Sample records for unique fold consisting

  1. Consistency of the preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of benign vocal fold lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, PJP; de Jong, FICRS; Schutte, HK

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of benign vocal fold lesions for consistency. The diagnosis was made in 221 consecutive patients with benign vocal fold lesions for which a microlaryngoscopy was carried out in a general ENT-clinic.

  2. Botulinum neurotoxin: unique folding of enzyme domain of the most-poisonous poison. (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Kukreja, Roshan V; Li, Li; Zhmurov, Artem; Kononova, Olga; Cai, Shuowei; Ahmed, Syed A; Barsegov, Valeri; Singh, Bal Ram


    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most toxic substance known to mankind, is the first example of the fully active molten globule state. To understand its folding mechanism, we performed urea denaturation experiments and theoretical modeling using BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A). We found that the extent of BoNT/A denaturation from the native state (N) shows a nonmonotonic dependence on urea concentration indicating a unique multistep denaturation process, N → I1 [Formula: see text] I2 [Formula: see text] U, with two intermediate states I1 and I2. BoNT/A loses almost all its secondary structure in 3.75 M urea (I1), yet it displays a native-like secondary structure in 5 M urea (I2). This agrees with the results of theoretical modeling, which helped to determine the molecular basis of unique behavior of BoNT/A in solution. Except for I2, all the states revert back to full enzymatic activity for SNAP-25 including the unfolded state U stable in 7 M urea. Our results stress the importance of structural flexibility in the toxin's mechanism of survival and action, an unmatched evolutionary trait from billion-year-old bacteria, which also correlates with the long-lasting enzymatic activity of BoNT inside neuronal cells. BoNT/A provides a rich model to explore protein folding in relation to functional activity.

  3. Existence and uniqueness of consistent conjectural variation equilibrium in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Youfei; Cai, Bin; Ni, Y.X.; Wu, Felix F.


    The game-theory based methods are widely applied to analyze the market equilibrium and to study the strategic behavior in the oligopolistic electricity markets. Recently, the conjecture variation approach, one of well-studied methods in game theory, is reported to model the strategic behavior in deregulated electricity markets. Unfortunately, the conjecture variation models have been criticized for the drawback of logical inconsistence and possibility of abundant equilibria. Aiming for this, this paper investigates the existence and uniqueness of consistent conjectural variation equilibrium in electricity markets. With several good characteristics of the electricity market and with an infinite horizon optimization model, it is shown that the consistent conjecture variation will satisfy a set of coupled nonlinear equations and there will be only one equilibrium. This result can provide the fundamentals for further applications of the conjecture variation approach. (author)

  4. F-Type Lectins: A Highly Diversified Family of Fucose-Binding Proteins with a Unique Sequence Motif and Structural Fold, Involved in Self/Non-Self-Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo R. Vasta


    Full Text Available The F-type lectin (FTL family is one of the most recent to be identified and structurally characterized. Members of the FTL family are characterized by a fucose recognition domain [F-type lectin domain (FTLD] that displays a novel jellyroll fold (“F-type” fold and unique carbohydrate- and calcium-binding sequence motifs. This novel lectin family comprises widely distributed proteins exhibiting single, double, or greater multiples of the FTLD, either tandemly arrayed or combined with other structurally and functionally distinct domains, yielding lectin subunits of pleiotropic properties even within a single species. Furthermore, the extraordinary variability of FTL sequences (isoforms that are expressed in a single individual has revealed genetic mechanisms of diversification in ligand recognition that are unique to FTLs. Functions of FTLs in self/non-self-recognition include innate immunity, fertilization, microbial adhesion, and pathogenesis, among others. In addition, although the F-type fold is distinctive for FTLs, a structure-based search revealed apparently unrelated proteins with minor sequence similarity to FTLs that displayed the FTLD fold. In general, the phylogenetic analysis of FTLD sequences from viruses to mammals reveals clades that are consistent with the currently accepted taxonomy of extant species. However, the surprisingly discontinuous distribution of FTLDs within each taxonomic category suggests not only an extensive structural/functional diversification of the FTLs along evolutionary lineages but also that this intriguing lectin family has been subject to frequent gene duplication, secondary loss, lateral transfer, and functional co-option.

  5. Controlled bending and folding of a bilayer structure consisting of a thin stiff film and a heat shrinkable polymer sheet (United States)

    Cui, Jianxun; Adams, John G. M.; Zhu, Yong


    Bending pre-designed flat sheets into three-dimensional (3D) structures is attracting much interest, as it provides a simple approach to make 3D devices. Here we report controlled bending and folding of a bilayer structure consisting of a heat shrinkable polymer sheet and a thin stiff film (not thermally responsive). Upon heating, the prestrained polymer sheet shrinks, leading to bending or folding of the bilayer. We studied the effect of relative dimensions of the two layers on the bending behavior and demonstrated the transition from longitudinal bending to transverse bending of the bilayer strip. Transverse bending was utilized to fold origami structures, including several flat letters, a crane, and a corrugated metal sheet via Miura-ori folding. We developed a method to further control the bending orientation based on bio-inspired anisotropic bending stiffness. By bending the metal foil in different orientations, several structures were obtained, including cylindrical surfaces and left-handed/right-handed helical structures.

  6. The unique fold and lability of the [2Fe-2S] clusters of NEET proteins mediate their key functions in health and disease. (United States)

    Karmi, Ola; Marjault, Henri-Baptiste; Pesce, Luca; Carloni, Paolo; Onuchic, Jose' N; Jennings, Patricia A; Mittler, Ron; Nechushtai, Rachel


    NEET proteins comprise a new class of [2Fe-2S] cluster proteins. In human, three genes encode for NEET proteins: cisd1 encodes mitoNEET (mNT), cisd2 encodes the Nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and cisd3 encodes MiNT (Miner2). These recently discovered proteins play key roles in many processes related to normal metabolism and disease. Indeed, NEET proteins are involved in iron, Fe-S, and reactive oxygen homeostasis in cells and play an important role in regulating apoptosis and autophagy. mNT and NAF-1 are homodimeric and reside on the outer mitochondrial membrane. NAF-1 also resides in the membranes of the ER associated mitochondrial membranes (MAM) and the ER. MiNT is a monomer with distinct asymmetry in the molecular surfaces surrounding the clusters. Unlike its paralogs mNT and NAF-1, it resides within the mitochondria. NAF-1 and mNT share similar backbone folds to the plant homodimeric NEET protein (At-NEET), while MiNT's backbone fold resembles a bacterial MiNT protein. Despite the variation of amino acid composition among these proteins, all NEET proteins retained their unique CDGSH domain harboring their unique 3Cys:1His [2Fe-2S] cluster coordination through evolution. The coordinating exposed His was shown to convey the lability to the NEET proteins' [2Fe-2S] clusters. In this minireview, we discuss the NEET fold and its structural elements. Special attention is given to the unique lability of the NEETs' [2Fe-2S] cluster and the implication of the latter to the NEET proteins' cellular and systemic function in health and disease.

  7. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF04016 (DUF364) reveals enolase and Rossmann-like folds that combine to form a unique active site with a possible role in heavy-metal chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mitchell D.; Aravind, L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Rife, Christopher L.; Carlton, Dennis; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.


    The crystal structure of the first representative of DUF364 family reveals a combination of enolase N-terminal-like and C-terminal Rossmann-like folds. Analysis of the interdomain cleft combined with sequence and genome context conservation among homologs, suggests a unique catalytic site likely involved in the synthesis of a flavin or pterin derivative. The crystal structure of Dhaf4260 from Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) to a resolution of 2.01 Å using the semi-automated high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) as part of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). This protein structure is the first representative of the PF04016 (DUF364) Pfam family and reveals a novel combination of two well known domains (an enolase N-terminal-like fold followed by a Rossmann-like domain). Structural and bioinformatic analyses reveal partial similarities to Rossmann-like methyltransferases, with residues from the enolase-like fold combining to form a unique active site that is likely to be involved in the condensation or hydrolysis of molecules implicated in the synthesis of flavins, pterins or other siderophores. The genome context of Dhaf4260 and homologs additionally supports a role in heavy-metal chelation

  8. MiAMP1, a novel protein from macadamia integrifolia adopts a greek key β-barrel fold unique amongst plant antimicrobial proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, A.M.; Nielsen, K.J.; Craik, D.J.; Marcus, J.P.; Harrison, S.J.; Green, J.L.; Manners, J.M.


    Full text: MiAMP1 is a recently discovered 76 amino acid, highly basic protein from the nut kernel of Macadamia integrifolia which possesses no sequence homology to any known protein. A study of its antimicrobial activity revealed that it inhibited the growth of several microbial plant pathogens in vitro but had no effect on mammalian or plant cells. For these reasons, MiAMP1 is considered to be a potentially useful tool for the genetic engineering of disease resistance in transgenic crop plants and for the design of new fungicides. The three-dimensional structure of MiAMP1 was determined through homonuclear and heteronuclear ( 15 N) 2D NMR spectroscopy and subsequent simulated annealing calculations. MiAMP1 is made up of eight β-strands which are arranged in two Greek key motifs. These Greek key motifs associate to form a Greek key β-barrel. This structure is unique amongst plant antimicrobial proteins and forms a new class which we term the β-Barrelins. Interestingly, the structure of MiAMP1 bears remarkable similarity to a yeast killer toxin from Williopsis mrakii. The structural similarity of MiAMP1 and WmKT, which originate from plant and fungal phyla respectively, may reflect a similar mode of action

  9. Recoverable and Programmable Collapse from Folding Pressurized Origami Cellular Solids. (United States)

    Li, S; Fang, H; Wang, K W


    We report a unique collapse mechanism by exploiting the negative stiffness observed in the folding of an origami solid, which consists of pressurized cells made by stacking origami sheets. Such a collapse mechanism is recoverable, since it only involves rigid folding of the origami sheets and it is programmable by pressure control and the custom design of the crease pattern. The collapse mechanism features many attractive characteristics for applications such as energy absorption. The reported results also suggest a new branch of origami study focused on its nonlinear mechanics associated with folding.

  10. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins. (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao


    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  11. Physics of protein folding (United States)

    Finkelstein, A. V.; Galzitskaya, O. V.


    Protein physics is grounded on three fundamental experimental facts: protein, this long heteropolymer, has a well defined compact three-dimensional structure; this structure can spontaneously arise from the unfolded protein chain in appropriate environment; and this structure is separated from the unfolded state of the chain by the “all-or-none” phase transition, which ensures robustness of protein structure and therefore of its action. The aim of this review is to consider modern understanding of physical principles of self-organization of protein structures and to overview such important features of this process, as finding out the unique protein structure among zillions alternatives, nucleation of the folding process and metastable folding intermediates. Towards this end we will consider the main experimental facts and simple, mostly phenomenological theoretical models. We will concentrate on relatively small (single-domain) water-soluble globular proteins (whose structure and especially folding are much better studied and understood than those of large or membrane and fibrous proteins) and consider kinetic and structural aspects of transition of initially unfolded protein chains into their final solid (“native”) 3D structures.

  12. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.


    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  13. The thermodynamics of protein folding: a critique of widely used quasi-thermodynamic interpretations and a restatement based on the Gibbs-Duhem relation and consistent with the Phase Rule. (United States)

    Pethica, Brian A


    Interpretations of data in the extensive literature on the unfolding of proteins in aqueous solution follow a variety of methods involving assumptions leading to estimates of thermodynamic quantities associated with the unfolding transition. Inconsistencies and thermodynamic errors in these methods are identified. Estimates of standard molar free energies and enthalpies of unfolding using incompletely defined equilibrium constants and the van't Hoff relation are unsound, and typically contradict model-free interpretation of the data. A widely used routine for estimating the change in heat capacity associated with unfolding based on changes in the unfolding temperature and enthalpy co-induced by addition of denaturant or protective additives is thermodynamically incorrect by neglect of the Phase Rule. Many models and simulations predicting thermodynamic measures of unfolding are presently making comparisons with insecure quantities derived by incorrect thermodynamic analyses of experimental data. Analysis of unfolding via the Gibbs-Duhem equation with the correct Phase Rule constraints avoids the assumptions associated with incomplete equilibrium constants and misuse of the van't Hoff relation, and applies equally to positive, negative, sitewise or diffuse solute binding to the protein. The method gives the necessary relations between the thermodynamic parameters for thermal and isothermal unfolding and is developed for the case of two-state unfolding. The differences in binding of denaturants or stabilizers to the folded and unfolded forms of the protein are identified as major determinants of the unfolding process. The Phase Rule requires the temperature and enthalpy of unfolding to depend generally on the protein concentration. The available evidence bears out this expectation for thermal unfolding, indicating that protein-protein interactions influence folding. A parallel dependence of the denaturant concentrations for isothermal unfolding on the protein

  14. Vocal Fold Paralysis (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Vocal Fold Paralysis On this page: What is vocal fold ... Where can I get additional information? What is vocal fold paralysis? Structures involved in speech and voice production ...

  15. A single-chain fusion molecule consisting of peptide, major histocompatibility gene complex class I heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin can fold partially correctly, but binds peptide inefficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C; Buus, S


    of a recombinant murine MHC-I molecule, which could be produced in large amounts in bacteria. The recombinant MHC-I protein was expressed as a single molecule (PepSc) consisting of the antigenic peptide linked to the MHC-I heavy chain and further linked to human beta2-microglobulin (hbeta2m). The PepSc molecule...... electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Serological analysis revealed the presence of some, but not all, MHC-I-specific epitopes. Biochemically, PepSc could bind peptide, however, rather ineffectively. We suggest that a partially correctly refolded MHC-I has been obtained....

  16. Flips for 3-folds and 4-folds

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Alessio


    This edited collection of chapters, authored by leading experts, provides a complete and essentially self-contained construction of 3-fold and 4-fold klt flips. A large part of the text is a digest of Shokurov's work in the field and a concise, complete and pedagogical proof of the existence of 3-fold flips is presented. The text includes a ten page glossary and is accessible to students and researchers in algebraic geometry.

  17. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma. (United States)

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B


    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  18. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer


    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  19. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen


    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  20. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles. (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji


    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  1. A comparison of RNA folding measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Paul P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few decades there has been a great deal of discussion concerning whether or not noncoding RNA sequences (ncRNAs fold in a more well-defined manner than random sequences. In this paper, we investigate several existing measures for how well an RNA sequence folds, and compare the behaviour of these measures over a large range of Rfam ncRNA families. Such measures can be useful in, for example, identifying novel ncRNAs, and indicating the presence of alternate RNA foldings. Results Our analysis shows that ncRNAs, but not mRNAs, in general have lower minimal free energy (MFE than random sequences with the same dinucleotide frequency. Moreover, even when the MFE is significant, many ncRNAs appear to not have a unique fold, but rather several alternative folds, at least when folded in silico. Furthermore, we find that the six investigated measures are correlated to varying degrees. Conclusion Due to the correlations between the different measures we find that it is sufficient to use only two of them in RNA folding studies, one to test if the sequence in question has lower energy than a random sequence with the same dinucleotide frequency (the Z-score and the other to see if the sequence has a unique fold (the average base-pair distance, D.

  2. Identification of a key structural element for protein folding within beta-hairpin turns. (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Brych, Stephen R; Lee, Jihun; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael


    Specific residues in a polypeptide may be key contributors to the stability and foldability of the unique native structure. Identification and prediction of such residues is, therefore, an important area of investigation in solving the protein folding problem. Atypical main-chain conformations can help identify strains within a folded protein, and by inference, positions where unique amino acids may have a naturally high frequency of occurrence due to favorable contributions to stability and folding. Non-Gly residues located near the left-handed alpha-helical region (L-alpha) of the Ramachandran plot are a potential indicator of structural strain. Although many investigators have studied mutations at such positions, no consistent energetic or kinetic contributions to stability or folding have been elucidated. Here we report a study of the effects of Gly, Ala and Asn substitutions found within the L-alpha region at a characteristic position in defined beta-hairpin turns within human acidic fibroblast growth factor, and demonstrate consistent effects upon stability and folding kinetics. The thermodynamic and kinetic data are compared to available data for similar mutations in other proteins, with excellent agreement. The results have identified that Gly at the i+3 position within a subset of beta-hairpin turns is a key contributor towards increasing the rate of folding to the native state of the polypeptide while leaving the rate of unfolding largely unchanged.

  3. NoFold: RNA structure clustering without folding or alignment. (United States)

    Middleton, Sarah A; Kim, Junhyong


    Structures that recur across multiple different transcripts, called structure motifs, often perform a similar function-for example, recruiting a specific RNA-binding protein that then regulates translation, splicing, or subcellular localization. Identifying common motifs between coregulated transcripts may therefore yield significant insight into their binding partners and mechanism of regulation. However, as most methods for clustering structures are based on folding individual sequences or doing many pairwise alignments, this results in a tradeoff between speed and accuracy that can be problematic for large-scale data sets. Here we describe a novel method for comparing and characterizing RNA secondary structures that does not require folding or pairwise alignment of the input sequences. Our method uses the idea of constructing a distance function between two objects by their respective distances to a collection of empirical examples or models, which in our case consists of 1973 Rfam family covariance models. Using this as a basis for measuring structural similarity, we developed a clustering pipeline called NoFold to automatically identify and annotate structure motifs within large sequence data sets. We demonstrate that NoFold can simultaneously identify multiple structure motifs with an average sensitivity of 0.80 and precision of 0.98 and generally exceeds the performance of existing methods. We also perform a cross-validation analysis of the entire set of Rfam families, achieving an average sensitivity of 0.57. We apply NoFold to identify motifs enriched in dendritically localized transcripts and report 213 enriched motifs, including both known and novel structures. © 2014 Middleton and Kim; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention. (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas


    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Vocal Fold Motion Abnormalities: Are We All Seeing the Same Thing? (United States)

    Madden, Lyndsay L; Rosen, Clark A


    Flexible laryngoscopy is the principle tool for the evaluation of vocal fold motion. As of yet, no consistent, unified outcome metric has been developed for vocal fold paralysis/immobility research. The goal of this study was to evaluate vocal fold motion assessment (inter- and intra-rater reliability) among general otolaryngologists and fellowship-trained laryngologists. Prospective video perceptual analysis study. Flexible laryngoscopic examinations, with sound, of 15 unique patient cases (20 seconds each) were sent to 10 general otolaryngologists and 10 fellowship-trained laryngologists blinded to clinical history. Reviewers were given written definitions of vocal fold mobility and immobility and two video examples. The cases included bilateral vocal fold mobility (six), unilateral vocal fold immobility (five), and unilateral vocal fold hypomobility (four). Five examinations were repeated to determine intra-rater reliability. Participants were asked to judge if there was or there was no purposeful motion, as described by written definitions, for each vocal fold (800 tokens in total). Twenty reviewers (100%) replied. Both general otolaryngologists and fellowship-trained laryngologists had an overall inter-rater reliability of 95%. Difference in inter-rater reliability between the two groups of raters was negligible: 95% for general otolaryngologists and 97.5% for fellowship-trained laryngologists. There was no variability in intra-rater reliability within either rater group (99%). Intra- and inter-rater agreement in determining whether the patient had purposeful vocal fold motion on flexible laryngoscopic examination was excellent in both groups. This study demonstrates that otolaryngologists can consistently and accurately judge the presence and the absence of vocal fold motion. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a systematic classification of protein folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Bohr, Henrik


    structures are given a unique name, which simultaneously represent a linear string of physical coupling constants describing hinge spin interactions. We have defined a metric and a precise distance measure between the fold classes. An automated procedure is constructed in which any protein structure...

  7. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.


    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...

  8. Folding worlds between pages

    CERN Multimedia

    Meier, Matthias


    "We all remember pop-up books form our childhood. As fascinated as we were back then, we probably never imagined how much engineering know-how went into these books. Pop-up engineer Anton Radevsky has even managed to fold a 27-kilometre particle accelerator into a book" (4 pages)

  9. Folds and Etudes (United States)

    Bean, Robert


    In this article, the author talks about "Folds" and "Etudes" which are images derived from anonymous typing exercises that he found in a used copy of "Touch Typing Made Simple". "Etudes" refers to the musical tradition of studies for a solo instrument, which is a typewriter. Typing exercises are repetitive attempts to type words and phrases…

  10. Geometric U-folds in four dimensions (United States)

    Lazaroiu, C. I.; Shahbazi, C. S.


