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Sample records for unique low-signature survey

  1. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    to our survey and other potential astronomical applications.

  2. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  3. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  4. Technology Assessment for Proof-of-Concept UF6 Cylinder Unique Identification Task 3.1.2 Report – Survey and Assessment of Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, Joann; Hockert, John

    2014-04-24

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s (NA-24) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the nuclear industry have begun to develop approaches to identify and monitor uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The NA-24 interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to its interest in supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in deterring and detecting diversion of UF6 (e.g., loss of cylinder in transit) and undeclared excess production at conversion and enrichment facilities. The industry interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to the improvements in operational efficiencies that such a system would provide. This task is part of an effort to survey and assess technologies for a UF6 cylinder to identify candidate technologies for a proof-of-concept demonstration and evaluation for the Cylinder Identification System (CIS).

  5. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  6. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  7. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  8. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  9. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  10. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  11. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  12. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  13. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  14. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  15. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  16. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  17. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Hammond

    2013-01-01

    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  18. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  19. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  20. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  1. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  2. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  3. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  4. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  5. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  6. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  7. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  8. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  9. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  10. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  12. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-05

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  13. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  14. The VANDELS ESO spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  15. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  16. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  17. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004 http://www.heldermann-verlag.de/jca/jca11/jca0386.pdf

  18. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  19. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  20. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  1. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  2. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, S

    1995-06-01

    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  3. Nearshore Survey System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental...CRAB: A Unique Nearshore Surveying Vehicle.” American Society of Civil Engineers , Journal of Surveying Engineering 110(1): 1–7. Clausner, J. E., W...unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and

  4. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  5. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  6. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  7. A unique theory of all forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    In discussing the construction of a consistent theory of quantum gravity unified with the gauge interactions we are naturally led to a string theory. We review its properties and the five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions. We finally discuss the evidence that these theories are actually special limits of a unique 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, and a recent conjecture for its explicit formulation as a supersymmetric Matrix theory

  8. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  9. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  10. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  11. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  12. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  13. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  14. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  16. Young children's preference for unique owned objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S

    2016-10-01

    An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Uniqueness and numerical methods in inverse obstacle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    The inverse problem we consider in this tutorial is to determine the shape of an obstacle from the knowledge of the far field pattern for scattering of time-harmonic plane waves. In the first part we will concentrate on the issue of uniqueness, i.e., we will investigate under what conditions an obstacle and its boundary condition can be identified from a knowledge of its far field pattern for incident plane waves. We will review some classical and some recent results and draw attention to open problems. In the second part we will survey on numerical methods for solving inverse obstacle scattering problems. Roughly speaking, these methods can be classified into three groups. Iterative methods interpret the inverse obstacle scattering problem as a nonlinear ill-posed operator equation and apply iterative schemes such as regularized Newton methods, Landweber iterations or conjugate gradient methods for its solution. Decomposition methods, in principle, separate the inverse scattering problem into an ill-posed linear problem to reconstruct the scattered wave from its far field and the subsequent determination of the boundary of the scatterer from the boundary condition. Finally, the third group consists of the more recently developed sampling methods. These are based on the numerical evaluation of criteria in terms of indicator functions that decide whether a point lies inside or outside the scatterer. The tutorial will give a survey by describing one or two representatives of each group including a discussion on the various advantages and disadvantages

  19. Some Unique Characteristics of Television and Some Implications for Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that television has unique educational characteristics that separate it from other media and have implications for teaching and learning. Discussion of distributional and social, control, and symbolic (audiovisual) characteristics is based on published surveys and on research carried out at the Open University. Thirteen references are…

  20. Uniqueness of KMS states for continuous fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 Prof H. Narnhofer and Prof. W. Thirring established a (nonlocal) model of fermions with pair interactions. The existence of equilibrium states and the appearance of mixing properties was proofed. If this model reflects the basic facts of nature, one has to expect and to require that at high temperatures there is a unique equilibrium state and at low temperatures there are many different equilibrium states. Uniqueness of the equilibrium state at high temperatures is the topic of this dissertation. One may be astonished, that the proof of the uniqueness requires such a huge machinery, while the existence of KMS-states followes from fairly general conditions. Two states differ, if they can be distinguished by experiment. If one considers now that we have to show that two KMS-states at high temperatures result into the same value in all experiments one can think of, one might get an idea how unhandy this problem is. Even a conscious numeration of all experiments was a problem. Surprisingly only a few principal ideas of the treatment of spin-models survive. The temperature is the leading parameter and therefore it is a good idea to make a high temperature perturbation expansion for the KMS-condition, which fixes an equilibrium state in mathematical terms. But when we choose a generating vector for the perturbation expansion the similarities end. We better use physical considerations: at high temperatures we expect that chemical bounds will be broken up and the interacting equilibrium state will differ only slightly from the equilibrium state for the free time evolution. Roughly spoken, one can expect that high-energetic particles neglect interactions and fly in a straight line. In chapter 2.4 the whole machinery is presented in an easy-to-survey manner on a simple interaction. But in the case of pair interactions every particle interacts with each other and so the author was not able to find an easily accessible form of the developed method for this case

  1. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  2. Is physical space unique or optional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstein, H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1975-02-01

    There are two concepts of the physical space-time. One, S(F), is that of a fixed arena in which events take place. The other S(D), is that of a space-time shaped by events. The second depends on the state (initial conditions) or on the external field, the first does not. The main assertions of the present paper are: 1) the fixed space-time S(F) is neither incompatibles with nor made superfluous, by Einstein's theory. S(F) is experimentally explorable, unique, and probably identical with Minkowski space M. 2) The dynamical space S(D) is largely optional. It can be chosen to be M, but the natural choice is Einstein's pseudo-Riemanian manifold [fr

  3. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource

  4. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  5. Unique computer system for safeguards use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Pratt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors have been used to implement specialized scientific data processing systems since 1976. One such system, the LeCroy 3500, is presently being used by the Detection and Verification Group of the Energy Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for a large variety of tasks involving measurement of various nuclear parameters associated with radioactive materials. The system is unique because it can do not only sophisticated pulse height and multi-scale analyses but also other analyses that are limited only by the availability fo CAMAC modules that would acquire data from exotic experiments. The system is also field portable which extends the range of experiments that it can control. Four applications of this system are described in this paper: (1) plutonium storage vault monitoring, (2) coded aperture image reconstruction, (3) spatial distribution of gamma radiation, and (4) nuclear waste management. 7 figures

  6. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  7. The unique ethics of sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rob

    2004-04-01

    The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices.

  8. MRI: unique costing and pricing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H W; Jarl, D F

    1985-01-01

    Acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves a plethora of costs not traditionally encountered in radiology procedure cost accounting models. Experiences with MRI gained at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics during 1984 uncovered a wide variety of unique costing issues which were eventually identified at the time when the MRI hospital charge was being established. Our experience at UMHC can provide those radiology departments now acquiring MRI with an earlier awareness of these special costing issues, hopefully resulting in better and more timely data collection. Current reimbursement and pricing issues are also having a dramatic impact on MRI costs at each institution and must be assessed in terms of third-party payor intentions.

  9. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  10. Marginal and happy? The need for uniqueness predicts the adjustment of marginal immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrosse, Régine; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Rossignac-Milon, Maya

    2015-12-01

    Marginalization is often presented as the strategy associated with the worst adjustment for immigrants. This study identifies a critical variable that buffers marginal immigrants from the negative effects of marginalization on adjustment: The need for uniqueness. In three studies, we surveyed immigrants recruited on university campuses (n = 119, n = 116) and in the field (n = 61). Among marginal immigrants, a higher need for uniqueness predicted higher self-esteem (Study 1), affect (Study 2), and life satisfaction (Study 3), and marginally higher happiness (Study 2) and self-esteem (Study 3). No relationship between the need for uniqueness and adjustment was found among non-marginal immigrants. The adaptive value of the need for uniqueness for marginal immigrants is discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  12. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

  13. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  14. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module's different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line

  15. Clinical EPR: Unique Opportunities and Some Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Hartford, Alan C.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice; Comi, Richard J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G.; Flood, Ann B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe and regulatory constraints. This paper describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry), and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease, by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

  16. TDRSS S-shuttle unique receiver equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A.; Schwartz, J. J.; Spearing, R.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with STS-9, the Tracking and Date Relay Satellite system (TDRSS) will start providing S- and Ku-band communications and tracking support to the Space Shuttle and its payloads. The most significant element of this support takes place at the TDRSS White Sands Ground Terminal, which processes the Shuttle return link S- and Ku-band signals. While Ku-band hardware available to other TDRSS users is also applied to Ku-Shuttle, stringent S-Shuttle link margins have precluded the application of the standard TDRSS S-band processing equipment to S-Shuttle. It was therfore found necessary to develop a unique S-Shuttle Receiver that embodies state-of-the-art digital technology and processing techniques. This receiver, developed by Motorola, Inc., enhances link margins by 1.5 dB relative to the standard S-band equipment and its bit error rate performance is within a few tenths of a dB of theory. An overview description of the Space Shuttle Receiver Equipment (SSRE) is presented which includes the presentation of block diagrams and salient design features. Selected, measured performance results are also presented.

  17. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  18. Hausdorff dimension of unique beta expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Derong; Li, Wenxia

    2015-01-01

    Given an integer N ⩾ 2 and a real number β > 1, let Γ β, N be the set of all x=∑ i=1 ∞ d i /β i with d i  ∈ {0, 1, ···, N − 1} for all i ⩾ 1. The infinite sequence (d i ) is called a β-expansion of x. Let U β,N be the set of all x's in Γ β,N which have unique β-expansions. We give explicit formula of the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for β in any admissible interval [β L , β U ], where β L is a purely Parry number while β U is a transcendental number whose quasi-greedy expansion of 1 is related to the classical Thue–Morse sequence. This allows us to calculate the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for almost every β > 1. In particular, this improves the main results of Gábor Kallós (1999, 2001). Moreover, we find that the dimension function f(β) = dim H U β,N fluctuates frequently for β ∈ (1, N). (paper)

  19. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  20. A Unique Civil Engineering Capstone Design Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanabhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The North Dakota State University, USA, capstone course was developed as a unique model in response to the effort of the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology, USA, to streamline and improve design instruction in the curriculum and has steadily evolved to keep pace with the ever-changing technology and the expectations of the profession and the society we serve. A capstone design course by definition should be a design experience for students in the final year before graduation integrating all major design concepts they have learned up until then in the program. Carefully chosen real world projects with design content in all sub-disciplines of civil engineering are assigned in this team-taught course. Faculty and practicing professionals make presentations on design process; project management; leadership in an engineering environment; and public policy; global perspectives in engineering; and professional career and licensure. Practicing professionals also critique the final student presentations. Students work in teams with number of faculty serving as technical consultants, and a faculty mentor for each team to provide non-technical guidance and direction. The course requires students to demonstrate mastery of the curriculum and to work with others in a team environment. Course assessment includes evaluation of the final design, presentations, written technical reports, project design schedule, a project design journal, and reaction papers.

  1. Peatlands as a unique climatic hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinska, S.; Marcisz, K.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blazejczyk, K.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are unique environments, often acting as microrefugia of various taxa. High groundwater table, organic soils, specific vegetation and topography are important determinants of their local climatic conditions. However, relations between those determinants are not stable. For example, seasonal changes in weather patterns, hydrological dynamics, and local vegetation may alter microclimate. Additionally, long-term changes are important factor, as for example overgrowing due to significant change of microclimate conditions, what in turn changes geochemical and biological processes in the peat layer. We have been investigating interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of a small Sphagnum mire (ca. 6.0 ha) for over ten years now. The mire is located in Poland in transitional temperate climate and is the only place in polish lowlands where glacial relict Betula nana occurs. Identification of local climate of the mire, its microclimatic differentiation and its influence on surroundings were objectives of the study. We recorded water level fluctuations, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature and humidity, and peat temperature at five monitoring plots at the mire and observed significant differences between them. We also investigated Sphagnum mosses growth and testate amoeba diversity and community structure to understand biological response of those differences. We observed that local climate of the mire was significantly different from open area reference place, it was much colder especially during nights. The average minimal temperature at the height 30 cm for growing seasons 2010-2012 was 3.7oC lower there and ground frosts occurred even in the summer. The climate of the mire affected the forest directly adjacent to it, and depending on weather conditions the strength and the distance of this interaction was different. Our results show that micro-environmental changes affects on biological processes and should be taken into consideration

  2. Lourdes: A uniquely Catholic approach to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichoso, Travis Jon

    2015-02-01

    As an American medical student, I spent the summer break between my first and second year in Lourdes, France, the site where the Immaculate Conception appeared eighteen times to St. Bernadette in 1858 as proclaimed approved by the Catholic Church and whose water is associated with over seven thousand unexplained cures. During this time I volunteered with St. Joseph's Service and Poste Secour, followed several medical teams taking care of large pilgrim groups, and shadowed Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis the president of Le Bureau des Constations Médicales, the office in Lourdes charged with investigating claims of miracles. Through my experiences, I found the mission of medicine in Lourdes to be twofold: to provide the critical care needed to give sick persons the chance to transform their experience of disease through their faith; and secondly, through the efforts of the Medical Bureau, to be an instrument by which we can comprehend the wonders of the work of God. I conclude that this twofold mission should inform the work of every Catholic in health care or research, and Lourdes provides the venue par excellence to cultivate this mission. Lay Summary: Lourdes is a pilgrimage site in southern France that has been associated with medical miracles for the past 150 years. The site is unique in that throughout its history, physicians, of any or no faith, have been invited to participate in the proceedings of the investigations of each claimed cure. The investigations have formalized into a process handled by the Lourdes Medical Bureau and the Lourdes International Medical Association. Travis Dichoso, an American medical student, writes about his experiences as part of this process.

  3. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  4. The VANDELS ESO public spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, R. J.; Pentericci, L.; Cimatti, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Fontana, A.; Nandra, K.; Amorin, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Carnall, A. C.; Castellano, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cucciati, O.; Cullen, F.; De Barros, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Garilli, B.; Guaita, L.; Hartley, W. G.; Iovino, A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Juneau, S.; Karman, W.; Maccagni, D.; Marchi, F.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Pompei, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Almaini, O.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Bell, E. F.; Bourne, N.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Brusa, M.; Buitrago, F.; Caputi, K. I.; Cassata, P.; Charlot, S.; Citro, A.; Cresci, G.; Cristiani, S.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Dickinson, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fiore, F.; Franco, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Galametz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Jung, I.; Kim, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Khusanova, Y.; Fèvre, O. Le; Lotz, J. M.; Mannucci, F.; Maltby, D. T.; Matsuoka, K.; McLeod, D. J.; Mendez-Hernandez, H.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mignoli, M.; Moresco, M.; Mortlock, A.; Nonino, M.; Pannella, M.; Papovich, C.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. P.; Salvato, M.; Santini, P.; Schaerer, D.; Schreiber, C.; Stark, D. P.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Treu, T.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Williams, C. C.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.

    2018-05-01

    VANDELS is a uniquely-deep spectroscopic survey of high-redshift galaxies with the VIMOS spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). The survey has obtained ultra-deep optical (0.48 studies. Using integration times calculated to produce an approximately constant signal-to-noise ratio (20 motivation, survey design and target selection.

  5. Kerala: a unique model of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K P; Thankappan, K R; Ramankutty, V; Aravindan, K P

    1991-12-01

    This article capsules health in terms of morbidity, mortality, and maternal and child health; sex ratios, and population density in Kerala state in India from a more expanded report. Kerala state is known for its highly literate and female literate, and poor income population, but its well advanced state of demographic transition. There is a declining population growth rate, a high average marriage age, a low fertility rate, and a high degree of population mobility. One of the unique features of Kerala is the high female literacy, and the favorable position of women in decision making and a matrilineal inheritance mode. The rights of the poor and underprivileged have been upheld. The largest part of government revenue is spent on education followed by health. Traditional healing systems such the ayurveda are strong in Kerala, and Christian missionaries have contributed to a caring tradition. Morbidity is high and mortality is low because medical interventions have affected morality only. The reduction of poverty and environmentally related diseases has not been accomplished inspite of land reform, mass schooling, and general egalitarian policies. Mortality declines and a decline in birth rates have lead to a more adult and aged population, which increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically, the death rate in Kerala was always lower (25/1000 in 1930 and 6.4 in 1986). The gains in mortality were made in reducing infant mortality (27/1000), which is 4 times less than India as a whole and comparable to Korea, Panama, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Lower female mortality occurs in the 0-4 years. Life expectancy which was the same as India's in 1930 is currently 12 years higher than India's. Females have a higher expectation of life. The sex ratio in 1981 was 1032 compared to India's of 935. Kerala had almost replacement level in 1985. The crude birth rate is 21 versus 32 for India. In addition to the decline in death rates of those 5

  6. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such

  7. Two Galaxies for a Unique Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    To celebrate the 100 Hours of Astronomy, ESO is sharing two stunning images of unusual galaxies, both belonging to the Sculptor group of galaxies. The images, obtained at two of ESO's observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile, illustrate the beauty of astronomy. ESO PR Photo 14a/09 Irregular Galaxy NGC 55 ESO PR Photo 14b/09 Spiral Galaxy NGC 7793 As part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 Cornerstone project, 100 Hours of Astronomy, the ambitious "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" event is a unique live webcast over 24 hours, following night and day around the globe to some of the most advanced observatories on and off the planet. To provide a long-lasting memory of this amazing world tour, observatories worldwide are revealing wonderful, and previously unseen, astronomical images. For its part, ESO is releasing outstanding pictures of two galaxies, observed with telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories. The first of these depicts the irregular galaxy NGC 55, a member of the prominent Sculptor group of galaxies in the southern constellation of Sculptor. The galaxy is about 70 000 light-years across, that is, a little bit smaller than our own Milky Way. NGC 55 actually resembles more our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), although the LMC is seen face-on, whilst NGC 55 is edge-on. By studying about 20 planetary nebulae in this image, a team of astronomers found that NGC 55 is located about 7.5 million light-years away. They also found that the galaxy might be forming a bound pair with the gorgeous spiral galaxy NGC 300 . Planetary nebulae are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. This striking image of NGC 55, obtained with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, is dusted with a flurry of reddish nebulae, created by young, hot massive stars. Some of the more extended ones are not unlike those seen in the LMC, such as the Tarantula Nebula. The quality

  8. Novel criteria of uniqueness for signal reconstruction from phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach for ascertaining whether a signal is uniquely determined by its Fourier transform phase is proposed. It is shown that uniqueness corresponds to the nonsingularity of a matrix which can be formed from the finite-length real sequence. The criterion of uniqueness for reconstructing a

  9. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  10. Understanding the unique assembly history of central group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Bundy, Kevin; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Treu, Tommaso; Mei, Simona; Coccato, Lodovico; Kneib, Jean Paul; Auger, Matthew; Nipoti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Central galaxies (CGs) in massive halos live in unique environments with formation histories closely linked to that of the host halo. In local clusters, they have larger sizes (R e ) and lower velocity dispersions (σ) at fixed stellar mass M * , and much larger R e at a fixed σ than field and satellite galaxies (non-CGs). Using spectroscopic observations of group galaxies selected from the COSMOS survey, we compare the dynamical scaling relations of early-type CGs and non-CGs at z ∼ 0.6 to distinguish possible mechanisms that produce the required evolution. CGs are systematically offset toward larger R e at fixed σ compared to non-CGs with similar M * . The CG R e -M * relation also shows differences, primarily driven by a subpopulation (∼15%) of galaxies with large R e , while the M * -σ relations are indistinguishable. These results are accentuated when double Sérsic profiles, which better fit light in the outer regions of galaxies, are adopted. They suggest that even group-scale CGs can develop extended components by these redshifts that can increase total R e and M * estimates by factors of ∼2. To probe the evolutionary link between our sample and cluster CGs, we also analyze two cluster samples at z ∼ 0.6 and z ∼ 0. We find similar results for the more massive halos at comparable z, but much more distinct CG scaling relations at low-z. Thus, the rapid, late-time accretion of outer components, perhaps via the stripping and accretion of satellites, would appear to be a key feature that distinguishes the evolutionary history of CGs.

  11. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  12. Coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiangdong.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping also coexist in the same way as minimal sets do. To do this we give some notations in section 2. In section 3 we define D-function of a uniquely ergodic system and show its basic properties. We prove the coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping in section 4. Lastly we give the examples of uniquely ergodic systems with given D-functions in section 5. 27 refs

  13. Customization: Ideal Varieties, Product Uniqueness and Price Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang

    2009-01-01

    We study customization in the Hotelling model with two firms. In addition to providing ideal varieties, the perceived uniqueness of a customized product contributes independently to consumer utility. We show that only when consumer preferences for uniqueness are high customization occurs in equilibrium.

  14. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  15. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  16. MUSE spectroscopy and deep observations of a unique compact JWST target, lensing cluster CLIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Alex; Conselice, Christopher J.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Frye, Brenda L.; Diego, Jose M.; Zitrin, Adi; Yan, Haojing; Ma, Zhiyuan; Barone-Nugent, Robert; Bhatawdekar, Rachana; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of a VLT MUSE/FORS2 and Spitzer survey of a unique compact lensing cluster CLIO at z = 0.42, discovered through the GAMA survey using spectroscopic redshifts. Compact and massive clusters such as this are understudied, but provide a unique prospective on dark matter distributions and for finding background lensed high-z galaxies. The CLIO cluster was identified for follow-up observations due to its almost unique combination of high-mass and dark matter halo concentration, as well as having observed lensing arcs from ground-based images. Using dual band optical and infra-red imaging from FORS2 and Spitzer, in combination with MUSE optical spectroscopy we identify 89 cluster members and find background sources out to z = 6.49. We describe the physical state of this cluster, finding a strong correlation between environment and galaxy spectral type. Under the assumption of an NFW profile, we measure the total mass of CLIO to be M200 = (4.49 ± 0.25) × 1014 M⊙. We build and present an initial strong-lensing model for this cluster, and measure a relatively low intracluster light (ICL) fraction of 7.21 ± 1.53 per cent through galaxy profile fitting. Due to its strong potential for lensing background galaxies and its low ICL, the CLIO cluster will be a target for our 110 h James Webb Space Telescope `Webb Medium-Deep Field' (WMDF) GTO program.

  17. Seafloor massive sulfide deposits support unique megafaunal assemblages: Implications for seabed mining and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, Rachel E; Rowden, Ashley A; Clark, Malcolm R; Pallentin, Arne; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-04-01

    Mining of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) is imminent, but the ecology of assemblages at SMS deposits is poorly known. Proposed conservation strategies include protected areas to preserve biodiversity at risk from mining impacts. Determining site suitability requires biological characterisation of the mine site and protected area(s). Video survey of a proposed mine site and protected area off New Zealand revealed unique megafaunal assemblages at the mine site. Significant relationships were identified between assemblage structure and environmental conditions, including hydrothermal features. Unique assemblages occurred at both active and inactive chimneys and are particularly at risk from mining-related impacts. The occurrence of unique assemblages at the mine site suggests that the proposed protected area is insufficient alone and should instead form part of a network. These results provide support for including hydrothermally active and inactive features within networks of protected areas and emphasise the need for quantitative survey data of proposed sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Unique small RNA signatures uncovered in the tammar wallaby genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay James

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small RNAs have proven to be essential regulatory molecules encoded within eukaryotic genomes. These short RNAs participate in a diverse array of cellular processes including gene regulation, chromatin dynamics and genome defense. The tammar wallaby, a marsupial mammal, is a powerful comparative model for studying the evolution of regulatory networks. As part of the genome sequencing initiative for the tammar, we have explored the evolution of each of the major classes of mammalian small RNAs in an Australian marsupial for the first time, including the first genome-scale analysis of the newest class of small RNAs, centromere repeat associated short interacting RNAs (crasiRNAs. Results Using next generation sequencing, we have characterized the major classes of small RNAs, micro (mi RNAs, piwi interacting (pi RNAs, and the centromere repeat associated short interacting (crasi RNAs in the tammar. We examined each of these small RNA classes with respect to the newly assembled tammar wallaby genome for gene and repeat features, salient features that define their canonical sequences, and the constitution of both highly conserved and species-specific members. Using a combination of miRNA hairpin predictions and co-mapping with miRBase entries, we identified a highly conserved cluster of miRNA genes on the X chromosome in the tammar and a total of 94 other predicted miRNA producing genes. Mapping all miRNAs to the tammar genome and comparing target genes among tammar, mouse and human, we identified 163 conserved target genes. An additional nine genes were identified in tammar that do not have an orthologous miRNA target in human and likely represent novel miRNA-regulated genes in the tammar. A survey of the tammar gonadal piRNAs shows that these small RNAs are enriched in retroelements and carry members from both marsupial and tammar-specific repeat classes. Lastly, this study includes the first in-depth analyses of the newly

  19. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  20. Non-unique Product Groups on Two Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William Paul

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to better understand groups that do not have the unique product property. In particular, the goal is to better understand Promislow's example, G, of such a group. In doing so, we will develop methods for generating examples of other sets that do not have the unique product property. With these methods we can show that there exists other distinct 14 element, square, non-unique product sets in G that are not inversions or translations. Also, this paper answers ...

