can be easily measured in the hard x-ray band. It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  14. Measurement of the gamma gamma* --> eta and gamma gamma* --> eta' transition form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Amo Sanchez et al, P.

    2011-02-07

    We study the reactions e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} {eta}{sup (/)} in the single-tag mode and measure the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {eta}{sup (/)} transition form factors in the momentum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. The analysis is based on 469 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  15. Gamma measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Faye

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of the CKM angle g from charged and neutral B$\\rightarrow$ DK(*) decays, with a variety of D final states, are presented. The measurements are performed using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected at the LHCb experiment during Run I of the LHC. The results of a combination of LHCb g measurements are discussed. The combined value of $\\gamma$ is $(70.9^{+7.1}_{-8.5})^{\\circ}$ and is the most precise measurement of $\\gamma$ from a single experiment.

  16. SVOM gamma ray monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor(SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection,localization and broad-band study of gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena.The gamma ray monitor(GRM) onboard is designed to observe GRBs up to 5 MeV.With this instrument,one of the key GRB parameters,Epeak,can be easily measured in the hard X-ray band.It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  17. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  18. On the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniya Mandal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the uniqueness of supersymmetric attractors in four-dimensional N=2 supergravity theories coupled to n vector multiplets. We prove that for a given charge configuration the supersymmetry preserving axion free attractors are unique. We generalise the analysis to axionic attractors and state the conditions for uniqueness explicitly. We consider the example of a two-parameter model and find all solutions to the supersymmetric attractor equations and discuss their uniqueness.

  19. Emission mechanism of GeV-quiet soft gamma-ray pulsars; A case for peculiar geometry?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Takata, J; Leung, Gene C K; Cheng, K S

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing new class of young spin-down powered pulsars called GeV-quiet soft gamma-ray pulsar; (1) spectral turnover appears around~10MeV, (2) the X-ray spectra of below 20 keV can be described by power law with photon index around 1.2 and (3) the light curve in X-ray/soft gamma-ray bands shows single broad pulse. Their emission properties are distinct from the normal gamma-ray pulsars, for which the spectral peak in $\

  20. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of SGR J1550-5418 Bursts Detected with Fermi/Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A.J.; Baring, M.G.; Granot, J.; Watts, A.L.; Bhat, P.N.; Collazzi, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gorgone, N.; Göğüş, E.; Gruber, D.; Grunblatt, S.; Huppenkothen, D.; Kaneko, Y.; von Kienlin, A.; van der Klis, M.; Lin, L.; Mcenery, J.; van Putten, T.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a time-resolved spectroscopy of the 63 brightest bursts of SGR J1550-5418, detected with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during its 2008-2009 intense bursting episode. We performed spectral analysis down to 4 ms timescales to characterize the spectral evolution of the bursts. Using a

  1. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  2. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 801 RIN 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification... unique device identification system as required by recent amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and..., FDA published a proposed rule to establish a unique device identification system, as required by...

  3. On chromatic and flow polynomial unique graphs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Yinghua; Wu, Haidong; Yu, Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    ... research on graphs uniquely determined by their chromatic polynomials and more recently on their Tutte polynomials, but rather spotty research on graphs uniquely determined by their flow polynomials or the combination of both chromatic and flow polynomials. This article is an initiation of investigation on graphs uniquely determin...

  4. Wsup(+-) boson production at the e/sup +/e/sup -/,. gamma. e and. gamma gamma. colliding beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Panfil, S.L.; Serbo, V.G.

    1983-11-21

    Wsup(+-) boson production in e/sup +/e/sup -/->W/sup +/W/sup -/, ..gamma..e->W/sup +/W/sup -/, ..gamma..e->W, ..gamma gamma..->W/sup +/W/sup -/ reactions at the e/sup +/e/sup -/, ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. colliding beams is considered. What physical information can be extracted from such experiments, including those with polarized beams, is discussed. Conditions of observation, are considered together with the background problems.

  5. Acceleration at Relativistic Shocks in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    1999-01-01

    Most recent extragalactic models of gamma-ray bursts consider the expansion of a relativistic blast wave, emanating from a solar-mass type progenitor, into the surrounding interstellar medium as the site for their activity. The popular perception is that the optical afterglows result from the external shock interface, while the prompt transient gamma-ray signal arises from multiple shocks internal to the expansion. This paper illustrates a number of acceleration properties of relativistic and ultrarelativistic shocks that pertain to GRB models, by way of a standard Monte Carlo simulation. Computations of the spectral shape, the range of spectral indices, and the energy gain per shock crossing are presented, as functions of the shock speed and the type of particle scattering.

  6. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  7. Quarkonium Spectral Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocsy, Agnes [Department of Mathematics and Science, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY 11205 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this talk I summarize the progress achieved in recent years on the understanding of quarkonium properties at finite temperature. Theoretical studies from potential models, lattice QCD, and effective field theories are discussed. I also highlight a bridge from spectral functions to experiment.

  8. Spectral representation of fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Haiyun; Bazen, Asker M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kevenaar, Tom A.M.; Akkermans, Anton H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Most fingerprint recognition systems are based on the use of a minutiae set, which is an unordered collection of minutiae locations and directions suffering from various deformations such as translation, rotation and scaling. The spectral minutiae representation introduced in this paper is a novel m

  9. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  10. Gamma knife surgery for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, D; Steiner, M; Steiner, L

    1995-01-01

    We present our results of Gamma Knife surgery for craniopharyngioma in nine patients. The current status of surgery, radiation therapy, intracavitary instillation of radionucleides and Gamma Knife surgery in the management of craniopharyngiomas is discussed.

  11. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  12. The 3XMM spectral fit database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Watson, M.; Carrera, F.; Webb, N.; Rosen, S.

    2016-06-01

    I will present the XMMFITCAT database which is a spectral fit inventory of the sources in the 3XMM catalogue. Spectra are available by the XMM/SSC for all 3XMM sources which have more than 50 background subtracted counts per module. This work is funded in the framework of the ESA Prodex project. The 3XMM catalog currently covers 877 sq. degrees and contains about 400,000 unique sources. Spectra are available for over 120,000 sources. Spectral fist have been performed with various spectral models. The results are available in the web page http://xraygroup.astro.noa.gr/ and also at the University of Leicester LEDAS database webpage ledas-www.star.le.ac.uk/. The database description as well as some science results in the joint area with SDSS are presented in two recent papers: Corral et al. 2015, A&A, 576, 61 and Corral et al. 2014, A&A, 569, 71. At least for extragalactic sources, the spectral fits will acquire added value when photometric redshifts become available. In the framework of a new Prodex project we have been funded to derive photometric redshifts for the 3XMM sources using machine learning techniques. I will present the techniques as well as the optical near-IR databases that will be used.

  13. Construction of a {gamma}-{gamma} and {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurement system for precise determination of nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    A {gamma}-{gamma} and {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurement system was constructed for the precise determination of nuclear data, such as thermal neutron capture cross sections and {gamma}-ray emission probabilities. The validity of the system was tested by a {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence measurement with a {sup 60}Co standard source. (author)

  14. Gamma rays from Galactic pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gamma rays from young pulsars and milli-second pulsars are expected to contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) at high latitudes. We derive the contribution of the pulsars undetected counterpart by using information from radio to gamma rays and we show that they explain only a small fraction of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background.

  15. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Clearest-Ever Evidence from VLT Spectra of Powerful Event Summary A very bright burst of gamma-rays was observed on March 29, 2003 by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-II) , in a sky region within the constellation Leo. Within 90 min, a new, very bright light source (the "optical afterglow") was detected in the same direction by means of a 40-inch telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (Australia) and also in Japan. The gamma-ray burst was designated GRB 030329 , according to the date. And within 24 hours, a first, very detailed spectrum of this new object was obtained by the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It allowed to determine the distance as about 2,650 million light-years (redshift 0.1685). Continued observations with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments on the VLT during the following month allowed an international team of astronomers [1] to document in unprecedented detail the changes in the spectrum of the optical afterglow of this gamma-ray burst . Their detailed report appears in the June 19 issue of the research journal "Nature". The spectra show the gradual and clear emergence of a supernova spectrum of the most energetic class known, a "hypernova" . This is caused by the explosion of a very heavy star - presumably over 25 times heavier than the Sun. The measured expansion velocity (in excess of 30,000 km/sec) and the total energy released were exceptionally high, even within the elect hypernova class. From a comparison with more nearby hypernovae, the astronomers are able to fix with good accuracy the moment of the stellar explosion. It turns out to be within an interval of plus/minus two days of the gamma-ray burst. This unique conclusion provides compelling evidence that the two events are directly connected. These observations therefore indicate a common physical process behind the hypernova explosion and the associated emission of strong gamma

  16. Spectral-collocation variational integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqun; Wu, Boying; Leok, Melvin

    2017-03-01

    Spectral methods are a popular choice for constructing numerical approximations for smooth problems, as they can achieve geometric rates of convergence and have a relatively small memory footprint. In this paper, we introduce a general framework to convert a spectral-collocation method into a shooting-based variational integrator for Hamiltonian systems. We also compare the proposed spectral-collocation variational integrators to spectral-collocation methods and Galerkin spectral variational integrators in terms of their ability to reproduce accurate trajectories in configuration and phase space, their ability to conserve momentum and energy, as well as the relative computational efficiency of these methods when applied to some classical Hamiltonian systems. In particular, we note that spectrally-accurate variational integrators, such as the Galerkin spectral variational integrators and the spectral-collocation variational integrators, combine the computational efficiency of spectral methods together with the geometric structure-preserving and long-time structural stability properties of symplectic integrators.

  17. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef;

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...

  18. The shifting gamma perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, J.

    2005-01-01

    True to life, color display and color management depend on a proper technical model of the display used. Current gamma models and fitting procedures are not accurate in modeling the lower part of the tone reproduction curve. The GOG- and GOGO-model used in color management standards tend to clip the

  19. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.;

    2007-01-01

    to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  20. Spectrally resolved resonant propulsion of dielectric microspheres

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yangcheng; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I; Urbas, Augustine M; Astratov, Vasily N

    2015-01-01

    Use of resonant light forces opens up a unique approach to high-volume sorting of microspherical resonators with much higher uniformity of resonances compared to that in coupled-cavity structures obtained by the best semiconductor technologies. In this work, the spectral response of the propulsion forces exerted on polystyrene microspheres near tapered microfibers is directly observed. The measurements are based on the control of the detuning between the tunable laser and internal resonances in each sphere with accuracy higher than the width of the resonances. The measured spectral shape of the propulsion forces correlates well with the whispering-gallery mode resonances in the microspheres. The existence of a stable radial trap for the microspheres propelled along the taper is demonstrated. The giant force peaks observed for 20-{\\mu}m spheres are found to be in a good agreement with a model calculation demonstrating an efficient use of the light momentum for propelling the microspheres.

  1. Gamma-ray performance of the GAMMA-400 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Sarkar, R; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission, designed as a dual experiment, capable to study both high energy gamma rays (from $\\sim$100 MeV to few TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons up to 20 TeV and nuclei up to $\\sim$10$^{15}$ eV). The full simulation framework of GAMMA-400 is based on the Geant4 toolkit. The details of the gamma-ray reconstruction pipeline in the three main instruments (Tracker, Imaging Calorimeter, Homogeneous Calorimeter) will be outlined. The performance of GAMMA-400 (PSF, effective area and sensitivity) have been obtained using this framework. The most updated results on them will be shown.