    We describe a general construction of geometric U-folds compatible with a non-trivial extension of the global formulation of four-dimensional extended supergravity on a differentiable spin manifold. The topology of geometric U-folds depends on certain flat fiber bundles which encode how supergravity fields are globally glued together. We show that smooth non-trivial U-folds of this type can exist only in theories where both the scalar and space-time manifolds have non-trivial fundamental group and in addition the scalar map of the solution is homotopically non-trivial. Consistency with string theory requires smooth geometric U-folds to be glued using subgroups of the effective discrete U-duality group, implying that the fundamental group of the scalar manifold of such solutions must be a subgroup of the latter. We construct simple examples of geometric U-folds in a generalization of the axion-dilaton model of \

  11. Geomorphology of the Southwest Coast of County Cork, Ireland: A Look into the Rocks, Folds, and Glacial Scours (United States)

    Bowden, S.; Wireman, R.; Sautter, L.; Beutel, E. K.


    Bathymetric data were collected off the southwest coast of County Cork, Ireland by the joint INFOMAR project between the Marine Institute of Ireland and the Geologic Survey of Ireland. Data were collected using a Kongsberg EM2040 multibeam sonar on the R/V Celtic Voyager, in August and September 2014, and were post-processed with CARIS HIPS and SIPS 8.1 and 9.0 software to create 2D and 3D bathymetric surfaces. From the computer generated images, some of the lithologic formations were relatively aged and observed. The studied regions range in depth from 20 to 118 m, with shallower areas to the northeast. Several large rock outcrops occur, the larger of which shows a vertical rise of nearly 20 m. These outcrops are oriented in a northeast-southwest direction, and exhibit significant bed folding, regional folding, tilted beds, and cross joints. The folds studied are plunging chevron folds. These folds have a northeast-southwest fold axis orthogonal to the cross joints and are older relative to the jointing systems. The NE-SW joints are older than the NW-SE joints due to their correlation with drainage and erosion patterns. Regional folding is the youngest feature due to its superposition on the chevron folding and jointing systems. The interaction of cross jointing and folding is consistent with the geologic history of the area, and creates a unique bathymetry worthy of further study.

  12. Acute vocal fold hemorrhage caught on video during office exam. (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas L; Smith, Libby J


    This article presents a unique video of a laryngeal exam during which a vocal fold hemorrhage occurs. This patient had likely been suffering from intermittent vocal fold hemorrhages for the last decade due to a persistent vascular lesion and an underlying chronic cough.

  13. Transferable coarse-grained potential for de novo protein folding and design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Coluzza

    Full Text Available Protein folding and design are major biophysical problems, the solution of which would lead to important applications especially in medicine. Here we provide evidence of how a novel parametrization of the Caterpillar model may be used for both quantitative protein design and folding. With computer simulations it is shown that, for a large set of real protein structures, the model produces designed sequences with similar physical properties to the corresponding natural occurring sequences. The designed sequences require further experimental testing. For an independent set of proteins, previously used as benchmark, the correct folded structure of both the designed and the natural sequences is also demonstrated. The equilibrium folding properties are characterized by free energy calculations. The resulting free energy profiles not only are consistent among natural and designed proteins, but also show a remarkable precision when the folded structures are compared to the experimentally determined ones. Ultimately, the updated Caterpillar model is unique in the combination of its fundamental three features: its simplicity, its ability to produce natural foldable designed sequences, and its structure prediction precision. It is also remarkable that low frustration sequences can be obtained with such a simple and universal design procedure, and that the folding of natural proteins shows funnelled free energy landscapes without the need of any potentials based on the native structure.

  14. Chloroplast Chaperonin: An Intricate Protein Folding Machine for Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao


    Full Text Available Group I chaperonins are large cylindrical-shaped nano-machines that function as a central hub in the protein quality control system in the bacterial cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts. In chloroplasts, proteins newly synthesized by chloroplast ribosomes, unfolded by diverse stresses, or translocated from the cytosol run the risk of aberrant folding and aggregation. The chloroplast chaperonin system assists these proteins in folding into their native states. A widely known protein folded by chloroplast chaperonin is the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, an enzyme responsible for the fixation of inorganic CO2 into organic carbohydrates during photosynthesis. Chloroplast chaperonin was initially identified as a Rubisco-binding protein. All photosynthetic eucaryotes genomes encode multiple chaperonin genes which can be divided into α and β subtypes. Unlike the homo-oligomeric chaperonins from bacteria and mitochondria, chloroplast chaperonins are more complex and exists as intricate hetero-oligomers containing both subtypes. The Group I chaperonin requires proper interaction with a detachable lid-like co-chaperonin in the presence of ATP and Mg2+ for substrate encapsulation and conformational transition. Besides the typical Cpn10-like co-chaperonin, a unique co-chaperonin consisting of two tandem Cpn10-like domains joined head-to-tail exists in chloroplasts. Since chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to various environmental stresses, this diversified chloroplast chaperonin system has the potential to adapt to complex conditions by accommodating specific substrates or through regulation at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. In this review, we discuss recent progress on the unique structure and function of the chloroplast chaperonin system based on model organisms Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana. Knowledge of the chloroplast chaperonin system may ultimately lead

  15. Self-folding miniature elastic electric devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Meeker, Laura; Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T; Wood, Robert J


    Printing functional materials represents a considerable impact on the access to manufacturing technology. In this paper we present a methodology and validation of print-and-self-fold miniature electric devices. Polyvinyl chloride laminated sheets based on metalized polyester film show reliable self-folding processes under a heat application, and it configures 3D electric devices. We exemplify this technique by fabricating fundamental electric devices, namely a resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Namely, we show the development of a self-folded stretchable resistor, variable resistor, capacitive strain sensor, and an actuation mechanism consisting of a folded contractible solenoid coil. Because of their pre-defined kinematic design, these devices feature elasticity, making them suitable as sensors and actuators in flexible circuits. Finally, an RLC circuit obtained from the integration of developed devices is demonstrated, in which the coil based actuator is controlled by reading a capacitive strain sensor. (paper)

  16. The Complexity of Folding Self-Folding Origami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menachem Stern


    Full Text Available Why is it difficult to refold a previously folded sheet of paper? We show that even crease patterns with only one designed folding motion inevitably contain an exponential number of “distractor” folding branches accessible from a bifurcation at the flat state. Consequently, refolding a sheet requires finding the ground state in a glassy energy landscape with an exponential number of other attractors of higher energy, much like in models of protein folding (Levinthal’s paradox and other NP-hard satisfiability (SAT problems. As in these problems, we find that refolding a sheet requires actuation at multiple carefully chosen creases. We show that seeding successful folding in this way can be understood in terms of subpatterns that fold when cut out (“folding islands”. Besides providing guidelines for the placement of active hinges in origami applications, our results point to fundamental limits on the programmability of energy landscapes in sheets.

  17. The Complexity of Folding Self-Folding Origami (United States)

    Stern, Menachem; Pinson, Matthew B.; Murugan, Arvind


    Why is it difficult to refold a previously folded sheet of paper? We show that even crease patterns with only one designed folding motion inevitably contain an exponential number of "distractor" folding branches accessible from a bifurcation at the flat state. Consequently, refolding a sheet requires finding the ground state in a glassy energy landscape with an exponential number of other attractors of higher energy, much like in models of protein folding (Levinthal's paradox) and other NP-hard satisfiability (SAT) problems. As in these problems, we find that refolding a sheet requires actuation at multiple carefully chosen creases. We show that seeding successful folding in this way can be understood in terms of subpatterns that fold when cut out ("folding islands"). Besides providing guidelines for the placement of active hinges in origami applications, our results point to fundamental limits on the programmability of energy landscapes in sheets.

  18. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq) (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan


    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  19. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Deep Learning Networks (United States)

    Jo, Taeho; Hou, Jie; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin


    For accurate recognition of protein folds, a deep learning network method (DN-Fold) was developed to predict if a given query-template protein pair belongs to the same structural fold. The input used stemmed from the protein sequence and structural features extracted from the protein pair. We evaluated the performance of DN-Fold along with 18 different methods on Lindahl’s benchmark dataset and on a large benchmark set extracted from SCOP 1.75 consisting of about one million protein pairs, at three different levels of fold recognition (i.e., protein family, superfamily, and fold) depending on the evolutionary distance between protein sequences. The correct recognition rate of ensembled DN-Fold for Top 1 predictions is 84.5%, 61.5%, and 33.6% and for Top 5 is 91.2%, 76.5%, and 60.7% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of single DN-Fold (DN-FoldS), which showed the comparable results at the level of family and superfamily, compared to ensemble DN-Fold. Finally, we extended the binary classification problem of fold recognition to real-value regression task, which also show a promising performance. DN-Fold is freely available through a web server at

  20. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Deep Learning Networks. (United States)

    Jo, Taeho; Hou, Jie; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin


    For accurate recognition of protein folds, a deep learning network method (DN-Fold) was developed to predict if a given query-template protein pair belongs to the same structural fold. The input used stemmed from the protein sequence and structural features extracted from the protein pair. We evaluated the performance of DN-Fold along with 18 different methods on Lindahl's benchmark dataset and on a large benchmark set extracted from SCOP 1.75 consisting of about one million protein pairs, at three different levels of fold recognition (i.e., protein family, superfamily, and fold) depending on the evolutionary distance between protein sequences. The correct recognition rate of ensembled DN-Fold for Top 1 predictions is 84.5%, 61.5%, and 33.6% and for Top 5 is 91.2%, 76.5%, and 60.7% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of single DN-Fold (DN-FoldS), which showed the comparable results at the level of family and superfamily, compared to ensemble DN-Fold. Finally, we extended the binary classification problem of fold recognition to real-value regression task, which also show a promising performance. DN-Fold is freely available through a web server at

  1. RNA folding: structure prediction, folding kinetics and ion electrostatics. (United States)

    Tan, Zhijie; Zhang, Wenbing; Shi, Yazhou; Wang, Fenghua


    Beyond the "traditional" functions such as gene storage, transport and protein synthesis, recent discoveries reveal that RNAs have important "new" biological functions including the RNA silence and gene regulation of riboswitch. Such functions of noncoding RNAs are strongly coupled to the RNA structures and proper structure change, which naturally leads to the RNA folding problem including structure prediction and folding kinetics. Due to the polyanionic nature of RNAs, RNA folding structure, stability and kinetics are strongly coupled to the ion condition of solution. The main focus of this chapter is to review the recent progress in the three major aspects in RNA folding problem: structure prediction, folding kinetics and ion electrostatics. This chapter will introduce both the recent experimental and theoretical progress, while emphasize the theoretical modelling on the three aspects in RNA folding.

  2. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.


    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey


    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  3. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty. (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K


    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Bifurcation of self-folded polygonal bilayers (United States)

    Abdullah, Arif M.; Braun, Paul V.; Hsia, K. Jimmy


    Motivated by the self-assembly of natural systems, researchers have investigated the stimulus-responsive curving of thin-shell structures, which is also known as self-folding. Self-folding strategies not only offer possibilities to realize complicated shapes but also promise actuation at small length scales. Biaxial mismatch strain driven self-folding bilayers demonstrate bifurcation of equilibrium shapes (from quasi-axisymmetric doubly curved to approximately singly curved) during their stimulus-responsive morphing behavior. Being a structurally instable, bifurcation could be used to tune the self-folding behavior, and hence, a detailed understanding of this phenomenon is appealing from both fundamental and practical perspectives. In this work, we investigated the bifurcation behavior of self-folding bilayer polygons. For the mechanistic understanding, we developed finite element models of planar bilayers (consisting of a stimulus-responsive and a passive layer of material) that transform into 3D curved configurations. Our experiments with cross-linked Polydimethylsiloxane samples that change shapes in organic solvents confirmed our model predictions. Finally, we explored a design scheme to generate gripper-like architectures by avoiding the bifurcation of stimulus-responsive bilayers. Our research contributes to the broad field of self-assembly as the findings could motivate functional devices across multiple disciplines such as robotics, artificial muscles, therapeutic cargos, and reconfigurable biomedical devices.

  5. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.


    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  6. How old is your fold?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winstanley, Henry F.; Abeln, Sanne; Deane, Charlotte M.

    Motivation: At present there exists no age estimate for the different protein structures found in nature. It has become clear from occurrence studies that different folds arose at different points in evolutionary time. An estimation of the age of different folds would be a starting point for many

  7. Teaching computers to fold proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Krogh, Anders Stærmose


    A new general algorithm for optimization of potential functions for protein folding is introduced. It is based upon gradient optimization of the thermodynamic stability of native folds of a training set of proteins with known structure. The iterative update rule contains two thermodynamic averages...

  8. Cervical osteophytes presenting as unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia. (United States)

    Yoskovitch, A; Kantor, S


    Any process involving either the vagus nerve, its recurrent laryngeal branch or the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve may cause paralysis of the vocal fold. The most common cause is neoplasm. Clinically, the patients often present with a hoarse, breathy voice as well as symptoms of aspiration. The following represents a unique case of unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia caused by a degenerative disease of the cervical spine, resluting in extrinsic compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  9. Periodic folding of viscous sheets (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.


    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  10. Uplift rates of marine terraces as a constraint on fault-propagation fold kinematics: Examples from the Hawkswood and Kate anticlines, North Canterbury, New Zealand (United States)

    Oakley, David O. S.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Stewart, Mary Kate


    Marine terraces on growing fault-propagation folds provide valuable insight into the relationship between fold kinematics and uplift rates, providing a means to distinguish among otherwise non-unique kinematic model solutions. Here, we investigate this relationship at two locations in North Canterbury, New Zealand: the Kate anticline and Haumuri Bluff, at the northern end of the Hawkswood anticline. At both locations, we calculate uplift rates of previously dated marine terraces, using DGPS surveys to estimate terrace inner edge elevations. We then use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to fit fault-propagation fold kinematic models to structural geologic data, and we incorporate marine terrace uplift into the models as an additional constraint. At Haumuri Bluff, we find that marine terraces, when restored to originally horizontal surfaces, can help to eliminate certain trishear models that would fit the geologic data alone. At Kate anticline, we compare uplift rates at different structural positions and find that the spatial pattern of uplift rates is more consistent with trishear than with a parallel-fault propagation fold kink-band model. Finally, we use our model results to compute new estimates for fault slip rates ( 1-2 m/ka at Kate anticline and 1-4 m/ka at Haumuri Bluff) and ages of the folds ( 1 Ma), which are consistent with previous estimates for the onset of folding in this region. These results are consistent with previous work on the age of onset of folding in this region, provide revised estimates of fault slip rates necessary to understand the seismic hazard posed by these faults, and demonstrate the value of incorporating marine terraces in inverse fold kinematic models as a means to distinguish among non-unique solutions.

  11. Natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds. (United States)

    Mitraki, Anna; Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Van Raaij, Mark J


    A distinctive family of beta-structured folds has recently been described for fibrous proteins from viruses. Virus fibers are usually involved in specific host-cell recognition. They are asymmetric homotrimeric proteins consisting of an N-terminal virus-binding tail, a central shaft or stalk domain, and a C-terminal globular receptor-binding domain. Often they are entirely or nearly entirely composed of beta-structure. Apart from their biological relevance and possible gene therapy applications, their shape, stability, and rigidity suggest they may be useful as blueprints for biomechanical design. Folding and unfolding studies suggest their globular C-terminal domain may fold first, followed by a "zipping-up" of the shaft domains. The C-terminal domains appear to be important for registration because peptides corresponding to shaft domains alone aggregate into nonnative fibers and/or amyloid structures. C-terminal domains can be exchanged between different fibers and the resulting chimeric proteins are useful as a way to solve structures of unknown parts of the shaft domains. The following natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds have been discovered by X-ray crystallography: the triple beta-spiral, triple beta-helix, and T4 short tail fiber fold. All have a central longitudinal hydrophobic core and extensive intermonomer polar and nonpolar interactions. Now that a reasonable body of structural and folding knowledge has been assembled about these fibrous proteins, the next challenge and opportunity is to start using this information in medical and industrial applications such as gene therapy and nanotechnology.

  12. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.


    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  13. Improving protein fold recognition by extracting fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts. (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwei; Zhang, Haicang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Wang, Chao; Kong, Lupeng; Sun, Shiwei; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo


    Accurate recognition of protein fold types is a key step for template-based prediction of protein structures. The existing approaches to fold recognition mainly exploit the features derived from alignments of query protein against templates. These approaches have been shown to be successful for fold recognition at family level, but usually failed at superfamily/fold levels. To overcome this limitation, one of the key points is to explore more structurally informative features of proteins. Although residue-residue contacts carry abundant structural information, how to thoroughly exploit these information for fold recognition still remains a challenge. In this study, we present an approach (called DeepFR) to improve fold recognition at superfamily/fold levels. The basic idea of our approach is to extract fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts of proteins using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) technique. Based on these fold-specific features, we calculated similarity between query protein and templates, and then assigned query protein with fold type of the most similar template. DCNN has showed excellent performance in image feature extraction and image recognition; the rational underlying the application of DCNN for fold recognition is that contact likelihood maps are essentially analogy to images, as they both display compositional hierarchy. Experimental results on the LINDAHL dataset suggest that even using the extracted fold-specific features alone, our approach achieved success rate comparable to the state-of-the-art approaches. When further combining these features with traditional alignment-related features, the success rate of our approach increased to 92.3%, 82.5% and 78.8% at family, superfamily and fold levels, respectively, which is about 18% higher than the state-of-the-art approach at fold level, 6% higher at superfamily level and 1% higher at family level. An independent assessment on SCOP_TEST dataset showed consistent

  14. Protein Folding: Search for Basic Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Y. Torshin


    Full Text Available How a unique three-dimensional structure is rapidly formed from the linear sequence of a polypeptide is one of the important questions in contemporary science. Apart from biological context of in vivo protein folding (which has been studied only for a few proteins, the roles of the fundamental physical forces in the in vitro folding remain largely unstudied. Despite a degree of success in using descriptions based on statistical and/or thermodynamic approaches, few of the current models explicitly include more basic physical forces (such as electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Moreover, the present-day models rarely take into account that the protein folding is, essentially, a rapid process that produces a highly specific architecture. This review considers several physical models that may provide more direct links between sequence and tertiary structure in terms of the physical forces. In particular, elaboration of such simple models is likely to produce extremely effective computational techniques with value for modern genomics.

  15. Wrinkles, folds, and plasticity in granular rafts (United States)

    Jambon-Puillet, Etienne; Josserand, Christophe; Protière, Suzie


    We investigate the mechanical response of a compressed monolayer of large and dense particles at a liquid-fluid interface: a granular raft. Upon compression, rafts first wrinkle; then, as the confinement increases, the deformation localizes in a unique fold. This characteristic buckling pattern is usually associated with floating elastic sheets, and as a result, particle laden interfaces are often modeled as such. Here, we push this analogy to its limits by comparing quantitative measurements of the raft morphology to a theoretical continuous elastic model of the interface. We show that, although powerful to describe the wrinkle wavelength, the wrinkle-to-fold transition, and the fold shape, this elastic description does not capture the finer details of the experiment. We describe an unpredicted secondary wavelength, a compression discrepancy with the model, and a hysteretic behavior during compression cycles, all of which are a signature of the intrinsic discrete and frictional nature of granular rafts. It suggests also that these composite materials exhibit both plastic transition and jamming dynamics.

  16. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures


    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves


    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  17. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold. (United States)

    Long, Jennifer L


    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N


    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  19. Specific features of vocal fold paralysis in functional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, H.; Serafin, Z.; Nawrocka, E.