  1. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  2. PET-CT in the typification of unique pulmonary injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, P.; San Roman, Jose L.; Dalurzo, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this document is to evaluate the usefulness of the PET-CT for the characterization of the unique pulmonary injuries. Retrospective analysis was made to patients with unique pulmonary injuries who carried out a PET-CT in the Italian Hospital between May of 2003 - March of 2005. Those patients with pulmonary outlying nodule, or unique pulmonary mass that had pathological anatomy of injury or follow-up through a computed tomography of thorax made with an interval of time not minor at 2 years of the PET-CT were included [es

  3. Surveys & Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My residential construction. Business Dynamics Statistics (BDS) Provides measures of openings and closings, job

  4. Availability, Uniqueness and Perceived Value of Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS Programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabaa M. Al-Rousan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the uniqueness of the Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS degree and the factors that contribute to this uniqueness. A total of 18 colleges and schools that offer a BSPS were identified in the literature and compared. A review of the current literature and university websites was conducted in order to compare and contrast the different BSPS programs. BSPS program directors’ perceptions were evaluated through a 14-item online survey instrument. Of the 16 programs surveyed, seven (43.8% responded to the survey. The respondents agreed that most of the BSPS graduates are placed (from the highest to the lowest at pharmacy school, postgraduate education and in the pharmaceutical industry. This is a timely review of coursework, program lengths and job opportunities for graduates of the BSPS. Currently, the BSPS programs have yet to receive a large amount of attention, but the importance in pharmaceutical education cannot be denied.

  5. Holistic Leadership-Nursing's Unique Contribution to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Pamela N; Bleich, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    This dialogue is focused on holistic leadership from the perspective of a well-known leader in nursing. He frames the changing healthcare environment and nursing's unique contribution on the interprofessional team.

  6. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  7. Protein nanoparticle: A unique system as drug delivery vehicles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Iran. ... as potential carriers with unique advantages including ..... for intracellular uptake in BT/20 human breast cancer.

  8. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  9. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, ... a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data ..... Even though the aquifer shows characteristics of all major ...... Earth Sci.

  10. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  11. Uniqueness of the electrostatic solution in Schwarzschild space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Pal G.; Elsaesser, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this Brief Report we give the proof that the solution of any static test charge distribution in Schwarzschild space is unique. In order to give the proof we derive the first Green's identity written with p-forms on (pseudo) Riemannian manifolds. Moreover, the proof of uniqueness can be shown for either any purely electric or purely magnetic field configuration. The spacetime geometry is not crucial for the proof

  12. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. Copyright © 2013

  13. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  14. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar; Anoop Jain

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  15. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoorkar, Sudhindra; Jain, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  16. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  17. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...

  18. Semi-automatic long-term acoustic surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Tórur; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient non-invasive method, which may be deployed for surveys of animals as diverse as insects, birds, and bats. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique...... to determine bat behavior and correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying....

  19. Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2017-10-01

    Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016), 10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.

  20. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan; Lovett, Maureen; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing “higher-level” or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching). Research in this area has relied on largely Caucasian samples, with limited representation of children from racial or ethnic minority groups. This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be especially important for reading comprehension in minority youth. Attentional switching may play a unique role in development of reading fluency in minority youth, perhaps as a result of the increased demand for switching between spoken versus written dialects. Findings have implications for educational and clinical practice with regard to reading instruction, remedial reading intervention, and assessment of individuals with reading difficulty. PMID:26755569

  1. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  2. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  3. RUCS: Rapid identification of PCR primers for unique core sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Hasman, Henrik; Westh, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Designing PCR primers to target a specific selection of whole genome sequenced strains can be a long, arduous, and sometimes impractical task. Such tasks would benefit greatly from an automated tool to both identify unique targets, and to validate the vast number of potential primer pairs...... for the targets in silico . Here we present RUCS, a program that will find PCR primer pairs and probes for the unique core sequences of a positive genome dataset complement to a negative genome dataset. The resulting primer pairs and probes are in addition to simple selection also validated through a complex...... in silico PCR simulation. We compared our method, which identifies the unique core sequences, against an existing tool called ssGeneFinder, and found that our method was 6.5-20 times more sensitive. We used RUCS to design primer pairs that would target a set of genomes known to contain the mcr-1 colistin...

  4. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  5. Human uniqueness-self-interest and social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Daijiro; Bingham, Paul M

    2008-07-21

    Humans are unique among all species of terrestrial history in both ecological dominance and individual properties. Many, or perhaps all, of the unique elements of this nonpareil status can be plausibly interpreted as evolutionary and strategic elements and consequences of the unprecedented intensity and scale of our social cooperation. Convincing explanation of this unique human social adaptation remains a central, unmet challenge to the scientific enterprise. We develop a hypothesis for the ancestral origin of expanded cooperative social behavior. Specifically, we present a game theoretic analysis demonstrating that a specific pattern of expanded social cooperation between conspecific individuals with conflicts of interest (including non-kin) can be strategically viable, but only in animals that possess a highly unusual capacity for conspecific violence (credible threat) having very specific properties that dramatically reduce the costs of coercive violence. The resulting reduced costs allow preemptive or compensated coercion to be an instantaneously self-interested behavior under diverse circumstances rather than in rare, idiosyncratic circumstances as in actors (animals) who do not have access to inexpensive coercive threat. Humans are apparently unique among terrestrial organisms in having evolved conspecific coercive capabilities that fulfill these stringent requirements. Thus, our results support the proposal that access to a novel capacity for projection of coercive threat might represent the essential initiating event for the evolution of a human-like pattern of social cooperation and the subsequent evolution of the diverse features of human uniqueness. Empirical evidence indicates that these constraints were, in fact, met only in our evolutionary lineage. The logic for the emergence of uniquely human cooperation suggested by our analysis apparently accounts simply for the human fossil record.

  6. A note on unique solvability of the absolute value equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lotfi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that applying sufficient regularity conditions to the interval matrix $[A-|B|,A+|B|]$‎, ‎we can create a new unique solvability condition for the absolute value equation $Ax+B|x|=b$‎, ‎since regularity of interval matrices implies unique solvability of their corresponding absolute value equation‎. ‎This condition is formulated in terms of positive definiteness of a certain point matrix‎. ‎Special case $B=-I$ is verified too as an application.

  7. Increasing Need for Uniqueness in Contemporary China: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Cai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Past research has documented various cultural and psychological changes in contemporary China. In two studies, we examine how Chinese people’s need for uniqueness (NFU also has changed. In Study 1, we found a significant cross-generational increase in Chinese participants’ self-reported NFU. In Study 2, we sampled the names of Chinese newborn babies over the last five decades and found that parents have been increasingly likely to use unique characters to name their children. These findings suggest that the NFU has been rising in China, a historically collectivistic-oriented society. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings were discussed.

  8. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  9. Regional cluster policy between best practices and cultural uniqueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Boneschansker, E.; van Dijk, J.; Jansma, L.G.J.; Verhaar, K.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter deals with an intriguing paradox in current regional economic policy: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, more and more governments simultaneously try to copy policy experiences that have proved successful in a particular

  10. Teen camp: a unique approach to recruit future nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Donna A; Riech, Sandy; Prater, Marsha A

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative and unique approach to interest high school students in nursing. To inform educators and nursing departments about an innovative approach to recruit future nurses. Professional literature and authors' experience. All students related positive experiences. The initial camp evaluation produced innovative input from the students, and each camp met its goal of creating career interest in the nursing profession.

  11. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  12. Sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the weak value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, J; Jordan, A N

    2012-01-01

    We review and clarify the sufficient conditions for uniquely defining the generalized weak value as the weak limit of a conditioned average using the contextual values formalism introduced in Dressel, Agarwal and Jordan (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.240401). We also respond to criticism of our work by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v1) concerning a proposed counter-example to the uniqueness of the definition of the generalized weak value. The counter-example does not satisfy our prescription in the case of an underspecified measurement context. We show that when the contextual values formalism is properly applied to this example, a natural interpretation of the measurement emerges and the unique definition in the weak limit holds. We also prove a theorem regarding the uniqueness of the definition under our sufficient conditions for the general case. Finally, a second proposed counter-example by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v6) is shown not to satisfy the sufficiency conditions for the provided theorem. (paper)

  13. On the Existence of Unique Equilibria in Location Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we study a two-stage location-then-price game where consumers are distributed piecewise uniformly, each piece being referred to as an interval.Although the firms face a coordination problem, it is obvious that, for any given locations and prices, there is a unique indifferent

  14. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  15. Secondary metabolites from the unique bamboo, Melocanna baccifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Viswanathan, Gayathri; Ramaswamy, Venkataraman; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2018-02-15

    Phytochemistry of fruits and leaves of the unique bamboo Melocanna baccifera resulted in the isolation of 27 secondary metabolites, including 4-Oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7),5,8-triene and Verbacine. Biological activity studies of Verbacine revealed it as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and as cytotoxic against C6 cancer cells.

  16. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elschner, Johannes; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  17. Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijl, Mark; Saltzherr, Teun P.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Traumatic ruptures of the esophagus are relatively rare. This condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most traumatic ruptures occur after motor vehicle accidents. Case Presentation: We describe a unique case of a 23 year old woman that presented at our trauma

  18. DECISIONS ET COMPETITIVITE SUR LE MARCHE UNIQUE EUROPEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits importants du marché unique européen, a comme source le męme énoncé du principal objectif de l’intégration européenne ainsi que: l’harmonisation des niveaux du développement des Etats Membres et l’augmentation du niveau de vie dans l’ensemble de la communauté. Pour le marché unique européen, cet aspect se traduit par une permanente et soutenue augmentation de la demande. Cet ouvrage présente au début une analyse des éléments spécifiques du marché européen. Ensuite on identifie les opportunités et les risques au niveau macroéconomique adjointes aux perspectives du marché unique européen. Comme fondement on présente des stratégies du développement réalisables au niveau microéconomique que puissent assurer l’augmentation du niveau sur la compétitivité des sociétés sur le marché unique européen.

  19. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  20. Three Unique Implementations of Processes for PyCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we motivate and describe three unique implementations of processes for PyCSP: process, thread and greenlet based. The overall purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of Communicating Sequential Processes as a framework for different application types and target platforms. The result...

  1. Zeros and uniqueness of Q-difference polynomials of meromorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meromorphic functions; Nevanlinna theory; logarithmic order; uniqueness problem; difference-differential polynomial. Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the value distribution of -difference polynomials of meromorphic function of finite logarithmic order, and study the zero distribution of difference-differential polynomials ...

  2. Why Is Family Firms' Internationalization Unique? : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arregle, Jean-Luc; Duran, Patricio; Hitt, Michael A.; van Essen, M.

    Despite its importance, there is no clear understanding of the uniqueness of family firms' internationalization. This article sheds new light on this issue with a meta-analysis of 76 studies covering 41 countries. We show that the considerable study and cross-country differences in the relationship

  3. Meeting Each Student's Unique Potential: One Approach to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    By championing extrinsic motivation, the achievement-reward system short-circuits individuals' innate inner power. Achievement-oriented adults rely on their knowledge, skills, and abilities, not their deeper potential. Hyde School, in Bath, Maine, solves this problem by committing the entire school community to development of unique potential via…

  4. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although karst aquifers constitute some of the most important water resources worldwide, generally accepted methods for reliably characterising their hydraulic properties are still elusive. This paper aims at contributing to the discussion by a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data derived from ...

  5. Uniqueness and zeros of q-shift difference polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift ...

  6. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  7. review article how unique is south african military integration?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roy Licklider

    Rutgers University. The study of civil war ... South Africa has a strong case to be the poster child of military integration after civil violence.6 In a .... One aspect of the South African response to this problem was unique: a. Defence White Paper ...

  8. Uniqueness of inverse scattering problem in local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2001-06-01

    It is shown that the a Bisognano-Wichmann-Unruh inspired formulation of local quantum physics which starts from wedge-localized algebras, leads to a uniqueness proof for the scattering problem. The important mathematical tool is the thermal KMS aspect of localization and its strengthening by the requirement of crossing symmetry for generalized formfactors. (author)

  9. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  10. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  11. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice....

  12. Environmental surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Ribeiro, C.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental survey conducted in high natural radioactivity areas and methods used to evaluated radiation doses received by the population are presented. It is shown doses absorved due to ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water. Exposure to external gamma radiation fields or inhalation of abnormal quantities of natural airborne radioactivity are discussed [pt

  13. Survey < > Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The project, Survey Creation suggests that point cloud models from 3D scans of an existing space can be the source for explorative drawings. By probing into the procedure of 3D laser scanning, it became possible to make use of the available point clouds to both access geometric representation......) and the creation drawing (of the anticipated)....

  14. Target Choice and Unique Synergies in Global Mobile Telephony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Köhler, Rebecca; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    their foresight to select specific targets: First, they lower integration costs by selecting geographically close targets. This effect is stronger when buyer and target are in the same country, but only if the market is not so concentrated that it provokes regulatory interventions. Second, they select targets......The success of acquisitions rests on detecting and realizing unique synergies between buyer and target through their dyadic relationships. We study the role of unique dyad-specific synergies in the selection of takeover targets in the global mobile telecommunications industry. Firms use...... that can be acquired at a modest bid premium because they have asymmetric bargaining power. Finally, they select targets which can generate significant synergies due to technological synergies. Our work expands the existing target selection literature by studying dyad-specific factors within a single...

  15. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  16. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  17. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renahan, Navanith; Varma, R Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun M

    2017-01-01

    The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised. Renahan N, Varma RB, Kumaran P, Xavier AM. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):107-110.

  18. Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B R; Hartigan, J A; Mikulas, W L

    1999-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha, 8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness "meditations" may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.

  19. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  20. Being and feeling unique: statistical deviance and psychological marginality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, D E

    1993-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that people with culturally stigmatized and concealable conditions (e.g., gays, epileptics, juvenile delinquents, and incest victims) would be more likely to feel unique than people with culturally valued or conspicuous conditions (e.g., the physically attractive, the intellectually gifted, the obese, and the facially scarred). In Study 1, culturally stigmatized individuals with concealable conditions were least likely to perceive consensus between their personal preferences and those of others. In Study 2, they were most likely to describe themselves as unique and to make these self-relevant decisions quickly. Marginality is a psychological reality, not just a statistical one, for those with stigmatized and concealable "master status" conditions.

  1. Non-unique factorizations algebraic, combinatorial and analytic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geroldinger, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    From its origins in algebraic number theory, the theory of non-unique factorizations has emerged as an independent branch of algebra and number theory. Focused efforts over the past few decades have wrought a great number and variety of results. However, these remain dispersed throughout the vast literature. For the first time, Non-Unique Factorizations: Algebraic, Combinatorial, and Analytic Theory offers a look at the present state of the theory in a single, unified resource.Taking a broad look at the algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic fundamentals, this book derives factorization results and applies them in concrete arithmetical situations using appropriate transfer principles. It begins with a basic introduction that can be understood with knowledge of standard basic algebra. The authors then move to the algebraic theory of monoids, arithmetic theory of monoids, the structure of sets of lengths, additive group theory, arithmetical invariants, and the arithmetic of Krull monoids. They also provide a s...

  2. Identification of Barriers to Stroke Awareness and Risk Factor Management Unique to Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to risk factor control may differ by race/ethnicity. The goal of this study was to identify barriers to stroke awareness and risk factor management unique to Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs. We performed a prospective study of stroke patients from an academic Stroke Center in Arizona and surveyed members of the general community. Questionnaires included: the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC Scale, a stroke barriers questionnaire, and a Stroke Awareness Test. Of 145 stroke patients surveyed (72 Hispanic; 73 NHW, Hispanics scored lower on the Stroke Awareness Test compared to NHWs (72.5% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.029. Hispanic stroke patients also reported greater barriers related to medical knowledge, medication adherence, and healthcare access (p < 0.05 for all. Hispanics scored higher on the “powerful others” sub-scale (11.3 vs. 10, p < 0.05 of the MHLC. Of 177 members of the general public surveyed, Hispanics had lower stroke awareness compared to NHWs and tended to have lower awareness than Hispanic stroke patients. These results suggest that Hispanic stroke patients perceive less control over their health, experience more healthcare barriers, and demonstrate lower rates of stroke literacy. Interventions for stroke prevention and education in Hispanics should address these racial/ethnic differences in stroke awareness and barriers to risk factor control.

  3. A Diversity Exit Interview/Survey for the Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knouse, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    The exit interview and survey are means for identifying organizational problems, including diversity issues, through individuals separating from the organization, who are in a unique position to supply candid feedback...

  4. Uniqueness of rarefaction waves in multidimensional compressible Euler system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Kreml, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2015), s. 489-499 ISSN 0219-8916 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Euler system * uniqueness * rarefaction wave * Riemann problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2015 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219891615500149

  5. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine eCashman; Juliet eBiggs

    2014-01-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personali...

  6. Social Capital and Institutions in Rural Kenya: Is Machakos Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangena, Wilfred; Sterner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Eastern Africa, the experience of Machakos has been heavily debated between Malthusians and the more optimistic Boserupians. Machakos was the epitome of overpopulation and resource degradation in the 1950s, but has since thrived. The Boserupians view Machakos as an illustration of how population growth can solve rather than exacerbate the vicious cycle of poverty and resource degradation. The question arises whether Machakos is unique. This study investigates the role of social capital in ...

  7. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  8. CHID: a unique health information and education database.

    OpenAIRE

    Lunin, L F; Stein, R S

    1987-01-01

    The public's growing interest in health information and the health professions' increasing need to locate health education materials can be answered in part by the new Combined Health Information Database (CHID). This unique database focuses on materials and programs in professional and patient education, general health education, and community risk reduction. Accessible through BRS, CHID suggests sources for procuring brochures, pamphlets, articles, and films on community services, programs ...

  9. Uniqueness of Steiner minimal trees on boundaries in general position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2006-01-01

    The following result is proved: there exists an open dense subset U of R 2n such that each P element of U (regarded as an enumerated subset of the standard Euclidean plane R 2 ) is spanned by a unique Steiner minimal tree, that is, a shortest non-degenerate network. Several interesting consequences are also obtained: in particular, it is proved that each planar Steiner tree is planar equivalent to a Steiner minimal tree.

  10. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  11. Recurrent intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis: A unique combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an 11-month-old female child, who presented with recurrent episodes of colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea. An abdominal ultrasound revealed small bowel intussusception. She was also noted to have a thick walled gall bladder and a solitary gallstone. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The combination of small bowel intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis is unique and has not been reported in the literature.

  12. Diophantine and minimal but not uniquely ergodic (almost)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapisz, Jaroslaw; Mathison, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that minimal non-uniquely ergodic behaviour can be generated by slowing down a simple harmonic oscillator with diophantine frequency, in contrast with the known examples where the frequency is well approximable by the rationals. The slowing is effected by a singular time change that brings one phase point to rest. The time one-map of the flow has uncountably many invariant measures yet every orbit is dense, with the minor exception of the rest point

  13. On the stability of unique range sets for meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Huy Khoai; Nguyen Van Khue

    2003-03-01

    For a set S we construct a complex space Z S such that S is a unique range set for meromorphic functions (URS) if and only if Z S is hyperbolic. A consequence of this result is that the set of URS with n elements (considered as a subset of C n ) is open, and then the small deformations of Yi's and Frank-Reinders' sets are URS. (author)

  14. On the Non-Uniqueness of Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Fatichi, S.

    2014-12-01

    There has been ample experimental evidence that soil erosion does not necessarily occur at the same rate, given the same amount of rainfall or runoff. Such a non-unique phenomenon has been often referred to in literature as due to 'natural variability'. Our recent study hypothesized that uncertainties in the distribution and properties of a sediment layer can be a potential clue to one of the reasons of the non-unique sediment yield. Specifically, numerical experimentation with a sophisticated two-dimensional model showed that a deposited layer plays two conflicting roles: it can both increase and decrease soil erosion, given the same magnitude of runoff. The difference in erodibilities of the "original, intact soil layer" and the "deposited, loose soil layer" and the composition of soil particles in the underlying layers give rise to the non-uniqueness of the amount of eroded materials. In continuing efforts, we attempt to investigate this phenomenon using a comprehensive the Universal Soil Loss Erosion (USLE) database, that contains data on paired hillslopes that show a high degree of non-uniqueness in the response, even though the hillslopes exhibit the same topography, soil type, rainfall and meteorological forcings, and landuse. An underlying hypothesis of this study is that uncertainties in the distribution of soil substrate prior to a rainfall event lead to low predictability skill, i.e., a stochastically-varying outcome. A large number of simulation cases demonstrating the proposed hypothesis are conducted using a coupled numerical model, tRIBS-VEGGIE-FEaST (Triangulated irregular network - based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator- VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution -Flow Erosion and Sediment Transport).

  15. Methanophosphagen: Unique cyclic pyrophosphate isolated from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanodia, Sushila; Roberts, Mary Fedarko

    1983-01-01

    A unique cyclic pyrophosphate compound has been detected at 10-12 mM intracellular concentration in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum by in vivo31P NMR. This compound has been extracted from cells and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Studies with 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry have identified it as 2,3-cyclopyrophosphoglycerate, an intramolecularly cyclized pyrophosphate of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Chemical degradation to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate an...

  16. Uniqueness of Nash equilibria in a quantum Cournot duopoly game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yohei; Sakahara, Kiri; Sato, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A quantum Cournot game whose classical form game has multiple Nash equilibria is examined. Although the classical equilibria fail to be Pareto optimal, the quantum equilibrium exhibits the following two properties: (i) if the measurement of entanglement between strategic variables chosen by the competing firms is sufficiently large, the multiplicity of equilibria vanishes, and (ii) the more strongly the strategic variables are entangled, the more closely the unique equilibrium approaches to the optimal one.

  17. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  18. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  19. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  20. A unique tripartite collision tumor of the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Moris, Demetrios; Baliou, Evangelia; Tsilimigras, Diamantis; Throupis, Theodore; Liakakos, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: We report a unique case of a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of three separate histologic types. Patients concerns: Therapeutic dilemmas on the proper treatment of those rare neoplasms remain unanswered considering both proper surgical therapy and adjuvant therapy. Diagnose: In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of a small cell carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma of medium differentiation and a signet ring cell carcinoma. Diagnosis is difficult as clinical presentation of the patient was undistinguishable from other, commoner tumor types. Interventions: The patient's diagnostic and therapeutic course along with available data on the collisions tumor's biological behavior and treatment are briefly discussed. Outcomes: Esophagectomy is the best treatment options for these patients. Unique nature of this tumor demands aggresive oncologic treatment. Lessons: Collision tumors are rare neoplasms consisting of distinct cell populations developing in juxtaposition to one another without any areas of intermingling. Various cell types can be found. However, collision neoplasms of the esophagus combining adenomatous and neuroendocrine components are exceedingly rare, with only 5 cases described to date in the literature. Given their rarity, limited information is available on their tumorigenesis, biological behavior and clinical course. In general, these tumors are aggressive neoplasms and significantly affect patient treatment and prognosis. PMID:29245236

  1. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation

  2. Readership survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the last readership survey, which helped to check readers' reactions and the level and style of the journal. The majority of readers (32 per cent), not surprisingly, work in high energy physics. In fact, if the estimate of the world high energy physics population as some 5000 people is correct, CERN Courier reaches every one of them. The next large category of readers is the teaching profession (21 percent), with industrialists (12 per cent) in third place

  3. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality. Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  4. Assessing Response Bias in a Web Survey at a University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly common due to the myriad of benefits they offer over traditional survey methods. However, research has shown that response rates to web-based surveys are typically lower than to traditional surveys and can possibly yield biased results. University-based faculty members are a unique cohort that may be ideally suited…

  5. Total Survey Error for Longitudinal Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynn, Peter; Lugtig, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the application of the total survey error paradigm to longitudinal surveys. Several aspects of survey error, and of the interactions between different types of error, are distinct in the longitudinal survey context. Furthermore, error trade-off decisions in survey design and

  6. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more...... strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N=4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette...... to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant...

  7. The unique associations between rape acknowledgment and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-11-01

    It is well documented in the sexual assault literature that more than half of rape survivors do not label their experience as rape. This is called unacknowledged rape. Although this phenomenon is common and undoubtedly has huge implications for psychotherapy, the impact of acknowledgment status on psychological adjustment is unclear. The present study aimed to delineate the unique impact of rape acknowledgment on psychopathology by examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level. To examine this, 178 female college students who reported rape completed an online survey, including an assessment of PTSD symptoms in the past month. The results suggested that, after accounting for several covariates, acknowledged rape survivors reported significantly greater levels of intrusion and avoidance symptoms compared to unacknowledged rape survivors. The findings suggest that examining PTSD symptoms at the cluster level may provide more insight into the process of recovery following rape and therefore may better inform treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural product biosyntheses in cyanobacteria: A treasure trove of unique enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Jan-Christoph; Gatte Picchi, Douglas; Dittmann, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are prolific producers of natural products. Investigations into the biochemistry responsible for the formation of these compounds have revealed fascinating mechanisms that are not, or only rarely, found in other microorganisms. In this article, we survey the biosynthetic pathways of cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats. We especially emphasize modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways and highlight the unique enzyme mechanisms that were elucidated or can be anticipated for the individual products. We further include ribosomal natural products and UV-absorbing pigments from cyanobacteria. Mechanistic insights obtained from the biochemical studies of cyanobacterial pathways can inspire the development of concepts for the design of bioactive compounds by synthetic-biology approaches in the future.