  2. Measurement of {\\eta} meson production in {\\gamma}{\\gamma} interactions and {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Badoni, D; Balwierz-Pytko, I; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkestaahl, L Caldeira; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Fanizzi, G; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Gonnella, F; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskj, L; Hoistad, B; Iafolla, L; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Leverington, B; Loddo, F; Loffredo, S; Mandaglio, G; Martemianov, M; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Longhi, I Prado; Ranieri, A; Redmer, C F; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of {\\eta} meson production in photon-photon interactions produced by electron-positron beams colliding with \\sqrt{s}=1 GeV. The measurement is done with the KLOE detector at the \\phi-factory DA{\\Phi}NE with an integrated luminosity of 0.24 fb^{-1}. The e^+e^- --> e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is measured without detecting the outgoing electron and positron, selecting the decays {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^+{\\pi}^-{\\pi}^0 and {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0. The most relevant background is due to e^+e^- --> {\\eta}{\\gamma} when the monochromatic photon escapes detection. The cross section for this process is measured as {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->{\\eta}{\\gamma}) = (856 \\pm 8_{stat} \\pm 16_{syst}) pb. The combined result for the e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta}) = (32.72 \\pm 1.27_{stat} \\pm 0.70_{syst}) pb. From this we derive the partial width {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) = (520 \\pm 20_{stat} \\pm 13_{syst}) eV. This is in agreement with the world average and is the ...

  3. Gamma rays interactions with WO{sub 3}-doped lead borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElBatal, H.A. [Glass Research Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelghany, A.M., E-mail: a.m_abdelghany@yahoo.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); ElBatal, F.H. [Glass Research Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); EzzElDin, F.M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some ternary borate glasses of varying compositions were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of successive gamma ray irradiation in prepared glass structure was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR, UV measurement before and after successive gamma irradiation were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV spectra reveal some changes with different gamma doses, which are discussed. - Abstract: Optical and FT infrared spectral properties of tungsten ions in a host lead borate glass with composition PbO 55%, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 45% (wt%) were studied. The same spectral properties were re-measured after subjecting the samples to successive gamma irradiation. The work was undertaken to justify the state of tungsten ions in such glass system by combined spectral investigations. Optical and FTIR spectral studies were confirmed by investigating electron spin resonance (ESR) of the undoped and WO{sub 3}-doped samples before and after gamma irradiation. The optical spectrum of the undoped glass exhibits strong and wide UV absorption bands, which are related to the combined UV spectra of trace iron impurities (Fe{sup 3+} ions) and that from divalent lead (Pb{sup 2+}) ions. Optical studies of WO{sub 3}-doped sample indicate the presence of tungsten ions mostly in the hexavalent W{sup 6+} state. The presence of tungsten ions as structural groups was obtained by comparing the FTIR spectra of the undoped and WO{sub 3}-doped samples. ESR spectra confirm the optical and FTIR spectral studies. The studied host lead borate glass has been found to show obvious shielding behavior towards successive gamma irradiation as revealed by the constancy of optical absorption spectral curves.

  4. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Fermi Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Luo, G. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Zhou, A. Y.; Hua, T. X.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, multiwavelength data are compiled for a sample of 1425 Fermi blazars to calculate their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). A parabolic function, {{log}}{(ν {F}ν )={P}1({{log}}ν -{P}2)}2+{P}3, is used for SED fitting. Synchrotron peak frequency ({log}{ν }{{p}}), spectral curvature (P1), peak flux ({ν }{{p}}{F}{ν {{p}}}), and integrated flux (ν {F}ν ) are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars (461 flat-spectrum radio quasars [FSRQs], 620 BL Lacs [BLs], and 311 blazars of uncertain type [BCUs]; 999 sources have known redshifts). Monochromatic luminosity at radio 1.4 GHz, optical R band, X-ray at 1 keV and γ-ray at 1 GeV, peak luminosity, integrated luminosity, and effective spectral indices of radio to optical ({α }{{RO}}) and optical to X-ray ({α }{{OX}}) are calculated. The “Bayesian classification” is employed to log {ν }{{p}} in the rest frame for 999 blazars with available redshift, and the results show that three components are enough to fit the log {ν }{{p}} distribution; there is no ultra-high peaked subclass. Based on the three components, the subclasses of blazars using the acronyms of Abdo et al. are classified, and some mutual correlations are also studied. Conclusions are finally drawn as follows: (1) SEDs are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars. The fitted peak frequencies are compared with common sources from available samples. (2) Blazars are classified as low synchrotron peak sources if log {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 14.0, intermediate synchrotron peak sources if 14.0\\lt {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 15.3, and high synchrotron peak sources if {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})\\gt 15.3. (3) Gamma-ray emissions are strongly correlated with radio emissions. Gamma-ray luminosity is also correlated with synchrotron peak luminosity and integrated luminosity. (4) There is an anticorrelation between peak frequency and peak luminosity within the whole blazar sample. However, there is a marginally positive correlation for high

  5. Brilliant gamma beams for industrial applications: new opportunities, new challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, V.; Suliman, G.; Turturica, G. V.; Iovea, M.; Daito, I.; Ohgaki, H.; Matei, C.; Ur, C. A.; Balabanski, D. L.

    2016-10-01

    The Nuclear Physics oriented pillar of the pan-European Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI-NP) will host an ultra-bright, energy tunable, and quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beam system in the range of 0.2-19.5 MeV produced by laser-Compton backscattering technique. The applied research program envisioned at ELI-NP targets to use nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) and computed tomography to provide new opportunities for industry and society. High sensitivity NRF-based investigations can be successfully applied to safeguard applications and management of radioactive wastes as well as to uncharted fields like cultural heritage and medical imaging. Gamma-ray radioscopy and computed tomography performed at ELI-NP has the potential to achieve high resolution in industrial-sized objects provided the detection challenges introduced by the unique characteristics of the gamma beam are overcome. Here we discuss the foreseen industrial applications that will benefit from the high quality and unique characteristics of ELI-NP gamma beam and the challenges they present. We present the experimental setups proposed to be implemented for this goal, discuss their performance based on analytical calculations and numerical Monte-Carlo simulations, and comment about constrains imposed by the limitation of current scintillator detectors. Several gamma-beam monitoring devices based on scintillator detectors will also be discussed.

  6. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Radio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.

  7. Shock Acceleration and Gamma-Ray Emitting Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Reynolds, S P; Grenier, I A; Goret, P; Baring, Matthew G.; Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Goret, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration in the environs of a remnant's expanding shell is a popular candidate for the origin of SNR gamma-rays. In this paper, results from our study of non-linear effects in shock acceleration theory and their impact on the gamma-ray spectra of SNRs are presented. These effects describe the dynamical influence of the accelerated cosmic rays on the shocked plasma at the same time as addressing how the non-uniformities in the fluid flow force the distribution of the cosmic rays to deviate from pure power-laws. Such deviations are crucial to gamma-ray spectral determination. Our self-consistent Monte Carlo approach to shock acceleration is used to predict ion and electron distributions that spawn neutral pion decay, bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton emission components for SNRs. We demonstrate how the spatial and temporal limitations imposed by the expanding SNR shell quench acceleration above critical energies in the 500 GeV - 10 TeV range, thereby spawning gamma-ray spectral cutoffs that...

  8. The First FERMI-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burgess, J. Michael; Buson, S.; Byrne, D.; Caliandro, G. A.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guiriec, S.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Racusin, J. L.; Thompson, D. J.; Kouveliotou, C.

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy great than (20 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above approximately 20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  9. Exploring Broadband GRB Behavior During gamma-ray Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Yost, S A; Rykoff, E S; Aharonian, F; Akerlof, C W; Alday, A; Ashley, M C B; Barthelmy, S; Burrows, D; Depoy, D L; Dufour, R J; Eastman, J D; Forgey, R D; Gehrels, N; G"uver, T; Halpern, J P; Hardin, L C; Horns, D; Krimm, H A; Lepine, S; Liang, E P; Marshall, J L; McKay, T A; Mineo, T; Mirabal, N; Phillips, A; Prieto, J L; Quimby, R M; Romano, P; Rowell, G; Rujopakarn, W; Schaefer, B E; Silverman, J M; Siverd, R; Skinner, M; Smith, D A; Smith, I A; Tonnesen, S; Troja, E; Vestrand, W T; Wheeler, J C; Wren, J; Yuan, F; Zhang, B

    2006-01-01

    The robotic ROTSE-III telescope network detected prompt optical emission contemporaneous with the gamma-ray emission of Swift events GRB051109A and GRB051111. Both datasets have continuous coverage at high signal-to-noise levels from the prompt phase onwards, thus the early observations are readily compared to the Swift XRT and BAT high energy detections. In both cases, the optical afterglow is established, declining steadily during the prompt emission. For GRB051111, there is evidence of an excess optical component during the prompt emission. The component is consistent with the flux spectrally extrapolated from the gamma-rays, using the gamma-ray spectral index. A compilation of spectral information from previous prompt detections shows that such a component is unusual. The existence of two prompt optical components - one connected to the high-energy emission, the other to separate afterglow flux, as indicated in GRB051111 - is not compatible with a simple ``external-external'' shock model for the GRB and i...

  10. Wavelength conversion based spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    There has been a strong, application driven development of Si-based cameras and spectrometers for imaging and spectral analysis of light in the visible and near infrared spectral range. This has resulted in very efficient devices, with high quantum efficiency, good signal to noise ratio and high...... resolution for this spectral region. Today, an increasing number of applications exists outside the spectral region covered by Si-based devices, e.g. within cleantech, medical or food imaging. We present a technology based on wavelength conversion which will extend the spectral coverage of state of the art...... visible or near infrared cameras and spectrometers to include other spectral regions of interest....

  11. Statistical Analysis of Spectral Properties and Prosodic Parameters of Emotional Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, J.; Přibilová, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses reflection of microintonation and spectral properties in male and female acted emotional speech. Microintonation component of speech melody is analyzed regarding its spectral and statistical parameters. According to psychological research of emotional speech, different emotions are accompanied by different spectral noise. We control its amount by spectral flatness according to which the high frequency noise is mixed in voiced frames during cepstral speech synthesis. Our experiments are aimed at statistical analysis of cepstral coefficient values and ranges of spectral flatness in three emotions (joy, sadness, anger), and a neutral state for comparison. Calculated histograms of spectral flatness distribution are visually compared and modelled by Gamma probability distribution. Histograms of cepstral coefficient distribution are evaluated and compared using skewness and kurtosis. Achieved statistical results show good correlation comparing male and female voices for all emotional states portrayed by several Czech and Slovak professional actors.

  12. Spectral state evolution of 4U~1820-30: the stability of the spectral index of Comptonization tail

    CERN Document Server

    Titarchuk, Lev; Frontera, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the X-ray spectra and their timing properties of the compact X-ray binary 4U~1820-30. We establish a number of spectral transitions in this source seen with BeppoSAX and RXTE. During the RXTE observations (1996 -- 2009), the source were approximately 75% of its time in the soft state making the lower banana and upper banana transitions combined with long-term low-high state transitions. We reveal that all of the X-ray spectra of 4U~1820-30 are fit by a composition of a thermal (blackbody) component, a Comptonization component (COMPTB) and a Gaussian-line component. Thus using this spectral analysis we find that the photon power-law index Gamma of the Comptonization component is almost unchangeable (Gamma~2) while the electron temperature kT_e changes from 2.9 to 21 keV during these spectral events. We also establish that for these spectral events the normalization of COMPTB component (which is proportional to mass accretion rate, \\dot M increases by factor 8 when kT_e decreases from 21 keV to 2.9 k...