    Vocal fold paralysis is usually recognized in laryngological examination, and detailed vocal fold function may be established based on laryngovideostroboscopy. Additional imaging should exclude any morphological causes of the paresis, which should be treated pharmacologically or surgically. The aim of this paper was to analyze the computed tomography (CT) images of the larynx in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. CT examinations of the larynx were performed in 10 patients with clinically defined unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The examinations consisted of unenhanced acquisition and enhanced 3-phased acquisition: during free breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and phonation. The analysis included the following morphologic features of the paresis.the deepened epiglottic vallecula, the deepened piriform recess, the thickened and medially positioned aryepiglottic fold, the widened laryngeal pouch, the anteriorly positioned arytenoid cartilage, the thickened vocal fold, and the filled infraglottic space in frontal CT reconstruction. CT images were compared to laryngovideostroboscopy. The most common symptoms of vocal cord paralysis in CT were the deepened epiglottic vallecula and piriform recess, the widened laryngeal pouch with the filled infraglottic space, and the thickened aryepiglottic fold. Regarding the efficiency of the paralysis determination, the three functional techniques of CT larynx imaging used did not differ significantly, and laryngovideostroboscopy demonstrated its advantage over CT. CT of the larynx is a supplementary examination in the diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis, which may enable topographic analysis of the fold dysfunction. The knowledge of morphological CT features of the paralysis may help to prevent false-positive diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. (author)

  20. The four-fold way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.


    The four-fold way is proposed in a minimal composite model of quarks and leptons. Various new pictures and consequences are presented and discussed. They include 1) generation, 2) quark-lepton mass spectrum, 3) quark mixing, 4) supersymmetry, 5) effective gauge theory. (author)

  1. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.


    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  2. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.


    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.

  3. Consistent model driven architecture (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.


    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  4. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency


    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger


    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  5. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.


    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  6. Is Life Unique? (United States)

    Abel, David L.


    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  7. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)


    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  8. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.


    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  9. Force generation by titin folding. (United States)

    Mártonfalvi, Zsolt; Bianco, Pasquale; Naftz, Katalin; Ferenczy, György G; Kellermayer, Miklós


    Titin is a giant protein that provides elasticity to muscle. As the sarcomere is stretched, titin extends hierarchically according to the mechanics of its segments. Whether titin's globular domains unfold during this process and how such unfolded domains might contribute to muscle contractility are strongly debated. To explore the force-dependent folding mechanisms, here we manipulated skeletal-muscle titin molecules with high-resolution optical tweezers. In force-clamp mode, after quenching the force (force trace contained rapid fluctuations and a gradual increase of average force, indicating that titin can develop force via dynamic transitions between its structural states en route to the native conformation. In 4 M urea, which destabilizes H-bonds hence the consolidated native domain structure, the net force increase disappeared but the fluctuations persisted. Thus, whereas net force generation is caused by the ensemble folding of the elastically-coupled domains, force fluctuations arise due to a dynamic equilibrium between unfolded and molten-globule states. Monte-Carlo simulations incorporating a compact molten-globule intermediate in the folding landscape recovered all features of our nanomechanics results. The ensemble molten-globule dynamics delivers significant added contractility that may assist sarcomere mechanics, and it may reduce the dissipative energy loss associated with titin unfolding/refolding during muscle contraction/relaxation cycles. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  10. Design and numerical analysis of an SMA mesh-based self-folding sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraza-Hernandez, Edwin A; Hartl, Darren J; Malak Jr, Richard J


    Origami engineering, which is the practice of creating useful three-dimensional structures through folding and fold-like operations applied to initially two-dimensional entities, has the potential to impact several areas of design and manufacturing. In some instances, however, it may be impractical to apply external manipulations to produce the desired folds (e.g., as in remote applications such as space systems). In such cases, self-folding capabilities are valuable. A self-folding material or material system is one that can perform folding operations without manipulations from external forces. This work considers a concept for a self-folding material system. The system extends the ‘programmable matter’ concept and consists of an active, self-morphing sheet composed of two meshes of thermally actuated shape memory alloy (SMA) wire separated by a compliant passive layer. The geometric and power input parameters of the self-folding sheet are optimized to achieve the tightest local fold possible subject to stress and temperature constraints. The sheet folding performance considering folds at different angles relative to the orientation of the wire mesh is also analyzed. The optimization results show that a relatively low elastomer thickness is preferable to generate the tightest fold possible. The results also show that the self-folding sheet does not require large power inputs to achieve an optimal folding performance. It was shown that the self-folding sheet is capable of creating similar quality folds at different orientations. (paper)

  11. Right-Handed Helical Foldamers Consisting of De Novo d -AApeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Peng; Ma, Ning; Cerrato, Darrell Cole; She, Fengyu; Odom, Timothy; Wang, Xiang; Ming, Li-June; van der Vaart, Arjan; Wojtas, Lukasz; Xu, Hai; Cai, Jianfeng


    New types of foldamer scaffolds are formidably challenging to design and synthesize, yet highly desirable as structural mimics of peptides/proteins with a wide repertoire of functions. In particular, the development of peptidomimetic helical foldamers holds promise for new biomaterials, catalysts, and drug molecules. Unnatural l-sulfono-γ-AApeptides were recently developed and shown to have potential applications in both biomedical and material sciences. However, d-sulfono-γ-AApeptides, the enantiomers of l-sulfono-γ-AApeptides, have never been studied due to the lack of high-resolution three-dimensional structures to guide structure-based design. Herein, we report the first synthesis and X-ray crystal structures of a series of 2:1 l-amino acid/d-sulfono-γ-AApeptide hybrid foldamers, and elucidate their folded conformation at the atomic level. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography indicates that this class of oligomers folds into well-defined right-handed helices with unique helical parameters. The helical structures were consistent with data obtained from solution 2D NMR, CD studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings are expected to inspire the structure-based design of this type of unique folding biopolymers for biomaterials and biomedical applications.

  12. Synovial folds in equine articular process joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Nymann; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Markussen, Bo


    Cervical synovial folds have been suggested as a potential cause of neck pain in humans. Little is known about the extent and characteristics of cervical synovial folds in horses.......Cervical synovial folds have been suggested as a potential cause of neck pain in humans. Little is known about the extent and characteristics of cervical synovial folds in horses....

  13. Differential role of molten globule and protein folding in distinguishing unique features of botulinum neurotoxin. (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Kukreja, Roshan V; Cai, Shuowei; Singh, Bal R


    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are proteins of great interest not only because of their extreme toxicity but also paradoxically for their therapeutic applications. All the known serotypes (A-G) have varying degrees of longevity and potency inside the neuronal cell. Differential chemical modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination have been suggested as possible mechanisms for their longevity, but the molecular basis of the longevity remains unclear. Since the endopeptidase domain (light chain; LC) of toxin apparently survives inside the neuronal cells for months, it is important to examine the structural features of this domain to understand its resistance to intracellular degradation. Published crystal structures (both botulinum neurotoxins and endopeptidase domain) have not provided adequate explanation for the intracellular longevity of the domain. Structural features obtained from spectroscopic analysis of LCA and LCB were similar, and a PRIME (PReImminent Molten Globule Enzyme) conformation appears to be responsible for their optimal enzymatic activity at 37°C. LCE, on the other hand, was although optimally active at 37°C, but its active conformation differed from the PRIME conformation of LCA and LCB. This study establishes and confirms our earlier finding that an optimally active conformation of these proteins in the form of PRIME exists for the most poisonous poison, botulinum neurotoxin. There are substantial variations in the structural and functional characteristics of these active molten globule related structures among the three BoNT endopeptidases examined. These differential conformations of LCs are important in understanding the fundamental structural features of proteins, and their possible connection to intracellular longevity could provide significant clues for devising new countermeasures and effective therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier in Health and Injury: A Research Review (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Leydon, Ciara; Thibeault, Susan L.


    Purpose: Vocal fold epithelium is composed of layers of individual epithelial cells joined by junctional complexes constituting a unique interface with the external environment. This barrier provides structural stability to the vocal folds and protects underlying connective tissue from injury while being nearly continuously exposed to potentially…

  15. A novel member of the split betaalphabeta fold: Solution structure of the hypothetical protein YML108W from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; Liao, Jack; Cort, John R.; Yee, Adelinda; Kennedy, Michael A.; Edwards, Aled M.


    As part of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium pilot project focused on small eukaryotic proteins and protein domains, we have determined the NMR structure of the protein encoded by open reading frame YML108W from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. YML108W belongs to one of the numerous structural proteomics targets whose biological function is unknown. Moreover, this protein does not have sequence similarity to any other protein. The NMR structure of YML108W consists of a four-stranded b-sheet with strand order 2143 and two a-helices, with an overall topology of bbabba. Strand b1 runs parallel to b4, and b2:b1 and b4:b3 pairs are arranged in an antiparallel fashion. While this fold belongs to the split bab family, it appears to be unique among this family; it is a novel arrangement of secondary structure, thereby expanding the universe of protein folds

  16. Consistency in PERT problems


    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan


    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  17. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness. (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J


    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  18. Understanding ensemble protein folding at atomic detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Stefan; Shakhnovich, Eugene I


    Although far from routine, simulating the folding of specific short protein chains on the computer, at a detailed atomic level, is starting to become a reality. This remarkable progress, which has been made over the last decade or so, allows a fundamental aspect of the protein folding process to be addressed, namely its statistical nature. In order to make quantitative comparisons with experimental kinetic data a complete ensemble view of folding must be achieved, with key observables averaged over the large number of microscopically different folding trajectories available to a protein chain. Here we review recent advances in atomic-level protein folding simulations and the new insight provided by them into the protein folding process. An important element in understanding ensemble folding kinetics are methods for analyzing many separate folding trajectories, and we discuss techniques developed to condense the large amount of information contained in an ensemble of trajectories into a manageable picture of the folding process. (topical review)

  19. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup


    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  20. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.


    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. A unique theory of all forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo


    In discussing the construction of a consistent theory of quantum gravity unified with the gauge interactions we are naturally led to a string theory. We review its properties and the five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions. We finally discuss the evidence that these theories are actually special limits of a unique 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, and a recent conjecture for its explicit formulation as a supersymmetric Matrix theory

  2. 3D Visualization of Sheath Folds in Roman Marble from Ephesus, Turkey (United States)

    Wex, Sebastian; Passchier, Cornelis W.; de Kemp, Eric A.; Ilhan, Sinan


    Excavation of a palatial 2nd century AD house (Terrace House Two) in the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey in the 1970s produced 10.313 pieces of colored, folded marble which belonged to 54 marble plates of 1.6 cm thickness that originally covered the walls of the banquet hall of the house. The marble plates were completely reassembled and restored by a team of workers over the last 6 years. The plates were recognized as having been sawn from two separate large blocks of "Cipollino verde", a green mylonitized marble from Karystos on the Island of Euboea, Greece. After restoration, it became clear that all slabs had been placed on the wall in approximately the sequence in which they had been cut off by a Roman stone saw. As a result, the marble plates give a full 3D insight in the folded internal structure of 1m3 block of mylonite. The restoration of the slabs was recognized as a first, unique opportunity for detailed reconstruction of the 3D geometry of m-scale folds in mylonitized marble. Photographs were taken of each slab and used to reconstruct their exact arrangement within the originally quarried blocks. Outlines of layers were digitized and a full 3D reconstruction of the internal structure of the block was created using ArcMap and GOCAD. Fold structures in the block include curtain folds and multilayered sheath folds. Several different layers showing these structures were digitized on the photographs of the slab surfaces and virtually mounted back together within the model of the marble block. Due to the serial sectioning into slabs, with cm-scale spacing, the visualization of the 3D geometry of sheath folds was accomplished with a resolution better than 4 cm. Final assembled 3D images reveal how sheath folds emerge from continuous layers and show their overall consistency as well as a constant hinge line orientation of the fold structures. Observations suggest that a single deformation phase was responsible for the evolution of "Cipollino verde" structures

  3. Effects of gravity in folding (United States)

    Minkel, Donald Howe

    Effects of gravity on buckle folding are studied using a Newtonian fluid finite element model of a single layer embedded between two thicker less viscous layers. The methods allow arbitrary density jumps, surface tension coefficients, resistance to slip at the interfaces, and tracking of fold growth to a large amplitudes. When density increases downward in two equal jumps, a layer buckles less and thickens more than with uniform density. When density increases upward in two equal jumps, it buckles more and thickens less. A low density layer with periodic thickness variations buckles more, sometimes explosively. Thickness variations form, even if not present initially. These effects are greater with; smaller viscosities, larger density jump, larger length scale, and slower shortening rate. They also depend on wavelength and amplitude, and these dependencies are described in detail. The model is applied to the explosive growth of the salt anticlines of the Paradox Basin, Colorado and Utah. There, shale (higher density) overlies salt (lower density). Methods for simulating realistic earth surface erosion and deposition conditions are introduced. Growth rates increase both with ease of slip at the salt-shale interface, and when earth surface relief stays low due to erosion and deposition. Model anticlines grow explosively, attaining growth rates and amplitudes close to those of the field examples. Fastest growing wavelengths are the same as seen in the field. It is concluded that a combination of partial-slip at the salt-shale interface, with reasonable earth surface conditions, promotes sufficiently fast buckling of the salt-shale interface due to density inversion alone. Neither basement faulting, nor tectonic shortening is required to account for the observed structures. Of fundamental importance is the strong tendency of gravity to promote buckling in low density layers with thickness variations. These develop, even if not present initially. folds

  4. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  5. Protein folding and wring resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren


    The polypeptide chain of a protein is shown to obey topological contraints which enable long range excitations in the form of wring modes of the protein backbone. Wring modes of proteins of specific lengths can therefore resonate with molecular modes present in the cell. It is suggested that prot......The polypeptide chain of a protein is shown to obey topological contraints which enable long range excitations in the form of wring modes of the protein backbone. Wring modes of proteins of specific lengths can therefore resonate with molecular modes present in the cell. It is suggested...... that protein folding takes place when the amplitude of a wring excitation becomes so large that it is energetically favorable to bend the protein backbone. The condition under which such structural transformations can occur is found, and it is shown that both cold and hot denaturation (the unfolding...

  6. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration


    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  7. The distribution of deformation in parallel fault-related folds with migrating axial surfaces: comparison between fault-propagation and fault-bend folding (United States)

    Salvini, Francesco; Storti, Fabrizio


    In fault-related folds that form by axial surface migration, rocks undergo deformation as they pass through axial surfaces. The distribution and intensity of deformation in these structures has been impacted by the history of axial surface migration. Upon fold initiation, unique dip panels develop, each with a characteristic deformation intensity, depending on their history. During fold growth, rocks that pass through axial surfaces are transported between dip panels and accumulate additional deformation. By tracking the pattern of axial surface migration in model folds, we predict the distribution of relative deformation intensity in simple-step, parallel fault-bend and fault-propagation anticlines. In both cases the deformation is partitioned into unique domains we call deformation panels. For a given rheology of the folded multilayer, deformation intensity will be homogeneously distributed in each deformation panel. Fold limbs are always deformed. The flat crests of fault-propagation anticlines are always undeformed. Two asymmetric deformation panels develop in fault-propagation folds above ramp angles exceeding 29°. For lower ramp angles, an additional, more intensely-deformed panel develops at the transition between the crest and the forelimb. Deformation in the flat crests of fault-bend anticlines occurs when fault displacement exceeds the length of the footwall ramp, but is never found immediately hinterland of the crest to forelimb transition. In environments dominated by brittle deformation, our models may serve as a first-order approximation of the distribution of fractures in fault-related folds.

  8. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  9. Consistent Quantum Theory (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.


    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  10. Optical coherence tomography imaging of chorioretinal folds associated with hypotony maculopathy following pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jr BK


    Full Text Available Basil K Williams Jr, Jonathan S Chang, Harry W Flynn Jr Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Chorioretinal folds may occur as a consequence of hypotony and can be a cause of vision loss when associated with macular involvement. In this report, the spectral domain ocular coherence tomography imaging of three patients with chorioretinal folds before and after management are presented. The cases had unique presentations and each underwent different management approaches, but the results included improved visual acuities and lessened chorioretinal folds. Keywords: hypotony, chorioretinal folds, ocular coherence tomography

  11. Dynamics of Folds in the Plane (United States)

    Krylov, Nikolai A.; Rogers, Edwin L.


    Take a strip of paper and fold a crease intersecting the long edges, creating two angles. Choose one edge and consider the angle with the crease. Fold the opposite edge along the crease, creating a new crease that bisects the angle. Fold again, this time using the newly created crease and the initial edge, creating a new angle along the chosen…

  12. The Boundary-Hopf-Fold Bifurcation in Filippov Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Liu, Xia; Broer, Henk W.


    This paper studies the codimension-3 boundary-Hopf-fold (BHF) bifurcation of planar Filippov systems. Filippov systems consist of at least one discontinuity boundary locally separating the phase space to disjoint components with different dynamics. Such systems find applications in several fields,

  13. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereau, T.; Bennett, W.F.D.; Pfaendtner, J.; Deserno, M.; Karttunen, M.E.J.


    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural

  14. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereau, T.; Bennett, W.F.D. Drew; Pfaendtner, J.; Deserno, M.; Karttunen, M.


    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural

  15. Radiometric Dating of Folds: A new approach to determine the timing of deformation at shallow-crustal conditions, with examples from the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt (United States)

    Fitz Diaz, E.; van der Pluijm, B. A.


    We are developing a robust method to obtain absolute ages of folds that were formed at shallow crustal conditions. The method takes advantage of illite neocrystallization in folded, clay-bearing layers and the ability to obtain accurate retention and total gas ages from small size fractions using encapsulated Ar analysis, analogous to prior work on fault gouge dating. We illustrate our approach in folded Cretaceous shale-bentonitic layers that are interbedded with carbonates of the Zimapán and the Tampico-Misantla cretaceous basins in central-eastern Mexico. Basinal carbonates were buried by syntectonic turbidites and inverted during the formation of the Mexican Fold-Thrust in the Late Cretaceous. Results were obtained from four chevron folds that are representative of different stages of deformation, burial/temperature conditions and location within this thin-skinned orogenic wedge: two from the Zimapán Basin (Folds 1 and 2) in the west and two from the Tampico-Misantla Basin (Folds 3 and 4) in the east. Mineralogic compositions and variations in illite-polytypes, crystallite-size (CS) and Ar/Ar ages were obtained from size fractions in limbs and hinges of folded layers. Ar retention ages produce a folding age of ~81 Ma for Fold 1 and ~69 Ma for Fold 2, which are fully consistent with stratigraphic limits from syn-orogenic turbidities and observed overprinting events in the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt. The total gas age of Fold 3, on the easternmost margin of the Tampico-Misantla Basin is similar to that of Fold 2, indicating that the second event is regional in scale. In addition to presenting a new, reliable method to constrain the timing of local deformation, we interpret folding and associated clay neo-mineralization in terms of the regional burial history, and localization and propagation of deformation within a heterogeneous orogenic wedge involving progressive deformation of two basins separated by a platform block.

  16. Anatomy and Histology of an Epicanthal Fold. (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Hwang, Kun


    The aim of this study is to elucidate the precise anatomical and histological detail of the epicanthal fold.Thirty-two hemifaces of 16 Korean adult cadavers were used in this study (30 hemifaces with an epicanthal fold, 2 without an epicanthal fold). In 2 patients who had an epicanthoplasty, the epicanthal folds were sampled.In a dissection, the periorbital skin and subcutaneous tissues were removed and the epicanthal fold was observed in relation to each part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Specimens including the epicanthal fold were embeddedin in paraffin, sectioned at 10 um, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The horizontal section in the level of the paplebral fissure was made and the prepared slides were observed under a light microscope.In the specimens without an epicanthal fold, no connection between the upper preseptal muscle and the lower preseptal muscle was found. In the specimens with an epicanthal fold, a connection of the upper preseptal muscle to the lower preseptal muscle was observed. It was present in all 15 hemifaces (100%). There was no connection between the pretarsal muscles. In a horizontal section, the epicanthal fold was composed of 3 compartments: an outer skin lining, a core structure, and an innerskin lining. The core structure was mainly composed of muscular fibers and fibrotic tissue and they were intermingled.Surgeons should be aware of the anatomical details of an epicanthal fold. In removing or reconstructing an epicanthal fold, the fibromuscular core band should also be removed or reconstructed.