  9. Natural product biosyntheses in cyanobacteria: A treasure trove of unique enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are prolific producers of natural products. Investigations into the biochemistry responsible for the formation of these compounds have revealed fascinating mechanisms that are not, or only rarely, found in other microorganisms. In this article, we survey the biosynthetic pathways of cyanobacteria isolated from freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats. We especially emphasize modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS and polyketide synthase (PKS pathways and highlight the unique enzyme mechanisms that were elucidated or can be anticipated for the individual products. We further include ribosomal natural products and UV-absorbing pigments from cyanobacteria. Mechanistic insights obtained from the biochemical studies of cyanobacterial pathways can inspire the development of concepts for the design of bioactive compounds by synthetic-biology approaches in the future.

  10. ROMANIA'S MACROECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS FOR JOINING THE UNIQUE EUROPEAN CURENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government has announced plans to join the eurozone by 2015. Currently, the leu is not yet part of ERM II but plans to join in 2010-2012. The economic advantages of the monetary union grow with expansion of the Euro zone. There is also a high level of skepticism; the main fear about the Euro is the inflation –that is considerable promoted by the Euro currency’s exchange rate in comparison with 2002; another restraint is due to member states inability to establish their own interest rates. The IMF arose the option of joining the Euro zone criteria relaxing. A one-sided Euro’s joining was suggested by International Monetary Fund on March-April 2009, in a confidential report mentioned by The Financial Times as the emergent states in Central and Eastern Europe to be able to pass to the unique currency, but not being represented in the Central European Bank Board. By its side, CEB considers that emergent states of the European Union must not pass to the unique currency unilaterally, because such a fact could under-mine the trust in Euro currency worldwide. This option would hardly deepen the macroeconomic controversies inside the Euro zone and would contradict the previous conditions already imposed. An acceptable solution could be the fastening of emergent countries joining the Exchange Rate Mechanism 2, after they are aware of risks arisen by such a step. The European Commission endorses in the Convergence Report on 2010 that Romania doesn’t meet any criteria needed by passing to the unique European currency, respectively: prices stability; budget position of the government; stability of exchange rate; interest convergence on long run and there are also law impediments. Our paper discusses arguments for a faster passing to the Euro currency versus arguments for a late joining the Euro currency in Romania.

  11. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  12. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on a strict extension of the principles of spot pricing and surplus allocation, we propose a new pricing methodology that can yield unique, impartial, and robust solution. The new method has been analyzed and compared with other pricing approaches in accordance with spot pricing theory. Case studies support...

  13. Existence and uniqueness in anisotropic conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-03-18

    We show that three sets of internal current densities are the right amount of data that give the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in reconstructing an anisotropic conductivity in two space dimensions. The curl free equation of Faraday’s law is taken instead of the usual divergence free equation of the electrical impedance to- mography. Boundary conditions related to given current densities are introduced which complete a well determined problem for conductivity reconstruction together with Fara- day’s law.

  14. Review of the book: MUPO Program. Unique Minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rodríguez-Arias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Unique Minds (Mentes Únicas and its version for teachers and counsellors, MUPO, are programs full of good ideas and tools for teachers and families. Both programs help to address learning disabilities in the natural context in which they take place and help children, families and teachers in their search for solutions based on their own resources. The programs are grounded on General Systems Theory and Multiple Intelligences Theory. They accessibly explain how our brain works and use techniques from Systemic Brief Family Therapy, such as Externalization, especially appropriate for the target ages - 8 to 12 years old, the ages when children learn to learn-.

  15. Uniqueness of solution to a stationary boundary kinetic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhykharsky, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The paper treats the question of uniqueness of solution to the boundary kinetic problem. This analysis is based on the accurate solutions to the stationary one-dimensional boundary kinetic problem for the limited plasma system. In the paper a simplified problem statement is used (no account is taken of the external magnetic field, a simplest form of boundary conditions is accepted) which, however, covers all features of the problem considered. Omitting the details of the conclusion we will write a set of Vlasov stationary kinetic equations for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry of the problem. (author) 1 ref

  16. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leshen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is an unusual congenital herniation of abdominal content through the triangular parasternal gaps of the anterior diaphragm. They are commonly asymptomatic and right-sided. We present a case of a bilateral Morgagni hernia resulting in delayed growth in a 10-month-old boy. The presentation was unique due to its bilateral nature and its symptomatic compression of the mediastinum. Diagnosis was made by 3D reconstructed CT angiogram. The patient underwent medical optimization until he was safely able to tolerate laparoscopic surgical repair of his hernia. Upon laparoscopy, the CT findings were confirmed and the hernia was repaired.

  17. Unique molecular properties of superoxide dismutase from teleost fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T; Sato, M; Takeuchi, M

    1995-02-27

    A unique Cu,Zn-SOD was found and isolated from plaice Paralichthys olivaceus skin. Surprisingly, the properties of purified fish skin SOD were very different from those of SOD from other sources reported so far. The purified SOD was composed of four same subunits of 16 kDa and the molecular weight of the native SOD was found to be around 65 kDa. The dominant amino acids of the SOD were Ser, Thr, Pro and Glu. Above 70 degrees C, thermostability of the SOD was much lower than that of bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD.

  18. Protostylid: As never reported before! A unique case with variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela D Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human jaw and teeth display a high degree of morphological individuality as they represent personal, familial, and population characteristics and one among them are cuspal variations. A protostylid is a supernumerary or accessory cusp located on the mesiobuccal surface of the mandibular molars that seldom pose problems. A forensic odontologist may find significant interest in its classification and identification among victims of mass causalties and bite marks on living and nonliving objects. The authors here are reporting a case of protostylid with a unique presentation which, to best of our knowledge is not reported so far.

  19. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  20. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  1. Granulomatous slack skin syndrome: Report of a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A

    2018-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin syndrome is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). It is characterized clinically by redundant skin folds, which show a predilection towards flexural areas such as the axilla and the groin. Histologically, it shows a granulomatous T-cell infiltrate and loss of elastic tissue. It has an indolent but progressive course; and is usually refractory to treatment. We report a unique case of slack skin syndrome, sparing the classical sites with rapid and unusual involvement of non-intertriginous areas.

  2. Unique cerebrovascular anomalies in Noonan syndrome with RAF1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Lichty, Angie W; Champion, Kristen J; Clarkson, L Kate; Holden, Kenton R; Matheus, M Gisele

    2014-08-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by gain-of-function germline mutations affecting components of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The authors present the case of a 6-year-old male with Noonan syndrome, Chiari malformation type I, shunted benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, and unique cerebrovascular changes. A de novo heterozygous change in the RAF1 gene was identified. The patient underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography to further clarify the nature of his abnormal brain vasculature. The authors compared his findings to the few cases of Noonan syndrome reported with cerebrovascular pathology. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  4. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  5. Space - A unique environment for process modeling R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Process modeling, the application of advanced computational techniques to simulate real processes as they occur in regular use, e.g., welding, casting and semiconductor crystal growth, is discussed. Using the low-gravity environment of space will accelerate the technical validation of the procedures and enable extremely accurate determinations of the many necessary thermophysical properties. Attention is given to NASA's centers for the commercial development of space; joint ventures of universities, industries, and goverment agencies to study the unique attributes of space that offer potential for applied R&D and eventual commercial exploitation.

  6. Lafora disease offers a unique window into neuronal glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Matthew S; Guinovart, Joan J; Minassian, Berge A; Roach, Peter J; Serratosa, Jose M

    2018-05-11

    Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, autosomal recessive, glycogen-storage disorder that manifests as severe epilepsy. LD results from mutations in the gene encoding either the glycogen phosphatase laforin or the E3 ubiquitin ligase malin. Individuals with LD develop cytoplasmic, aberrant glycogen inclusions in nearly all tissues that more closely resemble plant starch than human glycogen. This Minireview discusses the unique window into glycogen metabolism that LD research offers. It also highlights recent discoveries, including that glycogen contains covalently bound phosphate and that neurons synthesize glycogen and express both glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both

  8. Evaluation of rules to distinguish unique female grizzly bears with cubs in Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Cherry, S.; Keating, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service uses counts of unduplicated female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) with cubs-of-the-year to establish limits of sustainable mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Sightings are dustered into observations of unique bears based on an empirically derived rule set. The method has never been tested or verified. To evaluate the rule set, we used data from radiocollared females obtained during 1975-2004 to simulate populations under varying densities, distributions, and sighting frequencies. We tested individual rules and rule-set performance, using custom software to apply the rule-set and duster sightings. Results indicated most rules were violated to some degree, and rule-based dustering consistently underestimated the minimum number of females and total population size derived from a nonparametric estimator (Chao2). We conclude that the current rule set returns conservative estimates, but with minor improvements, counts of unduplicated females-with-cubs can serve as a reasonable index of population size useful for establishing annual mortality limits. For the Yellowstone population, the index is more practical and cost-effective than capture-mark-recapture using either DNA hair snagging or aerial surveys with radiomarked bears. The method has useful application in other ecosystems, but we recommend rules used to distinguish unique females be adapted to local conditions and tested.

  9. Angolan vegetable crops have unique genotypes of potential value for future breeding programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Domingos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out in Angola with the aim of collecting vegetable crops. Collecting expeditions were conducted in Kwanza-Sul, Benguela, Huíla and Namibe Provinces and a total of 80 accessions belonging to 22 species was collected from farmers and local markets. Species belonging to the Solanaceae (37 accessions and Cucurbitaceae (36 accessions families were the most frequently found with pepper and eggplant being the predominant solanaceous crops collected. Peppers were sold in local markets as a mixture of different types, even different species: Capsicum chinense, C. baccatum, C. frutescens and C. pubescens. Most of the eggplant accessions collected belonged to Solanum aethiopicum L. Gilo Group, the so-called ‘scarlet eggplant’. Cucurbita genus was better represented than the other cucurbit crops. A high morphological variation was present in the Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata accessions. A set of 22 Cucurbita accessions from Angola, along with 32 Cucurbita controls from a wide range of origins, was cultivated in Valencia, Spain and characterised based on morphology and molecularity using a set of 15 microsatellite markers. A strong dependence on latitude was found in most of the accessions and as a result, many accessions did not set fruit. The molecular analysis showed high molecular variability and uniqueness in the collected accessions, as shown by their segregation from the set of global controls. In summary, the material collected is quite valuable because of its uniqueness and the potential of the breeding characteristics it possesses.

  10. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  11. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  12. On the non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate three CMFD schemes for computing the nodal mathematical adjoint. • The nodal mathematical adjoint is not unique and can be non-positive (nonphysical). • Adjoint and forward eigenmodes are compatible if produced by the same CMFD method. • In nodal applications the excited eigenmodes are purely mathematical entities. - Abstract: Computation of the neutron adjoint flux within the framework of modern nodal diffusion methods is often facilitated by reducing the nodal equation system for the forward flux into a simpler coarse-mesh finite-difference form and then transposing the resultant matrix equations. The solution to the transposed problem is known as the nodal mathematical adjoint. Since the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction of a given nodal formulation can be obtained in a number of ways, different nodal mathematical adjoint solutions can be computed. This non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint challenges the credibility of the reduction strategy and demands a verdict as to its suitability in practical applications. This is the matter under consideration in this paper. A selected number of coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction schemes are described and compared. Numerical calculations are utilised to illustrate the differences in the adjoint solutions as well as to appraise the impact on such common applications as the computation of core point kinetics parameters. Recommendations are made for the proper application of the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction approach to the nodal mathematical adjoint problem

  13. Unique Results and Lessons Learned From the TSS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2016-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development in the U.S. Altogether, the investment made by NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the thirteen-year period of the TSS Program totaled approximately $400M-exclusive of the two Space Shuttle flights provided by NASA. Since those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated in earth orbit and shown to perform better than the preflight dynamic or electrodynamic theoretical predictions. While it is true that the TSS-1 and TSS-1R missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to have been engineering design flaws, material selection, and procedural issues that (1) are unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) can be readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology.

  14. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  15. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  16. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  17. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  20. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS USING A UNIQUE MODEL OF TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Klepac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available REFII1 model is an authorial mathematical model for time series data mining. The main purpose of that model is to automate time series analysis, through a unique transformation model of time series. An advantage of this approach of time series analysis is the linkage of different methods for time series analysis, linking traditional data mining tools in time series, and constructing new algorithms for analyzing time series. It is worth mentioning that REFII model is not a closed system, which means that we have a finite set of methods. At first, this is a model for transformation of values of time series, which prepares data used by different sets of methods based on the same model of transformation in a domain of problem space. REFII model gives a new approach in time series analysis based on a unique model of transformation, which is a base for all kind of time series analysis. The advantage of REFII model is its possible application in many different areas such as finance, medicine, voice recognition, face recognition and text mining.

  1. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  3. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  4. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  5. Unique phytochrome responses of the holoparasitic plant Orobanche minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kazuteru; Okazawa, Atsushi; Wada, Yu; Mongkolchaiyaphruek, Anchaya; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Yoneyama, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Kobayashi, Akio

    2009-06-01

    Holoparasitic plants such as Orobanche spp. have lost their photosynthetic ability, so photoresponses to optimize photosynthesis are not necessary in these plants. Photoresponses are also involved in the regulation of plant development but the photoresponses of holoparasites have not been characterized in detail. In this study, the phytochrome (phy)-related photoresponse of Orobanche minor was investigated. Its photoreceptor, phytochrome A (OmphyA), was also characterized. Light effects on germination, shoot elongation, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and OmphyA expression and subcellular localization were analyzed. Red light (R):far-red light (FR) reversible inhibition of O. minor seed germination demonstrated that phy-mediated responses are retained in this holoparasite. Shoot elongation was inhibited by FR but not by R. This pattern is unique among known patterns of plant photoresponses. Additionally, molecular analysis showed that OmphyA is able to respond to the light signals. Interestingly, the unique pattern of photoresponses in O. minor seems to have been modified for adaptation to its parasitic life cycle. We hypothesize that this alteration has resulted from the loss or alteration of some phy-signaling components. Elucidation of altered components in phy signaling in this parasite will provide useful information not only about its physiological characteristics but also about general plant photoreception systems.

  6. Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou

    2014-05-15

    Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures.

  7. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  8. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  9. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  10. Questions of uniqueness and resolution in reconstruction from projections

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Myron Bernard

    1978-01-01

    Reconstruction from projections has revolutionized radiology and as now become one of the most important tools of medical diagnosi- he E. M. I. Scanner is one example. In this text, some fundamental heoretical and practical questions are resolved. Despite recent research activity in the area, the crucial subject ·f the uniqueness of the reconstruction and the effect of noise in the ata posed some unsettled fundamental questions. In particular, Kennan mith proved that if we describe an object by a C~ function, i. e. , nfinitely differentiable with compact support, then there are other bjects with the same shape, i. e. , support, which can differ almost rhitrarily and still have the same projections in finitely many direc­ ions. On the other hand, he proved that objects in finite dimensional unction spaces are uniquely determined by a single projection for almost 11 angles, i. e. , except on a set of measure zero. Along these lines, erman and Rowland in [41) showed that reconstructions obtained from he common...

  11. Total Quality Management: A Unique Challenge For Behavioral Science Researchers,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Management (TQM) programs in industry and government. The essence of TQM involves respect for personal choice and the participation of every level of workers in decisions which impact the organization. Typically, structured questionnaires developed by behavioral scientists are designed to be easy to summarize and generally lack any mechanism for personal comments, ideas, and suggestions. New open-ended, interactive, and iterative survey methodologies are needed to enhance creativity, encourage feedback, and foster a sense of participation. Total Quality

  12. Interdependencies of Arctic land surface processes: A uniquely sensitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The circumpolar arctic drainage basin is composed of several distinct ecoregions including steppe grassland and cropland, boreal forest and tundra. Land surface hydrology throughout this diverse region shares several unique features such as dramatic seasonal runoff differences controlled by snowmelt and ice break-up; the storage of significant portions of annual precipitation as snow and in lakes and wetlands; and the effects of ephemeral and permanently frozen soils. These arctic land processes are delicately balanced with the climate and are therefore important indicators of change. The litany of recently-detected changes in the Arctic includes changes in snow precipitation, trends and seasonal shifts in river discharge, increases and decreases in the extent of surface water, and warming soil temperatures. Although not unique to the arctic, increasing anthropogenic pressures represent an additional element of change in the form of resource extraction, fire threat and reservoir construction. The interdependence of the physical, biological and social systems mean that changes in primary indicators have large implications for land cover, animal populations and the regional carbon balance, all of which have the potential to feed back and induce further change. In fact, the complex relationships between the hydrological processes that make the Artic unique also render observed historical change difficult to interpret and predict, leading to conflicting explanations. For example, a decrease in snow accumulation may provide less insulation to the underlying soil resulting in greater frost development and increased spring runoff. Similarly, melting permafrost and ground ice may lead to ground subsidence and increased surface saturation and methane production, while more complete thaw may enhance drainage and result in drier soil conditions. The threshold nature of phase change around the freezing point makes the system especially sensitive to change. In addition, spatial

  13. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  14. Reader survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big.

  15. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  16. Comparing econometric and survey-based methodologies in measuring offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    such as the national or regional level. Most macro analyses are based on proxies and trade statistics with limitations. Drawing on unique Danish survey data, this article demonstrates how survey data can provide important insights into the national scale and impacts of offshoring, including changes of employment...

  17. On the uniqueness of color patterns in raptor feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, I compared sequentially molted feathers for a few captive raptors from year to year and symmetrically matched feathers (left/right pairs) for many raptors to see if color patterns of sequential feather pairs were identical or if symmetrical pairs were mirror-image identical. Feather pairs were found to be identical only when without color pattern (e.g., the all-white rectrices of Bald Eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]). Complex patterns were not closely matched, but some simple patterns were sometimes closely matched, although not identical. Previous claims that complex color patterns in feather pairs are fingerprint-identical (and therefore that molted feathers from wild raptors can be used to identify breeding adults from year to year with certainty) were found to be untrue: each feather is unique. Although it is unwise to be certain of bird of origin using normal feathers, abnormal feathers can often be so used. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Dianne; Georges, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata) which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways. PMID:29751579

  19. Measles Outbreak with Unique Virus Genotyping, Ontario, Canada, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shari; Hiebert, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Gournis, Effie; Sharron, Jennifer; Severini, Alberto; Jiaravuthisan, Manisa; Shane, Amanda; Jaeger, Valerie; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Fediurek, Jill; Sander, Beate; Mazzulli, Tony; Schulz, Helene; Deeks, Shelley L

    2017-07-01

    The province of Ontario continues to experience measles virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in Canada. We describe an unusual outbreak of measles in Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a unique strain of virus and no known association among primary case-patients. A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from 4 public health units during the outbreak period (January 25-March 23, 2015); none of these cases occurred in persons who had recently traveled. Despite enhancements to case-patient interview methods and epidemiologic analyses, a source patient was not identified. However, the molecular epidemiologic analysis, which included extended sequencing, strongly suggested that all cases derived from a single importation of measles virus genotype D4. The use of timely genotype sequencing, rigorous epidemiologic investigation, and a better understanding of the gaps in surveillance are needed to maintain Ontario's measles elimination status.

  20. A unique $Z_4^R$ symmetry for the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Min; Ratz, Michael; Ross, Graham G; Schieren, Roland; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possible anomaly free Abelian discrete symmetries of the MSSM that forbid the mu-term at perturbative order. Allowing for anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism we identify discrete R-symmetries as the only possibility and prove that there is a unique Z_4^R symmetry that commutes with SO(10). We argue that non-perturbative effects will generate a mu-term of electroweak order thus solving the mu-problem. The non-perturbative effects break the Z_4^R symmetry leaving an exact Z_2 matter parity. As a result dimension four baryon- and lepton-number violating operators are absent while, at the non-perturbative level, dimension five baryon- and lepton-number violating operators get induced but are highly suppressed so that the nucleon decay rate is well within present bounds.

  1. The unique predisposition to criminal violations in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility.

  2. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators

  3. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  4. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  5. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  6. Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bolender

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description” requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

  7. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  8. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways.

  9. A Unique Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pelvic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Traisak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is diverse and vasculitis can be a potential manifestation. Cutaneous lesions involving small vessels are the most frequent presentation. However, medium and large vessel vasculitis may present with life-threatening visceral manifestations. We present a unique case of pelvic vasculitis mimicking a pelvic mass as an initial presentation of SLE. There are case reports of systemic vasculitis involving the female genital tract with giant cell arteritis (GCA, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN, and granulomatous with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis (GPA/MPA, among others, but only a few cases attributed to SLE. Awareness of this condition and a prompt diagnosis are warranted as this is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.

  10. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  11. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  12. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry's position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry--synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today's world.

  13. Unique Turbinal Morphology in Horseshoe Bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Abigail A; Simmons, Nancy B

    2017-02-01

    The mammalian nasal fossa contains a set of delicate and often structurally complex bones called turbinals. Turbinals and associated mucosae function in regulating respiratory heat and water loss, increasing surface area for olfactory tissue, and directing airflow within the nasal fossa. We used high-resolution micro-CT scanning to investigate a unique maxilloturbinal morphology in 37 species from the bat family Rhinolophidae, which we compared with those of families Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Pteropodidae. Rhinolophids exhibit numerous structural modifications along the nasopharyngeal tract associated with emission of high duty cycle echolocation calls via the nostrils. In rhinolophids, we found that the maxilloturbinals and a portion of ethmoturbinal I form a pair of strand-like bony structures on each side of the nasal chamber. These structures project anteriorly from the transverse lamina and complete a hairpin turn to project posteriorly down the nasopharyngeal duct, and vary in length among species. The strand-like maxilloturbinals in Rhinolophidae were not observed in our outgroups and represent a synapomorphy for this family, and are unique in form among mammals. Within Rhinolophidae, maxilloturbinal size and cross-sectional shape were correlated with phylogeny. We hypothesize that strand-shaped maxilloturbinals may function to reduce respiratory heat and water loss without greatly impacting echolocation call transmission since they provide increased mucosal surface area for heat and moisture exchange but occupy minimal space. Alternatively, they may play a role in transmission of echolocation calls since they are located directly along the path sound travels between the larynx and nostrils during call emission. Anat Rec, 300:309-325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Frascino, Jennifer C; Kripke, Donald L; McHugh, Paul R; Treisman, Glenn J; Squire, Larry R

    2010-08-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film "50 First Dates". On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL's memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-h intervals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Skipper genome sheds light on unique phenotypic traits and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-08-27

    Butterflies and moths are emerging as model organisms in genetics and evolutionary studies. The family Hesperiidae (skippers) was traditionally viewed as a sister to other butterflies based on its moth-like morphology and darting flight habits with fast wing beats. However, DNA studies suggest that the family Papilionidae (swallowtails) may be the sister to other butterflies including skippers. The moth-like features and the controversial position of skippers in Lepidoptera phylogeny make them valuable targets for comparative genomics. We obtained the 310 Mb draft genome of the Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius) from a wild-caught specimen using a cost-effective strategy that overcomes the high (1.6 %) heterozygosity problem. Comparative analysis of Lerema accius and the highly heterozygous genome of Papilio glaucus revealed differences in patterns of SNP distribution, but similarities in functions of genes that are enriched in non-synonymous SNPs. Comparison of Lepidoptera genomes revealed possible molecular bases for unique traits of skippers: a duplication of electron transport chain components could result in efficient energy supply for their rapid flight; a diversified family of predicted cellulases might allow them to feed on cellulose-enriched grasses; an expansion of pheromone-binding proteins and enzymes for pheromone synthesis implies a more efficient mate-recognition system, which compensates for the lack of clear visual cues due to the similarities in wing colors and patterns of many species of skippers. Phylogenetic analysis of several Lepidoptera genomes suggested that the position of Hesperiidae remains uncertain as the tree topology varied depending on the evolutionary model. Completion of the first genome from the family Hesperiidae allowed comparative analyses with other Lepidoptera that revealed potential genetic bases for the unique phenotypic traits of skippers. This work lays the foundation for future experimental studies of skippers and

  16. Nature inspired capacitive sensor with unique and unclonable characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuthedath, C. B.; Schwesinger, N.