  13. On-line interrogation of pebble bed reactor fuel using passive gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature nuclear power reactor. In addition to its inherently safe design, a unique feature of this reactor is its multipass fuel cycle in which graphite fuel pebbles (of varying enrichment) are randomly loaded and continuously circulated through the core until they reach their prescribed end-of-life burnup limit (˜80,000--100,000 MWD/MTU). Unlike the situation with conventional light water reactors (LWRs), depending solely on computational methods to perform in-core fuel management will be highly inaccurate. As a result, an on-line measurement approach becomes the only accurate method to assess whether a particular pebble has reached its end-of-life burnup limit. In this work, an investigation was performed to assess the feasibility of passive gamma-ray spectrometry assay as an approach for on-line interrogation of PBR fuel for the simultaneous determination of burnup and enrichment on a pebble-by-pebble basis. Due to the unavailability of irradiated or fresh pebbles, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the gamma-ray spectra of the PBR fuel at various levels of burnup. A pebble depletion calculation was performed using the ORIGEN code, which yielded the gamma-ray source term that was introduced into the input of an MCNP simulation. The MCNP simulation assumed the use of a high-purity coaxial germanium detector. Due to the lack of one-group high temperature reactor cross sections for ORIGEN, a heterogeneous MCNP model was developed to describe a typical PBR core. Subsequently, the code MONTEBURNS was used to couple the MCNP model and ORIGEN. This approach allowed the development of the burnup-dependent, one-group spectral-averaged PBR cross sections to be used in the ORIGEN pebble depletion calculation. Based on the above studies, a relative approach for performing the measurements was established. The approach is based on using the relative activities of Np-239/I-132 in combination

  14. Context Dependent Spectral Unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Cape Town, South Africa , July 2009. HONORS AND AWARDS: 1. IEEE Outstanding CECS Student Award...COMMEND on the Usgs1C2M3 data across the 25 runs and at all noise levels: (a) SME , (b) SMAE, (c) AME. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6.10 True (solid lines...identifying multiple sets of endmembers. In other words, the unmixing process is adapted to different regions of the spectral space. Another challenge with most

  15. Is the Universe More Transparent to Gamma Rays than Previously Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has recently reported the detection of the strong gamma-ray blazar 3C279 during a 1-2 day flare. They have used their spectral observations to draw conclusions regarding upper limits on the opacity of the Universe to high energy gamma-rays and, by implication, upper limits on the extragalactic mid-infrared background radiation. In this paper we examine the effect of gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic infrared radiation on intrinsic spectra for this blazar and compare our results with the observational data on 3C279. We find agreement with our previous results, contrary to the recent assertion of the MAGIC group that the Universe is more transparent to gamma-rays than our calculations indicate. Our analysis indicates that in the energy range between approx. 80 and approx. 500 GeV, 3C279 has a best-fit intrinsic spectrum with a spectral index approx. 1.78 using our fast evolution model and approx. 2.19 using our baseline model. However, we also find that spectral indices in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 are almost as equally acceptable as the best fit spectral indices. Assuming the same intrinsic spectral index for this flare as for the 1991 flare from 3C279 observed by EGRET, viz., 2.02, which lies between our best fit indeces, we estimate that the MAGIC flare was approx.3 times brighter than the EGRET flare observed 15 years earlier.

  16. Gamma-rays Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms at Ground Level

    CERN Document Server

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P

    2014-01-01

    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA) is an array of NaI scintillators located at rooftop level on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From July 2010 through March 2014, TETRA has detected 28 millisecond-duration bursts of gamma-rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. The results of the initial analysis will be presented.

  17. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  18. A new physics-based method for detecting weak nuclear signals via spectral decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Kung-Sik, E-mail: kung-sik-chan@uiowa.edu [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Li, Jinzheng, E-mail: jinzheng-li@uiowa.edu [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Eichinger, William, E-mail: william-eichinger@uiowa.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Bai, Erwei, E-mail: er-wei-bai@uiowa.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new physics-based method to determine the presence of the spectral signature of one or more nuclides from a poorly resolved spectra with weak signatures. The method is different from traditional methods that rely primarily on peak finding algorithms. The new approach considers each of the signatures in the library to be a linear combination of subspectra. These subspectra are obtained by assuming a signature consisting of just one of the unique gamma rays emitted by the nuclei. We propose a Poisson regression model for deducing which nuclei are present in the observed spectrum. In recognition that a radiation source generally comprises few nuclear materials, the underlying Poisson model is sparse, i.e. most of the regression coefficients are zero (positive coefficients correspond to the presence of nuclear materials). We develop an iterative algorithm for a penalized likelihood estimation that prompts sparsity. We illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method by simulations using a variety of poorly resolved, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations, which show that the proposed approach enjoys excellent empirical performance even with SNR as low as to -15 db.

  19. Gamma beam industrial applications at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Gabriel; Iancu, Violeta; Ur, Calin A.; Iovea, Mihai; Daito, Izuru; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    The Nuclear Physics oriented pillar of the pan-European Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI-NP) will host an ultra-bright, energy tunable, and quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beam system in the range of 0.2-19.5 MeV produced by laser Compton backscattering. This gamma beam satisfies the criteria for large-size product investigations with added capabilities like isotope detection through the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) and is ideal for non-destructive testing applications. Two major applications of gamma beams are being envisaged at ELI-NP: industrial applications based on NRF and industrial radiography and tomography. Both applications exploit the unique characteristics of the gamma beam to deliver new opportunities for the industry. Here, we present the experimental setups proposed at ELI-NP and discuss their performance based on analytical calculations and GEANT4 numerical simulations. One of the main advantages of using the gamma beam at ELI-NP for applications based on NRF is the availability of an advanced detector array, which can enhance the advantages already provided by the high quality of the gamma beam.

  20. Cohomological uniqueness of some p-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz Ramos, Antonio; Ruiz, Albert; Viruel, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We consider classifying spaces of a family of p-groups and prove that mod p cohomology enriched with Bockstein spectral sequences determines their homotopy type among p-completed CW-complexes.......We consider classifying spaces of a family of p-groups and prove that mod p cohomology enriched with Bockstein spectral sequences determines their homotopy type among p-completed CW-complexes....

  1. Lepto$-$Hadronic Origin of $\\gamma$-ray Outbursts of 3C 279

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S; Bottcher, Markus; Stalin, C S; Buckley, David

    2016-01-01

    The blazar 3C 279 exhibited a giant $\\gamma$-ray outburst in 2013 December and 2014 April. Apart from the very fast $\\gamma$-ray flux variability, the spectral nature of the flares were also found to vary significantly between these two flaring events. A prominent curvature in the $\\gamma$-ray spectrum was noticed in 2014 April flare, on the other hand, the 2013 December displayed an extreme hardening of the spectrum. These observations, thus, put strong constraints on our understanding of the underlying particle acceleration mechanisms.

  2. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.;

    2016-01-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, which was discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view...... in the 75 keV-2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW ... of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission....

  3. INTEGRAL Upper Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission Associated with the Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Natalucci, L.;

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we place upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration. The omnidirectional view of the INTEGRAL...... MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy Eγ/EGW gravitational wave...

  4. Uniqueness of the potential function for the vectorial Sturm-Liouville equation on a finite interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Tsorng-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the vectorial Sturm-Liouville operator L Q = - d 2 d x 2 + Q ( x is considered, where Q(x is an integrable m × m matrix-valued function defined on the interval [0,π] The authors prove that m 2+1 characteristic functions can determine the potential function of a vectorial Sturm-Liouville operator uniquely. In particular, if Q(x is real symmetric, then m ( m + 1 2 + 1 characteristic functions can determine the potential function uniquely. Moreover, if only the spectral data of self-adjoint problems are considered, then m 2 + 1 spectral data can determine Q(x uniquely.

  5. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Brigida, M; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Edmonds, Y; Essig, R; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Kamae, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Lionetto, A M; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, O; Roth, M; Sbarra, C; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Snyder, A; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  6. Circumstellar discs in X/gamma-ray binaries: first results from the Echelle spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Zamanov, R; Martí, J

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our first spectral observations of Be/X-ray and gamma-ray binaries obtained with the new Echelle spectrograph of the National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen. For four objects (LSI+61303, gamma Cas, MWC 148, 4U 2206+54), we report the parameters and estimate the sizes of their circumstellar discs using different emission lines (H-alpha, H-beta, H-gamma, HeI and FeII). For MWC 148, we find that the compact object goes deeply through the disc. The flank inflections of H-alpha can be connected with inner ring formed at the periastron passage or radiation transfer effects. We point out an intriguing similarity between the optical emission lines of the $\\gamma$-ray binary MWC 148 and the well known Be star $\\gamma$ Cas.

  7. Librarian driven analysis with graphic user interface for nuclides quantification by gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashov, V.S. E-mail: vlkondra@cdrewu.edu; Rothenberg, S.J.; Petersone, I

    2001-09-11

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma-ray line(s). An a priori determined list of nuclides is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of the database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma-ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma-energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by ICRP.

  8. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Brigida, M.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Moiseev, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  9. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  10. Interferon Gamma in Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize o...

  11. The Minimum Spectral Radius of Signless Laplacian of Graphs with a Given Clique Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we observe that the minimal signless Laplacian spectral radius is obtained uniquely at the kite graph PKn−ω,ω among all connected graphs with n vertices and clique number ω. In addition, we show that the spectral radius μ of PKm,ω (m ≥ 1 satisfies

  12. Marchenko Pastur type theorem for independent MRW processes: convergence of the empirical spectral measure

    CERN Document Server

    Allez, Romain; Vargas, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    We study the asymptotics of the spectral distribution for large empirical covariance matrices composed of independent Multifractal Random Walk processes. The asymptotic is taken as the observation lag shrinks to 0. In this setting, we show that there exists a limiting spectral distribution whose Stieltjes transform is uniquely characterized by equations which we specify.

  13. Frequency up-conversion based single photon, mid-IR spectral imaging with 20% quantum efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    Spectral imaging of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light is emerging as a promising technology since important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints. We demonstrate for detection a novel method including a field deployable imaging system with single photon sensitivity...

  14. NIF Gamma Reaction History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A. M.; Hoffman, N. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Lee, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics is to provide bang time and burn width information based upon measurement of fusion gamma-rays. This is accomplished with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. In addition, the GRH detectors can perform γ-ray spectroscopy to explore other nuclear processes from which additional significant implosion parameters may be inferred (e.g., plastic ablator areal density). Implementation is occurring in 2 phases: 1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the NIF target chamber at ˜6 m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and 2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at ˜15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the wall into well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. This suite of diagnostics will allow exploration of interesting γ-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign. Recent data from OMEGA and NIF will be shown.

  15. Gamma-Ray and Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meg Urry

    2011-03-01

    Blazars are now well understood as approaching relativistic jets aligned with the line of sight. The long-time uncertainty about the demographics of blazars is starting to become clearer: since the Fermi blazar sample includes a larger fraction of high-frequency peaked blazars (like the typical X-ray-selected blazars in, say, the Einstein Slew Survey sample) than did the higher-flux-limit EGRET blazar sample, these low-luminosity sources must be more common than their higher luminosity, low-frequency-peaked cousins. Blazar spectral energy distributions have a characteristic two-component form, with synchrotron radiation at radio through optical (UV, X-ray) frequencies and gamma-rays from X-ray through GeV (TeV) energies.Multiwavelength monitoring has suggested that gamma-ray flares can result from acceleration of electrons at shocks in the jet, and there appears to be an association between the creation of outflowing superluminal radio components in VLBI maps and the gamma-ray flares. In many cases, the gamma-ray emission is produced by inverse Compton upscattering of ambient optical-UV photons, although the contribution from energetic hadrons cannot be ruled out. The next few years of coordinated gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared and radio monitoring of blazars will be important for characterizing jet content, structure, and total power.