  17. 4.0-A resolution cryo-EM structure of the mammalian chaperonin TRiC/CCT reveals its unique subunit arrangement. (United States)

    Cong, Yao; Baker, Matthew L; Jakana, Joanita; Woolford, David; Miller, Erik J; Reissmann, Stefanie; Kumar, Ramya N; Redding-Johanson, Alyssa M; Batth, Tanveer S; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Ludtke, Steven J; Frydman, Judith; Chiu, Wah


    The essential double-ring eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC/CCT (TCP1-ring complex or chaperonin containing TCP1) assists the folding of approximately 5-10% of the cellular proteome. Many TRiC substrates cannot be folded by other chaperonins from prokaryotes or archaea. These unique folding properties are likely linked to TRiC's unique heterooligomeric subunit organization, whereby each ring consists of eight different paralogous subunits in an arrangement that remains uncertain. Using single particle cryo-EM without imposing symmetry, we determined the mammalian TRiC structure at 4.7-A resolution. This revealed the existence of a 2-fold axis between its two rings resulting in two homotypic subunit interactions across the rings. A subsequent 2-fold symmetrized map yielded a 4.0-A resolution structure that evinces the densities of a large fraction of side chains, loops, and insertions. These features permitted unambiguous identification of all eight individual subunits, despite their sequence similarity. Independent biochemical near-neighbor analysis supports our cryo-EM derived TRiC subunit arrangement. We obtained a Calpha backbone model for each subunit from an initial homology model refined against the cryo-EM density. A subsequently optimized atomic model for a subunit showed approximately 95% of the main chain dihedral angles in the allowable regions of the Ramachandran plot. The determination of the TRiC subunit arrangement opens the way to understand its unique function and mechanism. In particular, an unevenly distributed positively charged wall lining the closed folding chamber of TRiC differs strikingly from that of prokaryotic and archaeal chaperonins. These interior surface chemical properties likely play an important role in TRiC's cellular substrate specificity.

  18. Fabrication of ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoHong Sun


    Full Text Available Compared to periodic crystals, quasicrystals have higher point group symmetry and are more favorable in achieving complete band-gaps. In this report, a top-cut prism interferometer is designed to fabricate ten-fold photonic quasicrystalline structures. By optimizing the exposing conditions and material characteristics, appropriate quasicrystals have been obtained in the SU8 photoresist films. Atomic Force Microscopy and laser diffraction are used to characterize the fabricated structures. The measurement results show the consistence between the theoretical design and experiments. This will provide guidance for the large-area and fast production of ten-fold quasicrystalline structures with high quality.

  19. Kinetic partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)


    RNA folding kinetics is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding kinetics of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding kinetics for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the kinetic partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.

  20. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  1. Designing cooperatively folded abiotic uni- and multimolecular helix bundles (United States)

    de, Soumen; Chi, Bo; Granier, Thierry; Qi, Ting; Maurizot, Victor; Huc, Ivan


    Abiotic foldamers, that is foldamers that have backbones chemically remote from peptidic and nucleotidic skeletons, may give access to shapes and functions different to those of peptides and nucleotides. However, design methodologies towards abiotic tertiary and quaternary structures are yet to be developed. Here we report rationally designed interactional patterns to guide the folding and assembly of abiotic helix bundles. Computational design facilitated the introduction of hydrogen-bonding functionalities at defined locations on the aromatic amide backbones that promote cooperative folding into helix-turn-helix motifs in organic solvents. The hydrogen-bond-directed aggregation of helices not linked by a turn unit produced several thermodynamically and kinetically stable homochiral dimeric and trimeric bundles with structures that are distinct from the designed helix-turn-helix. Relative helix orientation within the bundles may be changed from parallel to tilted on subtle solvent variations. Altogether, these results prefigure the richness and uniqueness of abiotic tertiary structure behaviour.

  2. Adaptive Origami for Efficiently Folded Structures (United States)


    heating. Although a large fold angle at a high temperature is desirable in order to extrapolate the origami geometry toward closure, more emphasis is...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0020 ADAPTIVE ORIGAMI FOR EFFICIENTLY FOLDED STRUCTURES James J. Joo and Greg Reich Design and Analysis Branch... ORIGAMI FOR EFFICIENTLY FOLDED STRUCTURES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) James J

  3. Visualization of protein folding funnels in lattice models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B Oliveira

    Full Text Available Protein folding occurs in a very high dimensional phase space with an exponentially large number of states, and according to the energy landscape theory it exhibits a topology resembling a funnel. In this statistical approach, the folding mechanism is unveiled by describing the local minima in an effective one-dimensional representation. Other approaches based on potential energy landscapes address the hierarchical structure of local energy minima through disconnectivity graphs. In this paper, we introduce a metric to describe the distance between any two conformations, which also allows us to go beyond the one-dimensional representation and visualize the folding funnel in 2D and 3D. In this way it is possible to assess the folding process in detail, e.g., by identifying the connectivity between conformations and establishing the paths to reach the native state, in addition to regions where trapping may occur. Unlike the disconnectivity maps method, which is based on the kinetic connections between states, our methodology is based on structural similarities inferred from the new metric. The method was developed in a 27-mer protein lattice model, folded into a 3×3×3 cube. Five sequences were studied and distinct funnels were generated in an analysis restricted to conformations from the transition-state to the native configuration. Consistent with the expected results from the energy landscape theory, folding routes can be visualized to probe different regions of the phase space, as well as determine the difficulty in folding of the distinct sequences. Changes in the landscape due to mutations were visualized, with the comparison between wild and mutated local minima in a single map, which serves to identify different trapping regions. The extension of this approach to more realistic models and its use in combination with other approaches are discussed.

  4. Spherical images and inextensible curved folding (United States)

    Seffen, Keith A.


    In their study, Duncan and Duncan [Proc. R. Soc. London A 383, 191 (1982), 10.1098/rspa.1982.0126] calculate the shape of an inextensible surface folded in two about a general curve. They find the analytical relationships between pairs of generators linked across the fold curve, the shape of the original path, and the fold angle variation along it. They present two special cases of generator layouts for which the fold angle is uniform or the folded curve remains planar, for simplifying practical folding in sheet-metal processes. We verify their special cases by a graphical treatment according to a method of Gauss. We replace the fold curve by a piecewise linear path, which connects vertices of intersecting pairs of hinge lines. Inspired by the d-cone analysis by Farmer and Calladine [Int. J. Mech. Sci. 47, 509 (2005), 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2005.02.013], we construct the spherical images for developable folding of successive vertices: the operating conditions of the special cases in Duncan and Duncan are then revealed straightforwardly by the geometric relationships between the images. Our approach may be used to synthesize folding patterns for novel deployable and shape-changing surfaces without need of complex calculation.

  5. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry. (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L


    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intermediates and the folding of proteins L and G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott; Head-Gordon, Teresa


    We use a minimalist protein model, in combination with a sequence design strategy, to determine differences in primary structure for proteins L and G that are responsible for the two proteins folding through distinctly different folding mechanisms. We find that the folding of proteins L and G are consistent with a nucleation-condensation mechanism, each of which is described as helix-assisted {beta}-1 and {beta}-2 hairpin formation, respectively. We determine that the model for protein G exhibits an early intermediate that precedes the rate-limiting barrier of folding and which draws together misaligned secondary structure elements that are stabilized by hydrophobic core contacts involving the third {beta}-strand, and presages the later transition state in which the correct strand alignment of these same secondary structure elements is restored. Finally the validity of the targeted intermediate ensemble for protein G was analyzed by fitting the kinetic data to a two-step first order reversible reaction, proving that protein G folding involves an on-pathway early intermediate, and should be populated and therefore observable by experiment.

  7. Guiding the folding pathway of DNA origami. (United States)

    Dunn, Katherine E; Dannenberg, Frits; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Turberfield, Andrew J; Bath, Jonathan


    DNA origami is a robust assembly technique that folds a single-stranded DNA template into a target structure by annealing it with hundreds of short 'staple' strands. Its guiding design principle is that the target structure is the single most stable configuration. The folding transition is cooperative and, as in the case of proteins, is governed by information encoded in the polymer sequence. A typical origami folds primarily into the desired shape, but misfolded structures can kinetically trap the system and reduce the yield. Although adjusting assembly conditions or following empirical design rules can improve yield, well-folded origami often need to be separated from misfolded structures. The problem could in principle be avoided if assembly pathway and kinetics were fully understood and then rationally optimized. To this end, here we present a DNA origami system with the unusual property of being able to form a small set of distinguishable and well-folded shapes that represent discrete and approximately degenerate energy minima in a vast folding landscape, thus allowing us to probe the assembly process. The obtained high yield of well-folded origami structures confirms the existence of efficient folding pathways, while the shape distribution provides information about individual trajectories through the folding landscape. We find that, similarly to protein folding, the assembly of DNA origami is highly cooperative; that reversible bond formation is important in recovering from transient misfoldings; and that the early formation of long-range connections can very effectively enforce particular folds. We use these insights to inform the design of the system so as to steer assembly towards desired structures. Expanding the rational design process to include the assembly pathway should thus enable more reproducible synthesis, particularly when targeting more complex structures. We anticipate that this expansion will be essential if DNA origami is to continue its

  8. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  9. Laryngeal Electromyographic findings in patients with vocal fold motion asymmetry. (United States)

    Woo, Peak; Isseroff, Tova F; Parasher, Arjun; Richards, Amanda; Sivak, Mark


    Vocal fold motion asymmetry (VFMA) is often attributed to vocal fold paresis or an anatomical variant. Although laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) may be used to evaluate patients with vocal fold paresis, electrodiagnostic findings in VFMA have not been well defined. Review of a case series Twenty-five symptomatic patients with VFMA were examined by LEMG, and the findings were analyzed. Although all were thought to have unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis, LEMG showed only nine to have unilateral recurrent nerve paresis. There were nine with both ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve paresis, four with bilateral paresis, and three were normal. Reduced total number of units, reduced recruitment, motor units firing fast, and polyphasic units were more common, whereas fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, positive sharp waves, and complex repetitive discharges were uncommon. The LEMG findings are most consistent with old, healed neuropathy. McNemar's test for the acute versus chronic denervation potentials showed significant differences. VFMA has a high incidence of vocal fold paresis that can be better defined by LEMG. The site and side of paresis is often wrong based on laryngoscopy findings alone. The LEMG findings of VFMA appear to be consistent with old, healed neuropathy 4 Laryngoscope, 126:E273-E277, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Approaching climate-adaptive facades with foldings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sack-Nielsen, Torsten


    envelopes based on folding principles such as origami. Three major aspects cover the project’s interest in this topic: Shape, kinetics and the application of new multi-functional materials form the interdisciplinary framework of this research. Shape// Initially small paper sketch models demonstrate folding...

  11. Monadic Maps and Folds for Arbitrary Datatypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, M.M.

    Each datatype constructor comes equiped not only with a so-called map and fold (catamorphism), as is widely known, but, under some condition, also with a kind of map and fold that are related to an arbitrary given monad. This result follows from the preservation of initiality under lifting

  12. Fold and Fit: Space Conserving Shape Editing

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Yan, Dong-Ming


    We present a framework that folds man-made objects in a structure-aware manner for space-conserving storage and transportation. Given a segmented 3D mesh of a man-made object, our framework jointly optimizes for joint locations, the folding order

  13. Merging monads and folds for functional programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Jeuring, J.T.


    These notes discuss the simultaneous use of generalised fold operators and monads to structure functional programs. Generalised fold operators structure programs after the decomposition of the value they consume. Monads structure programs after the computation of the value they produce. Our programs

  14. Theoretical study of the folded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.L.; Owens, T.L.; Whealton, J.H.


    We have applied a three-dimensional (3-D) algorithm for solving Maxwell's equations to the analysis of foleded waveguides used for fusion plasma heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency. A rigorous analysis of the magnetic field structure in the folded waveguide is presented. The results are compared to experimenntal measurements. Optimum conditions for the folded waveguide are discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs

  15. Experimental investigation into the mechanism of folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.; Sitter, de L.U.


    The investigation of geological structures due to folding led de Sitter to form an opinion on the mechanical problems involved (Bibl. 7). His principal contention is that in simple cases the relative movements of particles with respect to eachother during deformation leading to a fold, have been

  16. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds. (United States)

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz


    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  17. Graph-representation of oxidative folding pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaján László


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of oxidative folding combines the formation of native disulfide bond with conformational folding resulting in the native three-dimensional fold. Oxidative folding pathways can be described in terms of disulfide intermediate species (DIS which can also be isolated and characterized. Each DIS corresponds to a family of folding states (conformations that the given DIS can adopt in three dimensions. Results The oxidative folding space can be represented as a network of DIS states interconnected by disulfide interchange reactions that can either create/abolish or rearrange disulfide bridges. We propose a simple 3D representation wherein the states having the same number of disulfide bridges are placed on separate planes. In this representation, the shuffling transitions are within the planes, and the redox edges connect adjacent planes. In a number of experimentally studied cases (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor, the observed intermediates appear as part of contiguous oxidative folding pathways. Conclusions Such networks can be used to visualize folding pathways in terms of the experimentally observed intermediates. A simple visualization template written for the Tulip package can be obtained from V.A.

  18. Fold and Fit: Space Conserving Shape Editing

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed


    We present a framework that folds man-made objects in a structure-aware manner for space-conserving storage and transportation. Given a segmented 3D mesh of a man-made object, our framework jointly optimizes for joint locations, the folding order, and folding angles for each part of the model, enabling it to transform into a spatially efficient configuration while keeping its original functionality as intact as possible. That is, if a model is supposed to withstand several forces in its initial state to serve its functionality, our framework places the joints between the parts of the model such that the model can withstand forces with magnitudes that are comparable to the magnitudes applied on the unedited model. Furthermore, if the folded shape is not compact, our framework proposes further segmentation of the model to improve its compactness in its folded state.

  19. [Clinical analysis of vocal fold firbrous mass]. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sun, Jing Wu; Wan, Guang Lun; Hu, Yan Ming


    To explore the character of laryngoscopy finding, voice, and therapy of vocal fold fibrous mass. Clinical data, morphology, voice character, surgery and pathology of 15 cases with vocal fold fibrous mass were analyzed. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Laryngoscopy revealed shuttle line appearance, smoothness and decreased mucosal wave of vocal fold. These patients were invalid for voice training and might be improved by surgery, but recovery is slow. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Conservative treatment is ineffective for this disease, and surgery might improve. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  20. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility. (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G


    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microvascular lesions of the true vocal fold. (United States)

    Postma, G N; Courey, M S; Ossoff, R H


    Microvascular lesions, also called varices or capillary ectasias, in contrast to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, are relatively small lesions arising from the microcirculation of the vocal fold. Varices are most commonly seen in female professional vocalists and may be secondary to repetitive trauma, hormonal variations, or repeated inflammation. Microvascular lesions may either be asymptomatic or cause frank dysphonia by interrupting the normal vibratory pattern, mass, or closure of the vocal folds. They may also lead to vocal fold hemorrhage, scarring, or polyp formation. Laryngovideostroboscopy is the key in determining the functional significance of vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization. Indications for surgery are recurrent hemorrhage, enlargement of the varix, development of a mass in conjunction with the varix or hemorrhage, and unacceptable dysphonia after maximal medical and speech therapy due to a functionally significant varix.

  2. Double folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.


    A new method to incorporate the Pauli principle into the double folding approach to the heavy ion potential is proposed. It is shown that in order to take into account the Pauli blocking a redefinition of the density matrices of the free isolated nuclei must be one. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of the Pauli-blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation [ru

  3. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour (United States)

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.


    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  4. Coarsely resolved topography along protein folding pathways (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel; Kostov, Konstantin S.; Berry, R. Stephen


    The kinetic data from the coarse representation of polypeptide torsional dynamics described in the preceding paper [Fernandez and Berry, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 5212 (2000), preceding paper] is inverted by using detailed balance to obtain a topographic description of the potential-energy surface (PES) along the dominant folding pathway of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The topography is represented as a sequence of minima and effective saddle points. The dominant folding pathway displays an overall monotonic decrease in energy with a large number of staircaselike steps, a clear signature of a good structure-seeker. The diversity and availability of alternative folding pathways is analyzed in terms of the Shannon entropy σ(t) associated with the time-dependent probability distribution over the kinetic ensemble of contact patterns. Several stages in the folding process are evident. Initially misfolded states form and dismantle revealing no definite pattern in the topography and exhibiting high Shannon entropy. Passage down a sequence of staircase steps then leads to the formation of a nativelike intermediate, for which σ(t) is much lower and fairly constant. Finally, the structure of the intermediate is refined to produce the native state of BPTI. We also examine how different levels of tolerance to mismatches of side chain contacts influence the folding kinetics, the topography of the dominant folding pathway, and the Shannon entropy. This analysis yields upper and lower bounds of the frustration tolerance required for the expeditious and robust folding of BPTI.

  5. The liberal illusion of uniqueness. (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G


    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  6. Melody discrimination and protein fold classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Bywater


    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in theoretical biophysics and bioinformatics is the identification of protein folds from sequence data. This can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem. In this paper we report the use of a melody generation software where the inputs are derived from calculations of evolutionary information, secondary structure, flexibility, hydropathy and solvent accessibility from multiple sequence alignment data. The melodies so generated are derived from the sequence, and by inference, of the fold, in ways that give each fold a sound representation that may facilitate analysis, recognition, or comparison with other sequences.

  7. A bidirectional shape memory alloy folding actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Jamie K; Wood, Robert J


    This paper presents a low-profile bidirectional folding actuator based on annealed shape memory alloy sheets applicable for meso- and microscale systems. Despite the advantages of shape memory alloys—high strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicity—their application is often limited to unidirectional operation. We present a bidirectional folding actuator that produces two opposing 180° motions. A laser-patterned nickel alloy (Inconel 600) heater localizes actuation to the folding sections. The actuator has a thin ( < 1 mm) profile, making it appropriate for use in robotic origami. Various design parameters and fabrication variants are described and experimentally explored in the actuator prototype. (paper)

  8. Folded Plate Structures as Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Buelow, Peter von; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    This paper treats applications of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in structural systems for folded façade solutions. Previous work on CLT-based systems for folded roofs has shown a widening range of structural possibilities to develop timber-based shells. Geometric and material properties play...... CLT-based systems, which are studied and analysed by using a combination of digital tools for structural and environmental design and analysis. The results show gainful, rational properties of folded systems and beneficial effects from an integration of architectural and environmental performance...... criteria in the design of CLT-based façades....

  9. Mechanical Models of Fault-Related Folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.


    The subject of the proposed research is fault-related folding and ground deformation. The results are relevant to oil-producing structures throughout the world, to understanding of damage that has been observed along and near earthquake ruptures, and to earthquake-producing structures in California and other tectonically-active areas. The objectives of the proposed research were to provide both a unified, mechanical infrastructure for studies of fault-related foldings and to present the results in computer programs that have graphical users interfaces (GUIs) so that structural geologists and geophysicists can model a wide variety of fault-related folds (FaRFs).

  10. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin


    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  11. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts. (United States)

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi


    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  12. Origami: Paper Folding--The Algorithmic Way. (United States)

    Heukerott, Pamela Beth


    Describes origami, the oriental art of paper folding as an activity to teach upper elementary students concepts and skills in geometry involving polygons, angles, measurement, symmetry, and congruence. (PK)

  13. Frustration in Condensed Matter and Protein Folding (United States)

    Li, Z.; Tanner, S.; Conroy, B.; Owens, F.; Tran, M. M.; Boekema, C.


    By means of computer modeling, we are studying frustration in condensed matter and protein folding, including the influence of temperature and Thomson-figure formation. Frustration is due to competing interactions in a disordered state. The key issue is how the particles interact to reach the lowest frustration. The relaxation for frustration is mostly a power function (randomly assigned pattern) or an exponential function (regular patterns like Thomson figures). For the atomic Thomson model, frustration is predicted to decrease with the formation of Thomson figures at zero kelvin. We attempt to apply our frustration modeling to protein folding and dynamics. We investigate the homogeneous protein frustration that would cause the speed of the protein folding to increase. Increase of protein frustration (where frustration and hydrophobicity interplay with protein folding) may lead to a protein mutation. Research is supported by WiSE@SJSU and AFC San Jose.