    2018-02-01

    Background of this paper is the development of sensors showing a nature like characteristic. The sensor is able to detect excitations on inertia bases and operates capacitive. It consists of a miniaturized interdigitated electrode structure on a printed circuit board, a flexible and conductive membrane of PDMS located in a certain distance above and a certain number of steel balls fixed on top of the membrane. The steel ball distribution is random and the conductivity of the membrane is not homogeneous across the membrane. Due to this double random distribution, no sensor equals the other, although the external geometry is equal. The overall size of the sensor is 4.7mm x 4.7mm x 1.7mm. Tilt, acceleration or magnetic fields are capable of causing forces on the steel balls and therefore relative movements between the membrane and the electrode structures. Due to this movement, capacity changes of the arrangement are measurable. This paper describes besides the fabrication of conductive membranes the preparation of regarding sensors. Process technology makes cloning of the sensors impossible. Although all process steps are suited for mass production, no sensor equals the other. Measurements with these sensors prove that each sensor reacts differently to the same excitation. Calculations of the Intra-Concordance-Coefficient show the similarity of the sensors for equal excitations. On the other hand, the maximum Inter-Concordance-Coefficient reveals the differences of such sensors very clearly. Such a characteristic, i.e. equal reaction to equal excitation and an output of significantly different signals allows considering each sensor as a unique device. The sensors obviously behave like receptors in natural organisms. These unusual properties of uniqueness and impossibility to clone make the sensors very interesting for highly secure identification demands. In combination with a very simple measurement procedure, the sensors are an attractive hardware base for

  17. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Olden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Results Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies, study track (for studies with diversified study programs, or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits. Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Conclusion Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  18. Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Belden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates, including amphibians, host diverse symbiotic microbes that contribute to host disease resistance. Globally, and especially in montane tropical systems, many amphibian species are threatened by a chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, that causes a lethal skin disease. Bd therefore may be a strong selective agent on the diversity and function of the microbial communities inhabiting amphibian skin. In Panamá, amphibian population declines and the spread of Bd have been tracked. In 2012, we completed a field survey in Panamá to examine frog skin microbiota in the context of Bd infection. We focused on three frog species and collected two skin swabs per frog from a total of 136 frogs across four sites that varied from west to east in the time since Bd arrival. One swab was used to assess bacterial community structure using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and to determine Bd infection status, and one was used to assess metabolite diversity, as the bacterial production of anti-fungal metabolites is an important disease resistance function. The skin microbiota of the three Panamanian frog species differed in OTU (operational taxonomic unit, ~bacterial species community composition and metabolite profiles, although the pattern was less strong for the metabolites. Comparisons between frog skin bacterial communities from Panamá and the US suggest broad similarities at the phylum level, but key differences at lower taxonomic levels. In our field survey in Panamá, across all four sites, only 35 individuals (~26% were Bd infected. There was no clustering of OTUs or metabolite profiles based on Bd infection status and no clear pattern of west-east changes in OTUs or metabolite profiles across the four sites. Overall, our field survey data suggest that different bacterial communities might be producing broadly similar sets of metabolites across frog hosts and sites. Community structure and function may not be as tightly coupled in

  19. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  20. Survey of foreign maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1992-07-01

    Magnetic levitation (maglev) transportation systems represent an innovative technology that promises to provide pollution-free, contact-free, high-speed ground transportation for the twenty-first century. Great interest in maglev systems has been developing in the United States over the past two years under the auspices of the US National Maglev Initiative. The objective of the survey presented in this report is to provide the US maglev community with information on various maglev concepts that were developed in foreign countries over the past two decades. The main maglev systems included in the survey are the German Transrapid series and the M-Bahn, the Japanese HSST and MLU series, and the British Birmingham. Each maglev system is introduced and discussed according to its type, historical development, unique features, current status, and future prospects. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are briefly noted.

  1. Unique strategies for technical information management at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the current NASA manned programs, the maturation of Space Station and the introduction of the Space Exploration programs are anticipated to add substantially to the number and variety of data and documentation at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). This growth in the next decade has been estimated at five to ten fold compared to the current numbers. There will be an increased requirement for the tracking and currency of space program data and documents with National pressures to realize economic benefits from the research and technological developments of space programs. From a global perspective the demand for NASA's technical data and documentation is anticipated to increase at local, national, and international levels. The primary users will be government, industry, and academia. In our present national strategy, NASA's research and technology will assume a great role in the revitalization of the economy and gaining international competitiveness. Thus, greater demand will be placed on NASA's data and documentation resources. In this paper the strategies and procedures developed by DDMS, Inc., to accommodate the present and future information utilization needs are presented. The DDMS, Inc., strategies and procedures rely on understanding user requirements, library management issues, and technological applications for acquiring, searching, storing, and retrieving specific information accurately and quickly. The proposed approach responds to changing customer requirements and product deliveries. The unique features of the proposed strategy include: (1) To establish customer driven data and documentation management through an innovative and unique methods to identify needs and requirements. (2) To implement a structured process which responds to user needs, aimed at minimizing costs and maximizing services, resulting in increased productivity. (3) To provide a process of standardization of services and procedures. This standardization is the central

  2. The cost of uniqueness in groundwater model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Doherty, John

    2006-04-01

    Calibration of a groundwater model requires that hydraulic properties be estimated throughout a model domain. This generally constitutes an underdetermined inverse problem, for which a solution can only be found when some kind of regularization device is included in the inversion process. Inclusion of regularization in the calibration process can be implicit, for example through the use of zones of constant parameter value, or explicit, for example through solution of a constrained minimization problem in which parameters are made to respect preferred values, or preferred relationships, to the degree necessary for a unique solution to be obtained. The "cost of uniqueness" is this: no matter which regularization methodology is employed, the inevitable consequence of its use is a loss of detail in the calibrated field. This, in turn, can lead to erroneous predictions made by a model that is ostensibly "well calibrated". Information made available as a by-product of the regularized inversion process allows the reasons for this loss of detail to be better understood. In particular, it is easily demonstrated that the estimated value for an hydraulic property at any point within a model domain is, in fact, a weighted average of the true hydraulic property over a much larger area. This averaging process causes loss of resolution in the estimated field. Where hydraulic conductivity is the hydraulic property being estimated, high averaging weights exist in areas that are strategically disposed with respect to measurement wells, while other areas may contribute very little to the estimated hydraulic conductivity at any point within the model domain, this possibly making the detection of hydraulic conductivity anomalies in these latter areas almost impossible. A study of the post-calibration parameter field covariance matrix allows further insights into the loss of system detail incurred through the calibration process to be gained. A comparison of pre- and post

  3. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  4. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  5. Generating unique IDs from patient identification data using security models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of electronic health records (EHRs has continued to increase within healthcare systems in the developed and developing nations. EHRs allow for increased patient safety, grant patients easier access to their medical records, and offer a wealth of data to researchers. However, various bioethical, financial, logistical, and information security considerations must be addressed while transitioning to an EHR system. The need to encrypt private patient information for data sharing is one of the foremost challenges faced by health information technology. Method: We describe the usage of the message digest-5 (MD5 and secure hashing algorithm (SHA as methods for encrypting electronic medical data. In particular, we present an application of the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms in encrypting a composite message from private patient information. Results: The results show that the composite message can be used to create a unique one-way encrypted ID per patient record that can be used for data sharing. Conclusion: The described software tool can be used to share patient EMRs between practitioners without revealing patients identifiable data.

  6. The odontoid synchondrotic slip: an injury unique to young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, B.; Emery, D.; Armstrong, D.

    1995-01-01

    We report seven children (three female, four male) diagnosed with traumatic synchrondrotic slip of the odontoid. The clinical records, plain films, and CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. The patients ranged in age between 3 and 5 years. Their injuries resulted from a motor vehicle accident in four cases and from a fall from a height in three. The injury was isolated in five; it was associated with a closed head injury in one and with facial and brachial plexus trauma in another. Radiographs showed anterior angulation with or without displacement in all seven cases. Axial CT with sagittal reformation and 3D reconstructions were performed in six cases. This confirmed the synchrondrotic slip and, in addition, identified a rotary component to the injury in three cases, with compromise of the canal in two. Other additional injuries were also noted. All cases were treated conservatively and the injuries healed. Only one child had a neurological deficit attributable to her head injury rather than to her cervical injury (MR of the cervical cord was normal). The presence of the synchondrosis between the dens and the body of C-2 makes this injury unique to children under 7 years of age; by the age of 7 the synchrondrosis has fused. (orig.)

  7. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  8. What is Unique About Extension Personnel in the City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extension’s pursuit to better attract, develop, retain, and structure competent personnel in the city requires new strategies to build on the knowledge base established through previous research and practice. With the support of numerous national organizations, this study utilized a Competency Framework Development (CFD process to systematically tap into the knowledge of County Extension Directors serving in large urban communities. Findings indicated these local leaders need specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs that are both similar and unique when compared with results from other Extension competency studies. Competencies identified included building social and financial capital, strategic planning and organizing, resource attraction and management, advocacy and impact accountability with multiple stakeholders, and others. A primary difference was that diversity, complexity, and scale in urban communities influenced the extent to which competencies are demonstrated. Research results can be applied to a competency model that incorporates intentional recruiting and hiring practices that reflect the diversity and priorities of the community, competency-based professional development, competitive compensation and retention tactics, and staffing structure and strategies. Further research can include CFD with various types of Extension personnel and perspectives. Extension leaders can continue learning alongside others who can help inform administrators about human capital policies and practices.

  9. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant's ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest's physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented.

  10. Frames of References – Art Museums as Unique Visual Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Hristova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The age old activity of collecting arts is not intrinsically dependent on the art museum as separate architectural type. How was the art museum as an independent structure conceptualized and why? What was the idea behind that concept? Was it created as a medium consciously and what kind of messages was it supposed to deliver? What kind of unique “textual” overlaps the various disciplines of archaeology, art history, politics, literature, science and architecture created in order to produce what we today recognize as art museum space? This study focuses on the crucial historical moments of the late 17th century when such questions were posed for the first time within the classical discourse of the French architectural theory which followed the consolidation of French absolutism and the foundation of the Royal academies of arts and sciences, until the mid 19th century when the answers to those questions were finally exemplified in built architecture. The study gives a comprehensive overview of the cultural context art museums as public institutions emerged from and became new spatial models for collective cultivation.

  11. Unique Education and Workforce Development for NASA Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Miller, Lauren L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA engineers are some of the world's best-educated graduates, responsible for technically complex, highly significant scientific programs. Even though these professionals are highly proficient in traditional analytical competencies, there is a unique opportunity to offer continuing education that further enhances their overall scientific minds. With a goal of maintaining the Agency's passionate, "best in class" engineering workforce, the NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) provides educational resources encouraging foundational learning, professional development, and knowledge sharing. NASA APPEL is currently partnering with the scientific community's most respected subject matter experts to expand its engineering curriculum beyond the analytics and specialized subsystems in the areas of: understanding NASA's overall vision and its fundamental basis, and the Agency initiatives supporting them; sharing NASA's vast reservoir of engineering experience, wisdom, and lessons learned; and innovatively designing hardware for manufacturability, assembly, and servicing. It takes collaboration and innovation to educate an organization that possesses such a rich and important historyand a future that is of great global interest. NASA APPEL strives to intellectually nurture the Agency's technical professionals, build its capacity for future performance, and exemplify its core valuesalJ to better enable NASA to meet its strategic visionand beyond.

  12. The unique cysteine knot regulates the pleotropic hormone leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake/expenditure, metabolism and hypertension. It folds into a four-helix bundle that binds to the extracellular receptor to initiate signaling. Our work on leptin revealed a hidden complexity in the formation of a previously un-described, cysteine-knotted topology in leptin. We hypothesized that this unique topology could offer new mechanisms in regulating the protein activity. A combination of in silico simulation and in vitro experiments was used to probe the role of the knotted topology introduced by the disulphide-bridge on leptin folding and function. Our results surprisingly show that the free energy landscape is conserved between knotted and unknotted protein, however the additional complexity added by the knot formation is structurally important. Native state analyses led to the discovery that the disulphide-bond plays an important role in receptor binding and thus mediate biological activity by local motions on distal receptor-binding sites, far removed from the disulphide-bridge. Thus, the disulphide-bridge appears to function as a point of tension that allows dissipation of stress at a distance in leptin.

  13. Hawadith Street Initiative: A unique Sudanese childhood charity experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad Mohamed; A-Rahman, Nada Hassan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Due to escalating conflicts and resultant economic constraints, different social services in low income and low-middle income countries have witnessed a decline in its standards, and increase in the costs. This situation has led to emergence of large numbers of patients and their families who cannot afford the costs of health services provided by public hospitals. On this background, and the old heritage of the Sudanese to help the needy, the Hawadith Street Initiative (HSI) was established. Named after the street on which it was founded - which translates indirectly to "Accidents Lane", HSI was established in 2012 by a group of youths, most of them in their twenties of age, and recently graduated. The main activity of the initiative is helping the needy hospital patients, especially with regards to their treatment costs, in Khartoum and other cities in Sudan. Starting with recreational programs for cancer patients, and public campaigns for donation of blood, the initiative's youths changed their activities. Using the social media, Facebook, they adopted the strategy of communication with potential donors, after sending posts containing brief anonymous presentations and call of help for needy cases. Currently HSI includes more than 2000 volunteers in Khartoum and 17 other cities. The most important achievement of HSI is the establishment of an intensive care unit at a children hospital in Omdurman city costing 435,880 US dollars. HSI demonstrates the possibility of delivering great services with minimum resources, and constitutes a unique organization, worldwide, in a new wave of Internet-based initiatives.

  14. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification.

  15. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Gaskell

    Full Text Available The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces L-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to L-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed.

  16. Preference for oddity: uniqueness heuristic or hierarchical choice process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Traditional economic theories assume decision makers in multialternative choice tasks "assign" a value to each option and then express rational preferences. Here, I report an apparent violation of such rationality in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis). I tested the jays' preference in a quaternary choice task where three options were the same color and the fourth option was a different color. All options offered an identical food reward and so the strictly rational expectation was that subjects would choose the odd-colored option in 25% of choices. In clear disagreement, every subject chose the odd option more frequently than expected. I speculate as to how this surprising preference for oddity might have been ecologically rational: by using a unique-choice heuristic, the jays might have been able to bypass a deliberative phase of the decision process and devote more attention to scanning for predators. Alternatively, it is conceivable that the jays did not prefer oddity per se. Instead, they might have used a hierarchical process, assigning options to color categories and then choosing between categories. If so, their behavior matches expectation after all (on average, subjects chose the odd option 50% of the time). It should be straightforward to test these competing hypotheses. The current results can be viewed as a new example of how simple mechanisms sometimes produce economically puzzling yet ecologically rational decision making.

  17. Peripheral formalin injection induces unique spinal cord microglial phenotypic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-Yuan; Tan, Yong-Hui; Sung, Backil; Mao, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of brain and activated by peripheral tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of several microglial surface immunomolecules in the spinal cord, including leukocyte common antigen (LCA/CD45), MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, Fc receptor, and CD11c following formalin injection into the rat’s hind paw. CD45 and MHC class I were upregulated in the activated microglia, which was evident on day 3 with the peak expression on day 7 following peripheral formalin injection. There was a very low basal expression of MHC class II, CD11c, and the Fc receptor, which did not change after the formalin injection. These results, for the first time, indicate that peripheral formalin injection can induce phenotypic changes of microglia with distinct upregulation of CD45 and MHC class I antigen. The data suggest that phenotypic changes of the activated microglia may be a unique pattern of central changes following peripheral tissue injury. PMID:19015000

  18. Generating unique IDs from patient identification data using security models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Slack, Jonathan C; Naugler, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    The use of electronic health records (EHRs) has continued to increase within healthcare systems in the developed and developing nations. EHRs allow for increased patient safety, grant patients easier access to their medical records, and offer a wealth of data to researchers. However, various bioethical, financial, logistical, and information security considerations must be addressed while transitioning to an EHR system. The need to encrypt private patient information for data sharing is one of the foremost challenges faced by health information technology. We describe the usage of the message digest-5 (MD5) and secure hashing algorithm (SHA) as methods for encrypting electronic medical data. In particular, we present an application of the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms in encrypting a composite message from private patient information. The results show that the composite message can be used to create a unique one-way encrypted ID per patient record that can be used for data sharing. The described software tool can be used to share patient EMRs between practitioners without revealing patients identifiable data.

  19. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    The Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE) is a program designed to obtain data necessary to evaluate atmospheric transport and diffusion models used to calculate regional population doses caused by nuclear facility emissions to the atmosphere. This experiment will significantly improve the basis for evaluating the cost effectiveness of different methods of managing airborne nuclear wastes. During the period from March 1982 through September 1982, twice daily air samples have been collected at each of five sampling stations located on a radial from the SRP to Murray Hill, NJ (1000 km). Kr-85 emitted from the F and H area chemical separations facilities is being used as a tracer to determine the transport and diffusion of atmospheric releases from the SRP. The Kr-85 concentrations in the air samples will be compared with the calculated concentrations as predicted by the transport and diffusion models. The Kr-85 data and the meteorological data are being archived and will be made available to the modeling community

  20. A uniquely specialized ear in a very early tetrapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, J A; Ahlberg, P E; Finney, S M; Dominguez Alonso, P; Robinson, J; Ketcham, R A

    2003-09-04

    The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology remained enigmatic and not what was expected of a very primitive tetrapod. Its apparent specializations led it to be considered as a "blind offshoot" or "sidebranch" off the tetrapod family tree, and recent cladistic analyses have disagreed about its exact phylogenetic position within the tetrapod stem group. In particular, its braincase and ear region defied interpretation, such that conventional anatomical terms seemed inapplicable. Using new material collected in 1998 (ref. 9), preparation of earlier-collected material, and high-resolution computed tomography scanning, here we identify and interpret these problematic anatomical structures. They can now be seen to form part of a highly specialized ear, probably a hearing device for use in water. This represents a structurally and functionally unique modification of the tetrapod otic region, unlike anything seen in subsequent tetrapod evolution. The presence of deeply grooved gill bars as in its contemporary Acanthostega suggest that Ichthyostega may have been more aquatically adapted than previously believed.

  1. Tibialis Posterior Tenosynovitis: A Unique Musculoskeletal Manifestation of Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupper, Peter; Stitik, Todd P

    2018-02-01

    Extra-articular manifestations of gout can present in several ways, including tenosynovitis. We present a rare case of acute tibialis posterior gouty tenosynovitis. An 82-year-old man with a history of well-controlled gout presented with acute onset of left ankle pain, occurring without inciting event. The medial ankle was slightly erythematous with moderate dorsal-medial swelling and mild dorsal-lateral swelling, with severe tenderness to palpation over the medial retro-malleolar region. Range of motion and manual muscle testing were pain limited throughout. Ultrasound examination revealed a left posterior tibialis tendon sheath tenosynovitis with effusion and overlying soft tissue edema. Tendon sheath aspirate revealed sodium urate crystals and a white blood cell count of 6400/μL. Tendon sheath injection with a mixture of 1% lidocaine and dexamethasone 4 mg resulted in symptom resolution. Repeat ultrasound examination demonstrated no evidence of tibialis posterior tendon sheath effusion. This case is unique not only because acute gouty posterior tibialis tenosynovitis is very rare, particularly in a normouricemic individual, but also because the sonographic evidence of gouty infiltration into the posterior tibialis tendon and overlying subcutaneous tissue considerably aided in arriving at the correct diagnosis in a timely manner.

  2. Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Berge Henegouwen Mark I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic ruptures of the esophagus are relatively rare. This condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most traumatic ruptures occur after motor vehicle accidents. Case Presentation We describe a unique case of a 23 year old woman that presented at our trauma resuscitation room after a fall from 8 meters. During physical examination there were no clinical signs of life-threatening injuries. She did however have a massive amount of subcutaneous emphysema of the chest and neck and pneumomediastinum. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed a lesion in the upper esophagus just below the level of the upper esophageal sphincter. Despite preventive administration of intravenous antibiotics and nutrition via a nasogastric tube, the patient developed a cervical abscess, which drained spontaneously. Normal diet was gradually resumed after 2.5 weeks and the patient was discharged in a reasonable condition 3 weeks after the accident. Conclusions This case report presents a high cervical esophageal rupture without associated local injuries after a fall from height.

  3. On defining a unique phylogenetic tree with homoplastic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloboff, Pablo A; Wilkinson, Mark

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses the problem of whether creating a matrix with all the character state combinations that have a fixed number of steps (or extra steps) on a given tree T, produces the same tree T when analyzed with maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood. Exhaustive enumeration of cases up to 20 taxa for binary characters, and up to 12 taxa for 4-state characters, shows that the same tree is recovered (as unique most likely or most parsimonious tree) as long as the number of extra steps is within 1/4 of the number of taxa. This dependence, 1/4 of the number of taxa, is discussed with a general argumentation, in terms of the spread of the character changes on the tree used to select character state distributions. The present finding allows creating matrices which have as much homoplasy as possible for the most parsimonious or likely tree to be predictable, and examination of these matrices with hill-climbing search algorithms provides additional evidence on the (lack of a) necessary relationship between homoplasy and the ability of search methods to find optimal trees. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Unique topics and issues in rheumatology and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Clinicians are facing unexpected issues in everyday practice, and these may become counterintuitive or challenging. Illustrative examples are provided by the hypersensitivity to universally used immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or antibiotics such as beta-lactam. Secondly, additional issues are represented by the discovery of new pathogenetic mechanisms involved in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis or other chronic inflammatory diseases, genomic susceptibility to enigmatic diseases such as giant cell arteritis, or the shared role of specific mediators such as semaphorins. Third, the therapeutic armamentarium has dramatically changed over the past decade following the introduction of biotechnological drugs, and new mechanisms are being proposed to reduce adverse events or increase the drug effectiveness, particularly on cardiovascular comorbidities. Finally, rare diseases continue to represent difficult cases, as for Cogan's syndrome, with limited literature available for clinical recommendations. For these reason, the present issue of Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology is timely and dedicated to these and other unique topics in clinical immunology and allergy. The aim of this issue is thus to help clinicians involved in internal medicine as well as allergists and clinical immunologists while discussing new pathways that will prove important in the near future.

  5. The companion dog as a unique translational model for aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico; Giulio, Camillo Di; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The dog is a unique species due to its wide variation among breeds in terms of size, morphology, behaviour and lifespan, coupled with a genetic structure that facilitates the dissection of the genetic architecture that controls these traits. Dogs and humans co-evolved and share recent evolutionary selection processes, such as adaptation to digest starch-rich diets. Many diseases of the dog have a human counterpart, and notably Alzheimer's disease, which is otherwise difficult to model in other organisms. Unlike laboratory animals, companion dogs share the human environment and lifestyle, are exposed to the same pollutants, and are faced with pathogens and infections. Dogs represented a very useful model to understand the relationship between size, insulin-like growth factor-1 genetic variation and lifespan, and have been used to test the effects of dietary restriction and immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease. Very recently, rapamycin was tested in companion dogs outside the laboratory, and this approach where citizens are involved in research aimed at the benefit of dog welfare might become a game changer in geroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fingerprint: A Unique and Reliable Method for Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Kumar Bose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints have been the gold standard for personal identification within the forensic community for more than one hundred years. It is still universal in spite of discovery of DNA fingerprint. The science of fingerprint identification has evolved over time from the early use of finger prints to mark business transactions in ancient Babylonia to their use today as core technology in biometric security devices and as scientific evidence in courts of law throughout the world. The science of fingerprints, dactylography or dermatoglyphics, had long been widely accepted, and well acclaimed and reputed as panacea for individualization, particularly in forensic investigations. Human fingerprints are detailed, unique, difficult to alter, and durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as lifelong markers of human identity. Fingerprints can be readily used by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster

  7. Uniqueness of thermodynamic projector and kinetic basis of molecular individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorban, Alexander N.; Karlin, Iliya V.

    2004-05-01

    Three results are presented: First, we solve the problem of persistence of dissipation for reduction of kinetic models. Kinetic equations with thermodynamic Lyapunov functions are studied. Uniqueness of the thermodynamic projector is proven: There exists only one projector which transforms any vector field equipped with the given Lyapunov function into a vector field with the same Lyapunov function for a given anzatz manifold which is not tangent to the Lyapunov function levels. Second, we use the thermodynamic projector for developing the short memory approximation and coarse-graining for general nonlinear dynamic systems. We prove that in this approximation the entropy production increases. ( The theorem about entropy overproduction.) In example, we apply the thermodynamic projector to derive the equations of reduced kinetics for the Fokker-Planck equation. A new class of closures is developed, the kinetic multipeak polyhedra. Distributions of this type are expected in kinetic models with multidimensional instability as universally as the Gaussian distribution appears for stable systems. The number of possible relatively stable states of a nonequilibrium system grows as 2 m, and the number of macroscopic parameters is in order mn, where n is the dimension of configuration space, and m is the number of independent unstable directions in this space. The elaborated class of closures and equations pretends to describe the effects of “molecular individualism”. This is the third result.

  8. Mad scientist: the unique case of a published delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelomi, Matan

    2013-06-01

    In 1951, entomologist Jay Traver published in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington her personal experiences with a mite infestation of her scalp that resisted all treatment and was undetectable to anyone other than herself. Traver is recognized as having suffered from Delusory Parasitosis: her paper shows her to be a textbook case of the condition. The Traver paper is unique in the scientific literature in that its conclusions may be based on data that was unconsciously fabricated by the author's mind. The paper may merit retraction on the grounds of error or even scientific misconduct "by reason of insanity," but such a retraction raises the issue of discrimination against the mentally ill. This article asks what responsibilities journals have when faced with delusions disguised as science, what right editors have to question the sanity of an author, and what should be done about the Traver paper itself. By placing higher emphasis on article content than author identity, scientific integrity is maintained and a balance is struck between avoiding discrimination against the mentally ill and not preventing patients from seeking needed treatment.