  16. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi; Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Umegaki, Kikuo

    2016-06-01

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  17. A COMPARISON OF GADRAS SIMULATED AND MEASURED GAMMA RAY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-06-28

    Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

  18. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yuichiro, E-mail: yuichiro.ueno.bv@hitachi.com [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi [Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-1221 (Japan); Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuhiko [Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Ome-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Umegaki, Kikuo [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  19. Expression and characterization of recombinant gamma-tryptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Beltman, Jeri; Gjerstad, Erik; Nguyen, Margaret T; Sampang, Jun; Chan, Hedy; Janc, James W; Clark, James M

    2006-09-01

    Tryptases are trypsin-like serine proteases whose expression is restricted to cells of hematopoietic origin, notably mast cells. gamma-Tryptase, a recently described member of the family also known as transmembrane tryptase (TMT), is a membrane-bound serine protease found in the secretory granules or on the surface of degranulated mast cells. The 321 amino acid protein contains an 18 amino acid propeptide linked to the catalytic domain (cd), followed by a single-span transmembrane domain. gamma-Tryptase is distinguished from other human mast cell tryptases by the presence of two unique cysteine residues, Cys(26) and Cys(145), that are predicted to form an intra-molecular disulfide bond linking the propeptide to the catalytic domain to form the mature, membrane-anchored two-chain enzyme. We expressed gamma-tryptase as either a soluble, single-chain enzyme with a C-terminal His tag (cd gamma-tryptase) or as a soluble pseudozymogen activated by enterokinase cleavage to form a two-chain protein with an N-terminal His tag (tc gamma-tryptase). Both recombinant proteins were expressed at high levels in Pichia pastoris and purified by affinity chromatography. The two forms of gamma-tryptase exhibit comparable kinetic parameters, indicating the propeptide does not contribute significantly to the substrate affinity or activity of the protease. Substrate and inhibitor library screening indicate that gamma-tryptase possesses a substrate preference and inhibitor profile distinct from that of beta-tryptase. Although the role of gamma-tryptase in mast cell function is unknown, our results suggest that it is likely to be distinct from that of beta-tryptase.

  20. General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    We consider a continuous curve of linear elliptic formally self-adjoint differential operators of first order with smooth coefficients over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary together with a continuous curve of global elliptic boundary value problems. We express the spectral flow...... of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory...... and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....

  1. Gamma Irradiation Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — DMEA has a unique total dose testing laboratory accredited by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA). The lab[HTML_REMOVED]s two J.L. Shepherd...

  2. Gamma-Ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Trois, A; Giuliani, A; Tavani, M; Labanti, C; Fuschino, F; Bulgarelli, A; Longo, F; Barbiellini, G; Del Monte, E; Moretti, E; Trifoglio, M; Costa, E; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; D'Ammando, F; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Piano, G; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Cutini, S; Giommi, P; Lucarelli, F; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.128501

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of 5-10 degrees at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the sub-satellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space.

  3. SpecViz: Interactive Spectral Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Nicholas Michael; STScI

    2016-06-01

    The astronomical community is about to enter a new generation of scientific enterprise. With next-generation instrumentation and advanced capabilities, the need has arisen to equip astronomers with the necessary tools to deal with large, multi-faceted data. The Space Telescope Science Institute has initiated a data analysis forum for the creation, development, and maintenance of software tools for the interpretation of these new data sets. SpecViz is a spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built with Python in an open source development environment. A user-friendly GUI allows for a fast, interactive approach to spectral analysis. SpecViz supports handling of unique and instrument-specific data, incorporation of advanced spectral unit handling and conversions in a flexible, high-performance interactive plotting environment. Active spectral feature analysis is possible through interactive measurement and statistical tools. It can be used to build wide-band SEDs, with the capability of combining or overplotting data products from various instruments. SpecViz sports advanced toolsets for filtering and detrending spectral lines; identifying, isolating, and manipulating spectral features; as well as utilizing spectral templates for renormalizing data in an interactive way. SpecViz also includes a flexible model fitting toolset that allows for multi-component models, as well as custom models, to be used with various fitting and decomposition routines. SpecViz also features robust extension via custom data loaders and connection to the central communication system underneath the interface for more advanced control. Incorporation with Jupyter notebooks via connection with the active iPython kernel allows for SpecViz to be used in addition to a user’s normal workflow without demanding the user drastically alter their method of data analysis. In addition, SpecViz allows the interactive analysis of multi-object spectroscopy in the same straight

  4. The Correlation of Spectral Lag Evolution with Prompt Optical Emission in GRB 080319B

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatikos, Michael; Sakamoto, Takanori; Dhuga, Kalvir S; Toma, Kenji; Pe'er, Asaf; Meszaros, Peter; Band, David L; Norris, Jay P; Barthelmy, Scott D; Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We report on observations of correlated behavior between the prompt gamma-ray and optical emission from GRB 080319B, which confirm that (i) they occurred within the same astrophysical source region and (ii) their respective radiation mechanisms were dynamically coupled. Our results, based upon a new CCF methodology for determining the time-resolved spectral lag, are summarized as follows. First, the evolution in the arrival offset of prompt gamma-ray photon counts between Swift-BAT 15-25 keV and 50-100 keV energy bands (intrinsic gamma-ray spectral lag) appears to be anti-correlated with the arrival offset between prompt 15-350 keV gamma-rays and the optical emission observed by TORTORA (extrinsic optical/gamma-ray spectral lag), thus effectively partitioning the burst into two main episodes at ~T+28+/-2 sec. Second, the rise and decline of prompt optical emission at ~T+10+/-1 sec and ~T+50+/-1 sec, respectively, both coincide with discontinuities in the hard to soft evolution of the photon index for a power ...

  5. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  6. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

  7. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  8. 78 FR 58785 - Unique Device Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 16, 801, 803, et al. Unique Device Identification System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... 0910-AG31 Unique Device Identification System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... will substantially reduce existing obstacles to the adequate identification of medical devices used in...

  9. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  10. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  11. Critical Test Of Gamma Ray Burst Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Long and precise follow-up measurements of the X-ray afterglow (AG) of very intense gamma ray bursts (GRBs) provide a critical test of GRB afterglow theories. Here we show that the power-law decline with time of X-ray AG of GRB 130427A, the longest measured X-ray AG of an intense GRB with the Swift, Chandra and XMM Newton satellites, and of all other well measured late-time X-ray afterglow of intense GRBs, is that predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs from their measured spectral index, while it disagrees with that predicted by the widely accepted fireball (FB) models of GRBs.

  12. Three types of $\\gamma$-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, S; Babu, G J; Murtagh, F; Fraley, C; Raftery, A E; Mukherjee, Soma; Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh; Murtagh, Fionn; Fraley, Chris; Raftery, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of gamma-ray burst (GRB) bulk properties is presented to discriminate between distinct classes of GRBs. Several variables representing burst duration, fluence and spectral hardness are considered. Two multivariate clustering procedures are used on a sample of 797 bursts from the Third BATSE Catalog: a nonparametric average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure validated with Wilks' $\\Lambda^*$ and other MANOVA tests; and a parametric maximum likelihood model-based clustering procedure assuming multinormal populations calculated with the EM Algorithm and validated with the Bayesian Information Criterion. The two methods yield very similar results. The BATSE GRB population consists of three classes with the following Duration/Fluence/Spectrum bulk properties: Class I with long/bright/intermediate bursts, Class II with short/hard/faint bursts, and Class III with intermediate/intermediate/soft bursts. One outlier with poor data is also present. Classes I and II correspond...

  13. U and Pu Gamma-Ray Measurements of Spent Fuel Using a Gamma-Ray Mirror Band-Pass Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL; Alameda, J.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Brejnholt, N.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Decker, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Descalle, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fernandez-Perea, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hill, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kisner, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Melin, A.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Patton, B.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ruz, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Pivovaroff, M.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report on the use of grazing incidence gamma-ray mirrors to serve as a narrow band-pass filter for advanced non-destructive analysis (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the mirrors is to limit the radiation reaching a HPGe detector to narrow spectral bands around characteristic emission lines from fissile isotopes in the fuel. This overcomes the normal rate issues when performing gamma-ray NDA measurements. In a proof-of-concept experiment, a set of simple flat gamma-ray mirrors were used to directly observe the atomic florescence lines from U and Pu from spent fuel pins with the detector located in a shirt-sleeve environment. The mirrors, consisting of highly polished silicon substrates deposited with WC/SiC multilayer coatings, successfully deflected the lines of interest while the intense primary radiation beam from the fuel was blocked by a lead beam stop. The gamma-ray multilayer coatings that make the mirrors work at the gamma-ray energies used here (~ 100 keV) have been experimentally tested at energies as high as 645 keV, indicating that direct observation of nuclear emission lines from 239Pu should be possible with an appropriately designed optic and shielding configuration.

  14. Polarization of gamma-ray bursts in the dissipative photosphere model

    CERN Document Server

    Lundman, Christoffer; Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    The MeV spectral peak of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is best explained as photospheric emission from a dissipative relativistic jet. The observed non-blackbody spectrum shows that sub-photospheric dissipation involves both thermal plasma heating and injection of nonthermal particles, which quickly cool through inverse Compton scattering and emission of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron photons emitted around and above the photosphere are predicted to dominate the low-energy part of the GRB spectrum, starting from roughly a decade in energy below the MeV peak. We show that this leads to a unique polarization signature: a rise in GRB polarization toward lower energies. We compute the polarization degree of GRB radiation as a function of photon energy for a generic jet model, and show the predictions for GRBs 990123, 090902B and 110721A. The expected polarization is significant in the X-ray band, in particular for bursts similar to GRB 090902B. Radiation in the MeV peak (and at higher energies) is unpolarized as lo...

  15. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  16. Spectral Variability of FSRQs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minfeng Gu; Y. L. Ai

    2011-03-01

    The optical variability of 29 flat spectrum radio quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 region are investigated by using DR7 released multi-epoch data. All FSRQs show variations with overall amplitude ranging from 0.24 mag to 3.46 mag in different sources. About half of FSRQs show a bluer-when-brighter trend, which is commonly observed for blazars. However, only one source shows a redder-when-brighter trend, which implies it is rare in FSRQs. In this source, the thermal emission may be responsible for the spectral behaviour.

  17. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 703, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  18. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  19. A note on uniquely (nil clean ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A ring $R$ is uniquely (nil clean in case for any $a\\in R$‎ ‎there exists a uniquely idempotent $e\\in R$ such that $a-e$ is‎ ‎invertible (nilpotent‎. ‎Let‎ ‎$C=\\small\\left(‎‎\\begin{array}{cc}‎‎A & V \\\\‎ ‎W & B‎‎\\end{array}‎‎\\right$‎ ‎be the Morita Context ring‎. ‎We determine conditions under which the rings $A‎, ‎B$‎ ‎are uniquely (nil clean‎. ‎Moreover we show that the center of a uniquely (nil‎‎clean ring is uniquely (nil clean.

  20. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  1. Gamma Oscillations and Visual Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter A.; Kim, Jong Won

    2006-03-01

    At the root of visual perception is the mechanism the brain uses to analyze features in a scene and bind related ones together. Experiments show this process is linked to oscillations of brain activity in the 30-100 Hz gamma band. Oscillations at different sites have correlation functions (CFs) that often peak at zero lag, implying simultaneous firing, even when conduction delays are large. CFs are strongest between cells stimulated by related features. Gamma oscillations are studied here by modeling mm-scale patchy interconnections in the visual cortex. Resulting predictions for gamma responses to stimuli account for numerous experimental findings, including why oscillations and zero-lag synchrony are associated, observed connections with feature preferences, the shape of the zero-lag peak, and variations of CFs with attention. Gamma waves are found to obey the Schroedinger equation, opening the possibility of cortical analogs of quantum phenomena. Gamma instabilities are tied to observations of gamma activity linked to seizures and hallucinations.

  2. The GAMMA-400 Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission which will be installed on board the Russian space platform Navigator. It is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of the next decade. GAMMA-400 is designed to study simultaneously gamma rays (up to 3 TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons and positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, nuclei up to 10$^{15}$-10$^{16}$ eV). Being a dual-purpose mission, GAMMA-400 will be able to address some of the most impelling science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, cosmic-rays origin and propagation, and the nature of transients. GAMMA-400 will try to solve the unanswered questions on these topics by high-precision measurements of the Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission and the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons + positrons and nuclei, thanks to excellent energy and angular resolutions.