  14. Island of Stability for Consistent Deformations of Einstein's Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Berkhahn, Felix; Hofmann, Stefan


    We construct deformations of general relativity that are consistent and phenomenologically viable, since they respect, in particular, cosmological backgrounds. These deformations have unique symmetries in accordance with their Minkowski cousins (Fierz-Pauli theory for massive gravitons) and incor...

  15. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu


    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  16. Folding of non-Euclidean curved shells (United States)

    Bende, Nakul; Evans, Arthur; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian; Hayward, Ryan


    Origami-based folding of 2D sheets has been of recent interest for a variety of applications ranging from deployable structures to self-folding robots. Though folding of planar sheets follows well-established principles, folding of curved shells involves an added level of complexity due to the inherent influence of curvature on mechanics. In this study, we use principles from differential geometry and thin shell mechanics to establish fundamental rules that govern folding of prototypical creased shells. In particular, we show how the normal curvature of a crease line controls whether the deformation is smooth or discontinuous, and investigate the influence of shell thickness and boundary conditions. We show that snap-folding of shells provides a route to rapid actuation on time-scales dictated by the speed of sound. The simple geometric design principles developed can be applied at any length-scale, offering potential for bio-inspired soft actuators for tunable optics, microfluidics, and robotics. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation through EFRI ODISSEI-1240441 with additional support to S.I.-G. through the UMass MRSEC DMR-0820506 REU program.

  17. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence. (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian


    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis in Parkinson Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Khalifee, Elie; Tabet, Georges


    The objective of this study was to report the first case of unilateral vocal fold paralysis in a patient with Parkinson disease (PD) and to review the literature. This is a case report and literature review following PubMed search using the keywords "Parkinson," "vocal fold paralysis," "vocal fold palsy," "vocal fold immobility," "vocal fold adductor palsy," "airway obstruction," and "stridor." A total of 18 subjects diagnosed with PD and vocal fold paralysis were described. In all cases, the vocal fold paralysis was bilateral and the main presenting symptoms were stridor and shortness of breath necessitating intubation and tracheostomy. This article describes the first case of PD presenting with dysphonia secondary to unilateral vocal fold paralysis (left). The management consisted of injection laryngoplasty for medialization of the paralyzed vocal fold. Patients with PD can present with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Early treatment is advocated in view of the advent of injection laryngoplasty as a safe office procedure. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping the kinetic barriers of a Large RNA molecule's folding landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg C Schlatterer

    Full Text Available The folding of linear polymers into discrete three-dimensional structures is often required for biological function. The formation of long-lived intermediates is a hallmark of the folding of large RNA molecules due to the ruggedness of their energy landscapes. The precise thermodynamic nature of the barriers (whether enthalpic or entropic that leads to intermediate formation is still poorly characterized in large structured RNA molecules. A classic approach to analyzing kinetic barriers are temperature dependent studies analyzed with Eyring's transition state theory. We applied Eyring's theory to time-resolved hydroxyl radical (•OH footprinting kinetics progress curves collected at eight temperature from 21.5 °C to 51 °C to characterize the thermodynamic nature of folding intermediate formation for the Mg(2+-mediated folding of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I ribozyme. A common kinetic model configuration describes this RNA folding reaction over the entire temperature range studied consisting of primary (fast transitions to misfolded intermediates followed by much slower secondary transitions, consistent with previous studies. Eyring analysis reveals that the primary transitions are moderate in magnitude and primarily enthalpic in nature. In contrast, the secondary transitions are daunting in magnitude and entropic in nature. The entropic character of the secondary transitions is consistent with structural rearrangement of the intermediate species to the final folded form. This segregation of kinetic control reveals distinctly different molecular mechanisms during the two stages of RNA folding and documents the importance of entropic barriers to defining rugged RNA folding landscapes.

  20. Axons Pull on the Brain, But Tension Does Not Drive Cortical Folding (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Knutsen, Andrew K.; Dikranian, Krikor; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Bayly, Philip V.; Taber, Larry A.


    During human brain development, the cerebral cortex undergoes substantial folding, leading to its characteristic highly convoluted form. Folding is necessary to accommodate the expansion of the cerbral cortex; abnormal cortical folding is linked to various neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism and mental retardation. Although this process requires mechanical forces, the specific force-generating mechanisms that drive folding remain unclear. The two most widely accepted hypotheses are (1) folding is caused by differential growth of the cortex and (2) folding is caused by mechanical tension generated in axons. Direct evidence supporting either theory, however, is lacking. Here we show that axons are indeed under considerable tension in the developing ferret brain, but the patterns of tissue stress are not consistent with a causal role for axonal tension. In particular, microdissection assays reveal that significant tension exists along axons aligned circumferentially in subcortical white matter tracts, as well as those aligned radially inside developing gyri (outward folds). Contrary to previous speculation, however, axonal tension is not directed across developing gyri, suggesting that axon tension does not drive folding. On the other hand, using computational (finite element) models, we show that differential cortical growth accompanied by remodeling of the subplate leads to outward folds and stress fields that are consistent with our microdissection experiments, supporting a mechanism involving differential growth. Local perturbations, such as temporal differences in the initiation of cortical growth, can ensure consistent folding patterns. This study shows that a combination of experimental and computational mechanics can be used to evaluate competing hypotheses of morphogenesis, and illuminate the biomechanics of cortical folding. PMID:20590291

  1. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila


    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  2. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John


    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  3. Protein folding: Over half a century lasting quest. Comment on "There and back again: Two views on the protein folding puzzle" by Alexei V. Finkelstein et al. (United States)

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.


    Most proteins fold into unique three-dimensional (3D) structures that determine their biological functions, such as catalytic activity or macromolecular binding. Misfolded proteins can pose a threat through aberrant interactions with other proteins leading to a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [1,2]. What does determine 3D structure of proteins? The first clue to this question came more than fifty years ago when Anfinsen demonstrated that unfolded proteins can spontaneously fold to their native 3D structures [3,4]. Anfinsen's experiments lead to the conclusion that proteins fold to unique native structure corresponding to the stable and kinetically accessible free energy minimum, and protein native structure is solely determined by its amino acid sequence. The question of how exactly proteins find their free energy minimum proved to be a difficult problem. One of the puzzles, initially pointed out by Levinthal, was an inconsistency between observed protein folding times and theoretical estimates. A self-avoiding polymer model of a globular protein of 100-residues length on a cubic lattice can sample at least 1047 states. Based on the assumption that conformational sampling occurs at the highest vibrational mode of proteins (∼picoseconds), predicted folding time by searching among all the possible conformations leads to ∼1027 years (much larger than the age of the universe) [5]. In contrast, observed protein folding time range from microseconds to minutes. Due to tremendous theoretical progress in protein folding field that has been achieved in past decades, the source of this inconsistency is currently understood that is thoroughly described in the review by Finkelstein et al. [6].

  4. Spontaneous resolution of hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold. (United States)

    Klein, Adam M; Lehmann, Marcus; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M


    Hemorrhagic polyps are the most common benign lesions surgically removed from the vocal folds. Although this modality does offer satisfactory results in most of the cases, there is a subset of polyps that seems to resolve with conservative therapy. This study was performed to examine this subset of polyps. Thirty-four consecutive subjects diagnosed with hemorrhagic polyps of the true vocal fold were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence of spontaneous resolution of the lesions with nonsurgical therapy. Sixteen subjects began conservative therapy, consisting of voice therapy and proper vocal hygiene, often while awaiting an optimal personal time for surgical intervention. Of these subjects, nine (56.3%) experienced a resolution of their lesion and symptoms without undergoing surgical therapy. Surgical removal of hemorrhagic polyps is often considered the standard of treatment for these benign lesions. However, these observations support a regimen of voice therapy and observation in select cases.

  5. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders


    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  6. Experimental investigation of protein folding and misfolding. (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M


    Newly synthesised proteins need to fold, often to intricate and close-packed structures, in order to function. The underlying mechanism by which this complex process takes place both in vitro and in vivo is now becoming understood, at least in general terms, as a result of the application of a wide range of biophysical and computational methods used in combination with the techniques of biochemistry and protein engineering. It is increasingly apparent, however, that folding is not only crucial for generating biological activity, but that it is also coupled to a wide range of processes within the cell, ranging from the trafficking of proteins to specific organelles to the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Not surprisingly, therefore, the failure of proteins to fold appropriately, or to remain correctly folded, is associated with a large number of cellular malfunctions that give rise to disease. Misfolding, and its consequences such as aggregation, can be investigated by extending the types of techniques used to study the normal folding process. Application of these techniques is enabling the development of a unified description of the interconversion and regulation of the different conformational states available to proteins in living systems. Such a description proves a generic basis for understanding the fundamental links between protein misfolding and its associated clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Type II diabetes, and for exploring novel therapeutic strategies directed at their prevention and treatment on a rational basis.

  7. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Membrane Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto A. Roman


    Full Text Available Understanding protein folding has been one of the great challenges in biochemistry and molecular biophysics. Over the past 50 years, many thermodynamic and kinetic studies have been performed addressing the stability of globular proteins. In comparison, advances in the membrane protein folding field lag far behind. Although membrane proteins constitute about a third of the proteins encoded in known genomes, stability studies on membrane proteins have been impaired due to experimental limitations. Furthermore, no systematic experimental strategies are available for folding these biomolecules in vitro. Common denaturing agents such as chaotropes usually do not work on helical membrane proteins, and ionic detergents have been successful denaturants only in few cases. Refolding a membrane protein seems to be a craftsman work, which is relatively straightforward for transmembrane β-barrel proteins but challenging for α-helical membrane proteins. Additional complexities emerge in multidomain membrane proteins, data interpretation being one of the most critical. In this review, we will describe some recent efforts in understanding the folding mechanism of membrane proteins that have been reversibly refolded allowing both thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. This information will be discussed in the context of current paradigms in the protein folding field.

  8. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold. (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M


    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  10. Analysis of high-fold gamma data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D. C.; Cromaz, M.; Beyer, C. J.


    Historically, γ-γ and γ-γ-γ coincidence spectra were utilized to build nuclear level schemes. With the development of large detector arrays, it has became possible to analyze higher fold coincidence data sets. This paper briefly reports on software to analyze 4-fold coincidence data sets that allows creation of 4-fold histograms (hypercubes) of at least 1024 channels per side (corresponding to a 43 gigachannel data space) that will fit onto a few gigabytes of disk space, and extraction of triple-gated spectra in a few seconds. Future detector arrays may have even much higher efficiencies, and detect as many as 15 or 20 γ rays simultaneously; such data will require very different algorithms for storage and analysis. Difficulties inherent in the analysis of such data are discussed, and two possible new solutions are presented, namely adaptive list-mode systems and 'list-list-mode' storage

  11. Extreme Mechanics: Self-Folding Origami (United States)

    Santangelo, Christian D.


    Origami has emerged as a tool for designing three-dimensional structures from flat films. Because they can be fabricated by lithographic or roll-to-roll processing techniques, they have great potential for the manufacture of complicated geometries and devices. This article discusses the mechanics of origami and kirigami with a view toward understanding how to design self-folding origami structures. Whether an origami structure can be made to fold autonomously depends strongly on the geometry and kinematics of the origami fold pattern. This article collects some of the results on origami rigidity into a single framework, and discusses how these aspects affect the foldability of origami. Despite recent progress, most problems in origami and origami design remain completely open.

  12. In vitro folding of inclusion body proteins. (United States)

    Rudolph, R; Lilie, H


    Insoluble, inactive inclusion bodies are frequently formed upon recombinant protein production in transformed microorganisms. These inclusion bodies, which contain the recombinant protein in an highly enriched form, can be isolated by solid/liquid separation. After solubilization, native proteins can be generated from the inactive material by using in vitro folding techniques. New folding procedures have been developed for efficient in vitro reconstitution of complex hydrophobic, multidomain, oligomeric, or highly disulfide-bonded proteins. These protocols take into account process parameters such as protein concentration, catalysis of disulfide bond formation, temperature, pH, and ionic strength, as well as specific solvent ingredients that reduce unproductive side reactions. Modification of the protein sequence has been exploited to improve in vitro folding.

  13. Solvent Effects on Protein Folding/Unfolding (United States)

    García, A. E.; Hillson, N.; Onuchic, J. N.

    Pressure effects on the hydrophobic potential of mean force led Hummer et al. to postulate a model for pressure denaturation of proteins in which denaturation occurs by means of water penetration into the protein interior, rather than by exposing the protein hydrophobic core to the solvent --- commonly used to describe temperature denaturation. We study the effects of pressure in protein folding/unfolding kinetics in an off-lattice minimalist model of a protein in which pressure effects have been incorporated by means of the pair-wise potential of mean force of hydrophobic groups in water. We show that pressure slows down the kinetics of folding by decreasing the reconfigurational diffusion coefficient and moves the location of the folding transition state.

  14. Exact folded-band chaotic oscillator. (United States)

    Corron, Ned J; Blakely, Jonathan N


    An exactly solvable chaotic oscillator with folded-band dynamics is shown. The oscillator is a hybrid dynamical system containing a linear ordinary differential equation and a nonlinear switching condition. Bounded oscillations are provably chaotic, and successive waveform maxima yield a one-dimensional piecewise-linear return map with segments of both positive and negative slopes. Continuous-time dynamics exhibit a folded-band topology similar to Rössler's oscillator. An exact solution is written as a linear convolution of a fixed basis pulse and a discrete binary sequence, from which an equivalent symbolic dynamics is obtained. The folded-band topology is shown to be dependent on the symbol grammar.

  15. SDEM modelling of fault-propagation folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Poulsen, Jane Bang


    and variations in Mohr-Coulomb parameters including internal friction. Using SDEM modelling, we have mapped the propagation of the tip-line of the fault, as well as the evolution of the fold geometry across sedimentary layers of contrasting rheological parameters, as a function of the increased offset......Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of fault-propagation-folding is important for evaluating the associated hydrocarbon play, for accomplishing reliable section balancing (structural reconstruction), and for assessing seismic hazards. Accordingly, the deformation style of fault-propagation...... a precise indication of when faults develop and hence also the sequential evolution of secondary faults. Here we focus on the generation of a fault -propagated fold with a reverse sense of motion at the master fault, and varying only the dip of the master fault and the mechanical behaviour of the deformed...

  16. Heterochiral Knottin Protein: Folding and Solution Structure. (United States)

    Mong, Surin K; Cochran, Frank V; Yu, Hongtao; Graziano, Zachary; Lin, Yu-Shan; Cochran, Jennifer R; Pentelute, Bradley L


    Homochirality is a general feature of biological macromolecules, and Nature includes few examples of heterochiral proteins. Herein, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and structural characterization of heterochiral proteins possessing loops of amino acids of chirality opposite to that of the rest of a protein scaffold. Using the protein Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor II, we discover that selective β-alanine substitution favors the efficient folding of our heterochiral constructs. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of one such heterochiral protein reveals a homogeneous global fold. Additionally, steered molecular dynamics simulation indicate β-alanine reduces the free energy required to fold the protein. We also find these heterochiral proteins to be more resistant to proteolysis than homochiral l-proteins. This work informs the design of heterochiral protein architectures containing stretches of both d- and l-amino acids.

  17. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold. (United States)

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel


    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  18. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman


    J. Daniel Hammond


    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  19. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.


    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  20. Folding models for elastic and inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.


    The most widely used models are the optical model potential (OMP) for elastic scattering, and its generalization to non-spherical shapes, the deformed optical model potential (DOMP) for inelastic scattering. These models are simple and phenomenological; their parameters are adjusted so as to reproduce empirical data. Nonetheless, there are certain, not always well-defined, constraints to be imposed. The potential shapes and their parameter values must be reasonable and should vary in a smooth and systematic way with the masses of the colliding nuclei and their energy. One way of satisfying these constraints, without going back to a much more fundamental theory, is through the use of folding models. The basic justification for using potentials of the Woods-Saxon shape for nucleon-nucleus scattering, for example, is our knowledge that a nuclear density distribution is more-or-less constant in the nuclear interior with a diffuse surface. When this is folded with a short-range nucleon-nucleon interaction, the result is a similar shape with a more diffuse surface. Folding procedures allow us to incorporate many aspects of nuclear structure (although the nuclear size is one of the most important), as well as theoretical ideas about the effective interaction of two nucleons within nuclear matter. It also provides us with a means of linking information obtained from nuclear (hadronic) interactions with that from other sources, as well as correlating that from the use of different hadronic probes. Folding model potentials, single-folded potentials, and the double-folding model including applications to heavy-ion scattering are discussed

  1. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules. (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon


    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana


    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board

  3. Assessment of thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Ågot Møller; Faber, Christian; Jakobsen, John


    INTRODUCTION: Thyroplasty with silicone rubber implantation is a surgical procedure for treatment of patients with vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcome of the operation and to monitor which of the analyses were the more beneficial. MATERIAL AND METHODS...... because it offers a quantitative measure of the voice capacity and intensity, which are the major problems experienced by patients with vocal fold paralysis. Used together, these tools are highly instrumental in guiding the patient's choice of surgery or no surgery. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  4. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  5. Histological Effect of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Chronic Vocal Fold Scarring in a Rat Model. (United States)

    Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Sohn, Jin-Ho; Bless, Diane M


    Vocal fold scarring is one of the most challenging laryngeal disorders to treat and there are currently no consistently effective treatments available. Our previous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for vocal fold scarring. However, the histological effects of bFGF on scarred vocal fold have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of bFGF on chronic vocal fold scarring. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into phosphate buffered saline (sham) and bFGF groups. Unilateral vocal fold stripping was performed and the drug was injected into the scarred vocal fold for each group 2 months postoperatively. Injections were performed weekly for 4 weeks. Two months after the last injection, larynges were harvested and histologically analyzed. A significant increase of hyaluronic acid was observed in the vocal fold of the bFGF group compared with that of the sham group. However, there was no remarkable change in collagen expression nor in vocal fold contraction. Significant increase of hyaluronic acid by local bFGF injection was thought to contribute to the therapeutic effects on chronic vocal fold scarring.