  9. A UNIQUE CASE OF PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA PRESENTING WITH HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maji.S, Saha. ML, Kanwar KS, Das S, Bhagat P, Bhar P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheochromocytoma is an extremely uncommon tumor of childhood and there are several features that distinguish its presentation between adults and children. The incidence of pheochromocytoma in childhood is 10% of the adult incidence, occurring in approximately 1 in 500,000 children compared with 1 in 50,000 adults. Around 10% of childhood tumors are familial which is 4times the frequency in adults. Whereas only 7% of pheochromocytomas are bilateral in adults, the reported incidence of the same in children range from 24 % to as high as &70%.These tumors are known for their great diversity in clinical presentation. Greater than 50% of children present with headaches, fever, palpitation, thirst, polyuria, sweating, nausea and weight loss. However the commonest mode of presentation is sustained hypertension. Pheochromocytoma accounts for 0.5% of children with hypertension and must be considered once other causes have been eliminated. We here in report a unique case of a 13 year old girl who initially presented with bilateral hypertensive retinopathy and later found to have a pheochromocytoma on subsequent workup. Hypertensive retinopathy secondary to pheochromocytoma is itself a rare entity whose exact incidence in children is still unknown. This case highlights the importance of routine history, physical examination and measurement of bp. Prompt surgery can reverse the effect of hypertension and lead to good outcome as was evident in our case.

  10. Unique physiology of host-parasite interactions in microsporidia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryony A P

    2009-11-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of all major animal lineages and have a described diversity of over 1200 species and an actual diversity that is estimated to be much higher. They are important pathogens of mammals, and are now one of the most common infections among immunocompromised humans. Although related to fungi, microsporidia are atypical in genomic biology, cell structure and infection mechanism. Host cell infection involves the rapid expulsion of a polar tube from a dormant spore to pierce the host cell membrane and allow the direct transfer of the spore contents into the host cell cytoplasm. This intimate relationship between parasite and host is unique. It allows the microsporidia to be highly exploitative of the host cell environment and cause such diverse effects as the induction of hypertrophied cells to harbour prolific spore development, host sex ratio distortion and host cell organelle and microtubule reorganization. Genome sequencing has revealed that microsporidia have achieved this high level of parasite sophistication with radically reduced proteomes and with many typical eukaryotic pathways pared-down to what appear to be minimal functional units. These traits make microsporidia intriguing model systems for understanding the extremes of reductive parasite evolution and host cell manipulation.

  11. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  12. [Reactive anxiety crisis: a unique case of work injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, G; Gazzoldi, T; Marandola, P; Valoti, E; Fabris, F; Imbriani, M

    2007-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a unique case in view of the disease diagnosed, the conditions of onset and the management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal, animated dispute with some collegues, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was investigated. No neuropsychiatric alteration was diagnosed, but based on anamnestic data, the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to work environment. A medical certificate for injury at work was produced and sent to the Insurance Board (INAIL). The worker was off work for 105 days diagnosed with a persistent anxious depressive syndrome, secondary to the traumatic event. INAIL reassessed the case later and confirmed only the first 30 days as due to work accident, while the following period was judged as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not to work environment. Our case opens new perspective for the occupational physician in the assessment of ASD as work injury and of PTSD as professional disease, suggesting to give more attention to psychiatric health of workers.

  13. Mast Cells Produce a Unique Chondroitin Sulfate Epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; O'Grady, Robert; Caterson, Bruce; Lord, Megan S

    2016-02-01

    The granules of mast cells contain a myriad of mediators that are stored and protected by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that decorate proteoglycans. Whereas heparin is the GAG predominantly associated with mast cells, mast cell proteoglycans are also decorated with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate (CS). This study investigated a unique CS structure produced by mast cells that was detected with the antibody clone 2B6 in the absence of chondroitinase ABC digestion. Mast cells in rodent tissue sections were characterized using toluidine blue, Leder stain and the presence of mast cell tryptase. The novel CS epitope was identified in rodent tissue sections and localized to cells that were morphologically similar to cells chemically identified as mast cells. The rodent mast cell-like line RBL-2H3 was also shown to express the novel CS epitope. This epitope co-localized with multiple CS proteoglycans in both rodent tissue and RBL-2H3 cultured cells. These findings suggest that the novel CS epitope that decorates mast cell proteoglycans may play a role in the way these chains are structured in mast cells. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  14. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria: Unique Microorganisms with Exceptional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria defy many microbiological concepts and share numerous properties with both eukaryotes and archaea. Among their most intriguing characteristics are their compartmentalized cell plan and archaeon-like cell wall. Here we review our current knowledge about anammox cell biology. The anammox cell is divided into three separate compartments by bilayer membranes. The anammox cell consists of (from outside to inside) the cell wall, paryphoplasm, riboplasm, and anammoxosome. Not much is known about the composition or function of both the anammox cell wall and the paryphoplasm compartment. The cell wall is proposed to be proteinaceous and to lack both peptidoglycan and an outer membrane typical of Gram-negative bacteria. The function of the paryphoplasm is unknown, but it contains the cell division ring. The riboplasm resembles the standard cytoplasmic compartment of other bacteria; it contains ribosomes and the nucleoid. The anammoxosome occupies most of the cell volume and is a so-called “prokaryotic organelle” analogous to the eukaryotic mitochondrion. This is the site where the anammox reaction takes place, coupled over the curved anammoxosome membrane, possibly giving rise to a proton motive force and subsequent ATP synthesis. With these unique properties, anammox bacteria are food for thought concerning the early evolution of the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. PMID:22933561

  15. Liposarcoma of Hypopharynx and Esophagus: a Unique Entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Sensini, Matteo; Corvino, Andrea; Garzaro, Massimiliano; Pecorari, Giancarlo

    2016-06-01

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in adults. It represents approximately 20 % of all mesenchymal malignancies. It most frequently involves retroperitoneum, trunk, and extremities. Hypopharyngeal and esophageal localization of liposarcoma is extremely rare. We performed a systematic review of literature and reported 26 and 33 cases of hypopharyngeal and esophageal liposarcoma. We analyzed natural history, imaging features, histology, treatment, and prognosis, with a specific focus to similarities and differences between tumors of hypopharynx and esophagus. Hypopharyngeal and esophageal liposarcomas have more similarities than differences. Incidence has a peak at 6th and 7th decades. The diagnostic procedures are barium swallow, endoscopic examination, and CT/MR imaging. Well-differentiated liposarcoma represents the most frequent histological subtype. Surgical excision is the main treatment. Endoscopic resection can be useful for pedunculated tumors of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. Differences between hypopharyngeal and esophageal liposarcoma are represented by local recurrence rate (greater for hypopharyngeal tumors), number of giant tumors, and time to recurrence (greater for esophageal tumors). Finally, liposarcomas of distal esophagus need more extended approaches. Liposarcomas of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus could be considered a unique pathological entity, with similar features and treatment options. Survival rate is dependent on histological type and location. Local recurrence is common, especially for hypopharyngeal liposarcoma, while the risk of lymph node or distant metastasis is very low. Patients should undergo regular examinations to rule out local recurrence, also for a long time, especially for esophageal tumors.

  16. Non-unique monopole oscillations of harmonically confined Yukawa systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Samuel; Henning, Christian; Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Recently it was shown that the Breathing Mode (BM), the mode of uniform radial expansion and contraction, which is well known from harmonically confined Coulomb systems [1], does not exist in general for other systems [2]. As a consequence the monopole oscillation (MO), the radial collective excitation, is not unique, but there are several MO with different frequencies. Within this work we show simulation results of those monopole oscillations of 2-dimensional harmonically confined Yukawa systems, which are known from, e.g., dusty plasma crystals [3,4]. We present the corresponding spectrum of the particle motion, including analysis of the frequencies found, and compare with theoretical investigations.[1] D.H.E. Dubin and J.P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. E 53, 5249 (1996)[2] C. Henning at al., accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008)[3] A. Melzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 115002 (2001)[4] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)

  17. Origin of the unique ventilatory apparatus of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Scheyer, Torsten M; Lambertz, Markus; Bever, G S; Rubidge, Bruce S; de Queiroz, Kevin

    2014-11-07

    The turtle body plan differs markedly from that of other vertebrates and serves as a model system for studying structural and developmental evolution. Incorporation of the ribs into the turtle shell negates the costal movements that effect lung ventilation in other air-breathing amniotes. Instead, turtles have a unique abdominal-muscle-based ventilatory apparatus whose evolutionary origins have remained mysterious. Here we show through broadly comparative anatomical and histological analyses that an early member of the turtle stem lineage has several turtle-specific ventilation characters: rigid ribcage, inferred loss of intercostal muscles and osteological correlates of the primary expiratory muscle. Our results suggest that the ventilation mechanism of turtles evolved through a division of labour between the ribs and muscles of the trunk in which the abdominal muscles took on the primary ventilatory function, whereas the broadened ribs became the primary means of stabilizing the trunk. These changes occurred approximately 50 million years before the evolution of the fully ossified shell.

  18. CERN openlab and its partners - a unique collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Collaborating with industry is a long-standing tradition at CERN. CERN openlab is a unique example of a structure for CERN and industry to jointly carry out large-scale research and development in the field of information technologies. An initiative perceived by some as rather new, as already old by others,  the openlab this year celebrates its 10th anniversary.   CERN openlab 10th birthday celebration on 3 May 2011, on the occasion of its annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners, as well as past and present team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). The idea of openlab started with Manuel Delfino, who was the head of the IT Department at the start of the millennium. “Links with industry were already in place in the computing field but lacked a general framework” explains François Fluckiger, the manager of openlab since its inception. For example, benchmarking of cutting-edge IT products ...

  19. A unique approach to municipal waste management in Chianti, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhargalkar, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Innovative solutions are required to manage the growing problem of disposal of municipal waste throughout the world. Recovery of energy by combustion of municipal waste has become an acceptable approach in many communities. A unique system with a capacity of 200 tons of waste per day with simultaneous production of electric power and fuel gas is currently under construction in Greve located in the famous wine region of Chianti, Italy. The refuse-derived fuel will be treated in a fluidized bed gasifier. A portion of the gas produced by the gasifier will be used to produce 6.7 MW of electric power; the remaining gas will be used as a fuel in the neighboring cement plant. The plant will be equipped with a state-of-the-art emission control system including an afterburner, a quench reactor, dry venturi and a fabric filter to minimize emissions to the atmosphere. This is the first plant in Europe to employ the fluidized bed gasifier technology on refuse-derived fuel. Design highlights of the overall plant including the air quality control system are presented in this paper

  20. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with a unique imaging finding: multiple encephaloceles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tuemay; Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut

    2017-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a hereditary form of sclerosing bone dysplasia with various radiological and clinical presentations. The autosomal recessive type, also known as malignant osteopetrosis, is the most severe type, with the early onset of manifestations. A 5-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Chest X-ray and skeletal survey revealed the classic findings of osteopetrosis, including diffuse osteosclerosis and bone within a bone appearance. At follow-up, the patient presented with, thickened calvarium, multiple prominent encephaloceles, and dural calcifications leading to the intracranial clinical manifestations with bilateral hearing and sight loss. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of the causes of encephaloceles and this finding may become dramatic if untreated. (orig.)

  1. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with a unique imaging finding: multiple encephaloceles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tuemay [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Osteopetrosis is a hereditary form of sclerosing bone dysplasia with various radiological and clinical presentations. The autosomal recessive type, also known as malignant osteopetrosis, is the most severe type, with the early onset of manifestations. A 5-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Chest X-ray and skeletal survey revealed the classic findings of osteopetrosis, including diffuse osteosclerosis and bone within a bone appearance. At follow-up, the patient presented with, thickened calvarium, multiple prominent encephaloceles, and dural calcifications leading to the intracranial clinical manifestations with bilateral hearing and sight loss. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of the causes of encephaloceles and this finding may become dramatic if untreated. (orig.)

  2. Comparative fecal metagenomics unveils unique functional capacity of the swine gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the taxonomic composition and functional capacity within the swine gut microbial consortia is of great importance to animal physiology and health as well as to food and water safety due to the presence of human pathogens in pig feces. Nonetheless, limited information on the functional diversity of the swine gut microbiome is available. Results Analysis of 637, 722 pyrosequencing reads (130 megabases generated from Yorkshire pig fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and largely unknown functional capacity of the swine gut microbiome. Swine fecal metagenomic sequences were annotated using both MG-RAST and JGI IMG/M-ER pipelines. Taxonomic analysis of metagenomic reads indicated that swine fecal microbiomes were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. At a finer phylogenetic resolution, Prevotella spp. dominated the swine fecal metagenome, while some genes associated with Treponema and Anareovibrio species were found to be exclusively within the pig fecal metagenomic sequences analyzed. Functional analysis revealed that carbohydrate metabolism was the most abundant SEED subsystem, representing 13% of the swine metagenome. Genes associated with stress, virulence, cell wall and cell capsule were also abundant. Virulence factors associated with antibiotic resistance genes with highest sequence homology to genes in Bacteroidetes, Clostridia, and Methanosarcina were numerous within the gene families unique to the swine fecal metagenomes. Other abundant proteins unique to the distal swine gut shared high sequence homology to putative carbohydrate membrane transporters. Conclusions The results from this metagenomic survey demonstrated the presence of genes associated with resistance to antibiotics and carbohydrate metabolism suggesting that the swine gut microbiome may be shaped by husbandry practices.

  3. Unique natural exopolysaccharides for biomimetic protective effect against urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Magali; Lamarque, Elisabeth; Loing, Estelle

    Through natural selection, living organisms have evolved well-adapted survival strategies over time. The shallow salt waters of Moorea lagoon are the site of accumulation of microbial mats called "Kopara," in the native Polynesian language. This unique ecosystem is rich in film-forming exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted by microorganisms within the biofilm, as a mean to protect themselves from environmental stress (strong ultraviolet [UV], pH, salinity … ). Using blue biotechnology, a manufacturing process was developed to obtain an EPS with skin benefits. The active ingredient (EPS-229) protects against urban pollution, including free radicals, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and PM 2.5 (particulate matter with a size lower than 2.5 μm). The anti-lipid peroxidation action of EPS-229 was studied in an in vitro UVB-irradiated keratinocyte culture model, using lipophilic fluorescent probe. The chelating properties of EPS-229 were evaluated in tubo in the presence of cadmium and lead. The protective effect of EPS-229 on pollution-exposed skin explants was investigated through quantification of released malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological observation of skin morphology using optical microscopy. Clinical evaluation of the protective and cleansing efficacy of a water solution containing EPS-229 (0.02% and 0.01% w/v, respectively) was performed, against placebo, on a panel of 18 volunteers. For these studies, the forearms of volunteers were treated with EPS-229 before (anti-adhesion affect) or after (cleansing effect) application of PM 2.5 (iron particles of 1 μm). The presence of skin-adherent particles was observed and quantified by image analysis, using specific digital masks. In vitro , EPS-229 significantly protected keratinocyte cell membranes from lipid peroxidation. A decrease of 28% was achieved when a concentration of 0.001% w/v EPS-229 was applied to the cell culture. In tubo , EPS-229 also presented strong chelating properties. Maximal adsorption was

  4. A unique deubiquitinase that deconjugates phosphoribosyl-linked protein ubiquitination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Yu, Kaiwen; Fei, Xiaowen; Liu, Yao; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Shaw, Jared B.; Puvar, Kedar; Das, Chittaranjan; Liu, Xiaoyun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2017-05-12

    Ubiquitination regulates many aspects of host immunity and thus is a common target for infectious agents. Recent studies revealed that members of the SidE effector family of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila attacked several small GTPases associated with the endoplasmic reticulum by a novel ubiquitination mechanism that does not require the E1 and E2 enzymes of the host ubiquitination machinery. Following ubiquitin activation by ADP- ribosylation via a mono-ADP-ribosylation motif, ADP-ribosylated ubiquitin is cleaved by a phosphodiesterasedomainwithinSdeA,whichisconcomitantwiththelinkof phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to serine residues in the substrate. Here we demonstrate that the activity of SidEs is regulated by SidJ, another effector encoded by a gene situated in the locus coding for three members of the SidE family (SdeC, SdeB and SdeA). SidJ functions to remove ubiquitin from SidEs-modified substrates by cleaving the phosphodiester bond that links phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to protein substrates. Further, the deubiquitinase activity of SidJ is essential for its role in L. pneumophila infection. Finally, the activity of SidJ is required for efficiently reducing the abundance of ubiquitinated Rab33b in infected cells within a few hours after bacterial uptake. Our results establish SidJ as a deubiquitinase that functions to impose temporal regulation of the activity of the SidE effectors. The identification of SidJ may shed light on future study of signaling cascades mediated by this unique ubiquitination that also potentially regulates cellular processes in eukaryotic cells.

  5. A unique view on male infertility around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Mulgund, Aditi; Hamada, Alaa; Chyatte, Michelle Renee

    2015-04-26

    Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally, amounting to 48.5 million couples. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases overall. However, this number does not accurately represent all regions of the world. Indeed, on a global level, there is a lack of accurate statistics on rates of male infertility. Our report examines major regions of the world and reports rates of male infertility based on data on female infertility. Our search consisted of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and population-based studies by searching the terms "epidemiology, male infertility, and prevalence." We identified 16 articles for detailed study. We typically used the assumption that 50% of all cases of infertility are due to female factors alone, 20-30% are due to male factors alone, and the remaining 20-30% are due to a combination of male and female factors. Therefore, in regions of the world where male factor or rates of male infertility were not reported, we used this assumption to calculate general rates of male factor infertility. Our calculated data showed that the distribution of infertility due to male factor ranged from 20% to 70% and that the percentage of infertile men ranged from 2·5% to 12%. Infertility rates were highest in Africa and Central/Eastern Europe. Additionally, according to a variety of sources, rates of male infertility in North America, Australia, and Central and Eastern Europe varied from 4 5-6%, 9%, and 8-12%, respectively. This study demonstrates a novel and unique way to calculate the distribution of male infertility around the world. According to our results, at least 30 million men worldwide are infertile with the highest rates in Africa and Eastern Europe. Results indicate further research is needed regarding etiology and treatment, reduce stigma & cultural barriers, and establish a more precise calculation.

  6. The uniqueness and complexity of kampung city Bustaman Semarang Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarwanto, Budi; Hardiman, Gagoek; Suprapti, Atiek; Sarjono, Agung B.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the uniqueness and complexity of one village town Bustaman Semarang Indonesia. This research is in the domain of qualitative research paradigm with ethnography research strategy. The critical ethnography technique is chosen with the consideration of the purpose of this research, that is besides describing also the analysing urban spatial condition over its complexity. Bustaman town village has artifacts outdated and local economic activities namely culinary processed goat meat. Kampung Bustaman shows the common character as a city hometown, which is chaotic and shabby. Some artifacts and historical value of Bustaman village as well as community culture become potential to be developed and conserved. But for that the quality of Bustaman village hometown should be improved. Bustaman's urban halls are under distress by changes in urban modernization, including the pattern of life of Bustaman villagers. However, the existing phenomenon that the potential of local and cultural communities are still able to survive and exist, within the limitations of space and resources available. The process of culinary production of goat meat, the limitation of the kampong space, the social awareness of the villagers, the role of community leaders, and the necessities of daily life are the drivers of the complexity of Bustaman village space. The village road corridor and the house terrace become the victim room for all the activities of the town. Clutter seems clear can be found in every corner of Bustaman village space. Kampung Bustaman can be categorized as a spontaneous and compact informal village, but still survive on the urban spatial locality.

  7. Development of a Unique Small Molecule Modulator of CXCR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Younghyoun; Lin, Songbai; Sasaki, Maiko; Klapproth, Jan-Michael A.; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Xu, Jianguo; Rojas, Mauricio; Voll, Ronald J.; Goodman, Mark M.; Arrendale, Richard F.; Liu, Jin; Yun, C. Chris; Snyder, James P.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2012-01-01

    Background Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the actions of N,N′-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))dipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122), a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using 18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles. Conclusions/Significance We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can be safer for

  8. Development of a unique small molecule modulator of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxing Liang

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12 interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites.We describe the actions of N,N'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylenedipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using (18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles.We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can be safer for long-term blockade of metastasis than other reported CXCR4

  9. The gaming of concussions: a unique intervention in postconcussion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James M; Anderson, Megan; Benton, Brooke; Green, Sue Stanley

    2015-03-01

    To present the case of 2 adolescent high school student-athletes who developed postconcussion syndrome with protracted and limiting visual complaints that markedly affected academic, social, and athletic activity for a year after the onset of symptoms. Both had significant improvement soon after a unique intervention was administered. A 14-year-old female soccer and softball player sustained 2 concussions in the same week. She had persistent symptoms for a year that affected her grades and precluded athletic participation. A 15-year-old male football player sustained a concussion during an altercation with 2 other male adolescents. He continued to have symptoms 1 year later, with a marked decrease in academic performance and restriction from athletics. Both adolescents reported blurry vision, photophobia, and associated headache as significant components of the postconcussion syndrome. Concussion, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, second-impact syndrome, and visually sensitive migraine. Both patients were advised to obtain computer gaming glasses to use throughout the day. The female patient was diligent in her use of the glasses, with marked lessening of symptoms. The male patient was less accepting of the glasses but did report lessening of symptoms when using the glasses. We hypothesized that postconcussion syndrome with marked visual complaints would respond to and improve with decreased stimulation of the visual system. This was attempted with the addition of computer gaming glasses. Both adolescent athletes responded well to the filtering of visual stimuli by off-the-shelf computer gaming glasses. Postconcussion syndrome is a persistent condition with a myriad of symptoms. Two young athletes developed postconcussion syndrome with prominent visual symptoms that lasted a year. The addition of computer gaming glasses markedly lessened symptoms in both patients.

  10. Biomarkers on Europa: Unique signatures produced by radiolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Hand, K. P.

    A promising habitat for life is Jupiter's moon Europa, with its likely ocean under a young, active surface. Europa orbits in the heart of Jupiter's powerful magnetosphere and suffers intense energetic particle bombardment, producing both good and bad aspects for astrobiology at Europa. Ionizing radiation can produce oxidants that could support a radiation-driven ecology as proposed by Chyba. On the other hand, biomolecular evidence for oceanic life that may be emplaced on the surface is rapidly altered by radiation, perhaps complicating astrobiological searches for evidence of life. We are studying the radiolytic degradation of molecular biomarkers in ice at Europa temperatures by studying both simple organics and more complex biomolecules, including microorganisms. High energy (1-100 keV) electron irradiation is employed and the products are analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, thermal desorption mass spectroscopy, and laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy. Hydrocarbon radiolysis yields carbon dioxide and methane which can escape the system and results in the net loss of carbon. Aliphatic molecules with C=O bonds are formed and thought to be mainly polymethylene oxides. When heated, they polymerize to form brown, high-molecular-weight refractory residues with linear, spherical, and ring- shaped macrostructures, typically many tens of micrometers in size. Laser desorption mass spectra of the residues are not overly complex and are different for each initial species. Radiolysis of microorganisms shows the destruction of amine, amide, methyl, and methylene groups, and production of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitriles, and isocyanates. Mass spectra of irradiated B. pumilus spores are different and surprisingly less complex than those of unirradiated spores. It is possible that unique, diagnostic biosignatures may exist in mass spectra of irradiated microorganisms.

  11. Grasping convergent evolution in syngnathids: a unique tale of tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutens, C; Adriaens, D; Christiaens, J; De Kegel, B; Dierick, M; Boistel, R; Van Hoorebeke, L

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses and pipehorses both possess a prehensile tail, a unique characteristic among teleost fishes, allowing them to grasp and hold onto substrates such as sea grasses. Although studies have focused on tail grasping, the pattern of evolutionary transformations that made this possible is poorly understood. Recent phylogenetic studies show that the prehensile tail evolved independently in different syngnathid lineages, including seahorses, Haliichthys taeniophorus and several types of so-called pipehorses. This study explores the pattern that characterizes this convergent evolution towards a prehensile tail, by comparing the caudal musculoskeletal organization, as well as passive bending capacities in pipefish (representing the ancestral state), pipehorse, seahorse and H. taeniophorus. To study the complex musculoskeletal morphology, histological sectioning, μCT-scanning and phase contrast synchrotron scanning were combined with virtual 3D-reconstructions. Results suggest that the independent evolution towards tail grasping in syngnathids reflects at least two quite different strategies in which the ancestral condition of a heavy plated and rigid system became modified into a highly flexible one. Intermediate skeletal morphologies (between the ancestral condition and seahorses) could be found in the pygmy pipehorses and H. taeniophorus, which are phylogenetically closely affiliated with seahorses. This study suggests that the characteristic parallel myoseptal organization as already described in seahorse (compared with a conical organization in pipefish and pipehorse) may not be a necessity for grasping, but represents an apomorphy for seahorses, as this pattern is not found in other syngnathid species possessing a prehensile tail. One could suggest that the functionality of grasping evolved before the specialized, parallel myoseptal organization seen in seahorses. However, as the grasping system in pipehorses is a totally different one, this cannot be

  12. Unique Assessment of Hand Surgery Knowledge by Specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-03-01

    Orthopedic and plastic surgery residents receive unique training yet often compete for similar hand surgery fellowships. This study compared didactic hand surgery training during orthopedic and plastic surgery residency. The Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam and Orthopaedic In-Training Examination were analyzed for hand content for the years 2009 to 2013. Topics were categorized with the content outline for the Surgery of the Hand Examination. Differences were elucidated by means of Fisher's exact test. Relative to the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination, the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam had greater hand representation (20.3 percent versus 8.1 percent; p < 0.001) with more annual hand questions (40 ± 3 versus 24 ± 2; p < 0.001). The Plastic Surgery Exam questions had more words, were less often level I-recall type, and were less often image-based. The questions focused more on finger and hand/palm anatomy, whereas the Orthopaedic examination was more wrist-focused. The Plastic Surgery Exam emphasized wound management and muscle/tendon injuries, but underemphasized fractures/dislocations. References differed, but Journal of Hand Surgery (American Volume) and Green's Operative Hand Surgery were common on both examinations. The Plastic Surgery Exam had a greater publication lag for journal references (10.7 ± 0.5 years versus 9.0 ± 0.6; p = 0.035). Differences in didactic hand surgery training are elucidated for plastic surgery and orthopedic residents. Deficiencies in the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam hand curriculum relative to the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination may underprepare plastic surgeons for the Surgery of the Hand Examination. These data may assist future modifications to hand surgery training in the United States.