  3. A Unified Model for GRB Prompt Emission from Optical to Gamma-Rays; a New Type of Standard Candle

    CERN Document Server

    Guiriec, S; Hartmann, D H; Granot, J; Asano, K; Meszaros, P; Gill, R; Gehrels, N; McEnery, J

    2016-01-01

    The origin of prompt emission from gamma ray bursts remains to be an open question. Correlated prompt optical and gamma-ray emission observed in a handful of GRBs strongly suggests a common emission region, but failure to adequately fit the broadband GRB spectrum prompted the hypothesis of different emission mechanisms for the low- and high-energy radiations. We demonstrate that our multi-component model for GRB gamma-ray prompt emission provides an excellent fit to GRB 110205A from optical to gamma-ray energies. Our results show that the optical and highest gamma-ray emissions have the same spatial and spectral origin, which is different from the bulk of the X- and softest gamma-ray radiation. Finally, our accurate redshift estimate for GRB 110205A demonstrates promise for using GRBs as cosmological standard candles.

  4. Simulated spectra for QA/QC of spectral analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, K. R. (Kevin R.); Biegalski, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulated spectra have been developed to test the peak analysis algorithms of several spectral analysis software packages. Using MCNP 5, generic sample spectra were generated in order to perform ANSI N42.14 standard spectral tests on Canberra Genie-2000, Ortec GammaVision, and UniSampo. The reference spectra were generated in MCNP 5 using an F8, pulse height, tally with a detector model of an actual Germanium detector used in counting. The detector model matches the detector resolution, energy calibration, and efficiency. The simulated spectra have been found to be useful in testing the reliability and performance of spectral analysis programs. The detector model used was found to be useful in testing the performance of modern spectral analysis software tools. The software packages were analyzed and found to be in compliance with the ANSI 42.14 tests of the peak-search and peak-fitting algorithms. This method of using simulated spectra can be used to perform the ANSI 42.14 tests on the reliability and performance of spectral analysis programs in the absence of standard radioactive materials.

  5. Swift captures the spectrally evolving prompt emission of GRB 070616

    CERN Document Server

    Starling, R L C; Willingale, R; Page, K L; Osborne, J P; De Pasquale, M; Nakagawa, Y E; Kuin, N P M; Onda, K; Norris, J P; Ukwatta, T N; Kodaka, N; Burrows, D N; Kennea, J A; Page, M J; Perri, M; Markwardt, C B

    2007-01-01

    The origins of Gamma-ray Burst prompt emission are currently not well understood and in this context long, well-observed events are particularly important to study. We present the case of GRB 070616, analysing the exceptionally long-duration multipeaked prompt emission, and later afterglow, captured by all the instruments on-board Swift and by Suzaku WAM. The high energy light curve remained generally flat for several hundred seconds before going into a steep decline. Spectral evolution from hard to soft is clearly taking place throughout the prompt emission, beginning at 285 s after the trigger and extending to 1200 s. We track the movement of the spectral peak energy, whilst observing a softening of the low energy spectral slope. The steep decline in flux may be caused by a combination of this strong spectral evolution and the curvature effect. We investigate origins for the spectral evolution, ruling out a superposition of two power laws and considering instead an additional component dominant during the l...

  6. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Mattila, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ramebaeck, H. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  7. Spectral evolution of superluminal components in parsec-scale jets

    CERN Document Server

    Mimica, P; Agudo, I; Martí, J M; Gómez, J L; Miralles, J A

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We present numerical simulations of the spectral evolution and radio emission of superluminal components in relativistic jets. We have developed an algorithm (SPEV) for the transport of a population of non-thermal particles (NTPs). For very large values of the ratio of gas pressure to magnetic field energy density ($\\sim 6\\times 10^4$), quiescent over-pressured jet models show substantial spectral evolution compared to models whithout radiative losses. Larger values of the magnetic field yield much shorter jets. Larger magnetic fields result in shorter losses-dominated regimes, with a rapid and intense radiation of energy. We also show that jets with a positive photon spectral index may result if the lower limit $\\gamma_min$ of the NTP energy distribution is placed close or above a threshold $\\gamma_M$, where the synchrotron function R has its maximum. A temporary increase of the Lorentz factor at the jet inlet produces a traveling perturbation that appears in the synthetic maps as a radio componen...

  8. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  9. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  10. Decoding quasars: gravitationally redshifted spectral lines !

    CERN Document Server

    Kantharia, Nimisha G

    2016-01-01

    Further investigation of data on quasars, especially in the ultraviolet band, yields an amazingly coherent narrative which we present in this paper. Quasars are characterised by strong continuum emission and redshifted emission and absorption lines which includes the famous Lyman $\\alpha$ forest. We present irrefutable evidence in support of (1) the entire line spectrum arising in matter located inside the quasar system, (2) the range of redshifts shown by the lines being due to the variable contribution of the gravitational redshift in the observed line velocity, (3) existence of rotating black holes and of matter inside its ergosphere, (4) quasars located within cosmological redshifts $\\sim 3$, (5) $\\gamma$ ray bursts being explosive events in a quasar. These results are significant and a game-changer when we realise that the absorbing gas has been postulated to exist along the line-of-sight to the quasar and observations have accordingly been interpreted. In light of these definitive results which uniquely...

  11. Search for C-parity violation in $J/ \\psi \\to \\gamma\\gamma$ and $ \\gamma \\phi$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Braun, S; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Chu, Y P; Cibinetto, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, Y; Garzia, I; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, T; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Han, S; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, H P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leyhe, M; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, Q J; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X H; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J P; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, R Q; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Moeini, H; Morales, C Morales; Moriya, K; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Pu, Y N; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ren, H L; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2014-01-01

    Using $1.06\\times10^8$ $\\psi(3686)$ events recorded in $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 3.686 GeV with the BESIII at the BEPCII collider, we present searches for C-parity violation in $J/\\psi \\to \\gamma\\gamma$ and $ \\gamma \\phi$ decays via $\\psi(3686) \\to J/\\psi \\pi^+\\pi^-$. No significant signals are observed in either channel. Upper limits on the branching fractions are set to be $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi \\to \\gamma\\gamma) < 2.7 \\times 10^{-7}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(J/\\psi \\to \\gamma\\phi) < 1.4 \\times 10^{-6}$ at the 90\\% confidence level. The former is one order of magnitude more stringent than the previous upper limit, and the latter represents the first limit on this decay channel.

  12. Determination of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma (\\gamma)$ cross-section at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    A test of the benchmark QED process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) is reported, using the data collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP 2. The data analysed were recorded at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 161 GeV to 208 GeV and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 656.4 pb^{-1}. The Born cross-section for the process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) was determined, confirming the validity of QED at the highest energies ever attained in electron-positron collisions. Lower limits on the parameters of a number of possible deviations from QED, predicted within theoretical frameworks expressing physics beyond the Standard Model, were derived.

  13. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation.

  14. Dark matter constraints from box-shaped gamma-ray features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Gehler, Sergio López; Pato, Miguel, E-mail: ibarra@tum.de, E-mail: sergio.lopez@ph.tum.de, E-mail: miguel.pato@tum.de [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The observation of a sharp spectral feature in the gamma-ray sky would be one of the cleanest ways to identify dark matter and pinpoint its properties. Over the years a lot of attention has been paid to two specific features, namely gamma-ray lines and internal bremsstrahlung. Here, we explore a third class of spectral signatures, box-shaped gamma-ray spectra, that naturally arise in dark matter cascade annihilations or decays into intermediate particles that in turn decay into photons. Using Fermi-LAT data, we derive constraints on the dark matter parameter space for both annihilating and decaying dark matter, and show explicitly that our limits are competitive to strategies employing standard spectral features. More importantly, we find robust limits even in the case of non-degenerate dark matter and intermediate particle masses. This result is particularly relevant in constraining dark matter frameworks with gamma-ray data. We conclude by illustrating the power of box-shaped gamma-ray constraints on concrete particle physics scenarios.

  15. Gamma-ray emission from galaxy cluster outskirts versus radio relics

    CERN Document Server

    Siemieniec--Oziȩbło, G

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy cluster peripheries provide important information on the nature of ICM/IGM linkage. In this paper we consider potential future observations in the gamma-ray domain at cluster edges involving the radio relic phenomenon. We focus on the spectral signature of gamma radiation that should be evident in the energy range of Fermi--LAT, i.e. $\\gtrsim 10^{-1}$ GeV and the CTA energy range $\\sim$ $ 10^{2}$ GeV. The spectral signature results from a comparable gamma-ray flux due to the IC and $ \\pi ^{0} $ decay on the edge of the cluster, and its spectral position is a function of the magnetic field and relative efficiency of the acceleration of protons and electrons. We aim to draw attention to the dependence of the gamma-ray structure on the magnetic field value. As an example, we carried out analyses of two types of non-thermal diffuse radio emission: the radio relic of A 2256 and the radio halo of Coma cluster. We suggest that in both cases the expected spatially correlated gamma-ray spectrum should have a ch...

  16. On the soft X-ray spectra of $\\gamma$-loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Comastri, A; Ghisellini, G; Molendi, S

    1996-01-01

    ROSAT observations of a large sample of bright gamma-ray (E > 100 MeV) blazars are presented. Results of a detailed spectral analysis in the soft energy distribution with particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray and gamma-ray properties. A significant anti-correlation between X-ray and gamma-ray spectral shapes of flat radio spectrum quasars (FSRQ) and BL Lacs has been discovered. A different shape in the overall energy distributions from radio to gamma-ray energies between FSRQ and BL Lacs is also implied by the correlation of their broad-band spectral indices $\\alpha_{ro}$ and $\\alpha_{x emission and the hard X-ray to gamma-ray emission originate from the same electron population, via, respectively, the synchrotron process and the inverse Compton mechanism. We suggest that a key parameter for understanding the overall energy distributions of both classes of objects is the energy at which the synchrotron emission peaks in a $\

  17. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  18. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detector...

  19. Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.

  20. Early detection of radioactive fall-out by gamma-spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components...

  1. Fast-ion energy resolution by one-step reaction gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The spectral broadening of γ-rays from fusion plasmas can be measured in high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). We derive weight functions that determine the observable velocity space and quantify the velocity-space sensitivity of one-step reaction high-resolution GRS measurements in magne...

  2. Spectrophotometric analysis of gamma-ray burst afterglow extinction curves with X-Shooter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Japelj, J.; Covino, S.; Gomboc, A.; Vergani, S.D.; Goldoni, P.; Selsing, J.; Cano, Z.; D’Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Hammer, F.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaper, L.; Kopač, D.; Krühler, T.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N.R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Watson, D.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    We use gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra observed with the VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph to measure rest-frame extinction in GRB lines-of-sight by modelling the broadband near-infrared (NIR) to X-ray afterglow spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our sample consists of nine Swift GRBs, of which

  3. Discovery of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR J1833-0832

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Göğüş; G. Cusumano; A.J. Levan; C. Kouveliotou; T. Sakamoto; S.D. Barthelmy; S. Campana; Y. Kaneko; B.W. Stappers; A. de Ugarte Postigo; T. Strohmayer; D.M. Palmer; J. Gelbord; D.N. Burrows; A.J. van der Horst; T. Muñoz-Darias; N. Gehrels; J.W.T. Hessels; A.P. Kamble; S. Wachter; K. Wiersema; R.A.M.J. Wijers; P.M. Woods

    2010-01-01

    On 2010 March 19, the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope triggered on a short burst with temporal and spectral characteristics similar to those of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts. The source location, however, did not coincide with any known SGR. Subsequent observations of the source error box with the Sw

  4. Advantages of exclusive \\gamma\\gamma production to probe high mass systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D

    2016-01-01

    We recall that the exclusive production of high mass objects via \\gamma\\gamma fusion at the LHC is not strongly suppressed in comparison with inclusive \\gamma\\gamma fusion. Therefore it may be promising to study new objects produced by the \\gamma\\gamma subprocess in experiments with exclusive kinematics. We list the main advantages of exclusive experiments.