  6. Vocal fold motion outcome based on excellent prognosis with laryngeal electromyography. (United States)

    Smith, Libby J; Rosen, Clark A; Munin, Michael C


    As laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) becomes more refined, accurate predictions of vocal fold motion recovery are possible. Focus has been on outcomes for patients with poor prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery. Limited information is available regarding the expected rate of purposeful vocal fold motion recovery when there is good to normal motor recruitment, no signs of denervation, and no signs of synkinetic activity with LEMG, termed excellent prognosis. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of vocal fold motion recovery with excellent prognosis findings on LEMG after acute recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Retrospective review. Patients undergoing a standardized LEMG protocol, consisting of qualitative (evaluation of motor recruitment, motor unit configuration, detection of fibrillations, presence of synkinesis) and quantitative (turns analysis) measurements were evaluated for purposeful vocal-fold motion recovery, calculated after at least 6 months since onset of injury. Twenty-three patients who underwent LEMG for acute vocal fold paralysis met the inclusion criteria of excellent prognosis. Eighteen patients (78.3%) recovered vocal fold motion, as determined by flexible laryngoscopy. Nearly 80% of patients determined to have excellent prognosis for vocal fold motion recovery experienced return of vocal fold motion. This information will help clinicians not only counsel their patients on expectations but will also help guide treatment. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2310-2314, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. A consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, Roland


    Some mostly recent theoretical and mathematical advances can be linked together to yield a new consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics. It relies upon a unique and universal interpretative rule of a logical character which is based upon Griffiths consistent history. Some new results in semi-classical physics allow classical physics to be derived from this rule, including its logical aspects, and to prove accordingly the existence of determinism within the quantum framework. Together with decoherence, this can be used to retrieve the existence of facts, despite the probabilistic character of the theory. Measurement theory can then be made entirely deductive. It is accordingly found that wave packet reduction is a logical property, whereas one can always choose to avoid using it. The practical consequences of this interpretation are most often in agreement with the Copenhagen formulation but they can be proved never to give rise to any logical inconsistency or paradox. (author)

  8. The mechanics of fault-bend folding and tear-fault systems in the Niger Delta (United States)

    Benesh, Nathan Philip

    This dissertation investigates the mechanics of fault-bend folding using the discrete element method (DEM) and explores the nature of tear-fault systems in the deep-water Niger Delta fold-and-thrust belt. In Chapter 1, we employ the DEM to investigate the development of growth structures in anticlinal fault-bend folds. This work was inspired by observations that growth strata in active folds show a pronounced upward decrease in bed dip, in contrast to traditional kinematic fault-bend fold models. Our analysis shows that the modeled folds grow largely by parallel folding as specified by the kinematic theory; however, the process of folding over a broad axial surface zone yields a component of fold growth by limb rotation that is consistent with the patterns observed in natural folds. This result has important implications for how growth structures can he used to constrain slip and paleo-earthquake ages on active blind-thrust faults. In Chapter 2, we expand our DEM study to investigate the development of a wider range of fault-bend folds. We examine the influence of mechanical stratigraphy and quantitatively compare our models with the relationships between fold and fault shape prescribed by the kinematic theory. While the synclinal fault-bend models closely match the kinematic theory, the modeled anticlinal fault-bend folds show robust behavior that is distinct from the kinematic theory. Specifically, we observe that modeled structures maintain a linear relationship between fold shape (gamma) and fault-horizon cutoff angle (theta), rather than expressing the non-linear relationship with two distinct modes of anticlinal folding that is prescribed by the kinematic theory. These observations lead to a revised quantitative relationship for fault-bend folds that can serve as a useful interpretation tool. Finally, in Chapter 3, we examine the 3D relationships of tear- and thrust-fault systems in the western, deep-water Niger Delta. Using 3D seismic reflection data and new

  9. A replica exchange Monte Carlo algorithm for protein folding in the HP model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmygelska Alena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ab initio protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing an energy function; it is one of the most important and challenging problems in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. The ab initio protein folding problem is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaat0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1egaryqtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvdaiqaacqWFneVtcqqGqbauaaa@3961@-hard even when conformations are restricted to a lattice. In this work, we implement and evaluate the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC method, which has already been applied very successfully to more complex protein models and other optimization problems with complex energy landscapes, in combination with the highly effective pull move neighbourhood in two widely studied Hydrophobic Polar (HP lattice models. Results We demonstrate that REMC is highly effective for solving instances of the square (2D and cubic (3D HP protein folding problem. When using the pull move neighbourhood, REMC outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms for most benchmark instances. Additionally, we show that this new algorithm provides a larger ensemble of ground-state structures than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, it scales well with sequence length, and it finds significantly better conformations on long biological sequences and sequences with a provably unique ground-state structure, which is believed to be a characteristic of real proteins. We also present evidence that our REMC algorithm can fold sequences which exhibit significant interaction between termini in the hydrophobic core relatively easily. Conclusion We demonstrate that REMC utilizing the pull move

  10. Folding of multidomain proteins: biophysical consequences of tethering even in apparently independent folding. (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Levy, Yaakov


    Most eukaryotic and a substantial fraction of prokaryotic proteins are composed of more than one domain. The tethering of these evolutionary, structural, and functional units raises, among others, questions regarding the folding process of conjugated domains. Studying the folding of multidomain proteins in silico enables one to identify and isolate the tethering-induced biophysical determinants that govern crosstalks generated between neighboring domains. For this purpose, we carried out coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two two-domain constructs from the immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold. Each of these was experimentally shown to behave as the "sum of its parts," that is, the thermodynamic and kinetic folding behavior of the constituent domains of these constructs seems to occur independently, with the folding of each domain uncoupled from the folding of its partner in the two-domain construct. We show that the properties of the individual domains can be significantly affected by conjugation to another domain. The tethering may be accompanied by stabilizing as well as destabilizing factors whose magnitude depends on the size of the interface, the length, and the flexibility of the linker, and the relative stability of the domains. Accordingly, the folding of a multidomain protein should not be viewed as the sum of the folding patterns of each of its parts, but rather, it involves abrogating several effects that lead to this outcome. An imbalance between these effects may result in either stabilization or destabilization owing to the tethering. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A comparison of RNA folding measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freyhult, E.; Gardner, P. P.; Moulton, V.


    the behaviour of these measures over a large range of Rfam ncRNA families. Such measures can be useful in, for example, identifying novel ncRNAs, and indicating the presence of alternate RNA foldings. Results Our analysis shows that ncRNAs, but not mRNAs, in general have lower minimal free energy (MFE) than....... Conclusion Due to the correlations between the different measures we find that it is sufficient to use only two of them in RNA folding studies, one to test if the sequence in question has lower energy than a random sequence with the same dinucleotide frequency (the Z-score) and the other to see......Background In the last few decades there has been a great deal of discussion concerning whether or not noncoding RNA sequences (ncRNAs) fold in a more well-defined manner than random sequences. In this paper, we investigate several existing measures for how well an RNA sequence folds, and compare...

  12. Mapping the universe of RNA tetraloop folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottaro, Sandro; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten


    We report a map of RNA tetraloop conformations constructed by calculating pairwise distances among all experimentally determined four-nucleotide hairpin loops. Tetraloops with similar structures are clustered together and, as expected, the two largest clusters are the canonical GNRA and UNCG fold...

  13. Fold in Origami and Unfold Math (United States)

    Georgeson, Joseph


    Students enjoy origami and like making everything from paper cranes to footballs out of small, colorful squares of paper. They can invent their own shapes and are intrigued by the polyhedrons that they can construct. Paper folding is fun, but where is the math? Unless teachers develop lessons that address mathematical objectives, origami could be…

  14. Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Tao [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Yoon, ChangKyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Jin, Qianru [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Mingen [Department of Physics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Liu, Zewen [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gracias, David H., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)


    In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.

  15. Targeted transtracheal stimulation for vocal fold closure. (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Thompson, Paul; Kolb, Ilya; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J


    Paralysis of the structures in the head and neck due to stroke or other neurological disorder often causes dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing). Patients with dysphagia have a significantly higher incidence of aspiration pneumonia and death. The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles that control the vocal folds, travels superiorly in parallel to the trachea in the tracheoesophageal groove. This study tests the hypothesis that functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transtracheal electrodes can produce controlled vocal fold adduction. Bipolar electrodes were placed at 15° intervals around the interior mucosal surface of the canine trachea, and current was applied to the tissue while electromyography (EMG) from the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and vocal fold movement visualization via laryngoscopy were recorded. The lowest EMG thresholds were found at an average location of 100° to the left of the ventral midsagittal line and 128° to the right. A rotatable pair of bipolar electrodes spaced 230° apart were able to stimulate bilaterally both RLNs in every subject. Laryngoscopy showed complete glottal closure with transtracheal stimulation in six of the eight subjects, and this closure was maintained under simultaneous FES-induced laryngeal elevation. Transtracheal stimulation is an effective tool for minimally invasive application of FES to induce vocal fold adduction, providing an alternative mechanism to study airway protection.

  16. Amylose folding under the influence of lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Cesar A.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.


    The molecular dynamics simulation technique was used to study the folding and complexation process of a short amylose fragment in the presence of lipids. In aqueous solution, the amylose chain remains as an extended left-handed helix. After the addition of lipids in the system, however, we observe


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach


    Full Text Available The principal symptoms of unilateral vocal fold paralysis are hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing. Dyspnea is comparatively rare (Laccourreye et al., 2003. The extent to which unilateral vocal fold paralysis may lead to respiratory problems at all - in contrast to bilateral vocal fold paralysis- has not yet well been determined. On the one hand, inspiration is impaired with unilateral vocal fold paralysis; on the other hand, neither the position of the vocal fold paralysis nor the degree of breathiness correlates with respiratory parameters (Cantarella et al., 2003; 2005. The question of what respiratory stress a patient with a vocal fold paresis can endure has not yet been dealt with.A 43 year-old female patient was suffering from recurrent unspecific respiratory complaints for four months after physical activity. During training for a marathon, she experienced no difficulty in breathing. These unspecific respiratory complaints occurred only after athletic activity and persisted for hours. The patient observed neither an increased coughing nor a stridor. Her voice remained unaltered during the attacks, nor were there any signs of a symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux or infectious disease. A cardio-pulmonary and a radiological examination by means of an X-ray of the thorax also revealed no pathological phenomena. As antiallergic and antiobstructive therapy remained unsuccessful, a laryngological examination was performed in order to exclude a vocal cord dysfunction.Surprisingly enough, the laryngostroboscopy showed, as an initial description, a vocal fold paralysis of the left vocal fold in median position (Figure 1. The anamnestic background for the cause was unclear. The only clue was a thoracotomy on the left side due to a pleuritis in childhood. A subsequent laryngoscopic examination had never been performed. Good mucosa waves and amplitudes were shown bilateral with complete glottal closure. Neither in the acoustic analysis, nor in the

  18. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery. (United States)

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M


    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  19. Matrix approach to the Shapley value and dual similar associated consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, G.; Driessen, Theo

    Replacing associated consistency in Hamiache's axiom system by dual similar associated consistency, we axiomatize the Shapley value as the unique value verifying the inessential game property, continuity and dual similar associated consistency. Continuing the matrix analysis for Hamiache's

  20. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereau, Tristan, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bennett, W. F. Drew [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pfaendtner, Jim [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Deserno, Markus [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Karttunen, Mikko [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science & Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, MetaForum, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  1. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko


    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA) n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence

  2. Folding of DsbB in mixed micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otzen, Daniel


    state and an unfolding intermediate that accumulates only under unfolding conditions at high mole fractions of SDS. The stability of DsbB is around 4.4 kcal/mol in DM, and this is halved upon reduction of the two periplasmic disulfide bonds, and is sensitive to mutagenesis. With the caveat that kinetic...... is sensitive to changes in lipid and detergent composition. As an attempt to overcome this problem, I present a kinetic analysis of the folding of a membrane protein, disulfide bond reducing protein B (DsbB), in a mixed micelle system consisting of varying molar ratios of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS...

  3. Double-folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.


    A new method for incorporating the Pauli exclusion principle into the double-folding approach to the heavy-ion potential is proposed. The description of the exchange terms at the level of the semiclassical one-body density matrix is used. It is shown that, in order to take into account Pauli blocking properly, the density matrices of free isolated nuclei must be redefined. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of Pauli blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

  4. Consistency argued students of fluid (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma


    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  5. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: the background (United States)

    Ramsay, John G.


    This book was generated by structural geology teaching classes at Imperial College. I was appointed lecturer during 1957 and worked together with Dr Gilbert Wilson teaching basic structural geology at B.Sc level. I became convinced that the subject, being essentially based on geometric field observations, required a firm mathematical basis for its future development. In particular it seemed to me to require a very sound understanding of stress and strain. My field experience suggested that a knowledge of two- and three-demensional strain was critical in understanding natural tectonic processes. I found a rich confirmation for this in early publications of deformed fossils, oolitic limestones and spotted slates made by several geologists around the beginning of the 20th century (Sorby, Philips, Haughton, Harker) often using surprisingly sophisticated mathematical methods. These methods were discussed and elaborated in Folding and Fracturing of Rocks in a practical way. The geometric features of folds were related to folding mechanisms and the fold related small scale structures such as cleavage, schistosity and lineation explained in terms of rock strain. My work in the Scottish Highlands had shown just how repeated fold superposition could produce very complex geometric features, while further work in other localities suggested that such geometric complications are common in many orogenic zones. From the development of structural geological studies over the past decades it seems that the readers of this book have found many of the ideas set out are still of practical application. The mapping of these outcrop-scale structures should be emphasised in all field studies because they can be seen as ''fingerprints'' of regional scale tectonic processes. My own understanding of structural geology has been inspired by field work and I am of the opinion that future progress in understanding will be likewise based on careful observation and measurement of the features of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: Vocal fold polyp is one of the most common causes for hoarseness. Many different etiological factors contribute to vocal fold polyp formation. The aim of the study was to find out whether the etiological factors for polyp formation have changed in the last 30 years.Methods: Eighty-one patients with unilateral vocal fold polyp were included in the study. A control group was composed of 50 volunteers without voice problems who matched the patients by age and gender. The data about etiological factors and the findings of phoniatric examination were obtained from the patients' medical documentation and from the questionnaires for the control group. The incidence of etiological factors was compared between the two groups. The program SPSS, Version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: The most frequent etiological factors were occupational voice load, GER, allergy and smoking. In 79% of patients 2 – 6 contemporary acting risk factors were found. Occupational voice load (p=0,018 and GER (p=0,004 were significantly more frequent in the patients than in the controls. The other factors did not significantly influence the polyp formation.Conclusions: There are several factors involved simultaneously in the formation of vocal fold polyps both nowadays and 30 years ago. Some of the most common factors remain the same (voice load, smoking, others are new (GER, allergy, which is probably due to the different lifestyle and working conditions than 30 years ago. Occupational voice load and GER were significantly more frequently present in the patients with polyp than in the control group. Regarding the given results it is important to instruct workers with professional vocal load about etiological factors for vocal fold polyp formation.

  7. Inverse folding of RNA pseudoknot structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linda YM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and G-U-base pairings (secondary structure and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, RNAinverse, RNA-SSD as well as INFO-RNA are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm Inv which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm Inv. We give a detailed analysis of Inv, including pseudocodes. We show that Inv allows to design in particular 3-noncrossing nonplanar RNA pseudoknot 3-noncrossing RNA structures-a class which is difficult to construct via dynamic programming routines. Inv is freely available at Conclusions The algorithm Inv extends inverse folding capabilities to RNA pseudoknot structures. In comparison with RNAinverse it uses new ideas, for instance by considering sets of competing structures. As a result, Inv is not only able to find novel sequences even for RNA secondary structures, it does so in the context of competing structures that potentially exhibit cross-serial interactions.

  8. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho


    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  9. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.


    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  10. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  11. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob


    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  12. Self-folding origami: shape memory composites activated by uniform heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, Michael T; Felton, Samuel M; Aukes, Daniel; Wood, Robert J; Miyashita, Shuhei; Rus, Daniela


    Self-folding is an approach used frequently in nature for the efficient fabrication of structures, but is seldom used in engineered systems. Here, self-folding origami are presented, which consist of shape memory composites that are activated with uniform heating in an oven. These composites are rapidly fabricated using inexpensive materials and tools. The folding mechanism based on the in-plane contraction of a sheet of shape memory polymer is modeled, and parameters for the design of composites that self-fold into target shapes are characterized. Four self-folding shapes are demonstrated: a cube, an icosahedron, a flower, and a Miura pattern; each of which is activated in an oven in less than 4 min. Self-sealing is also investigated using hot melt adhesive, and the resulting structures are found to bear up to twice the load of unsealed structures. (paper)

  13. Consistent application of codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.


    The guidelines presented in the US Department of Energy, General Design Criteria (DOE 6430.1A), and the Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subject to Natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL-15910) provide a consistent and well defined approach to determine the natural phenomena hazards loads for US Department of Energy site facilities. The guidelines for the application of loads combinations and allowables criteria are not as well defined and are more flexible in interpretation. This flexibility in the interpretation of load combinations can lead to conflict between the designer and overseer. The establishment of an efficient set of acceptable design criteria, based on US Department of Energy guidelines, provides a consistent baseline for analysis, design, and review. Additionally, the proposed method should not limit the design and analytical innovation necessary to analyze or qualify the unique structure. This paper investigates the consistent application of load combinations, analytical methods, and load allowables and suggests a reference path consistent with the US Department of Energy guidelines

  14. Programmable self-assembly of three-dimensional nanostructures from 10,000 unique components (United States)

    Ong, Luvena L.; Hanikel, Nikita; Yaghi, Omar K.; Grun, Casey; Strauss, Maximilian T.; Bron, Patrick; Lai-Kee-Him, Josephine; Schueder, Florian; Wang, Bei; Wang, Pengfei; Kishi, Jocelyn Y.; Myhrvold, Cameron; Zhu, Allen; Jungmann, Ralf; Bellot, Gaetan; Ke, Yonggang; Yin, Peng


    Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are widely used to construct nanometre-scale structures with ever increasing complexity, with possible application in fields such as structural biology, biophysics, synthetic biology and photonics. The nanostructures are formed through one-pot self-assembly, with early kilodalton-scale examples containing typically tens of unique DNA strands. The introduction of DNA origami, which uses many staple strands to fold one long scaffold strand into a desired structure, has provided access to megadalton-scale nanostructures that contain hundreds of unique DNA strands. Even larger DNA origami structures are possible, but manufacturing and manipulating an increasingly long scaffold strand remains a challenge. An alternative and more readily scalable approach involves the assembly of DNA bricks, which each consist of four short binding domains arranged so that the bricks can interlock. This approach does not require a scaffold; instead, the short DNA brick strands self-assemble according to specific inter-brick interactions. First-generation bricks used to create three-dimensional structures are 32 nucleotides long, consisting of four eight-nucleotide binding domains. Protocols have been designed to direct the assembly of hundreds of distinct bricks into well formed structures, but attempts to create larger structures have encountered practical challenges and had limited success. Here we show that DNA bricks with longer, 13-nucleotide binding domains make it possible to self-assemble 0.1-1-gigadalton, three-dimensional nanostructures from tens of thousands of unique components, including a 0.5-gigadalton cuboid containing about 30,000 unique bricks and a 1-gigadalton rotationally symmetric tetramer. We also assembled a cuboid that contains around 10,000 bricks and about 20,000 uniquely addressable, 13-base-pair ‘voxels’ that serves as a molecular canvas for three-dimensional sculpting. Complex, user-prescribed, three-dimensional cavities can

  15. Granulomatous slack skin syndrome: Report of a unique case. (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A


    Granulomatous slack skin syndrome is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). It is characterized clinically by redundant skin folds, which show a predilection towards flexural areas such as the axilla and the groin. Histologically, it shows a granulomatous T-cell infiltrate and loss of elastic tissue. It has an indolent but progressive course; and is usually refractory to treatment. We report a unique case of slack skin syndrome, sparing the classical sites with rapid and unusual involvement of non-intertriginous areas.

  16. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality


    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu


    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  17. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.


    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  18. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.


    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource

  19. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others


    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  20. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.


    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  1. Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, L.; Ravindran, C.


    Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the α-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al 2 RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

  2. Intradomain Confinement of Disulfides in the Folding of Two Consecutive Modules of the LDL Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martínez-Oliván

    Full Text Available The LDL receptor internalizes circulating LDL and VLDL particles for degradation. Its extracellular binding domain contains ten (seven LA and three EGF cysteine-rich modules, each bearing three disulfide bonds. Despite the enormous number of disulfide combinations possible, LDLR oxidative folding leads to a single native species with 30 unique intradomain disulfides. Previous folding studies of the LDLR have shown that non native disulfides are initially formed that lead to compact species. Accordingly, the folding of the LDLR has been described as a "coordinated nonvectorial" reaction, and it has been proposed that early compaction funnels the reaction toward the native structure. Here we analyze the oxidative folding of LA4 and LA5, the modules critical for ApoE binding, isolated and in the LA45 tandem. Compared to LA5, LA4 folding is slow and inefficient, resembling that of LA5 disease-linked mutants. Without Ca++, it leads to a mixture of many two-disulfide scrambled species and, with Ca++, to the native form plus two three-disulfide intermediates. The folding of the LA45 tandem seems to recapitulate that of the individual repeats. Importantly, although the folding of the LA45 tandem takes place through formation of scrambled isomers, no interdomain disulfides are detected, i.e. the two adjacent modules fold independently without the assistance of interdomain covalent interactions. Reduction of incredibly large disulfide combinatorial spaces, such as that in the LDLR, by intradomain confinement of disulfide bond formation might be also essential for the efficient folding of other homologous disulfide-rich receptors.