  13. Diverticulitis exclusiva de ciego Unique diverticulitis of the cecum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Frías Espinosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La diverticulitis cecal es una rara entidad de difícil diagnóstico que con frecuencia se confunde con un proceso apendicular agudo. Los divertículos primarios o de origen congénito, generalmente son únicos, suelen presentarse en una edad más temprana que la enfermedad diverticular cólica (divertículos secundarios.La presencia de estos en el colon derecho se reporta con menor frecuencia, su diagnóstico es en muchas ocasiones indistinguible de la apendicitis aguda y se realiza en la mayoría de los casos durante la laparotomía, el tratamiento es variable, según la literatura abarca desde la resección del divertículo hasta la hemicolectomía derecha. El objetivo de esta presentación es referir la dificultad diagnostica y la alta frecuencia de error diagnóstico que presenta esta entidad.The cecal diverticulitis is a strange disease, difficult to be diagnosed, frequently confused with acute appendicular process. The primary diverticula or those of congenital origin are generally unique; they usually appear at younger age than the colic diverticular disease (secondary diverticula. Their presence in the right colon is less frequently reported, the diagnosis is often confused with that of acute appendicitis and most of cases undergo laparatomy. According to the scientific literature, the treatment is variable, ranging from diverticular resection to right hemi-cholectomy. The objective of this paper was to present the difficulties and the high frequency of errors in diagnosing this disease.

  14. Platon G. Kostyuk (August 20, 1924-May 10, 2010): A unique survey of a life spanning turbulent times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregestovski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    On May 10th 2010 Platon Grigorevitch Kostyuk sadly left us at the age of 85. He was a talented scientist, a brilliant experimenter, an outstanding organizer of science and an excellent teacher. Platon Kostyuk was born in 1924 in Kiev, Ukraine. He obtained a double education: a graduate of the Kiev University Department of Biology in 1946 and the Kiev Medical Institute in 1949, he became a pioneer in neuroscience, the first in the Soviet Union to use microelectrodes for intracellular recording of electrical signals in neurons. Despite the difficulties for international travel for those living behind the Iron Curtain, he was able to present his work at the International Congress of Physiology in Buenos Aires in 1959 and here met Prof. John Eccles who invited him to work at the University of Canberra in Australia in 1960–1961. This was the start of an outstanding international career, complementing his creative achievements in the Soviet Union. In 1966 P.G. Kostyuk became director of the Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology in Kiev, which he headed for nearly 45 years. Under his direction this Institute became a leading centre for neuroscience, renowned not only in the Soviet Union but also internationally. New directions of research were developed in cell physiology, molecular biophysics and neurophysiology. Several important discoveries were made including the development of a method for intracellular perfusion, evidence for a calcium-dependent conductance in nerve cells and the discovery of new types of ion channels. Elected to the Ukraine Academy of Science in 1969 and Grand Academician of the Soviet Academy of Science in 1974, Kostyuk has also been honoured by many international societies. He is the author of more than 650 articles, 17 monographs and 7 discoveries and was the creator and editor of two scientific journals: "Neurophysiology" and "Neuroscience". The outstanding career and multifaceted activities of Academician Platon Kostyuk form a pyramid of achievement, at the top of which ride his research in cognition and his enthusiasm for the discovery of the secrets of Nature.

  15. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Franks, S. J.; Hufbauer, R. A.; Kotanen, P. M.; Torchin, M.; Byers, J. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Bossdorf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 29-47 ISSN 1619-0033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : garlic mustard * citizen science * model system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Conifers have a unique small RNA silencing signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgosheina, Elena V; Morin, Ryan D; Aksay, Gozde; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Mattsson, Jim; Unrau, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    Plants produce small RNAs to negatively regulate genes, viral nucleic acids, and repetitive elements at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level in a process that is referred to as RNA silencing. While RNA silencing has been extensively studied across the different phyla of the animal kingdom (e.g., mouse, fly, worm), similar studies in the plant kingdom have focused primarily on angiosperms, thus limiting evolutionary studies of RNA silencing in plants. Here we report on an unexpected phylogenetic difference in the size distribution of small RNAs among the vascular plants. By extracting total RNA from freshly growing shoot tissue, we conducted a survey of small RNAs in 24 vascular plant species. We find that conifers, which radiated from the other seed-bearing plants approximately 260 million years ago, fail to produce significant amounts of 24-nucleotide (nt) RNAs that are known to guide DNA methylation and heterochromatin formation in angiosperms. Instead, they synthesize a diverse population of small RNAs that are exactly 21-nt long. This finding was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing of the small RNA sequences from a conifer, Pinus contorta. A conifer EST search revealed the presence of a novel Dicer-like (DCL) family, which may be responsible for the observed change in small RNA expression. No evidence for DCL3, an enzyme that matures 24-nt RNAs in angiosperms, was found. We hypothesize that the diverse class of 21-nt RNAs found in conifers may help to maintain organization of their unusually large genomes.

  17. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  18. Effectiveness of a Unique Support Group for Physicians in a Physician Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis T; Candilis, Philip J; Arnstein, Fredrick; Eaton, Judith; Barnes Blood, Diana; Chinman, Gary A; Bresnahan, Linda R

    2016-01-01

    State Physician Health Programs (PHPs) assess, support, and monitor physicians with mental, behavioral, medical, and substance abuse problems. Since their formation in the 1970s, PHPs have offered support groups following the 12-step model for recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, few programs have developed support groups for physicians without SUDs. This study at the Massachusetts PHP (Physician Health Services Inc.) represents the first effort to survey physician attitudes concerning a unique support group that goes beyond classic addiction models. The group was initiated because of the observation that physicians with problems other than SUDs did not fit easily into the 12-step framework. It was hypothesized that such a group would be effective in helping participants control workplace stress, improve professional and personal relationships, and manage medical and psychiatric difficulties. With a response rate of 43% (85 respondents), the survey identified a strong overall impact of the Physician Health Services Inc. support group, identifying positive effects in all areas of personal and professional life: family and friends, wellness, professional relationships, and career. Respondents identified the role of the facilitator as particularly important, underscoring the facilitator's capacity to welcome participants, manage interactions, set limits, and maintain a supportive emotional tone. The implications for physician health extend from supporting a broader application of this model to using a skilled facilitator to manage groups intended to reduce the stress and burnout of present-day medical practice. The results encourage PHPs, hospitals, medical practices, and physician groups to consider implementing facilitated support groups as an additional tool for maintaining physician health.

  19. Saving a Unique Data Set for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, D.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian/US International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program included the four satellites Alouette 1 and 2, ISIS 1 and 2 launched in 1962, 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively and in operation for 10, 10, 21, and 19 years, respectively. The core experiment on these satellites was a topside sounder that could determine the ionospheric electron density from the orbit altitude down to about 250-500 km near where the ionosphere reaches its point of highest density, the F-peak. The mission was long lasting and highly successful, producing a wealth of information about the topside ionosphere in the form of analog ionosphere soundings on 7-track tapes. The analysis process required a tedious manual scaling of ionogram traces that could then, with appropriate software, be converted into electron density profiles. Even with the combined effort involving ionospheric groups from many countries only a relatively small percentage of the huge volume of recorded ionograms could be converted to electron density profiles. Even with this limited number significant new insights were achieved documented by the many Alouette/ISIS-related papers published in the 1960s and 1970s. Recognizing the importance of this unique data set for space weather research a new effort was undertaken in the late Nineties to analyze more of the Alouette/ISIS ionograms. The immediate cause for action was the threat to the more than 100,000 analog telemetry tapes in storage in Canada because of space limitations and storage costs. We were able to have nearly 20,000 tapes shipped to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for analog-to-digital conversion and succeeded in developing software that automatically scales and converts the ionograms to electron density profiles. This rescue effort is still ongoing and has already produced a significant increase in the information available for the topside ionosphere and has resulted in numerous publications. The data have led to improvements of the

  20. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  1. European Unique Hull Identification Number for Inland Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Ružić

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To enable efficient management of inland navigation processes,specialized information systems should be developedthrough the application of modern information and communicationtechnology (ICT. For this purpose, individual Europeanwaterway and port authorities have developed their ownlocal information systems and databases. Due to the non-conformityof these databases, their integration at the Europeanlevel is confronted with selious problems (COMPRIS, 2003.One of the major problems is the lack of a common Europeanunique identification number for inland barges. For this reason,in some locally managed databases several different identificationnumbers are attributed to one and the same inlandbarge or certain identification numbers are not available. Thesame problem occurs in the communication between waterwayautholities and between waterway and port authorities. Therefore,a unique identification number for all floating objects onthe European waterways should be introduced. At the momentthere are only two official numbers for vessels. The first, the!MO number, introduced in 1978, is only used by maritimevessels. The second, the OFS number (Official Ship Number,is used only for vessels that have a Rhine patent (issued by theCCNR. The OFS number cannot satisfy all the requirementsof RIS Directive 2005/44/EC and the amendment to Directive82/714/EEC on technical requirements for inland navigationvessels in the enlarged European Union. The fact is that only20% of the ranges of codes are reserved for the non-Rhinecountries. A special Electronic Reporting International group(ER! was appointed to formulate a new system for uniqueidentification of inland vessels and also define a databasemodel for vessel characteristics. The initial suggestion of ERIwas to add one character in front of the OFS number in orderto increase its coding capacity. The intention was to make asfew as possible differences/modifications to the system currentlyused under the regime of

  2. (Canada) Oil and gas survey, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This summarizes the financial reporting of a major segment of the oil and gas industry in Canada as shown in annual reports to shareholders for 1986. Annual reports have been surveyed with particular attention to developments in accounting practices in the oil and gas industry during 1986. The survey was not restricted to financial statements and all information presented in the annual reports was considered. Matters of general financial disclosure not unique to the oil and gas industry are not included. Examples quoted from reports covered by this survey are not presented as recommended methods but are illustrations of present practice only. Some illustrations were drawn from oil and gas companies not included in the survey.

  3. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  4. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  5. VISION - Vienna survey in Orion. I. VISTA Orion A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meingast, Stefan; Alves, João; Mardones, Diego; Teixeira, Paula Stella; Lombardi, Marco; Großschedl, Josefa; Ascenso, Joana; Bouy, Herve; Forbrich, Jan; Goodman, Alyssa; Hacar, Alvaro; Hasenberger, Birgit; Kainulainen, Jouni; Kubiak, Karolina; Lada, Charles; Lada, Elizabeth; Moitinho, André; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; Rodrigues, Lara; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Orion A hosts the nearest massive star factory, thus offering a unique opportunity to resolve the processes connected with the formation of both low- and high-mass stars. Here we present the most detailed and sensitive near-infrared (NIR) observations of the entire molecular cloud to date. Aims: With the unique combination of high image quality, survey coverage, and sensitivity, our NIR survey of Orion A aims at establishing a solid empirical foundation for further studies of this important cloud. In this first paper we present the observations, data reduction, and source catalog generation. To demonstrate the data quality, we present a first application of our catalog to estimate the number of stars currently forming inside Orion A and to verify the existence of a more evolved young foreground population. Methods: We used the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to survey the entire Orion A molecular cloud in the NIR J,H, and KS bands, covering a total of ~18.3 deg2. We implemented all data reduction recipes independently of the ESO pipeline. Estimates of the young populations toward Orion A are derived via the KS-band luminosity function. Results: Our catalog (799 995 sources) increases the source counts compared to the Two Micron All Sky Survey by about an order of magnitude. The 90% completeness limits are 20.4, 19.9, and 19.0 mag in J,H, and KS, respectively. The reduced images have 20% better resolution on average compared to pipeline products. We find between 2300 and 3000 embedded objects in Orion A and confirm that there is an extended foreground population above the Galactic field, in agreement with previous work. Conclusions: The Orion A VISTA catalog represents the most detailed NIR view of the nearest massive star-forming region and provides a fundamental basis for future studies of star formation processes toward Orion. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla

  6. USDOE Remote Sensing Laboratory multisensor surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, L.; Christel, L.; Clark, H.; Mackey, H.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) maintains a Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to support nuclear related programs of the US Government. The mission of the organization includes both emergency response and routine environmental assessments of nuclear facilities. The unique suite of equipment used by RSL for multisensor surveys of nuclear facilities include gamma radiation sensors, mapping quality aerial cameras, video cameras, thermal imagers, and multispectral scanners. Results for RSL multisensor surveys that have been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located in South Carolina are presented

  7. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Oral Hygiene: A Collection of Unique Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brein, Daniel J; Fleenor, Thomas J; Kim, Soo-Woo; Krupat, Edward

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to identify predictors of performed oral hygiene behaviors (OHBs) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), oral health knowledge, and demographic factors. Using a questionnaire, 381 participants in three general dental offices and one hospital dental department in York, Pennsylvania, were surveyed regarding performed OHB, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, income, age, and sex. Three unique elements of OHB were identified for analysis: brushing, interdental cleaning, and tongue cleaning. Regression analysis revealed that attitude was the strongest predictor of brushing behavior, followed by oral health knowledge, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, and income. Perceived behavior control was the strongest predictor of interdental cleaning, followed by increased age and attitude. Female sex was the strongest predictor of tongue cleaning, followed by subjective norms, decreased age, and perceived behavior control. Respectively, these three groups of predictive variables explained 22.5% of brushing behavior, 22.7% of interdental cleaning behavior, and 9.5% of tongue cleaning behavior. The present findings highlight the utility of viewing OHB as a set of unique behaviors with unique predictive variables and provide additional support for use of TPB in predicting OHB. Periodontal practitioners should consider the strong associations of attitude and perceived behavioral control with brushing and interdental cleaning behaviors when designing interventional efforts to improve patient home care.

  8. A unique fingerprint? Factors influencing attitudes towards science and technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From an international perspective, research in the field of public attitudes towards science and technology has been conducted since the 1970s. A frequently proposed and empirically supported theory is that strong interest in and knowledge about science in a society is associated with more favourable attitudes towards science. This positive attitude in turn affects support for public funding of science. However, this research field is not without controversy, and for the South African population many questions remain unanswered. Initial research has not explored the factors that shape attitudes towards science and technology in detail. We re-analysed data from the Human Sciences Research Council to explore the above theory. Interestingly, for the South African population, higher levels of scientific literacy and use of information sources are associated with more promises but also more reservations towards science and technology. This is especially true for relatively young and educated survey respondents. In international comparison, South Africa shows a unique fingerprint to some extent, but also shares characteristics with industrially developing countries of Europe (such as Greece or Portugal. To understand the correlations better, future research should aim to examine the overall picture when investigating the diverse South African population more extensively.

  9. New Examples of Torsion-Free Non-unique Product Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William

    2013-01-01

    We give an infinite family of torsion-free groups that do not satisfy the unique product property. For these examples, we also show that each group contains arbitrarily large sets whose square has no uniquely represented element.

  10. Why are predictions of general relativity theory for gravitational effects non-unique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskutov, Yu.M.

    1990-01-01

    Reasons of non-uniqueness of predictions of the general relativity theory (GRT) for gravitational effects are analyzed in detail. To authors' opinion, the absence of comparison mechanism of curved and plane metrics is the reason of non-uniqueness

  11. Fifty years of levelling measurements at Askja volcano, Iceland: New Bayesian interpretations of a unique dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnie, Talfan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sturkell, Erik

    2017-04-01

    The year 2016 marks the 50th anniversary of the start of geodetic levelling surveys at Askja volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. Askja has produced frequent basaltic fissural eruptions and rarer silicic caldera forming eruptions during the Holocene, the most recent of each type in 1961 and 1875 respectively. The potential for widespread disruption from larger eruptions and the popularity of the site with tourists makes Askja an important target for observation. Geodetic monitoring started in 1966 with the installation of a 12 station survey line on the 1961 lava flow, which provided a stable, extensive surface close to the putative source of magma. This was infilled and extended over the following two decades to give a finished levelling line of 35 stations spaced approximately 50 m apart (Tryggvason, Nordic Volcanological Institute, 1989). With the exception of the period 1972 to 1983, this line has been surveyed every year, providing a unique record of post eruptive deformation at a spreading rift segment capable of capturing magma motions at depth and any potential recharging in anticipation of future activity. The levelling has so far revealed that after an initial period of complicated inflations and deflations the volcano settled into a pattern of slowly decaying deflation from 1983 onwards (Sturkell and Sigmundsson, JGR, 105, 2000), a pattern that has been confirmed by newer geodetic techniques as they have become available (e.g. Pagli et al., JVGR, 152, 2005). The strength of the levelling data at Askja is its long time span, high accuracy and same measurement type over a period of 50 years. However, the small extent of the levelling line limits the power of the network to resolve changes in the magma plumbing system and requires the addition of constraints from other sources. This lends itself to Bayesian modelling techniques where assumptions are made explicit as priors and uncertainties in retrieved parameters can be comprehensibly modelled

  12. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  13. A Remote Characterization System for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.; Martinson, L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a development project that will provide new technology for characterizing hazardous waste burial sites. The project is a collaborative effort by five of the national laboratories, involving the development and demonstration of a remotely controlled site characterization system. The Remote Characterization System (RCS) includes a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface

  14. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  15. Eastern Posavina as unique geologic and hydrogeologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grba, Nenad; Krcmar, Dejan; Neubauer, Franz; Roncevic, Srdjan; Kragulj Isakovski, Marijana; Molnar Jazic, Jelena; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    The geochemical survey on soils has huge significance for determining the anthropogenic source of metals in total metal content from sediments, that could origin from both sources. In order to obtain a complete picture, geological mapping and impact on specific area should be done. The investigated area included the eastern part of the Posavina Basin from the furthest north-western part of Jadar block terrane (sampling sites Zasavica Special Nature Reserve of the first category in the Ramsar List, Batrovci, Bosut and Jamena locality). In period between 2010 and 2014 all investigations were performed on samples from depth to 0.50 m. Sediment were analyzed for Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb by flame atomic absorption spectrometry-FAAS (Perkin Elmer, AAnalyst 700). The heavy metal content of this alluvial plain and loess terraces area are variable like Ni (14 - 47 mg/kg), Zn (70 - 265 mg/kg), Cd (2,7-4,0 mg/kg), Cr (4 - 32 mg/kg), Cu (28 - 68 mg/kg) and Pb (5 - 101 mg/kg). Except Cr, the most of the obtained range values were higher than Upper Continental Crust (UCC) from sedimentary and loess data (Rudnick and Gao, 2004)). Several studies collaborate to this hypothesis related to Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA, 60-95) from Jadar unit and neighbor representative catchment areas (Grba et al., 2014, Buggle et al., 2011and Šajnović, 2008). The direction of hillslope transport are as follow: from north it is Fruska Gora Mountain with serpentinite soils from ultramafic rocks, Cer Mountains mostly with a plutonic composition and from south and from east Bosnian Mountains mainly Majevica as part of Internal Dinarides Ophiolites mélange. Contributions of geochemical process have direct and dominant influence on concentrations of heavy metals in this region. Taking into account the background values for this region (Grba et al., 2014) anthropogenic impacts are small in extent, dominantly by zinc moderately to strongly polluted which have dual origin (geological and

  16. Uniqueness of solutions for a mathematical model for magneto-viscoelastic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlömerkemper, A.; Žabenský, J.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate uniqueness of weak solutions for a system of partial differential equations capturing behavior of magnetoelastic materials. This system couples the Navier–Stokes equations with evolutionary equations for the deformation gradient and for the magnetization obtained from a special case of the micromagnetic energy. It turns out that the conditions on uniqueness coincide with those for the well-known Navier–Stokes equations in bounded domains: weak solutions are unique in two spatial dimensions, and weak solutions satisfying the Prodi–Serrin conditions are unique among all weak solutions in three dimensions. That is, we obtain the so-called weak-strong uniqueness result in three spatial dimensions.

  17. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  18. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation......, the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  19. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  20. ISO, unique explorer of the invisible cool universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    As Roger Bonnet, director of ESA's science programme, explains: "The ISO launch will be the culmination of twelve years of intensive effort to build tile mast powerful and precise infrared space telescope to dote, We fully expect astronomers in Europe. and all over the wand, to be rewarded with unprecedented insights into the particularly rich and fertile sources of the universe hidden in the infrared." For the mission looks set to mark a new step forward for astronomy. To date, infrared astronomy has always been hampered by two major difficulties. The first is that infrared radiation is thermal, calorific. This means that any body which is not absolutely cold naturally emits this type of "heat" or "hidden" radiation, Consequently, at the corresponding wavelengths, all telescopes, detectors and the Earth's atmosphere appear to shine spontaneously, Infrared observation is therefore tantamount to attempting to observe the stars in broad daylight using a telescope a million times more luminous than the stars themselves. Moreover, the atmosphere is partly or totally opaque to infrared light. Hence the great attraction of conducting such observations from space, above the Earth's atmospheric layers. using a very low-temperature telescope. The first - and, so far, truly - Satellite actually to have done so is the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) - a joint UK/Dutch/US mission - which surveyed and catalogued the sky far ten months in 1983. A corner of the curtain was thus lifted, The scene was set. Now, the task is to observe each character, each object. And here, infrared astronomy is hampered by a second major difficulty: the very detection of light. For while infrared radiation was discovered back in 1800 (in the solar spectrum). infrared-sensitive photoelectric detectors did not materialise until the Second World War, IRAS itself had to make do without the multi-dimensional set-ups that would have allowed it to record true images. It had to build up its images

  1. The XXL Survey: First Results and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Ettori, S.; Evrard, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gastaldello, F.; Giles, P.; Horellou, C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The XXL survey currently covers two 25 deg2 patches with XMM observations of approximately 10 ks. We summarize the scientific results associated with the first release of the XXL dataset, which occurred in mid-2016.We review several arguments for increasing the survey depth to 40 ks during the next decade of XMM operations. X-ray(zeta less than 2) cluster, (zeta less than 4) active galactic nuclei (AGN), and cosmic background survey science will then benefit from an extraordinary data reservoir. This, combined with deep multi-lambda observations, will lead to solid standalone cosmological constraints and provide a wealth of information on the formation and evolution of AGN, clusters, and the X-ray background. In particular, it will offer a unique opportunity to pinpoint the zeta greater than1 cluster density. It will eventually constitute a reference study and an ideal calibration field for the upcoming eROSITA and Euclid missions.

  2. The unique contribution of the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin to global seismicity catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Karl; Kebede, Fekadu

    2010-05-01

    For monitoring the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) the International Monitoring System (IMS) network is currently being established that will eventually consists of 241 seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound stations. The final result of processing and analysis of seismological and other waveform technology data from these stations is the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB), which has been issued by the International Data Center (IDC) under provisional operation since February 2000 on a daily basis, except for a total of 28 days. The nearly 300,000 events produced since then correspond to more than 25,000 events per year. As an accompanying effort to the bulletin production at the IDC, quality assurance work has been carried out for the REB for the years from 2000 to 2008 through comparisons to similar bulletins of global seismicity, issued by the ISC and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey. The comparisons with the NEIC bulletin concentrate on a timely identification of larger events that were either missed during interactive analysis at the IDC or which have been significantly mislocated. For the scope of this study the comparisons with the ISC bulletin are the focus, as this bulletin provides the most complete reference to global seismicity, even though it becomes available only after about two years of event occurrence. In our quality assessments we aimed at evaluating the consistency of event locations for common events, i.e. found in both the REB and the ISC bulletin having been relocated by ISC; the degree and the geospatial location of the events only produced in the REB and verified not being bogus, and those ISC relocated events not contained in the REB and which were missed during IDC analysis. Even though the seismic component of the IMS network with its maximum 170 seismometer stations is a sparse teleseismic network, locations differences of less than 1° (0.5° ) are observed, on average, for

  3. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  4. A RCRA clean closure of a unique site - Kerr Hollow quarry at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.E.; Yemington, C.