  5. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  6. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Opalak

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions.

  7. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  8. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.

    2015-02-06

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  9. Spectral disentangling with Spectangular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablowski, Daniel P.; Weber, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The paper introduces the software Spectangular for spectral disentangling via singular value decomposition with global optimisation of the orbital parameters of the stellar system or radial velocities of the individual observations. We will describe the procedure and the different options implemented in our program. Furthermore, we will demonstrate the performance and the applicability using tests on artificial data. Additionally, we use high-resolution spectra of Capella to demonstrate the performance of our code on real-world data. The novelty of this package is the implemented global optimisation algorithm and the graphical user interface (GUI) for ease of use. We have implemented the code to tackle SB1 and SB2 systems with the option of also dealing with telluric (static) lines. Based in part on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  10. Spectral Classification Beyond M

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, S K; Burgasser, A J; Jones, H R A; Marley, M S; Tsuji, T

    2004-01-01

    Significant populations of field L and T dwarfs are now known, and we anticipate the discovery of even cooler dwarfs by Spitzer and ground-based infrared surveys. However, as the number of known L and T dwarfs increases so does the range in their observational properties, and difficulties have arisen in interpreting the observations. Although modellers have made significant advances, the complexity of the very low temperature, high pressure, photospheres means that problems remain such as the treatment of grain condensation as well as incomplete and non-equilibrium molecular chemistry. Also, there are several parameters which control the observed spectral energy distribution - effective temperature, grain sedimentation efficiency, metallicity and gravity - and their effects are not well understood. In this paper, based on a splinter session, we discuss classification schemes for L and T dwarfs, their dependency on wavelength, and the effects of the parameters T_eff, f_sed, [m/H] and log g on optical and infra...

  11. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  12. Spectral disentangling with Spectangular

    CERN Document Server

    Sablowski, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces the software Spectangular for spectral disentangling via singular value decomposition with global optimisation of the orbital parameters of the stellar system or radial velocities of the individual observations. We will describe the procedure and the different options implemented in our program. Furthermore, we will demonstrate the performance and the applicability using tests on artificial data. Additionally, we use high-resolution spectra of Capella to demonstrate the performance of our code on real-world data. The novelty of this package is the implemented global optimisation algorithm and the graphical user interface (GUI) for ease of use. We have implemented the code to tackle SB1 and SB2 systems with the option of also dealing with telluric (static) lines.

  13. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Sieber, Moritz; Paschereit, Christian Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The identification of coherent structures from experimental or numerical data is an essential task when conducting research in fluid dynamics. This typically involves the construction of an empirical mode base that appropriately captures the dominant flow structures. The most prominent candidates are the energy-ranked proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the frequency ranked Fourier decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). However, these methods fail when the relevant coherent structures occur at low energies or at multiple frequencies, which is often the case. To overcome the deficit of these "rigid" approaches, we propose a new method termed Spectral Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (SPOD). It is based on classical POD and it can be applied to spatially and temporally resolved data. The new method involves an additional temporal constraint that enables a clear separation of phenomena that occur at multiple frequencies and energies. SPOD allows for a continuous shifting from the energetically ...

  14. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. approximately 140g/cm2 for inelastic scattering and approximately 50 g/cm2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum on order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  15. The GAMMA-400 Space Experiment: Gammas, Electrons and Nuclei Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocchiutti, E.; Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Carbone, R.; Cumani, P.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sarkar, R.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Yurkin, Yu. T.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.; Zirakashvili, V. N.

    2013-06-01

    The present design of the new space gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-400 for the energy range 50 MeV-3 TeV is presented. The proposed instrument has an angular resolution of 1-2 degrees at E(γ)˜100 MeV and ˜0.01 degrees at E(γ)>100 GeV and an energy resolution ˜1% at E(γ)>100 GeV. By means of a deep segmented calorimeter high energy electron flux can be studied, with a proton rejection factor of about 106. The GAMMA-400 experiment is optimized to address a broad range of science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, studies of galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, gamma-ray bursts, as well as high-precision measurements of spectra of high energy electrons, protons and nuclei up to the knee.

  16. THE FIRST FERMI-LAT GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Bissaldi, E. [Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Bonnell, J.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bouvier, A., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: giacomov@slac.stanford.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2013-11-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (∼> 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ∼20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  17. The First Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgess, J. Michael; Buson, S.; Byrne, D.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Dingus, B. L.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Goldstein, A.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Gruber, D.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kawano, T.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McBreen, S.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Pelassa, V.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Preece, R.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rau, A.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tierney, D.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Xiong, S.; Yang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (gsim 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above ~20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  18. HESS J1818-154, a new composite supernova remnant discovered in TeV gamma rays and X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Bissaldi, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; de Wilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Murach, T; Naumann, C L; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Rob, L; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Zabalza, V; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2013-01-01

    Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) constitute a small subclass of remnants of massive stellar explosions where non-thermal radiation is observed from both the expanding shell-like shock front and from a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located inside of the SNR. These systems represent a unique evolutionary phase of SNRs where observations in the radio, X-ray and gamma-ray regimes allow the study of the co-evolution of both of these energetic phenomena. In this article, we report results from observations of the shell-type SNR G15.4+0.1 performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and XMM-Newton. A compact TeV gamma-ray source, HESSJ1818-154, located in the center and contained within the shell of G15.4+0.1 is detected by H.E.S.S. featuring a spectrum best represented by a power-law model with a spectral index of $-2.3 \\pm 0.3_{stat} \\pm 0.2_{sys}$ and an integral flux of F$(>0.42\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$)=($0.9 \\pm 0.3_{\\mathrm{stat}} \\pm 0.2_{\\mathrm{sys}}) \\times 10^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Furthermore, ...

  19. Assessments of MODIS On-orbit Spatial and Spectral Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Jack; Link, Dan; Twedt, Kevin; Wang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 micron and at 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands 3-7), and 1 km (bands 8-36) nadir spatial resolutions. MODIS spectral bands are located according to their wavelengths on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs): VIS, NIR, S/MWIR, and LWIR. In addition to on-board solar diffuser (SD) and blackbody (BB) designed for sensor radiometric calibration, MODIS was built with a unique device, the spectro-radiometric calibration ass...

  20. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available of spectral unmixing 3 End-member spectra and synthetic mixtures 4 Results 5 Conclusions Debba (CSIR) Spectral Unmixing LQM 2009 2 / 22 Background and Research Question If research could be as easy as eating a chocolate cake . . . Figure: Can you guess... the ingredients for this chocolate cake? Debba (CSIR) Spectral Unmixing LQM 2009 3 / 22 Background and Research Question Ingredients Quantity unsweetened chocolate unsweetened cocoa powder boiling water flour baking powder baking soda salt unsalted...

  1. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  2. PANGU: a wide field gamma-ray imager and polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Walter, R.; Su, M.; Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Böttcher, M.; Chang, J.; Chernyakova, M.; Fan, Y.; Farnier, C.; Gargano, F.; Grenier, I.; Hajdas, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Pearce, M.; Pohl, M.; Zdziarski, A.

    2016-07-01

    PANGU (the PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit) is a gamma-ray telescope with a wide field of view optimized for spectro-imaging, timing and polarization studies. It will map the gamma-ray sky from 10 MeV to a few GeV with unprecedented spatial resolution. This window on the Universe is unique to detect photons produced directly by relativistic particles, via the decay of neutral pions, or the annihilation or decay light from anti-matter and the putative light dark matter candidates. A wealth of questions can be probed among the most important themes of modern physics and astrophysics. The PANGU instrument is a pair-conversion gamma-ray telescope based on an innovative design of a silicon strip tracker. It is light, compact and accurate. It consists of 100 layers of silicon micro-strip detector of 80 x 80 cm2 in area, stacked to height of about 90 cm, and covered by an anticoincidence detector. PANGU relies on multiple scattering effects for energy measurement, reaching an energy resolution between 30-50% for 10 MeV - 1 GeV. The novel tracker will allow the first polarization measurement and provide the best angular resolution ever obtained in the soft gamma ray and GeV band.

  3. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  4. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watanabe, Takehito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Colliding. gamma. e and. gamma gamma. beams from single-pass e/sup +/e/sup -/ accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1983-08-01

    A detailed discussion is given of the main characteristics of ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. collisions in the scheme previously proposed by the authors for obtaining colliding ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams on the basis of the planned linear accelerators with e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliding beams VLEPP and SLC. It is proposed to obtain intense ..gamma.. beams with energy ..omega..approx.E/sub e/> or =50 GeV by scattering of laser light focused onto the electron beams of these accelerators. In the case when the maximum luminosity is achieved, L/sub gammae/approx.L/sub e/e or L/sub gammagamma/approx.L/sub e/e, the distribution of the luminosity in the invariant mass of the ..gamma..e or ..gamma gamma.. system is broad. Monochromatization of the collisions to a level 5--10% is possible. It involves a decrease of luminosity and is most efficient for use of electrons and laser photons with helicities of opposite sign. Examples of interesting physics problems for the proposed ..gamma..e and ..gamma gamma.. beams are given.

  6. Innovative Gamma Ray Spectrometer Detection Systems for Conducting Scanning Surveys on Challenging Terrain - 13583

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palladino, Carl; Mason, Bryan; Engle, Matt; LeVangie, James [The Palladino Company, Inc., 720 Fillmore St., San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Dempsey, Gregg [United States Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. Box 98517, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8517 (United States); Klemovich, Ron [HydroGeoLogic, Inc., 6340 Glenwood, Suite 200, Building No. 7, Overland Park, KS 66202 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Santa Susana Field Laboratory located near Simi Valley, California was investigated to determine the nature and extent of gamma radiation anomalies. The primary objective was to conduct gamma scanning surveys over 100 percent of the approximately 1,906,000 square meters (471 acre) project site with the most sensitive detection system possible. The site had challenging topography that was not conducive to traditional gamma scanning detection systems. Terrain slope varied from horizontal to 48 degrees and the ground surface ranged from flat, grassy meadows to steep, rocky hillsides. In addition, the site was home to many protected endangered plant and animal species, and archaeologically significant sites that required minimal to no disturbance of the ground surface. Therefore, four innovative and unique gamma ray spectrometer detection systems were designed and constructed to successfully conduct gamma scanning surveys of approximately 1,076,000 square meters (266 acres) of the site. (authors)

  7. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  8. Shock acceleration in gamma-ray bursts; Acceleration de choc dans des sursauts gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, M. [Institut d' astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98, bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Pelletier, G. [Laboratoire d' astrophysique de Grenoble, CNRS. universite Joseph-Fourier II, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2011-04-15

    Gamma-ray bursts offer a rather unique window on the fundamental astrophysics of particle acceleration. Sources of high-energy gamma rays, they are also likely sources of cosmic rays, possibly of the so-called ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and they may well turn out to be the strongest sources of high energy neutrinos. Through the interaction of their outflow with the circum-burst medium, these explosions generate ultra-relativistic shock waves that convert part of the bulk kinetic energy into particle energy, ultimately giving rise to the impressive photon power law spectra of the afterglow. The prompt emission may well occur through the interactions of disturbances moving with mildly relativistic relative velocity within the flow itself. However, the detailed acceleration mechanism is not yet understood. This chapter discusses the progress made in the past decade in our understanding of relativistic shock acceleration and its relation to gamma-ray burst phenomenology. It notably discusses the intimate relationship between the electromagnetic micro-instabilities upstream of the collisionless shock and the accelerated particles. It also briefly discusses the possibility of accelerating particles to ultra-high energies and the production of secondary neutrino signals. It concludes with a list of open questions and some perspectives. (authors)

  9. Understanding the Continuum Spectra of Short Soft Gamma Repeater Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Finger, Mark H.; Lenter, Geoffrey; Patel, Sandeep K.; Swank, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The spectra of short soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts at photon energies above -15 keV are often well described by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model (i.e., F(E) - E^-1 * exp(-E/kT) ) with kT=20-40 keV. However, the spectral shape burst continuum at lower photon energies (down to -2 keV) is not well established. It is important to better understand the SGR burst spectral properties at lower energies since inadequate description of the burst spectral continuum could lead to incorrect conclusions, such as existence of spectral lines. Here, we present detailed spectral investigations (in 2-200 keV) of 163 bursts from SGR 1806-20, all detected with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2004 active episode that included the giant flare on 27 December 2004. We find that the great majority of burst spectra are well represented by the combination of a blackbody plus a OTTB models.