  3. Rigid Origami via Optical Programming and Deferred Self-Folding of a Two-Stage Photopolymer. (United States)

    Glugla, David J; Alim, Marvin D; Byars, Keaton D; Nair, Devatha P; Bowman, Christopher N; Maute, Kurt K; McLeod, Robert R


    We demonstrate the formation of shape-programmed, glassy origami structures using a single-layer photopolymer with two mechanically distinct phases. The latent origami pattern consisting of rigid, high cross-link density panels and flexible, low cross-link density creases is fabricated using a series of photomask exposures. Strong optical absorption of the polymer formulation creates depth-wise gradients in the cross-link density of the creases, enforcing directed folding which enables programming of both mountain and valley folds within the same sheet. These multiple photomask patterns can be sequentially applied because the sheet remains flat until immersed into a photopolymerizable monomer solution that differentially swells the polymer to fold and form the origami structure. After folding, a uniform photoexposure polymerizes the absorbed solution, permanently fixing the shape of the folded structure while simultaneously increasing the modulus of the folds. This approach creates sharp folds by mimicking the stiff panels and flexible creases of paper origami while overcoming the traditional trade-off of self-actuated materials that require low modulus for folding and high modulus for mechanical robustness. Using this process, we demonstrate a waterbomb base capable of supporting 1500 times its own weight.

  4. Ca-Dependent Folding of Human Calumenin (United States)

    Mazzorana, Marco; Hussain, Rohanah; Sorensen, Thomas


    Human calumenin (hCALU) is a six EF-hand protein belonging to the CREC family. As other members of the family, it is localized in the secretory pathway and regulates the activity of SERCA2a and of the ryanodine receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have studied the effects of Ca2+ binding to the protein and found it to attain a more compact structure upon ion binding. Circular Dichroism (CD) measurements suggest a major rearrangement of the protein secondary structure, which reversibly switches from disordered at low Ca2+ concentrations to predominantly alpha-helical when Ca2+ is added. SAXS experiments confirm the transition from an unfolded to a compact structure, which matches the structural prediction of a trilobal fold. Overall our experiments suggest that calumenin is a Ca2+ sensor, which folds into a compact structure, capable of interacting with its molecular partners, when Ca2+ concentration within the ER reaches the millimolar range. PMID:26991433

  5. Self-folding micropatterned polymeric containers. (United States)

    Azam, Anum; Laflin, Kate E; Jamal, Mustapha; Fernandes, Rohan; Gracias, David H


    We demonstrate self-folding of precisely patterned, optically transparent, all-polymeric containers and describe their utility in mammalian cell and microorganism encapsulation and culture. The polyhedral containers, with SU-8 faces and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) hinges, spontaneously assembled on heating. Self-folding was driven by a minimization of surface area of the liquefying PCL hinges within lithographically patterned two-dimensional (2D) templates. The strategy allowed for the fabrication of containers with variable polyhedral shapes, sizes and precisely defined porosities in all three dimensions. We provide proof-of-concept for the use of these polymeric containers as encapsulants for beads, chemicals, mammalian cells and bacteria. We also compare accelerated hinge degradation rates in alkaline solutions of varying pH. These optically transparent containers resemble three-dimensional (3D) micro-Petri dishes and can be utilized to sustain, monitor and deliver living biological components.

  6. Dynamics in thin folded polymer films (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Rozairo, Damith

    Origami and Kirigami inspired structures depend on a complex interplay between geometry and material properties. While clearly important to the overall function, very little attention has focused on how extreme curvatures and singularities in real materials influence the overall dynamic behaviour of folded structures. In this work we use a set of three polymer thin films in order to closely examine the interaction of material and geometry. Specifically, we use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) thin films which we subject to loading in several model geometries of varying complexity. Depending on the material, vastly different responses are noted in our experiments; D-cones can annihilate, cut or lead to a crumpling cascade when pushed through a film. Remarkably, order can be generated with additional perturbation. Finally, the role of adhesion in complex folded structures can be addressed. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  7. Folding pathways explored with artificial potential functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulutaş, B; Bozma, I; Haliloglu, T


    This paper considers the generation of trajectories to a given protein conformation and presents a novel approach based on artificial potential functions—originally proposed for multi-robot navigation. The artificial potential function corresponds to a simplified energy model, but with the novelty that—motivated by work on robotic navigation—a nonlinear compositional scheme of constructing the energy model is adapted instead of an additive formulation. The artificial potential naturally gives rise to a dynamic system for the protein structure that ensures collision-free motion to an equilibrium point. In cases where the equilibrium point is the native conformation, the motion trajectory corresponds to the folding pathway. This framework is used to investigate folding in a variety of protein structures, and the results are compared with those of other approaches including experimental studies

  8. Folded membrane dialyzer with mechanically sealed edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, F.W.

    A semipermeable membrane is folded in accordion fashion to form a stack of pleats and the edges are sealed so as to isolate the opposite surfaces of the membrane. The stack is contained within a case that provides ports for flow of blood in contact with one surface of the membrane through channels formed by the pleats and also provides ports for flow of a dialysate through channels formed by the pleats in contact with the other surface of the membrane. The serpentine side edges of the membrane are sealed by a solidified plastic material, whereas effective mechanical means are provided to seal the end edges of the folded membrane. The mechanical means include a clamping strip which biases case sealing flanges into a sealed relationship with end portions of the membrane near the end edges, which portions extend from the stack and between the sealing flanges.

  9. PREFACE Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers (United States)

    Pappu, Rohit V.; Nussinov, Ruth


    In appropriate physiological milieux proteins spontaneously fold into their functional three-dimensional structures. The amino acid sequences of functional proteins contain all the information necessary to specify the folds. This remarkable observation has spawned research aimed at answering two major questions. (1) Of all the conceivable structures that a protein can adopt, why is the ensemble of native-like structures the most favorable? (2) What are the paths by which proteins manage to robustly and reproducibly fold into their native structures? Anfinsen's thermodynamic hypothesis has guided the pursuit of answers to the first question whereas Levinthal's paradox has influenced the development of models for protein folding dynamics. Decades of work have led to significant advances in the folding problem. Mean-field models have been developed to capture our current, coarse grain understanding of the driving forces for protein folding. These models are being used to predict three-dimensional protein structures from sequence and stability profiles as a function of thermodynamic and chemical perturbations. Impressive strides have also been made in the field of protein design, also known as the inverse folding problem, thereby testing our understanding of the determinants of the fold specificities of different sequences. Early work on protein folding pathways focused on the specific sequence of events that could lead to a simplification of the search process. However, unifying principles proved to be elusive. Proteins that show reversible two-state folding-unfolding transitions turned out to be a gift of natural selection. Focusing on these simple systems helped researchers to uncover general principles regarding the origins of cooperativity in protein folding thermodynamics and kinetics. On the theoretical front, concepts borrowed from polymer physics and the physics of spin glasses led to the development of a framework based on energy landscape theories. These

  10. Image Analysis for Nail-fold Capillaroscopy


    Vucic, Vladimir


    Detection of diseases in an early stage is very important since it can make the treatment of patients easier, safer and more ecient. For the detection of rheumatic diseases, and even prediction of tendencies towards such diseases, capillaroscopy is becoming an increasingly recognized method. Nail-fold capillaroscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique that is used for analysis of microcirculation abnormalities that may lead todisease like systematic sclerosis, Reynauds phenomenon and others. ...

  11. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob


    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....

  12. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V


    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  13. The Principle of Energetic Consistency (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.


    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  14. Evolution of a protein folding nucleus. (United States)

    Xia, Xue; Longo, Liam M; Sutherland, Mason A; Blaber, Michael


    The folding nucleus (FN) is a cryptic element within protein primary structure that enables an efficient folding pathway and is the postulated heritable element in the evolution of protein architecture; however, almost nothing is known regarding how the FN structurally changes as complex protein architecture evolves from simpler peptide motifs. We report characterization of the FN of a designed purely symmetric β-trefoil protein by ϕ-value analysis. We compare the structure and folding properties of key foldable intermediates along the evolutionary trajectory of the β-trefoil. The results show structural acquisition of the FN during gene fusion events, incorporating novel turn structure created by gene fusion. Furthermore, the FN is adjusted by circular permutation in response to destabilizing functional mutation. FN plasticity by way of circular permutation is made possible by the intrinsic C3 cyclic symmetry of the β-trefoil architecture, identifying a possible selective advantage that helps explain the prevalence of cyclic structural symmetry in the proteome. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  15. Folding Membrane Proteins by Deep Transfer Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Sheng


    Computational elucidation of membrane protein (MP) structures is challenging partially due to lack of sufficient solved structures for homology modeling. Here, we describe a high-throughput deep transfer learning method that first predicts MP contacts by learning from non-MPs and then predicts 3D structure models using the predicted contacts as distance restraints. Tested on 510 non-redundant MPs, our method has contact prediction accuracy at least 0.18 better than existing methods, predicts correct folds for 218 MPs, and generates 3D models with root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) less than 4 and 5 Å for 57 and 108 MPs, respectively. A rigorous blind test in the continuous automated model evaluation project shows that our method predicted high-resolution 3D models for two recent test MPs of 210 residues with RMSD ∼2 Å. We estimated that our method could predict correct folds for 1,345–1,871 reviewed human multi-pass MPs including a few hundred new folds, which shall facilitate the discovery of drugs targeting at MPs.

  16. Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders (United States)

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

    This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

  17. Thermostability in endoglucanases is fold-specific (United States)


    Background Endoglucanases are usually considered to be synergistically involved in the initial stages of cellulose breakdown-an essential step in the bioprocessing of lignocellulosic plant materials into bioethanol. Despite their economic importance, we currently lack a basic understanding of how some endoglucanases can sustain their ability to function at elevated temperatures required for bioprocessing, while others cannot. In this study, we present a detailed comparative analysis of both thermophilic and mesophilic endoglucanases in order to gain insights into origins of thermostability. We analyzed the sequences and structures for sets of endoglucanase proteins drawn from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) database. Results Our results demonstrate that thermophilic endoglucanases and their mesophilic counterparts differ significantly in their amino acid compositions. Strikingly, these compositional differences are specific to protein folds and enzyme families, and lead to differences in intramolecular interactions in a fold-dependent fashion. Conclusions Here, we provide fold-specific guidelines to control thermostability in endoglucanases that will aid in making production of biofuels from plant biomass more efficient. PMID:21291533

  18. Thermostability in endoglucanases is fold-specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolt Jeffrey D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoglucanases are usually considered to be synergistically involved in the initial stages of cellulose breakdown-an essential step in the bioprocessing of lignocellulosic plant materials into bioethanol. Despite their economic importance, we currently lack a basic understanding of how some endoglucanases can sustain their ability to function at elevated temperatures required for bioprocessing, while others cannot. In this study, we present a detailed comparative analysis of both thermophilic and mesophilic endoglucanases in order to gain insights into origins of thermostability. We analyzed the sequences and structures for sets of endoglucanase proteins drawn from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy database. Results Our results demonstrate that thermophilic endoglucanases and their mesophilic counterparts differ significantly in their amino acid compositions. Strikingly, these compositional differences are specific to protein folds and enzyme families, and lead to differences in intramolecular interactions in a fold-dependent fashion. Conclusions Here, we provide fold-specific guidelines to control thermostability in endoglucanases that will aid in making production of biofuels from plant biomass more efficient.

  19. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.


    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  20. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles


    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  1. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld


    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  2. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.


    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  3. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.


    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  4. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.


    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  5. Functional results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant. (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Denk, Doris-Maria; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang


    A persistent insufficiency of glottal closure is mostly a consequence of a unilateral vocal fold movement impairment. It can also be caused by vocal fold atrophy or scarring processes with regular bilateral respiratory vocal fold function. Because of consequential voice, breathing, and swallowing impairments, a functional surgical treatment is required. The goal of the study was to outline the functional results after medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant according to Friedrich. In the period of 1999 to 2001, an external vocal fold medialization using the titanium implant was performed on 28 patients (12 women and 16 men). The patients were in the age range of 19 to 84 years. Twenty-two patients had a paralysis of the left-side vocal fold, and six patients, of the right-side vocal fold. Detailed functional examinations were executed on all patients before and after the surgery: perceptive voice sound analysis according to the "roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness" method, judgment of the s/z ratio and voice dysfunction index, voice range profile measurements, videostroboscopy, and pulmonary function tests. In case of dysphagia/aspiration, videofluoroscopy of swallowing was also performed. The respective data were statistically analyzed (paired t test, Wilcoxon-test). All patients reported on improvement of voice, swallowing, and breathing functions postoperatively. Videostroboscopy revealed an almost complete glottal closure after surgery in all of the patients. All voice-related parameters showed a significant improvement. An increase of the laryngeal resistance by the medialization procedure could be excluded by analysis of the pulmonary function test. The results confirm the external medialization of the vocal folds as an adequate method in the therapy of voice, swallowing, and breathing impairment attributable to an insufficient glottal closure. The titanium implant offers, apart from good tissue tolerability, the

  6. Glass ionomer application for vocal fold augmentation: Histopathological analysis on rabbit vocal fold. (United States)

    Demirci, Sule; Tuzuner, Arzu; Callıoglu, Elif Ersoy; Yumusak, Nihat; Arslan, Necmi; Baltacı, Bülent


    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an injection material for vocal fold augmentation and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Ten adult New Zealand rabbits were used. Under general anesthesia, 0.1-cc GIC was injected to one vocal fold and the augmentation of vocal fold was observed. No injection was applied to the opposite side, which was accepted as the control group. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months and the laryngeal specimens were histopathologically evaluated. The injected and the noninjected control vocal folds were analyzed. The GIC particles were observed in histological sections on the injected side, and no foreign body giant cells, granulomatous inflammation, necrosis, or marked chronic inflammation were detected around the glass ionomer particles. Mild inflammatory reactions were noticed in only two specimens. The noninjected sides of vocal folds were completely normal. The findings of this study suggest that GIC is biocompatible and may be further investigated as an alternative injection material for augmentation of the vocal fold. Further studies are required to examine the viscoelastic properties of GIC and the long-term effects in experimental studies. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Vocal Fold Immobility due to Birth Trauma: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis. (United States)

    Jabbour, Jad; North, Lauren M; Bougie, David; Robey, Thomas


    Objectives To describe the present understanding of birth trauma-related vocal fold immobility and quantitatively compare it with idiopathic congenital vocal fold immobility to explore whether it is a discrete entity. Data Sources PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane databases. Review Methods English-language, observational, or experimental studies involving infants with idiopathic congenital or birth trauma-related vocal fold immobility were included. Data from these studies were pooled with our institution's vocal fold immobility database, with the resultant idiopathic congenital and birth trauma cohorts compared regarding patterns and outcomes of immobility. Results The search returned 288 articles, with 24 meeting inclusion criteria. Of studies reviewing all-cause immobility, 8 of 9 (88.9%) identified birth trauma as an etiology, although birth trauma definitions and proposed mechanisms of immobility varied. The study subjects, combined with our institution's database, yielded 188 idiopathic congenital and 113 birth trauma cases. Compared with idiopathic congenital cases, birth trauma cases had a higher proportion of unilateral immobility (72 of 113 [63.7%] vs 52 of 188 [27.7%], P vocal fold immobility warrant further investigation, these findings suggest that it is distinct from idiopathic congenital vocal fold immobility, with a unique presentation and potentially more favorable outcomes. This can inform counseling and management for infants with otherwise unexplained immobility but known birth trauma.

  8. Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier in Health and Injury A Research Review (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Leydon, Ciara; Thibeault, Susan L.


    Purpose Vocal fold epithelium is composed of layers of individual epithelial cells joined by junctional complexes constituting a unique interface with the external environment. This barrier provides structural stability to the vocal folds and protects underlying connective tissue from injury while being nearly continuously exposed to potentially hazardous insults including environmental or systemic-based irritants such as pollutants and reflux, surgical procedures, and vibratory trauma. Small disruptions in the epithelial barrier may have a large impact on susceptibility to injury and overall vocal health. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad-based review of our current knowledge of the vocal fold epithelial barrier. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted. Details of the structure of the vocal fold epithelial barrier are presented and evaluated in the context of function in injury and pathology. The importance of the epithelial-associated vocal fold mucus barrier is also introduced. Results/Conclusions Information presented in this review is valuable for clinicians and researchers as it highlights the importance of this understudied portion of the vocal folds to overall vocal health and disease. Prevention and treatment of injury to the epithelial barrier is a significant area awaiting further investigation. PMID:24686981

  9. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.


    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  10. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.


    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  11. Unique Case of Imperforate Hymen. (United States)

    Coppola, Lynn


    Imperforate hymen typically presents in adolescence with pain, hematocolpometra and primary amenorrhea. This case documents a previously unreported etiology for an atypical presentation with a history of recent menstruation. A female adolescent presented with symptoms of urinary retention and leg pain. She reported a history of irregular, painful menses. Clinical examination revealed a pelvic mass and imperforate hymen. Sonography was consistent with hematocolpometra. Before a planned hymenectomy, the patient began to pass dark blood through a fistulous opening in her vulva. Hymenectomy resulted in complete resolution of the pain and hematocolpometra. Identification of the fistulous tract explained the patient's history of menstrual bleeding despite an imperforate hymen. Spontaneous rupture of hematocolpometra through a fistulous tract to the vulva is a previously unreported atypical presentation of imperforate hymen in a "menstruating" adolescent with pain and a pelvic mass. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian


    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  13. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.


    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  14. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)


    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  15. Consistency and Communication in Committees


    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement


    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  16. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder


    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping


    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  17. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  18. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells (United States)

    Fukahori, Mioko; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Monden, Yu; Yamakawa, Ryoji


    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls). Methods A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed. Results A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site. Conclusion The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds. PMID:26730600

  19. An overlapping region between the two terminal folding units of the outer surface protein A (OspA) controls its folding behavior. (United States)

    Makabe, Koki; Nakamura, Takashi; Dhar, Debanjan; Ikura, Teikichi; Koide, Shohei; Kuwajima, Kunihiro


    Although many naturally occurring proteins consist of multiple domains, most studies on protein folding to date deal with single-domain proteins or isolated domains of multi-domain proteins. Studies of multi-domain protein folding are required for further advancing our understanding of protein folding mechanisms. Borrelia outer surface protein A (OspA) is a β-rich two-domain protein, in which two globular domains are connected by a rigid and stable single-layer β-sheet. Thus, OspA is particularly suited as a model system for studying the interplays of domains in protein folding. Here, we studied the equilibria and kinetics of the urea-induced folding-unfolding reactions of OspA probed with tryptophan fluorescence and ultraviolet circular dichroism. Global analysis of the experimental data revealed compelling lines of evidence for accumulation of an on-pathway intermediate during kinetic refolding and for the identity between the kinetic intermediate and a previously described equilibrium unfolding intermediate. The results suggest that the intermediate has the fully native structure in the N-terminal domain and the single layer β-sheet, with the C-terminal domain still unfolded. The observation of the productive on-pathway folding intermediate clearly indicates substantial interactions between the two domains mediated by the single-layer β-sheet. We propose that a rigid and stable intervening region between two domains creates an overlap between two folding units and can energetically couple their folding reactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.


    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  1. RNAiFold 2.0: a web server and software to design custom and Rfam-based RNA molecules. (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter


    Several algorithms for RNA inverse folding have been used to design synthetic riboswitches, ribozymes and thermoswitches, whose activity has been experimentally validated. The RNAiFold software is unique among approaches for inverse folding in that (exhaustive) constraint programming is used instead of heuristic methods. For that reason, RNAiFold can generate all sequences that fold into the target structure or determine that there is no solution. RNAiFold 2.0 is a complete overhaul of RNAiFold 1.0, rewritten from the now defunct COMET language to C++. The new code properly extends the capabilities of its predecessor by providing a user-friendly pipeline to design synthetic constructs having the functionality of given Rfam families. In addition, the new software supports amino acid constraints, even for proteins translated in different reading frames from overlapping coding sequences; moreover, structure compatibility/incompatibility constraints have been expanded. With these features, RNAiFold 2.0 allows the user to design single RNA molecules as well as hybridization complexes of two RNA molecules. the web server, source code and linux binaries are publicly accessible at © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Nanoscale Dewetting Transition in Protein Complex Folding (United States)

    Hua, Lan; Huang, Xuhui; Liu, Pu; Zhou, Ruhong; Berne, Bruce J.