    1991-01-01

    An abandoned rock quarry, Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), near the DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was used from 1951-1988 as a site to treat RCRA wastes which were reactive, corrosive, or ignitable and which posed major concerns for personnel safety. The wastes were generated from operations at the Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory and were previously treated by allowing the wastes to react with the water in KHQ. When closure of the site was required by the RCRA regulations, a closure method was selected to allow for clean closure of the quarry without treatment or removal of the water in KHQ. The method proposed to and approved by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) was one of surveying the containers in the quarry by a submersible Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) using sonar and visually inspecting the containers by camera to confirm that all containers are breached and empty. Any container found intact would be breached to allow the contents to react with water and form non-hazardous residue. The progress of this unique type of closure is presented along with a summary of the problems encountered, planning activities, equipment utilized and other information about the closure. All work was done with remotely operated equipment. This work is being performed by Sonsub, Inc. This closure project showed the practicality and cost benefits of telerobotic systems for work on hazardous waste sites. In addition to the intangible benefit of reduced exposure of workers, insurance costs are much lower and efficiency is higher. Daily start-up time is reduced since there is no need to don protective suits or other gear. Productivity is higher since personnel work only in clean areas where they are not hampered by protective gear. Cleanup time at shift end is minimized since the remote equipment does not leave the hazardous area and personnel need not go through decontamination

  5. Vibrational spectroscopic analyses of unique yellow feather pigments (spheniscins) in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel B; McGoverin, Cushla M; McGraw, Kevin J; James, Helen F; Madden, Odile

    2013-06-06

    Many animals extract, synthesize and refine chemicals for colour display, where a range of compounds and structures can produce a diverse colour palette. Feather colours, for example, span the visible spectrum and mostly result from pigments in five chemical classes (carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins and metal oxides). However, the pigment that generates the yellow colour of penguin feathers appears to represent a sixth, poorly characterized class of feather pigments. This pigment class, here termed 'spheniscin', is displayed by half of the living penguin genera; the larger and richer colour displays of the pigment are highly attractive. Using Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopies, we analysed yellow feathers from two penguin species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus; macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus) to further characterize spheniscin pigments. The Raman spectrum of spheniscin is distinct from spectra of other feather pigments and exhibits 17 distinctive spectral bands between 300 and 1700 cm(-1). Spectral bands from the yellow pigment are assigned to aromatically bound carbon atoms, and to skeletal modes in an aromatic, heterocyclic ring. It has been suggested that the penguin pigment is a pterin compound; Raman spectra from yellow penguin feathers are broadly consistent with previously reported pterin spectra, although we have not matched it to any known compound. Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid and non-destructive method for surveying the distribution of different classes of feather pigments in the avian family tree, and for correlating the chemistry of spheniscin with compounds analysed elsewhere. We suggest that the sixth class of feather pigments may have evolved in a stem-lineage penguin and endowed modern penguins with a costly plumage trait that appears to be chemically unique among birds.

  6. Unique factors rural Veterans' Affairs hospitals face when implementing health care-associated infection prevention initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Molly; Manojlovich, Milisa; Kowalski, Christine P; Saint, Sanjay; Krein, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Health care-associated infection (HAI) is costly to hospitals and potentially life-threatening to patients. Numerous infection prevention programs have been implemented in hospitals across the United States. Yet, little is known about infection prevention practices and implementation in rural hospitals. The purpose of this study was to understand the infection prevention practices used by rural Veterans' Affairs (VA) hospitals and the unique factors they face in implementing these practices. This study used a sequential, mixed methods approach. Survey data to identify the HAI prevention practices used by rural VA hospitals were collected, analyzed, and used to inform the development of a semistructured interview guide. Phone interviews were conducted followed by site visits to rural VA hospitals. We found that most rural VA hospitals were using key recommended infection prevention practices. Nonetheless, a number of challenges with practice implementation were identified. The 3 most prominent themes were: (1) lack of human capital including staff with HAI expertise; (2) having to cultivate needed resources; and (3) operating as a system within a system. Rural VA hospitals are providing key infection prevention services to ensure a safe environment for the veterans they serve. However, certain factors, such as staff expertise, limited resources, and local context impacted how and when these practices were used. The creative use of more accessible alternative resources as well as greater flexibility in implementing HAI-related initiatives may be important strategies to further improve delivery of these important services by rural VA hospitals. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Temperament and parental child-rearing style: unique contributions to clinical anxiety disorders in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E; Markus, Monica Th; Hoogendijk, Thea H G; Boer, Frits

    2009-07-01

    Both temperament and parental child-rearing style are found to be associated with childhood anxiety disorders in population studies. This study investigates the contribution of not only temperament but also parental child-rearing to clinical childhood anxiety disorders. It also investigates whether the contribution of temperament is moderated by child-rearing style, as is suggested by some studies in the general population. Fifty children were included (25 with anxiety disorders and 25 non-clinical controls). Child-rearing and the child's temperament were assessed by means of parental questionnaire (Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR) (Block in The Child-Rearing Practices Report. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1965; The Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): a set of Q items for the description of parental socialisation attitudes and values. Unpublished manuscript. Institute of Human Development. University of California, Berkely, 1981), EAS Temperament Survey for Children (Boer and Westenberg in J Pers Assess 62:537-551, 1994; Buss and Plomin in Temperament: early developing personality traits. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, 1984s). Analysis of variance showed that anxiety-disordered children scored significantly higher on the temperamental characteristics emotionality and shyness than non-clinical control children. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that temperament (emotionality and shyness) and child-rearing style (more parental negative affect, and less encouraging independence of the child) both accounted for a unique proportion of the variance of anxiety disorders. Preliminary results suggest that child-rearing style did not moderate the association between children's temperament and childhood anxiety disorders. The limited sample size might have been underpowered to assess this interaction.

  8. Assessment of labour market returns in the case of gender unique human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Paas, Tiiu; Tverdostup, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Maryna Tverdostup, Tiiu Paas, ERSA 2016: The paper focuses on the identification of the unique, non-reached by the opposite gender human capital and the analysis of its effect on the earning profiles of unique human capital holders. The overwhelming research aim is to better understand the possible reasons behind gender wage disparities, focusing on the unique features of male and female human capital and their returns. When assessing the gender pay disparities, variation of human capital cha...

  9. Accessibility of physical states and non-uniqueness of entanglement measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki; Santos, Marcelo Franca; Vedral, Vlatko

    2004-01-01

    Ordering physical states is the key to quantifying some physical property of the states uniquely. Bipartite pure entangled states are totally ordered under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) in the asymptotic limit and uniquely quantified by the well-known entropy of entanglement. However, we show that mixed entangled states are partially ordered under LOCC even in the asymptotic limit. Therefore, non-uniqueness of entanglement measure is understood on the basis of an operational notion of asymptotic convertibility

  10. UNiquant, a Program for Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Using Stable Isotope Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Shen, Yulei; Liu, Miao; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Zhixin; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Chan, Wing C.; Hinrichs, Steven; Fu, Kai; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2011-03-04

    We present UNiquant, a new software program for analyzing stable isotope labeling (SIL) based quantitative proteomics data. UNiquant surpassed the performance of two other platforms, MaxQuant and Mascot Distiller, using complex proteome mixtures having either known or unknown heavy/light ratios. UNiquant is compatible with a broad spectrum of search engines and SIL methods, providing outstanding peptide pair identification and accurate measurement of the relative peptide/protein abundance.

  11. Actualizing Unique Type and Token Values as a Solution to the Problem of Evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atle Ottesen Søvik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the problem of evil, I suggest that God's goodness and omnipotence causes God to want to actualize many different values and things, not solely angels in heaven, but also type unique values like independence, self-formation, creativity, and surprise, and token unique goods like animals and human beings. Such a universe as ours, though, requires undisturbed indeterministic self-formation as actualized by a good God to give those token unique beings access to those type unique values and allow them the opportunity to live forever with God after completion of this self-formation.

  12. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTIONS TO STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH RANDOM COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with a stochastic differential equation (SDE) with random coefficients. Sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the equation are given.

  13. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  14. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  16. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  19. SURVEY, KENAI PENINSULSA, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  4. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  5. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  7. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. Designing an Effective Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasunic, Mark

    2005-01-01

    ... of them. However, to protect the validity of conclusions drawn from a survey, certain procedures must be followed throughout the process of designing, developing, and distributing the survey questionnaire...

  11. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  12. SURVEY, MISSOULA COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, Northumberland County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  14. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, HOLMES COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  19. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. Primer on Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    David L Nordstrom; David L Nordstrom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sam...

  1. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  2. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  3. Conducting online surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selm, M. van; Jankowski, N.W.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a tool and platform for survey research. Two types of electronic or online surveys available for data collection are the email and Web based survey, and they constitute the focus of this paper. We address a multitude of issues researchers should

  4. The Wasp-Waist Nebula: VLA Ammonia Observations of the Molecular Core Envelope In a Unique Class 0 Protostellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Wasp-Waist Nebula was discovered in the IRAC c2d survey of the Ophiuchus starforming clouds. It is powered by a well-isolated, low-luminosity, low-mass Class 0 object. Its weak outflow has been mapped in the CO (3-2) transition with the JCMT, in 2.12 micron H2 emission with WIRC (the Wide-Field Infrared Camera) on the Hale 5-meter, and, most recently, in six H2 mid-infrared lines with the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope; possible jet twisting structure may be evidence of unique core dynamics. Here, we report results of recent VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core protostellar system. We describe the morphology, kinematics, and angular momentum characteristics of this unique system. The results are compared with the envelope structure deduced from IRAC 8-micron absorption of the PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) background emission from the cloud.

  5. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential

  6. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This survey demonstrates wide differences in dietary practice in the management of IVA across European centres. It provides unique dietary data collectively representing European practices in IVA which can be used as a foundation to compare dietary management changes as a consequence of the first E-IMD IVA guidelines availability.

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Primer on Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sample size issues, and data analysis approaches are also introduced. The primer is illustrated with examples of surveys conducted in different countries with various public health purposes.

  9. The Relations of Family Members’ Unique and Shared Perspectives of Family Dysfunction to Dyad Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members’ shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members’ shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family’s family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father, the father’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent as well as lower marital quality with mother, and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared to the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system – the adolescent’s unique view in particular - independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research as well as therapeutic interventions that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction. PMID:24884682

  10. The Role of Visual Working Memory in Attentive Tracking of Unique Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2009-01-01

    When tracking moving objects in space humans usually attend to the objects' spatial locations and update this information over time. To what extent do surface features assist attentive tracking? In this study we asked participants to track identical or uniquely colored objects. Tracking was enhanced when objects were unique in color. The benefit…

  11. The generalized Schwinger-DeWitt technique and the unique effective action in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the one-loop approximation to the recently proposed unique effective action in gauge theory. The Schwinger-DeWitt technique is generalized and applied to the computation of the unique gravitational counterterms. The issue of asymptotic freedom is reexamined. (orig.)

  12. 48 CFR 52.211-7 - Alternatives to Government-unique standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternatives to Government... Government-unique standards. The offeror may propose voluntary consensus standards that meet the Government's... voluntary consensus standard instead of the Government-unique standard if it meets the Government's...

  13. Father involvement: Identifying and predicting family members' shared and unique perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, W Justin; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2014-08-01

    Father involvement research has typically not recognized that reports of involvement contain at least two components: 1 reflecting a view of father involvement that is broadly recognized in the family, and another reflecting each reporter's unique perceptions. Using a longitudinal sample of 302 families, this study provides a first examination of shared and unique views of father involvement (engagement and warmth) from the perspectives of fathers, children, and mothers. This study also identifies influences on these shared and unique perspectives. Father involvement reports were obtained when the child was 12 and 14 years old. Mother reports overlapped more with the shared view than father or child reports. This suggests the mother's view may be more in line with broadly recognized father involvement. Regarding antecedents, for fathers' unique view, a compensatory model partially explains results; that is, negative aspects of family life were positively associated with fathers' unique view. Children's unique view of engagement may partially reflect a sentiment override with father antisocial behaviors being predictive. Mothers' unique view of engagement was predicted by father and mother work hours and her unique view of warmth was predicted by depression and maternal gatekeeping. Taken, together finding suggests a far more nuanced view of father involvement should be considered.

  14. Uniqueness of Gibbs states and global Markov property for Euclidean fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors briefly discuss the proof of the uniqueness of solutions of the DLR equations (uniqueness of Gibbs states) in the class of regular generalized random fields (in the sense of having second moments bounded by those of some Euclidean field), for the Euclidean fields with trigonometric interaction. (Auth.)

  15. Existence and uniqueness of solution for a system of equations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence and uniqueness of solution for a system of equations of microwave heating of biologic issue is discussed. Using the Green function approach we establish the existence and uniqueness of solution. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 177-180 ...

  16. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  17. Uniqueness of the joint measurement and the structure of the set of compatible quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Leonardo; Terra Cunha, Marcelo

    2018-04-01

    We address the problem of characterising the compatible tuples of measurements that admit a unique joint measurement. We derive a uniqueness criterion based on the method of perturbations and apply it to show that extremal points of the set of compatible tuples admit a unique joint measurement, while all tuples that admit a unique joint measurement lie in the boundary of such a set. We also provide counter-examples showing that none of these properties are both necessary and sufficient, thus completely describing the relation between the joint measurement uniqueness and the structure of the compatible set. As a by-product of our investigations, we completely characterise the extremal and boundary points of the set of general tuples of measurements and of the subset of compatible tuples.

  18. Efficient Serial and Parallel Algorithms for Selection of Unique Oligos in EST Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Montero, Manrique; Shalaby, Nabil; Sheppard, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining unique oligos from an EST database is a problem of great importance in bioinformatics, particularly in the discovery of new genes and the mapping of the human genome. Many algorithms have been developed to find unique oligos, many of which are much less time consuming than the traditional brute force approach. An algorithm was presented by Zheng et al. (2004) which finds the solution of the unique oligos search problem efficiently. We implement this algorithm as well as several new algorithms based on some theorems included in this paper. We demonstrate how, with these new algorithms, we can obtain unique oligos much faster than with previous ones. We parallelize these new algorithms to further improve the time of finding unique oligos. All algorithms are run on ESTs obtained from a Barley EST database.

  19. Unique Outcomes in the Narratives of Young Adults Who Experienced Dating Violence as Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Smith, Carolyn; Mazurczyk, Jill; Thomas, Destini; Ramirez, Patricia; McNealy, Kim; Thomas, Jade; Martsolf, Donna S

    2016-01-01

    Narrative therapy, an approach based on the reauthoring of life narratives, may be a useful psychotherapeutic strategy for youth who have experienced dating violence. A cornerstone of narrative therapy is the concept of unique outcomes, which are moments that stand in contrast to a client's otherwise problem-saturated narratives. The purpose of this study was to identify and categorize unique outcomes embedded in narratives about adolescent dating violence. Text units representing unique outcomes were extracted from transcripts of interviews with 88 young adults who had experienced dating violence and were categorized using standard content analytic techniques. Six categories of unique outcome stories were identified: facing-facts stories, standing-up-for-myself stories, cutting-it-off stories, cutting-'em-loose stories, getting-back-on-track stories, and changing-it-up stories. This typology of unique outcomes can inform clinicians who work with clients who have a history of adolescent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Blaise Williams, III

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: USA exhibit unique postural strategies compared to SSA. These unique strategies seemingly exhibit a direction-specific attribute and may be associated with divergent motor control strategies.

  1. Earth Hazards Consortium: a Unique Approach to Student-Centered Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, C. P.; Granados, H. D.; Durant, A.; Wolf, R. E.; Girard, G.; Javier, I. H.; Cisneros, M.; Rose, W.; Sánchez, S. S.; Stix, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Earth Hazards (EHaz) consortium consists of six research-based universities in the United States (Michigan Technological University, University at Buffalo), Canada (McGill University, Simon Fraser University) and México (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad de Colima) funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, and the Secretaría de Educación Pública of México, as part of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The objective of the consortium is to expose students to a wide variety of scientific and cultural perspectives in the mitigation of geological natural hazards in North America. This four year program is multi-faceted, including student exchanges, graduate level, web-based courses in volcanology, and intensive group field trips. In 2005 to 2006, a total of 27 students were mobilized among the three countries. In this first year, the videoconferencing course focused on caldera supervolcanoes with weekly discussion leaders from various fields of volcanology. At the end of the course the students participated in a field trip to Long Valley and Yellowstone calderas. Also during the first year of the program, México hosted an International Course on Volcanic Hazards Map Construction. The course was attended by graduate students from Mexico and the United States, included lectures from noted guest speakers, and involved a field trip to Popocatepetl volcano. A student survey demonstrated that during the videoconferencing the students benefited by the weekly interaction with well- known volcanologists at the top of their field. Students who participated in the field trip benefited from an outstanding opportunity to link the theoretical concepts covered during the course with the field aspects of supervolcano systems, as well as the opportunity to network amongst their peers. Feedback from students who went abroad indicates that the program provided support for internship opportunities

  2. Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. Intracellular maintenance of plastids in the slug's digestive epithelium has long attracted interest given its implications for understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis. However, photosynthetic ability varies widely among sacoglossans; some species have no plastid retention while others survive for months solely on photosynthesis. We present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sacoglossa and a survey of kleptoplasty from representatives of all major clades. We sought to quantify variation in photosynthetic ability among lineages, identify phylogenetic origins of plastid retention, and assess whether kleptoplasty was a key character in the radiation of the Sacoglossa. Results Three levels of photosynthetic activity were detected: (1 no functional retention; (2 short-term retention lasting about one week; and (3 long-term retention for over a month. Phylogenetic analysis of one nuclear and two mitochondrial loci revealed reciprocal monophyly of the shelled Oxynoacea and shell-less Plakobranchacea, the latter comprising a monophyletic Plakobranchoidea and paraphyletic Limapontioidea. Only species in the Plakobranchoidea expressed short- or long-term kleptoplasty, most belonging to a speciose clade of slugs bearing parapodia (lateral flaps covering the dorsum. Bayesian ancestral character state reconstructions indicated that functional short-term retention arose once in the last common ancestor of Plakobranchoidea, and independently evolved into long-term retention in four derived species. Conclusion We propose a sequential progression from short- to long-term kleptoplasty, with different adaptations involved in each step. Short-term kleptoplasty likely arose as a deficiency in plastid digestion, yielding additional energy via the release of fixed carbon

  3. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  4. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stern, D.; Griffith, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Gorjian, V.; Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, A.; Eisenstein, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Ivison, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg. 2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 10 5 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  5. The Safety Pharmacology Society salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Brabham, Tiffini; Soloviev, Maxim; Markgraf, Carrie G; Correll, Krystle; Traebert, Martin; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo; Botchway, Alfred; Leishman, Derek J; Curtis, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Safety pharmacology is a growing discipline with scientists broadly distributed across international geographical regions. This electronic salary survey is the first to be distributed amongst the entire Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) membership. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society. Categorical survey questions assessed membership employment types, annual incomes, and professional certifications, along with other associated career attributes. This survey was distributed to the SPS membership that is comprised of safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacologists working globally in the pharmaceutical industry, at contract research organizations (CRO), regulatory agencies, and academia or within the technology provider industry. The survey was open for responses from December 2015 to March 2016. The survey response rate was 28% (129/453). North America (68%) was the region with the largest number of respondents followed by Europe (28%). A preponderance of respondents (77%) had 12years of industry experience or more. 52% of responders earned annually between $40,000 and $120,000. As expected, salary was generally positively correlated with the number of years of experience in the industry or the educational background but there was no correlation between salary and the number of employee's directly supervised. The median salary was higher for male vs female respondents, but so was median age, indicative of no gender 'salary gap'. Our 2016 SPS salary survey results showcased significant diversity regarding factors that can influence salary compensation within this discipline. These data provided insights into the complex global job market trends. They also revealed the level of scientific specialization embedded within the organization, presently uniquely positioned to support the dynamic career paths of current and future safety pharmacologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Edges and vertices in a unique signed circle in a signed graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Behr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the conditions under which a signed graph contains an edge or a vertex that is contained in a unique negative circle or a unique positive circle. For an edge in a unique signed circle, the positive and negative case require the same structure on the underlying graph, but the requirements on the signature are different. We characterize the structure of the underlying graph necessary to support such an edge in terms of bridges of a circle. We then use the results from the edge version of the problem to help solve the vertex version.

  7. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  8. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  9. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  10. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys.

  11. Unusual facies, arthrogryposis, advanced skeletal maturation and unique bone changes. A new congenital malformation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Kozlowski, K.

    1987-07-01

    Two strikingly similar infant siblings showed the following pattern of anomalies: unusual cranio-facial appearance, arthrogryposis, advanced bone age of the hips and unique skeletal X-ray abnormalities. They represent a previously unrecognised, fatal malformation syndrome.

  12. Unique associations between young adult men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Angus, Douglas; Murray, Stuart B; Touyz, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Research on emotional functioning, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in males is predominated by studies of negative affect and emotion regulation. Other aspects of emotional functioning, namely emotion recognition and attentional biases toward emotional stimuli, have received little empirical attention. The present study investigated the unique associations between different aspects of men's emotional functioning and their disordered eating attitudes, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction. Results from 132 male undergraduates showed that muscularity dissatisfaction was uniquely associated with both emotion regulation difficulties and an attentional bias toward rejecting faces. Body fat dissatisfaction was not uniquely associated with any aspect of emotional functioning. Disordered eating was uniquely associated with emotion regulation difficulties. Collectively, the results indicate differences in the patterns of associations between men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The neXtProt peptide uniqueness checker: a tool for the proteomics community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Mathieu; Gateau, Alain; Teixeira, Daniel; Michel, Pierre-André; Zahn-Zabal, Monique; Lane, Lydie

    2017-11-01

    The neXtProt peptide uniqueness checker allows scientists to define which peptides can be used to validate the existence of human proteins, i.e. map uniquely versus multiply to human protein sequences taking into account isobaric substitutions, alternative splicing and single amino acid variants. The pepx program is available at https://github.com/calipho-sib/pepx and can be launched from the command line or through a cgi web interface. Indexing requires a sequence file in FASTA format. The peptide uniqueness checker tool is freely available on the web at https://www.nextprot.org/tools/peptide-uniqueness-checker and from the neXtProt API at https://api.nextprot.org/. lydie.lane@sib.swiss. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  15. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Environmental Data Record (EDR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of numerous retrieved estimates of hydrological variables and trace gases as Environmental Data Record (EDR) products from the NOAA Unique...

  16. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the...

  17. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS...

  18. [Setomaa. Traditsioonilise arhitektuuri põhijooni ; Setomaa. Unique and genuine] / Hannu Oittinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oittinen, Hannu, 1959-

    2015-01-01

    Tutvustus: Setomaa : traditsioonilise arhitektuuri põhijooni / [tekst: MTÜ Vanaajamaja ja Ahto Raudoja. [Värska] : [Seto Instituut], 2014 ; Setomaa : unique and genuine / SA Seto Instituut ; Paul Hagu jt. [Värska] : Seto Instituut, 2014

  19. Unique features of the development of multibed oil and gas fields in western Turkmeniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The anthology presents articles devoted to geological peculiarities and unique aspects of production estimation of formations, to optimizing their development under natural conditions, and to using modern methods to improve bed oil output.

  20. A unique metal-semiconductor interface and resultant electron transfer phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Taft, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    An unusual electron transfer phenomenon has been identified from an n-type semiconductor to Schottky metal particles, the result of a unique metal semiconductor interface that results when the metal particles are grown from the semiconductor substrate. The unique interface acts as a one-way (rectifying) open gateway and was first identified in reduced rutile polycrystalline titanium dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) to Group VIII (noble) metal particles. The interface significantly affects th...

  1. Global Existence and Uniqueness of Weak and Regular Solutions of Shallow Shells with Thermal Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzala, G. Perla, E-mail: perla@lncc.br [National Laboratory of Scientific Computation, (LNCC/MCTI) (Brazil); Cezaro, F. Travessini De, E-mail: fabianacezaro@furg.br [Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG/IMEF), Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    We study a dynamical thin shallow shell whose elastic deformations are described by a nonlinear system of Marguerre–Vlasov’s type under the presence of thermal effects. Our main result is the proof of a global existence and uniqueness of a weak solution in the case of clamped boundary conditions. Standard techniques for uniqueness do not work directly in this case. We overcame this difficulty using recent work due to Lasiecka (Appl Anal 4:1376–1422, 1998).

  2. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R.; Jones, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  3. An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    targeting of critical androgen receptor -604 coregulator interactions in prostate cancer . Nature communications 4, 1923, 605 doi:10.1038/ncomms2912 (2013...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0474 TITLE: An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Sep 2017 4. Title An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  4. Uniqueness of Gibbs Measure for Models with Uncountable Set of Spin Values on a Cayley Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshkabilov, Yu. Kh.; Haydarov, F. H.; Rozikov, U. A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider models with nearest-neighbor interactions and with the set [0, 1] of spin values, on a Cayley tree of order K ≥ 1. It is known that the ‘splitting Gibbs measures’ of the model can be described by solutions of a nonlinear integral equation. For arbitrary k ≥ 2 we find a sufficient condition under which the integral equation has unique solution, hence under the condition the corresponding model has unique splitting Gibbs measure.