  10. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B

    2015-01-01

    -sweep characteristics to identify alterations induced by morphine. METHODS: In a crossover study 15 single-sweep CHEPs were analyzed from 62 electroencephalography electrodes in 26 healthy volunteers before and after administration of morphine or placebo. Each sweep was decomposed by a continuous wavelet transform...... to obtain normalized spectral indices in the delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-32 Hz) and gamma (32-80 Hz) bands. The average distribution over all sweeps and channels was calculated for the four recordings for each volunteer, and the two recordings before treatments were assessed...

  11. Construction of Spectral Triples Starting from Fredholm Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Schrohe, E.; Walze, M.; Warzecha, J. -M.

    1998-01-01

    Let (A,H,F) be a p-summable Fredholm module where the algebra A= C \\Gamma is generated by a discrete group of unitaries in L(H) which is of polynomial growth r. Then we construct a spectral triple (A,H,D) with F= sign D which is q-summable for each q > p+r+1. In case (A,H,F) is (p,\\infty)-summable we obtain (q,\\infty)-summability of (A,H,D) for each q > p+r+1.

  12. ESO 243-49 HLX-1: scaling of X-ray spectral properties and black hole mass determination

    OpenAIRE

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of Swift/XRT observations (2008-2015) of a hyper-luminous X-ray source, ESO 243-49 HLX-1. We found a strong observational evidence that ESO 243-49 HLX-1 underwent spectral transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state during these observations. The spectra of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 are well fitted by the so-{called} bulk motion Comptonization model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index Gamma saturation level, Gamma_{sat}$=3.0+/-0.1, in the ...

  13. Evidence for the virtual beta-gamma transition in 59Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, M; Żylicz, J

    2015-01-01

    A novel theory of radiative electron capture in second forbidden non-unique transition, is applied to reanalyze experimental data obtained previously for the decay of 59Ni. The measured gamma spectrum is shown to be distorted at the high-energy end, presenting the first direct evidence for the virtual beta-gamma transition through the excited state in 59Co. The complete theoretical predictions, including both the direct and the virtual decay channels, as well as the interference between them, reproduce very well the experimental spectrum. The virtual nuclear component amounts to about 4% of the total gamma intensity.

  14. Field-deployable gamma-radiation detectors for DHS use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2007-09-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS' requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER TM, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack TM that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field1. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant spectral data and

  15. Field Deployable Gamma Radiation Detectors for DHS Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has integrated all nuclear detection research, development, testing, evaluation, acquisition, and operational support into a single office: the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The DNDO has specific requirements set for all commercial off-the-shelf and government off-the-shelf radiation detection equipment and data acquisition systems. This article would investigate several recent developments in field deployable gamma radiation detectors that are attempting to meet the DNDO specifications. Commercially available, transportable, handheld radio isotope identification devices (RIID) are inadequate for DHS requirements in terms of sensitivity, resolution, response time, and reach-back capability. The leading commercial vendor manufacturing handheld gamma spectrometer in the United States is Thermo Electron Corporation. Thermo Electron's identiFINDER{trademark}, which primarily uses sodium iodide crystals (3.18 x 2.54cm cylinders) as gamma detectors, has a Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum energy resolution of 7 percent at 662 keV. Thermo Electron has just recently come up with a reach-back capability patented as RadReachBack{trademark} that enables emergency personnel to obtain real-time technical analysis of radiation samples they find in the field. The current project has the goal to build a prototype handheld gamma spectrometer, equipped with a digital camera and an embedded cell phone to be used as an RIID with higher sensitivity, better resolution, and faster response time (able to detect the presence of gamma-emitting radio isotopes within 5 seconds of approach), which will make it useful as a field deployable tool. The handheld equipment continuously monitors the ambient gamma radiation, and, if it comes across any radiation anomalies with higher than normal gamma gross counts, it sets an alarm condition. When a substantial alarm level is reached, the system automatically triggers the saving of relevant

  16. Multiwavelength Studies of gamma-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Christina

    2011-01-01

    High mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) consist of an O or B star orbited by either a neutron star or a black hole. Of the 114 known Galactic HMXBs, a handful of these objects, dubbed gamma-ray binaries, have been observed to produce MeV-TeV emission. The very high energy emission can be produced either by accretion from the stellar wind onto a black hole or a collision between the stellar wind and a relativistic pulsar wind. Both these scenarios make gamma-ray binaries valuable nearby systems for studying the physics of shocks and jets. Currently, the nature of the compact object and the high energy production mechanism is unknown or unconfirmed in over half of these systems. My goal for this dissertation is to constrain the parameters describing two of these systems: LS 5039 and HD 259440. LS 5039 exhibits gamma-ray emission modulated with its orbital period. The system consists of an ON6.5V((f)) star and an unidentified compact companion. Using optical spectra from the CTIO 1.5m telescope, we found LS 5039 to have an orbital period of 3.90608 d and an eccentricity of 0.337. Spectra of the Halpha line observed with SOAR indicate a mass loss rate of ˜ 1.9x10 -8 M yr-1. Observations taken with ATCA at 13 cm, 6 cm, and 3 cm indicate radio fluxes between 10--40 mJy. The measurements show variability with time, indicating a source other than thermal emission from the stellar wind. HD 259440 is a B0pe star that was proposed as the optical counterpart to the gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057. Using optical spectra from the KPNO CF, KPNO 2.1m, and OHP telescopes, we find a best fit stellar effective temperature of 27500--30000 K, a log surface gravity of 3.75--4.0, a mass of 13.2--19.0 Msolar, and a radius of 6.0--9.6 Rsolar. By fitting the spectral energy distribution, we find a distance between 1.1--1.7 kpc. We do not detect any significant radial velocity shifts in our data, ruling out orbital periods shorter than one month. If HD 259440 is a binary, it is likely a long

  17. Anomalous spectral weight transfer at the superconducting transition of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8+. delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Shen, Z.; Spicer, W.E. (Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (USA)); Arko, A.J.; List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA)); Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A. (Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (USA))

    1991-04-22

    Anomalous spectral weight transfer at the superconducting transition of single-crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} was observed by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. As the sample goes superconducting, not only is there spectral weight transfer from the gap region to the pileup peak as in BCS theory, but along the {Gamma}-{ital {bar M}} direction there is also some spectral weight transfer from higher binding energies in the form of a dip. In addition, we note that at the superconducting transition there is a decrease (increase) in the occupied spectral weight for the spectra taken along {Gamma}-{ital {bar M}} ({Gamma}-{ital X}).

  18. Spectral properties of Compton inverse radiation: Application of Compton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Compton inverse radiation emitted due to backscattering of laser pulses off the relativistic electrons possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons - in hard x-ray up to gamma-ray energies - because of short wavelength of laser radiation as compared with the classical electromagnetic devices such as undulators. In this report, the possibility of such radiation to monochromatization by means of collimation is studied. Two approaches have been considered for the description of the spectral-angular density of Compton radiation based on the classical field theory and on the quantum electrodynamics. As is shown, both descriptions produce similar total spectra. On the contrary, angular distribution of the radiation is different: the classical approach predicted a more narrow radiation cone. Also proposed and estimated is a method of the `electronic' monochromatization based on the electronic subtraction of the two images produced by the electron beams with slightly different energies. A `proof-of-prin...

  19. Can CMB spectral distortions test the Einstein equivalence principle?

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Shun; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) can be verified by the measurement of the spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The existence of energy-dependency in the cosmological redshift effect means the EEP violation. Introducing the energy-dependent Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric motivated by rainbow gravity, we show that the energy-dependent redshift effect causes the CMB spectral distortions. Assuming the simple energy-dependent form of the metric, we evaluate the distortions. From the COBE/FIRAS bound, we find that the deviation degree from the EEP, which is comparable to the difference of the parameterized-post-Newtonian parameter "gamma" in energy, is less than 10^{-9} at the CMB energy scale. Our bound is the first constraint on the EEP at cosmological time scale.

  20. Spectral analysis of SMC X-2 during its 2015 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    La Palombara, N; Pintore, F; Esposito, P; Mereghetti, S; Tiengo, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of Swift and XMM-Newton observations of SMC X-2 during its last outburst in 2015 October, the first one since 2000. The source reached a very high luminosity ($L \\sim 10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$), which allowed us to perform a detailed analysis of its timing and spectral properties. We obtained a pulse period $P_{\\rm spin}$ = 2.372267(5) s and a characterization of the pulse profile also at low energies. The main spectral component is a hard ($\\Gamma \\simeq 0$) power-law model with an exponential cut-off, but at low energies we detected also a soft (with kT $\\simeq$ 0.15 keV) thermal component. Several emission lines can be observed at various energies. The identification of these features with the transition lines of highly ionized N, O, Ne, Si, and Fe suggests the presence of photoionized matter around the accreting source.

  1. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  2. Pixelated gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinsky, Sergei Ivanovich; Yanoff, Brian David; Guida, Renato; Ivan, Adrian

    2016-12-27

    A pixelated gamma detector includes a scintillator column assembly having scintillator crystals and optical transparent elements alternating along a longitudinal axis, a collimator assembly having longitudinal walls separated by collimator septum, the collimator septum spaced apart to form collimator channels, the scintillator column assembly positioned adjacent to the collimator assembly so that the respective ones of the scintillator crystal are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator channels, the respective ones of the optical transparent element are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator septum, and a first photosensor and a second photosensor, the first and the second photosensor each connected to an opposing end of the scintillator column assembly. A system and a method for inspecting and/or detecting defects in an interior of an object are also disclosed.

  3. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  4. Radio Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, Lekshmi

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on the physics of Gamma Ray Bursts probed through their radio afterglow emission. Even though radio band is the least explored of the afterglow spectrum, it has played an important role in the progress of GRB physics, specifically in confirming the hypothesized relativistic effects. Currently radio astronomy is in the beginning of a revolution. The high sensitive Square Kilometer Array (SKA) is being planned, its precursors and pathfinders are about to be operational, and several existing instruments are undergoing upgradation. Thus, the afterglow results from detection statistics and follow up programs are expected to improve in the coming years. We list a few avenues unique to radio band which if explored to full potential have the promise to greatly contribute to the future of GRB physics.