  5. Exact criteria for uniqueness and multiplicity of an nth order chemical reaction via catastrophe theory approach. [Determines boundaries between unique and multiple steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H C; Calo, J M

    1979-01-01

    A simple, generalized technique for the exact determination of the boundaries between regions of unique and of multiple solutions to certain nonlinear equations was developed by applying catastrophe theory to the mapping of implicit and explicit functions. Its application to an nth order reaction in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) yields exact, explicit expressions for the boundaries between regions of single and multiple steady states, expressed in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient and activation energy. An exact implicit expression for the boundaries between regions of uniqueness and multiplicity was also derived for an nth order reaction in a catalyst particle with an intraparticle concentration gradient and uniform temperature and is fully demonstrated for the first-order reaction. In addition, explicit criteria were developed by assuming the limits on d ln g/d ln q, where g is the effectiveness factor and q the Thiele modulus, proposed by van den Bosch and Luss.

  6. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  7. Our Surveys & Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  8. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  9. IT Barometer survey, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs.......Survey results from Danish architects, engineers, contractors and property managers in the construction industry concerning their use of computers, communications, problems and needs....

  10. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  11. Duality based direct resolution of unique profiles using zero concentration region information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Elnaz; Rajkó, Róbert; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2018-07-01

    Self Modeling Curve Resolution (SMCR) is a class of techniques concerned with estimating pure profiles underlying a set of measurements on chemical systems. In general, the estimated profiles are ambiguous (non-unique) except if some special conditions fulfilled. Implementing the adequate information can reduce the so-called rotational ambiguity effectively, and in the most desirable cases lead to the unique solution. Therefore, studies on circumstances resulting in unique solution are of particular importance. The conditions of unique solution can particularly be studied based on duality principle. In bilinear chemical (e.g., spectroscopic) data matrix, there is a natural duality between its row and column vector spaces using minimal constraints (non-negativity of concentrations and absorbances). In this article, the conditions of the unique solution according to duality concept and using zero concentration region information is intended to show. A simulated dataset of three components and an experimental system with synthetic mixtures containing three amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are analyzed. It is shown that in the presence of sufficient information, the reliable unique solution is obtained that is valuable in analytical qualification and for quantitative verification analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unique identification code for medical fundus images using blood vessel pattern for tele-ophthalmology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore; Sharma, Dilip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Identification of fundus images during transmission and storage in database for tele-ophthalmology applications is an important issue in modern era. The proposed work presents a novel accurate method for generation of unique identification code for identification of fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and storage in databases. Unlike existing methods of steganography and watermarking, this method does not tamper the medical image as nothing is embedded in this approach and there is no loss of medical information. Strategic combination of unique blood vessel pattern and patient ID is considered for generation of unique identification code for the digital fundus images. Segmented blood vessel pattern near the optic disc is strategically combined with patient ID for generation of a unique identification code for the image. The proposed method of medical image identification is tested on the publically available DRIVE and MESSIDOR database of fundus image and results are encouraging. Experimental results indicate the uniqueness of identification code and lossless recovery of patient identity from unique identification code for integrity verification of fundus images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure determination of human Lck unique and SH3 domains by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willbold Dieter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein tyrosine kinases are involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth, differentiation, activation and transformation. Human lymphocyte specific kinase (Lck is a 56 kDa protein involved in T-cell- and IL2-receptor signaling. Three-dimensional structures are known for SH3, SH2 and kinase domains of Lck as well as for other tyrosine kinases. No structure is known for the unique domain of any Src-type tyrosine kinase. Results Lck(1–120 comprising unique and SH3 domains was structurally investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found the unique domain, in contrast to the SH3 part, to have basically no defined structural elements. The solution structure of the SH3 part could be determined with very high precision. It does not show significant differences to Lck SH3 in the absence of the unique domain. Minor differences were observed to the X-ray structure of Lck SH3. Conclusion The unique domain of Lck does not contain any defined structure elements in the absence of ligands and membranes. Presence of the unique domain is not relevant to the three-dimensional structure of the Lck SH3 domain.

  14. The VLA Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; VLASS Survey Team, VLASS Survey Science Group

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), which began in September 2017, is a seven year project to image the entire sky north of Declination -40 degrees in three epochs. The survey is being carried out in I,Q and U polarization at a frequency of 2-4GHz, and a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, with each epoch being separated by 32 months. Raw data from the survey, along with basic "quicklook" images are made freely available shortly after observation. Within a few months, NRAO will begin making available further basic data products, including refined images and source lists. In this talk I shall describe the science goals and methodology of the survey, the current survey status, and some early results, along with plans for collaborations with external groups to produce enhanced, high level data products.

  15. Physics Survey Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole

  16. Regulatory and licensee surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the workshop two CSNI/WGHOF surveys were distributed. One survey was directed at regulatory bodies and the other was directed at plant licensees. The surveys were: 1 - Regulatory Expectations of Licensees' Arrangements to Ensure Suitable Organisational Structure, Resources and Competencies to Manage Safety (sent to WGHOF regulatory members). The survey requested that the respondents provide a brief overview of the situation related to plant organisations in their country, their regulatory expectations and their formal requirements. The survey addressed three subjects: the demonstration and documentation of organisational structures, resources and competencies, organisational changes, issues for improvement (for both current and new plants). Responses were received from eleven regulatory bodies. 2 - Approaches to Justify Organisational Suitability (sent to selected licensees). The purpose of the survey to was to gain an understanding of how licensees ensure organisational suitability, resources and competencies. This information was used to assist in the development of the issues and subjects that were addressed at the group discussion sessions. Responses were received from over fifteen licensees from nine countries. The survey requested that the licensees provide information on how they ensure effective organisational structures at their plants. The survey grouped the questions into the following four categories: organisational safety functions, resource and competence, decision-making and communication, good examples and improvement needs. The findings from these surveys were used in conjunction with other factors to identify the key issues for the workshop discussion sessions. The responses from these two surveys are discussed briefly in Sections 4 and 5 of this report. More extensive reviews of the regulatory and licensee responses are provided in Appendix 1

  17. Measuring Environmental Factors: Unique and Overlapping International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Coverage of 5 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Miskovic, Ana; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Dashner, Jessica; Baum, Carolyn; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Tulsky, David S; Garcia, Sofia F; Jerousek, Sara; Lai, Jin-Shei; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Gray, David B

    2016-12-01

    To describe the unique and overlapping content of the newly developed Environmental Factors Item Banks (EFIB) and 7 legacy environmental factor instruments, and to evaluate the EFIB's construct validity by examining associations with legacy instruments. Cross-sectional, observational cohort. Community. A sample of community-dwelling adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury (N=568). None. EFIB covering domains of the built and natural environment; systems, services, and policies; social environment; and access to information and technology; the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) short form; the Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility (FABS/M) short form; the Home and Community Environment Instrument (HACE); the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) short form; and 3 of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Quality of Social Support measures. The EFIB and legacy instruments assess most of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental factors chapters, including chapter 1 (products and technology; 75 items corresponding to 11 codes), chapter 2 (natural environment and human-made changes; 31 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 3 (support and relationships; 74 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 4 (attitudes; 83 items corresponding to 8 codes), and chapter 5 (services, systems, and policies; 72 items corresponding to 16 codes). Construct validity is provided by moderate correlations between EFIB measures and the CHIEF, MQE barriers, HACE technology mobility, FABS/M community built features, and PROMIS item banks and by small correlations with other legacy instruments. Only 5 of the 66 legacy instrument correlation coefficients are moderate, suggesting they measure unique aspects of the environment, whereas all intra-EFIB correlations were at least moderate. The EFIB measures provide a brief and focused assessment of ICF

  18. Web-based Surveys: Changing the Survey Process

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Holly

    2002-01-01

    Web-based surveys are having a profound influence on the survey process. Unlike other types of surveys, Web page design skills and computer programming expertise play a significant role in the design of Web-based surveys. Survey respondents face new and different challenges in completing a Web-based survey. This paper examines the different types of Web-based surveys, the advantages and challenges of using Web-based surveys, the design of Web-based surveys, and the issues of validity, error, ...

  19. An Underlying Common Factor, Influenced by Genetics and Unique Environment, Explains the Covariation Between Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Burnout: A Swedish Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Lisa; Blom, Victoria; Bergström, Gunnar; Svedberg, Pia

    2016-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are highly comorbid due to shared genetic risk factors, but less is known about whether burnout shares these risk factors. We aimed to examine whether the covariation between major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and burnout is explained by common genetic and/or environmental factors. This cross-sectional study included 25,378 Swedish twins responding to a survey in 2005-2006. Structural equation models were used to analyze whether the trait variances and covariances were due to additive genetics, non-additive genetics, shared environment, and unique environment. Univariate analyses tested sex limitation models and multivariate analysis tested Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models. The phenotypic correlations were 0.71 (0.69-0.74) between MDD and GAD, 0.58 (0.56-0.60) between MDD and burnout, and 0.53 (0.50-0.56) between GAD and burnout. Heritabilities were 45% for MDD, 49% for GAD, and 38% for burnout; no statistically significant sex differences were found. A common pathway model was chosen as the final model. The common factor was influenced by genetics (58%) and unique environment (42%), and explained 77% of the variation in MDD, 69% in GAD, and 44% in burnout. GAD and burnout had additive genetic factors unique to the phenotypes (11% each), while MDD did not. Unique environment explained 23% of the variability in MDD, 20% in GAD, and 45% in burnout. In conclusion, the covariation was explained by an underlying common factor, largely influenced by genetics. Burnout was to a large degree influenced by unique environmental factors not shared with MDD and GAD.

  20. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    : Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  1. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  2. Beyond equality and inequality in education: Bakhtinian dialogic ethics approach of human uniqueness to educational justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In our essay, we challenge the hegemonic Kantian discourse of defining justice as equality (in a broader sense and injustice as inequality in education (and elsewhere. We argue that this discourse is based on the underlining assumption of replaceability and measurement of people and of educational practice itself. In contrast, we argue that people and their education are unique. Thus, it is necessary to develop an alternative notion of justice based on uniqueness and immeasurability of people and their education. We found that Bakhtin’s dialogic ethics framework is helpful for developing such an alternative approach. According to the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics, people are engaged in self-contradictory deeds, charged with ethical tensions. These ethically problematic deeds must be challenged by others and the self in critical dialogue and must demand responses by the authors of the deeds striving to achieve justice. Taking responsibility is not merely a discursive process of answering – it is not “answerability” – but rather another ethic deed of defining ethically good or bad, defining quality and values, accepting blame, standing grounds, committing to fixing negative consequences, emotional sympathy, and so on. The process of challenging people’s deeds in critical dialogue and their taking (or not taking responsibility defines (injustice of people’s deeds. We examine two cases of educational injustice based on the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics framework of uniquness. We try to show that education and its justice are essentially authorial and, thus, unique processes. Even when justice involves measurable things like money, it is still about unique people with unique educational goals, interests, and needs in unique circumstances that these measurable resources afford. We consider a case of allocation of measurable resources as a compromise between the Kantian formulistic and the Bakhtinian dialogic ethics approaches. We conclude our

  3. Border patrol: insights into the unique role of perlecan/heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 at cell and tissue borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach-Carson, Mary C; Warren, Curtis R; Harrington, Daniel A; Carson, Daniel D

    2014-02-01

    The extracellular matrix proteoglycan (ECM) perlecan, also known as heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 or HSPG2, is one of the largest (>200 nm) and oldest (>550 M years) extracellular matrix molecules. In vertebrates, perlecan's five-domain structure contains numerous independently folding modules with sequence similarities to other ECM proteins, all connected like cars into one long, diverse complex train following a unique N-terminal domain I decorated with three long glycosaminoglycan chains, and an additional glycosaminoglycan attachment site in the C-terminal domain V. In lower invertebrates, perlecan is not typically a proteoglycan, possessing the majority of the core protein modules, but lacking domain I where the attachment sites for glycosaminoglycan chains are located. This suggests that uniting the heparan sulfate binding growth factor functions of domain I and the core protein functions of the rest of the molecule in domains II-V occurred later in evolution for a new functional purpose. In this review, we surveyed several decades of pertinent literature to ask a fundamental question: Why did nature design this protein uniquely as an extraordinarily long multifunctional proteoglycan with a single promoter regulating expression, rather than separating these functions into individual proteins that could be independently regulated? We arrived at the conclusion that the concentration of perlecan at functional borders separating tissues and tissue layers is an ancient key function of the core protein. The addition of the heparan sulfate chains in domain I likely occurred as an additional means of binding the core protein to other ECM proteins in territorial matrices and basement membranes, and as a means to reserve growth factors in an on-site depot to assist with rapid repair of those borders when compromised, such as would occur during wounding. We propose a function for perlecan that extends its role from that of an extracellular scaffold, as we previously

  4. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  5. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  6. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  7. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  8. Geothermal survey handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this handbook is to publicize widely the nature of geothermal surveys. It covers geothermal survey planning and measurement as well as measurement of thermal conductivity. Methods for the detection of eruptive areas, the measurement of radiative heat using snowfall, the measurement of surface temperature using infrared radiation and the measurement of thermal flow are described. The book also contains information on physical detection of geothermal reservoirs, the measurement of spring wells, thermographic measurement of surface heat, irregular layer surveying, air thermographics and aerial photography. Isotope measurement techniques are included.

  9. Telephony user survey

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Let us know your needs to better plan the transition to a new CERN telephony system.   CERN is planning to upgrade its telephony network and replace the system with a new and modern VoIP infrastructure. We strive to make this transition as beneficial and smooth as possible for you. Please let us know more about your current working environment, expectations and suggestions by responding to this survey: https://cern.ch/tel-survey. The more answers we get, the better the new system will serve everyone in the future. The survey will take you about five minutes to complete; we are counting on your feedback!

  10. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  11. Addressing Unison and Uniqueness of Reliability and Safety for Better Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, both in theory and in practice, safety and reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and sometime counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address the uniqueness and the unison of these two disciplines to help both disciplines become more effective and to promote a better integration of the two for enhancing safety and reliability in our products as an overall objective. There are two purposes of this paper. First, it will investigate the uniqueness and unison of each discipline and discuss the interrelationship between the two for awareness and clarification. Second, after clearly understanding the unique roles and interrelationship between the two in a product design and development life cycle, we offer suggestions to enhance the disciplines with distinguished and focused roles, to better integrate the two, and to improve unique sets of skills and tools of reliability and safety processes. From the uniqueness aspect, the paper identifies and discusses the respective uniqueness of reliability and safety from their roles, accountability, nature of requirements, technical scopes, detailed technical approaches, and analysis boundaries. It is misleading to equate unreliable to unsafe, since a safety hazard may or may not be related to the component, sub-system, or system functions, which are primarily what reliability addresses. Similarly, failing-to-function may or may not lead to hazard events. Examples will be given in the paper from aerospace, defense, and consumer products to illustrate the uniqueness and differences between reliability and safety. From the unison aspect, the paper discusses what the commonalities between reliability and safety are, and how these two disciplines are linked, integrated, and supplemented with each other to accomplish the customer requirements and product goals. In addition to understanding the uniqueness in

  12. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Unique prediction of cannabis use severity and behaviors by delay discounting and behavioral economic demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk was used to sample individuals reporting recent cannabis use (n=64) and controls (n=72). Participants completed measures of monetary delay discounting as well as alcohol and cannabis delay discounting and demand. Cannabis users and controls did not differ on monetary delay discounting or alcohol delay discounting and demand. Among cannabis users, regression analyses indicated that cannabis delay discounting uniquely predicted use severity, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency and quantity. These effects remained significant after controlling for other delay discounting and demand measures. This research replicates previous outcomes relating delay discounting and demand with cannabis use and extends them by accounting for the contribution of multiple commodities. This research also demonstrates the ability of online crowdsourcing methods to complement traditional human laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluorescent Photo-conversion: A second chance to label unique cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Shinogle, Heather E; Moore, David S; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    Not all cells behave uniformly after treatment in tissue engineering studies. In fact, some treated cells display no signs of treatment or show unique characteristics not consistent with other treated cells. What if the "unique" cells could be isolated from a treated population, and further studied? Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , allow for the ability to selectively identify unique cells with a secondary label within a primary labeled treated population. In the current study, select cells were identified and labeled through photo-conversion of Dendra2 -transfected human Wharton's Jelly cells (hWJCs) for the first time. Robust photo-conversion of green-to-red fluorescence was achieved consistently in arbitrarily selected cells, allowing for precise cell identification of select hWJCs. The current study demonstrates a method that offers investigators the opportunity to selectively label and identify unique cells within a treated population for further study or isolation from the treatment population. Photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as Dendra2 , offer the ability over non-photo-convertible reporter proteins, such as green fluorescent protein, to analyze unique individual cells within a treated population, which allows investigators to gain more meaningful information on how a treatment affects all cells within a target population.

  15. Pilot pulsar surveys with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.

    2013-01-01

    We are performing two complementary pilot pulsar surveys as part of LOFAR commissioning. The LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS) is a shallow all-sky survey using an incoherent combination of LOFAR stations. The LOFAR Tied-Array Survey (LOTAS) is a deeper pilot survey using 19 simultaneous tied-array

  16. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  17. Gratitude uniquely predicts lower depression in chronic illness populations: A longitudinal study of inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Fuschia M; Wood, Alex M

    2017-02-01

    Although gratitude has been identified as a key clinically relevant trait for improving well-being, it is understudied within medical populations. The current study addressed this gap and extended previous and limited cross-sectional research by examining the longitudinal associations of gratitude to depression in 2 chronic illness samples, arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two chronic illness samples, arthritis (N = 423) and IBD (N = 427), completed online surveys at Time 1 (T1). One hundred sixty-three people with arthritis and 144 people with IBD completed the 6-month follow-up survey (T2). Depression, gratitude, illness cognitions, perceived stress, social support, and disease-related variables were assessed at T1 and T2. At T2, 57.2% of the arthritis sample and 53.4% of the IBD sample met the cut off scores for significant depression. T1 gratitude was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at T1 and T2 in both samples (rs from -.43 to -.50). Regression analyses revealed that T1 gratitude remained a significant and unique predictor of lower T2 depression after controlling for T1 depression, relevant demographic variables, illness cognitions, changes in illness-relevant variables, and another positive psychological construct, thriving, in both samples. As the first investigation of the longitudinal associations of gratitude to psychological well-being in the context of chronic illness, the current study provides important evidence for the relevance of gratitude for health-related clinical populations. Further intervention-based research is warranted to more fully understand the potential benefits of gratitude for adjustment to chronic illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Lesotho - Health Facility Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The main objective of the 2011 Health Facility Survey (HFS) was to establish a baseline for informing the Health Project performance indicators on health facilities,...

  19. Hake Survey ADCP (2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  20. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  1. Food Labels Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Nationally-Representative Phone Survey April 6, 2016 Consumer Reports® National Research Center Introduction In February, 2016, the Consumer Reports® National Research Center conducted a nationally representative phone ...

  2. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  3. Hake Survey ADCP (2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  4. Hake Survey ADCP (1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  5. Hake Survey ADCP (1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  6. Hake Survey ADCP (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data collected during the Integrated Acoustic and Trawl Surveys of Pacific Hake. Processing by: Stephen Pierce, Oregon...

  7. 2000 LEPC Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the summary report of the 1999 nationwide Local Emergency Planning Committee survey, released in May 2000. It measured their levels of compliance and proactivity, roles in prevention and counter-terrorism, communication, and response plans.

  8. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  9. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  10. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  11. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  12. Patient survey (ICH CAHPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In-Center Hemodialysis Facilites Patient evaluations from the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (ICH-CAHPS) Survey. The...

  13. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  14. Public Land Survey filled

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 'PLSFILL' layer is a polygon coverage depicting the township, range and sections contained in the Public Land Survey System grid for the State of California....

  15. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  16. 2005 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  17. Applicant Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers developed 3 surveys that asks applicants to assess their satisfaction with the application process on a 1-10 point scale, with 10...

  18. 2013 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  19. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  20. NMFS Reef Survey Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reef Environmental Survey Project (REEF) mission to educate and enlist divers in the conservation of marine habitats is accomplished primarily through its Fish...

  1. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  2. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  3. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  4. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  5. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  6. Billfish Angler Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Billfish Angler Survey provides estimates of billfish angling activities in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This collection of recreational billfish catch and...

  7. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  8. 2011 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  9. 2009 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  10. 2007 Resident Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  11. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  12. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  13. Annual Omnibus Survey: A survey of life in Qatar 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Diop, Abdoulaye; Gengler, Justin John; Khan, Mohammad N.; Traugott, Michael; Elawad, Elmogiera Fadlallh; Al Ansari, Majed; Le, Kien T.; El-Maghraby, Engi; Elkassem, Rima Charbaji; Qutteina, Yara; Al Khulaifi, Buthaina; Nasrallah, Catherine; Al Subaey, Mohammed; Mustafa, Semsia Al-Ali; Alqassass, Haneen

    2015-01-01

    This Executive Summary presents the highlights of the 2014 Omnibus survey, the fourth in a series of Omnibus surveys since 2010. The surveys were carried out by the Social and Economic Survey Research Institute (SESRI) of Qatar University. Each Omnibus survey interviews a large and representative sample of Qatari citizens, resident expatriates and laborers. In these surveys, we asked a number of questions covering several topics of importance to Qatari society, including their ...

  14. Site surveying and levelling

    CERN Document Server

    Clancy, John

    2013-01-01

    This popular and useful text has been completely revised and up-dated so that it forms and indipensible handbook for any student of surveying. An additional chapter on modern developments is included and the text has also been extended to cover ordnance survey; calculation of areas; computation of true horizontal length; measurement of vertical angles; Code of Measuring Practice; curve ranging and calculations of volumes for earthworks.

  15. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  16. DSM-5 field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochner, Christine; Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania).......The aim of this multisite field survey was to examine the DSM-IV-TR criteria, proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as a number of possible additional diagnostic criteria, in patients with hair-pulling disorder (HPD, or trichotillomania)....

  17. Logic without unique readability - a study of semantic and syntactic ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    One of the main reasons for introducing a formal language is to remove ambiguity, the possibility of assigning several meanings to a linguistic expression. Typically, this is achieved through ensuring unique readability of formulas by using brackets (or another convention, such as Polish notation...... not hold true universally. Whereas e.g. scope ambiguities in natural languages have been studied extensively, ambiguous formal languages have not been the focus of in depth research. Here, we lift the assumption of unique readability by omitting the brackets from propositional logic, making it possible...... to formally distinguish between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. A valuation then amounts to a semantic disambiguation, and rather than a unique valuation (truth value), there is a set of valuations corresponding to ways a formula could have been constructed. We show what happens to familiar concepts...

  18. Unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition – A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Ni, Yan; Gao, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Xiaobing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the unique properties of strain glass which is different from that of normal martensite. ► We describe the importance of point defects in the formation of strain glass and related properties. ► The role of point defect can be attributed to global transition temperature effect (GTTE) and local field effect (LFE). -- Abstract: The transition behavior and unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition are investigated by computer simulations using the phase field method. The simulations are based on a physical model that assumes that point defects alter the thermodynamic stability of martensite and create local lattice distortion. The simulation results show that strain glass transition exhibits different properties from those found in normal martensitic transformations. These unique properties include diffuse scattering pattern, “smear” elastic modulus peak, disappearance of heat flow peak and non-ergodicity. These simulation predictions agree well with the experimental observations

  19. Body appreciation, interest in cosmetic enhancements, and need for uniqueness among U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Meghan M; Dunaev, Jamie

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine associations between body appreciation and putative correlates that focus on self-enhancement and self-expression. Students (N=261; mean age=20.16years, SD=3.68; 60.9% female) from a non-residential college in the northeastern United States completed a questionnaire measuring body appreciation, interest in cosmetic enhancements, and need for uniqueness. Individuals with higher body appreciation and African Americans/Blacks reported significantly higher self-attributed need for uniqueness and significantly higher investment in a distinctive appearance. The association between body appreciation and interest in cosmetic enhancements (e.g., hair coloring) was not significant. Results suggest that body appreciation may be linked to a desire to express one's own unique qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical objects as vehicles of cultural transmission: maintaining harmony and uniqueness through colored geometric patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rule, Nicholas O; Toriyama, Rie

    2014-02-01

    We examined how cultural values of harmony and uniqueness are represented and maintained through physical media (i.e., colorings of geometric patterns) and how individuals play an active role in selecting and maintaining such cultural values. We found that colorings produced by European American adults and children were judged as more unique, whereas colorings produced by Japanese adults and children were judged as more harmonious, reflecting cultural differences in values. Harmony undergirded Japanese participants' preferences for colorings, whereas uniqueness undergirded European American participants' preferences for colorings. These cultural differences led participants to prefer own-culture colorings over other-culture colorings. Moreover, bicultural participants' preferences acculturated according to their identification with their host culture. Furthermore, child rearers in Japan and Canada gave feedback about the children's colorings that were consistent with their culture's values. These findings suggest that simple geometric patterns can embody cultural values that are socialized and reinforced from an early age.