  5. Evaluation of spontaneous dense array gamma oscillatory activity and minor physical anomalies as a composite neurodevelopmental endophenotype in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Sai Krishna; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Pradhan, N; Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq

    2015-02-01

    Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) and gamma oscillatory activity have been proposed as associated endophenotypes in schizophrenia. Combining these endophenotypes to create a composite endophenotype may help identify those at risk for schizophrenia better. The present study aims to investigate MPAs and gamma oscillatory activity in schizophrenia patients, their unaffected first degree relatives and healthy controls and appreciate whether they can be used together as a composite endophenotype. This was a cross sectional family study conducted at a tertiary care mental health setup. Ninety participants including schizophrenia patients, their first degree relatives and controls (thirty each) were assessed for MPAs on the Extended Waldrop Scale. All participants underwent an awake, resting 192-channel EEG recording. Spectral power and coherence in 30-100Hz gamma bands were estimated using Welch's averaged periodogram method. One-way ANOVA, chi square test were used for comparing socio-demographic-clinical variables. MANOVA supplemented by one-way ANOVAs (post hoc Tukey HSD) were done for comparison of spectral measures. Pearson's correlation, step-by-step linear discriminant functional and intra-familial correlation analysis were subsequently performed. An endophenotype pattern of finding was found for MPAs in the craniofacial region, the total number of MPAs, spectral power in right temporal region on all bands and in the right parietal region in 50-70Hz and 70-100Hz gamma bands. The three groups were most accurately classified when MPA total score, right temporal 30-50Hz gamma power and right occipital 'intra hemispheric' 50-70Hz gamma coherence were considered together than when considered independently. Significant intra familial correlation was seen for MPA total score and right temporal gamma 30-50Hz power. Composite evaluation of two developmentally linked markers i.e. MPAs and gamma spectral measures may prove useful in categorizing schizophrenia and identifying

  6. Spectral Analysis of Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of a statistical analysis of Markov chains connected with the spectral density. We present the expressions for the function of spectral density. These expressions may be used to estimate the parameter of the Markov chain.

  7. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  8. Gamma-ray bursts and collisionless shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2006-01-01

    Particle acceleration in collisionless shocks is believed to be responsible for the production of cosmic-rays over a wide range of energies, from few GeV to >10^{20} eV, as well as for the non-thermal emission of radiation from a wide variety of high energy astrophysical sources. A theory of collisionless shocks based on first principles does not, however, exist. Observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) "afterglows" provide a unique opportunity for diagnosing the physics of relativistic collisionless shocks. Most GRBs are believed to be associated with explosions of massive stars, and their "afterglows," delayed low energy emission following the prompt burst of gamma-rays, are produced by relativistic collisionless shock waves driven by the explosion into the surrounding plasma. Some of the striking characteristics of these shocks include the generation of downstream magnetic fields with energy density exceeding that of the upstream field by ~8 orders of magnitude, the survival of this strong field at distances ...

  9. Gamma-ray binaries: pulsars in disguise ?

    CERN Document Server

    Dubus, G

    2006-01-01

    LS 5039 and LSI +61 303 are unique amongst high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) for their spatially-resolved radio emission and their counterpart at >GeV gamma-ray energies, canonically attributed to non-thermal particles in an accretion-powered relativistic jet. The only other HMXB known to emit very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63, harbours a non-accreting millisecond pulsar. I investigate whether the interaction of the relativistic wind from a young pulsar with the wind from its stellar companion, as in PSR B1259-63, constitutes a viable scenario to explain the observations of LS 5039 and LSI +61 303. Emission would arise from the shocked pulsar wind material, which then flows away to large distances in a comet-shape tail, reproducing on a smaller scale what is observed in isolated, high motion pulsars interacting with the ISM. Simple expectations for the SED are derived and are shown to depend on few input parameters. Detailed modelling of the particle evolution is compared to the observations from ...

  10. Miniature spectrally selective dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.R.; Macconochie, I.O.; Poole, B.D.

    1983-02-08

    The present invention discloses a miniature spectrally selective dosimeter capable of measuring selected bandwidths of radiation exposure on small mobile areas. This is achieved by the combination of photovoltaic detectors, electrochemical integrators (e-cells) and filters in a small compact case which can be easily attached in close proximity to and substantially parallel to the surface being measured. In one embodiment two photovoltaic detectors, two e-cells and three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a safety pin. In another embodiment, two detectors, one e-cell and three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a clip to clip over a side piece of an eye glass frame in a further embodiment, the electro-optic elements a packaged in a wristwatch case with attaching means being a watchband. The filters in all embodiments allow only selected wavelengths of radiation to be detected by the photovoltaic detectors and then integrated by the e-cells.

  11. Characterizing the gamma-ray long-term variability of PKS 2155-304 with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, H; Aharonian, F; Benkhali, F Ait; Andersson, A G Akhperjanian T; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Bernhard, D Berge S; Bernlöhr, K; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Casanova, J Carr S; Cerruti, M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Decock, J; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Devin, J; deWilt, P; Dirson, L; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J -P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gajdus, S Gabici M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M -H; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Haupt, M; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J -P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Leser, E; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Liu, R; López-Coto, R; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Mohrmann, L; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; deNaurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; O'Brien, P; Odaka, H; Öttl, S; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perennes, C; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, Q Piel S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; delosReyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Settimo, M; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tibaldo, L; Tiziani, D; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; Uchiyama, Y; van der Walt, D J; vanEldik, C; vanRensburg, C; vanSoelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; White, R M Wagner R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-01-01

    Studying the temporal variability of BL Lac objects at the highest energies provides unique insights into the extreme physical processes occurring in relativistic jets and in the vicinity of super-massive black holes. To this end, the long-term variability of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 is analyzed in the high (HE, 100 MeV 200 GeV) gamma-ray domain. Over the course of ~9 yr of H.E.S.S observations the VHE light curve in the quiescent state is consistent with a log-normal behavior. The VHE variability in this state is well described by flicker noise (power-spectral-density index {\\ss}_VHE = 1.10 +0.10 -0.13) on time scales larger than one day. An analysis of 5.5 yr of HE Fermi LAT data gives consistent results ({\\ss}_HE = 1.20 +0.21 -0.23, on time scales larger than 10 days) compatible with the VHE findings. The HE and VHE power spectral densities show a scale invariance across the probed time ranges. A direct linear correlation between the VHE and HE fluxes could neither be excluded nor firmly established...

  12. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  13. Optical fiber sensor for low dose gamma irradiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, Ana I.; Esteban, Ã.`scar; Embid, Miguel

    2016-05-01

    An optical fiber gamma ray detector is presented in this work. It is based on a Terbium doped Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillating powder which cover a chemically etched polymer fiber tip. This etching improves the fluorescence gathering by the optical fiber. The final diameter has been selected to fulfill the trade-off between light gathering and mechanical strength. Powder has been encapsulated inside a microtube where the fiber tip is immersed. The sensor has been irradiated with different air Kerma doses up to 2 Gy/h with a 137Cs source, and the spectral distribution of the fluorescence intensity has been recorded in a commercial grade CCD spectrometer. The obtained signal-to-noise ratio is good enough even for low doses, which has allowed to reduce the integration time in the spectrometer. The presented results show the feasibility for using low cost equipment to detect/measure ionizing radiation as gamma rays are.

  14. Spectral numbers in Floer theories

    CERN Document Server

    Usher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The chain complexes underlying Floer homology theories typically carry a real-valued filtration, allowing one to associate to each Floer homology class a spectral number defined as the infimum of the filtration levels of chains representing that class. These spectral numbers have been studied extensively in the case of Hamiltonian Floer homology by Oh, Schwarz, and others. We prove that the spectral number associated to any nonzero Floer homology class is always finite, and that the infimum in the definition of the spectral number is always attained. In the Hamiltonian case, this implies that what is known as the "nondegenerate spectrality" axiom holds on all closed symplectic manifolds. Our proofs are entirely algebraic and rather elementary, and apply to any Floer-type theory (including Novikov homology) satisfying certain standard formal properties provided that one works with coefficients in a Novikov ring whose degree-zero part \\Lambda_0 is a field. The key ingredient is a theorem about linear transforma...

  15. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Azizi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  16. A direct proof of uniqueness of square-root of a positive semi-definite tensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue SHAO; Cun-jing L(U)

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the basic properties of the positive semi-definite tensor is a prerequisite for its extensive applications in theoretical and practical fields,especially for its square-root.Uniqueness of the square-root of a positive semi-definite tensor is proven in this paper without resorting to the notion of eigenvalues,eigenvectors and the spectral decomposition of the second-order symmetric tensor.

  17. Gamma-ray flare and absorption in Crab Nebula: Lovely TeV--PeV astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kohri, Kazunori; Ioka, Kunihito

    2012-01-01

    We spectrally fit the GeV gamma-ray flares recently-observed in the Crab Nebula by considering a small blob Lorentz-boosted towards us. We point out that the corresponding inverse-Compton flare at TeV--PeV region is more enhanced than synchrotron by a Lorentz factor square \\sim \\Gamma^2, which is already excluding \\Gamma \\gtrsim 200 and will be detected by future TeV - PeV observatories, CTA, Tibet AS + MD and LHAASO for \\Gamma \\gtrsim 30. We also show that PeV photons emitted from the Crab Nebula are absorbed by Cosmic Microwave Background radiation through electron-positron pair creation.

  18. Quasar-driven outflows account for the missing extragalactic gamma-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiawei

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background permeating throughout the Universe remains a mystery forty years after its discovery. The extrapolated population of blazars can account for only half of the background radiation at the energy range of ~ 0.1-10 GeV. Here we show that quasar-driven outflows generate relativistic protons that produce the missing component of the extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background and naturally match its spectral fingerprint, with a generic break above ~ 1 GeV. The associated $\\gamma$-ray sources are too faint to be detected individually, explaining why they had not been identified so far. However, future radio observations may image their shock fronts directly. Our best fit to the Fermi-LAT observations of extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background spectrum provides constraints on the outflow parameters that agree with observations of these outflows and theoretical predictions.

  19. Detailed spectral and morphological analysis of the shell type SNR RCW 86

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chretien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Atai, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J -P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khelifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluzniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lorentz, M; Lu, C -C; Lui, R; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moraa, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; S.,; Öttl,; Ohm, S; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Seyffert, A S; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; Valerius, K; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; Weidinger, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharia, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Zywucka, N

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We aim for an understanding of the morphological and spectral properties of the supernova remnant RCW~86 and for insights into the production mechanism leading to the RCW~86 very high-energy gamma-ray emission. Methods: We analyzed High Energy Spectroscopic System data that had increased sensitivity compared to the observations presented in the RCW~86 H.E.S.S. discovery publication. Studies of the morphological correlation between the 0.5-1~keV X-ray band, the 2-5~keV X-ray band, radio, and gamma-ray emissions have been performed as well as broadband modeling of the spectral energy distribution with two different emission models. Results:We present the first conclusive evidence that the TeV gamma-ray emission region is shell-like based on our morphological studies. The comparison with 2-5~keV X-ray data reveals a correlation with the 0.4-50~TeV gamma-ray emission.The spectrum of RCW~86 is best described by a power law with an exponential cutoff at $E_{cut}=(3.5\\pm 1.2_{stat})$ TeV and a spectral index o...

  20. Near-Equipartition Jets with Log-Parabola Electron Energy Distribution and the Blazar Spectral-Index Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D; Zhang, Li; Finke, Justin D; Lott, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Fermi-LAT analyses show that the gamma-ray photon spectral indices Gamma_gamma of a large sample of blazars correlate with the vFv peak synchrotron frequency v_s according to the relation Gamma_gamma = d - k log v_s. The same function, with different constants d and k, also describes the relationship between Gamma_gamma and peak Compton frequency v_C. This behavior is derived analytically using an equipartition blazar model with a log-parabola description of the electron energy distribution (EED). In the Thomson regime, k = k_EC = 3b/4 for external Compton processes and k = k_SSC = 9b/16 for synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, where b is the log-parabola width parameter of the EED. The BL Lac object Mrk 501 is fit with a synchrotron/SSC model given by the log-parabola EED, and is best fit away from equipartition. Departures from equipartition are limited by jet power and make small corrections to the spectral-index diagrams. Analytic expressions are compared with numerical values derived from self-Compt...