    In a previous study, a surprising drying transition was observed to take place inside the nanoscale hydrophobic channel in the tetramer of the protein melittin. The goal of this paper is to determine if there are other protein complexes capable of displaying a dewetting transition during their final stage of folding. We searched the entire protein data bank (PDB) for all possible candidates, including protein tetramers, dimers, and two-domain proteins, and then performed the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the top candidates identified by a simple hydrophobic scoring function based on aligned hydrophobic surface areas. Our large scale MD simulations found several more proteins, including three tetramers, six dimers, and two two-domain proteins, which display a nanoscale dewetting transition in their final stage of folding. Even though the scoring function alone is not sufficient (i.e., a high score is necessary but not sufficient) in identifying the dewetting candidates, it does provide useful insights into the features of complex interfaces needed for dewetting. All top candidates have two features in common: (1) large aligned (matched) hydrophobic areas between two corresponding surfaces, and (2) large connected hydrophobic areas on the same surface. We have also studied the effect on dewetting of different water models and different treatments of the long-range electrostatic interactions (cutoff vs PME), and found the dewetting phenomena is fairly robust. This work presents a few proteins other than melittin tetramer for further experimental studies of the role of dewetting in the end stages of protein folding. PMID:17608515

  3. Incremental fold tests of remagnetized carbonate rocks (United States)

    Van Der Voo, R.; van der Pluijm, B.


    Many unmetamorphosed carbonates all over the world are demonstrably remagnetized, with the age of the secondary magnetizations typically close to that of the nearest orogeny in space and time. This observation did not become compelling until the mid-1980's, when the incremental fold test revealed the Appalachian carbonates to carry a syn-deformational remanence of likely Permian age (Scotese et al., 1982, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., v. 30, p. 385-395; Cederquist et al., 2006, Tectonophysics v. 422, p. 41-54). Since that time scores of Appalachian and Rocky Mountain carbonate rocks have added results to the growing database of paleopoles representing remagnetizations. Late Paleozoic remagnetizations form a cloud of results surrounding the reference poles of the Laurentian APWP. Remagnetizations in other locales and with inferred ages coeval with regional orogenies (e.g., Taconic, Sevier/Laramide, Variscan, Indosinian) are also ubiquitous. To be able to transform this cornucopia into valuable anchor-points on the APWP would be highly desirable. This may indeed become feasible, as will be explained next. Recent studies of faulted and folded carbonate-shale sequences have shown that this deformation enhances the illitization of smectite (Haines & van der Pluijm, 2008, Jour. Struct. Geol., v. 30, p. 525-538; Fitz-Diaz et al., 2014, International Geol. Review, v. 56, p. 734-755). 39Ar-40Ar dating of the authigenic illite (neutralizing any detrital illite contribution by taking the intercept of a mixing line) yields, therefore, the age of the deformation. We know that this date is also the age of the syndeformational remanence; thus we have the age of the corresponding paleopole. Results so far are obtained for the Canadian and U.S. Rocky Mountains and for the Spanish Cantabrian carbonates (Tohver et al., 2008, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 274, p. 524-530) and make good sense in accord with geological knowledge. Incremental fold tests are the tools used for this

  4. Synovial folds in the knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.


    Stimulated by arthroscopic insight into central abnormalities of the knee joint and by the large number of unexplained case of 'anterior knee pain', we have studied the synovia in more than 2000 contrast examinations of the joint. Surprisingly, and contrary to the views expressed in the literature, the clinically significant plica parapatellaris medialis was seen as frequently during pneumo-arthrography as during more complex procedures. Abnormalities in the synovial fold emerged as a discreet disease identified as the 'medial shelf syndrome' and should be included in the differential diagnosis of causes of pain round the lower end of the femur and patella. (orig.) [de

  5. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  6. Transpressional folding and associated cross-fold jointing controlling the geometry of post-orogenic vein-type W-Sn mineralization: examples from Minas da Panasqueira, Portugal (United States)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel


    The world-class W-Sn Panasqueira deposit consists of an extensive, subhorizontal vein swarm, peripheral to a late-orogenic greisen cupola. The vein swarm consists of hundreds of co-planar quartz veins that are overlapping and connected laterally over large distances. Various segmentation structures, a local zigzag geometry, and the occurrence of straight propagation paths indicate that they exploited a regional joint system. A detailed orientation analysis of the systematic joints reveals a geometrical relationship with the subvertical F2 fold generation, reflecting late-Variscan transpression. The joints are consistently orthogonal to the steeply plunging S0-S2 intersection lineation, both on the regional and the outcrop scale, and are thus defined as cross-fold or ac-joints. The joint system developed during the waning stages of the Variscan orogeny, when already uplifted to an upper-crustal level. Veining reactivated these cross-fold joints under the conditions of hydraulic overpressures and low differential stress. The consistent subperpendicular orientation of the veins relative to the non-cylindrical F2 hinge lines, also when having an inclined attitude, demonstrates that veining did not occur during far-field horizontal compression. Vein orientation is determined by local stress states variable on a meter-scale but with the minimum principal stress consistently subparallel to fold hinge lines. The conspicuous subhorizontal attitude of the Panasqueira vein swarm is thus dictated by the geometry of late-orogenic folds, which developed synchronous with oroclinal buckling of the Ibero-Armorican arc.

  7. A unique collaboration in Chile. (United States)


    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  8. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture


    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie


    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  9. Evaluation of single and multi-threshold entropy-based algorithms for folded substrate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdolna Apro


    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed evaluation of two variants of Maximum Entropy image segmentation algorithm(single and multi-thresholding with respect to their performance on segmenting test images showing folded substrates.The segmentation quality was determined by evaluating values of four different measures: misclassificationerror, modified Hausdorff distance, relative foreground area error and positive-negative false detection ratio. Newnormalization methods were proposed in order to combine all parameters into a unique algorithm evaluation rating.The segmentation algorithms were tested on images obtained by three different digitalisation methods coveringfour different surface textures. In addition, the methods were also tested on three images presenting a perfect fold.The obtained results showed that Multi-Maximum Entropy algorithm is better suited for the analysis of imagesshowing folded substrates.

  10. Intraoperative imaging of pediatric vocal fold lesions using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Benboujja, Fouzi; Garcia, Jordan A.; Beaudette, Kathy; Strupler, Mathias; Hartnick, Christopher J.; Boudoux, Caroline


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been previously identified as a promising tool for exploring laryngeal pathologies in adults. Here, we present an OCT handheld probe dedicated to imaging the unique geometry involved in pediatric laryngoscopy. A vertical cavity surface emitting laser-based wavelength-swept OCT system operating at 60 frames per second was coupled to the probe to acquire three-dimensional (3-D) volumes in vivo. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed probe and system, we imaged pediatric vocal fold lesions of patients going under direct laryngoscopy. Through this in vivo study, we extracted OCT features characterizing each pediatric vocal fold lesion, which shows a great potential for noninvasive laryngeal lesion discrimination. We believe OCT vocal fold examination in 3-D will result in improved knowledge of the pediatric anatomy and could aid in managing pediatric laryngeal diseases.

  11. Folding model analysis of alpha radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, D N


    Radioactive decay of nuclei via emission of α-particles has been studied theoretically in the framework of a superasymmetric fission model using the double folding (DF) procedure for obtaining the α-nucleus interaction potential. The DF nuclear potential has been obtained by folding in the density distribution functions of the α nucleus and the daughter nucleus with a realistic effective interaction. The M3Y effective interaction has been used for calculating the nuclear interaction potential which has been supplemented by a zero-range pseudo-potential for exchange along with the density dependence. The nuclear microscopic α-nucleus potential thus obtained has been used along with the Coulomb interaction potential to calculate the action integral within the WKB approximation. This subsequently yields calculations for the half-lives of α decays of nuclei. The density dependence and the exchange effects have not been found to be very significant. These calculations provide reasonable estimates for the lifetimes of α-radioactivity of nuclei

  12. Effects of knot type in the folding of topologically complex lattice proteins (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A.; Nunes, Ana; Faísca, Patrícia F. N.


    The folding properties of a protein whose native structure contains a 52 knot are investigated by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice model and compared with those of a 31 knot. A 52 knot embedded in the native structure enhances the kinetic stability of the carrier lattice protein in a way that is clearly more pronounced than in the case of the 31 knot. However, this happens at the expense of a severe loss in folding efficiency, an observation that is consistent with the relative abundance of 31 and 52 knots in the Protein Data Bank. The folding mechanism of the 52 knot shares with that of the 31 knot the occurrence of a threading movement of the chain terminus that lays closer to the knotted core. However, co-concomitant knotting and folding in the 52 knot occurs with negligible probability, in sharp contrast to what is observed for the 31 knot. The study of several single point mutations highlights the importance in the folding of knotted proteins of the so-called structural mutations (i.e., energetic perturbations of native interactions between residues that are critical for knotting but not for folding). On the other hand, the present study predicts that mutations that perturb the folding transition state may significantly enhance the kinetic stability of knotted proteins provided they involve residues located within the knotted core.

  13. Structural analysis of sheath folds in the Sylacauga Marble Group, Talladega slate belt, southern Appalachians (United States)

    Mies, J.W.


    Remnant blocks of marble from the Moretti-Harrah dimension-stone quarry provide excellent exposure of meter-scale sheath folds. Tubular structures with elliptical cross-sections (4 ???Ryz ??? 5) are the most common expression of the folds. The tubes are elongate subparallel to stretching lineation and are defined by centimeter-scale layers of schist. Eccentrically nested elliptical patterns and opposing asymmetry of folds ('S' and 'Z') are consistent with the sheath-fold interpretation. Sheath folds are locally numerous in the Moretti-Harrah quarry but are not widely distributed in the Sylacauga Marble Group; reconnaissance in neighboring quarries provided no additional observations. The presence of sheath folds in part of the Talladega slate belt indicates a local history of plastic, non-coaxial deformation. Such a history of deformation is substantiated by petrographic study of an extracted hinge from the Moretti-Harrah quarry. The sheath folds are modeled as due to passive amplification of initial structures during simple shear, using both analytic geometry and graphic simulation. As indicated by these models, relatively large shear strains (y ??? 9) and longitudinal initial structures are required. The shear strain presumably relates to NW-directed displacement of overlying crystalline rocks during late Paleozoic orogeny. ?? 1993.

  14. Reversible Dual-Image-Based Hiding Scheme Using Block Folding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chuen Lu


    Full Text Available The concept of a dual-image based scheme in information sharing consists of concealing secret messages in two cover images; only someone who has both stego-images can extract the secret messages. In 2015, Lu et al. proposed a center-folding strategy where each secret symbol is folded into the reduced digit to reduce the distortion of the stego-image. Then, in 2016, Lu et al. used a frequency-based encoding strategy to reduce the distortion of the frequency of occurrence of the maximum absolute value. Because the folding strategy can obviously reduce the value, the proposed scheme includes the folding operation twice to further decrease the reduced digit. We use a frequency-based encoding strategy to encode a secret message and then use the block folding technique by performing the center-folding operation twice to embed secret messages. An indicator is needed to identify the sequence number of the folding operation. The proposed scheme collects several indicators to produce a combined code and hides the code in a pixel to reduce the size of the indicators. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve higher image quality under the same embedding rate or higher payload, which is better than other methods.

  15. Quantification of change in vocal fold tissue stiffness relative to depth of artificial damage. (United States)

    Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Schmolke, Sebastian; Clauditz, Till; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Püschel, Klaus; Roemer, Frank W; Schumacher, Udo; Goodyer, Eric


    To quantify changes in the biomechanical properties of human excised vocal folds with defined artificial damage. The linear skin rheometer (LSR) was used to obtain a series of rheological measurements of shear modulus from the surface of 30 human cadaver vocal folds. The tissue samples were initially measured in a native condition and then following varying intensities of thermal damage. Histological examination of each vocal fold was used to determine the depth of artificial alteration. The measured changes in stiffness were correlated with the depth of cell damage. For vocal folds in a pre-damage state the shear modulus values ranged from 537 Pa to 1,651 Pa (female) and from 583 Pa to 1,193 Pa (male). With increasing depth of damage from the intermediate layer of the lamina propria (LP), tissue stiffness increased consistently (compared with native values) following application of thermal damage to the vocal folds. The measurement showed an increase of tissue stiffness when the depth of tissue damage was extending from the intermediate LP layer downwards. Changes in the elastic characteristics of human vocal fold tissue following damage at defined depths were demonstrated in an in vitro experiment. In future, reproducible in vivo measurements of elastic vocal fold tissue alterations may enable phonosurgeons to infer the extent of subepithelial damage from changes in surface elasticity.

  16. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.


    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  17. SVM-Fold: a tool for discriminative multi-class protein fold and superfamily recognition. (United States)

    Melvin, Iain; Ie, Eugene; Kuang, Rui; Weston, Jason; Stafford, William Noble; Leslie, Christina


    Predicting a protein's structural class from its amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem in computational biology. Much recent work has focused on developing new representations for protein sequences, called string kernels, for use with support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. However, while some of these approaches exhibit state-of-the-art performance at the binary protein classification problem, i.e. discriminating between a particular protein class and all other classes, few of these studies have addressed the real problem of multi-class superfamily or fold recognition. Moreover, there are only limited software tools and systems for SVM-based protein classification available to the bioinformatics community. We present a new multi-class SVM-based protein fold and superfamily recognition system and web server called SVM-Fold, which can be found at Our system uses an efficient implementation of a state-of-the-art string kernel for sequence profiles, called the profile kernel, where the underlying feature representation is a histogram of inexact matching k-mer frequencies. We also employ a novel machine learning approach to solve the difficult multi-class problem of classifying a sequence of amino acids into one of many known protein structural classes. Binary one-vs-the-rest SVM classifiers that are trained to recognize individual structural classes yield prediction scores that are not comparable, so that standard "one-vs-all" classification fails to perform well. Moreover, SVMs for classes at different levels of the protein structural hierarchy may make useful predictions, but one-vs-all does not try to combine these multiple predictions. To deal with these problems, our method learns relative weights between one-vs-the-rest classifiers and encodes information about the protein structural hierarchy for multi-class prediction. In large-scale benchmark results based on the SCOP database, our code weighting approach

  18. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C


    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Matrix analysis for associated consistency in cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, G.; Driessen, Theo; Sun, H.; Sun, H.

    Hamiache's recent axiomatization of the well-known Shapley value for TU games states that the Shapley value is the unique solution verifying the following three axioms: the inessential game property, continuity and associated consistency. Driessen extended Hamiache's axiomatization to the enlarged

  20. Matrix analysis for associated consistency in cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu Genjiu, G.; Driessen, Theo; Sun, H.; Sun, H.

    Hamiache axiomatized the Shapley value as the unique solution verifying the inessential game property, continuity and associated consistency. Driessen extended Hamiache’s axiomatization to the enlarged class of efficient, symmetric, and linear values. In this paper, we introduce the notion of row

  1. Improving decoy databases for protein folding algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Lindsey, Aaron


    Copyright © 2014 ACM. Predicting protein structures and simulating protein folding are two of the most important problems in computational biology today. Simulation methods rely on a scoring function to distinguish the native structure (the most energetically stable) from non-native structures. Decoy databases are collections of non-native structures used to test and verify these functions. We present a method to evaluate and improve the quality of decoy databases by adding novel structures and removing redundant structures. We test our approach on 17 different decoy databases of varying size and type and show significant improvement across a variety of metrics. We also test our improved databases on a popular modern scoring function and show that they contain a greater number of native-like structures than the original databases, thereby producing a more rigorous database for testing scoring functions.

  2. Folded tandem ion accelerator facility at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Arun; Padmakumar, Sapna; Subrahmanyam, N.B.V.; Singh, V.P.; Bhatt, J.P.; Ware, Shailaja V.; Pol, S.S; Basu, A.; Singh, S.K.; Krishnagopal, S.; Bhagwat, P.V.


    The 5.5 MV single stage Van de Graaff (VDG) accelerator was in continuous operation at Nuclear Physics Division (NPD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) since its inception in 1962. During 1993-96, VDG accelerator was converted to a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). The scientists and engineers of NPD, IADD (then a part of NPD) along with several other divisions of BARC joined hands together in designing, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the FOTIA for the maximum terminal voltage of 6 MV. After experiencing the first accelerated ion beam on the target from FOTIA during April 2000, different ion species were accelerated and tested. Now this accelerator FOTIA is in continuous use for different kind of experiments

  3. Electrotransfection of Polyamine Folded DNA Origami Structures. (United States)

    Chopra, Aradhana; Krishnan, Swati; Simmel, Friedrich C


    DNA origami structures are artificial molecular nanostructures in which DNA double helices are forced into a closely packed configuration by a multitude of DNA strand crossovers. We show that three different types of origami structures (a flat sheet, a hollow tube, and a compact origami block) can be formed in magnesium-free buffer solutions containing low (origami folding is proportional to the DNA concentration. At excessive amounts, the structures aggregate and precipitate. In contrast to origami structures formed in conventional buffers, the resulting structures are stable in the presence of high electric field pulses, such as those commonly used for electrotransfection experiments. We demonstrate that spermidine-stabilized structures are stable in cell lysate and can be delivered into mammalian cells via electroporation.

  4. Some physical approaches to protein folding (United States)

    Bascle, J.; Garel, T.; Orland, H.


    To understand how a protein folds is a problem which has important biological implications. In this article, we would like to present a physics-oriented point of view, which is twofold. First of all, we introduce simple statistical mechanics models which display, in the thermodynamic limit, folding and related transitions. These models can be divided into (i) crude spin glass-like models (with their Mattis analogs), where one may look for possible correlations between the chain self-interactions and the folded structure, (ii) glass-like models, where one emphasizes the geometrical competition between one- or two-dimensional local order (mimicking α helix or β sheet structures), and the requirement of global compactness. Both models are too simple to predict the spatial organization of a realistic protein, but are useful for the physicist and should have some feedback in other glassy systems (glasses, collapsed polymers .... ). These remarks lead us to the second physical approach, namely a new Monte-Carlo method, where one grows the protein atom-by-atom (or residue-by-residue), using a standard form (CHARMM .... ) for the total energy. A detailed comparison with other Monte-Carlo schemes, or Molecular Dynamics calculations, is then possible; we will sketch such a comparison for poly-alanines. Our twofold approach illustrates some of the difficulties one encounters in the protein folding problem, in particular those associated with the existence of a large number of metastable states. Le repliement des protéines est un problème qui a de nombreuses implications biologiques. Dans cet article, nous présentons, de deux façons différentes, un point de vue de physicien. Nous introduisons tout d'abord des modèles simples de mécanique statistique qui exhibent, à la limite thermodynamique, des transitions de repliement. Ces modèles peuvent être divisés en (i) verres de spin (éventuellement à la Mattis), où l'on peut chercher des corrélations entre les

  5. Puzzle of the folding potential on the nuclear halo reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Atef; Lee, Yen Cheong; Mahmoud, Z.M.M.


    Folding potentials of the elastic scattering drip-line nuclei at various incident energies is one method to study nuclear matter density distributions and nuclear radii. The nuclei with density distributions consisting of a bulk (core) and an outer layer (halo), dilute and spatially extended are called the halo nuclei caused for the weak particle binding. Several halo nuclei are studied and many potential candidates are identified. All the cross-sections of the elastic scattering for the drip-line nuclei 11 Be and 6 He, are calculated to understand the exotic properties of these nuclei starting from its structure, extended radius, nuclear size till the large total reaction cross-sections for these nuclei when it interacts with a stable target 12 C. (author)

  6. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.


    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module's different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line

  7. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  8. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang


    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  9. The review on tessellation origami inspired folded structure (United States)

    Chu, Chai Chen; Keong, Choong Kok


    Existence of folds enhances the load carrying capacity of a folded structure which makes it suitable to be used for application where large open space is required such as large span roof structures and façade. Folded structure is closely related to origami especially the tessellation origami. Tessellation origami provides a folded configuration with facetted surface as a result from repeated folding pattern. Besides that, tessellation origami has flexible folding mechanism that produced a variety of 3-dimensional folded configurations. Despite the direct relationship between fold in origami and folded structure, the idea of origami inspired folded structure is not properly reviewed in the relevant engineering field. Hence, this paper aims to present the current studies from related discipline which has direct relation with application of tessellation origami in folded structure. First, tessellation origami is properly introduced and defined. Then, the review covers the topic on the origami tessellation design suitable for folded structure, its modeling and simulation method, and existing studies and applications of origami as folded structure is presented. The paper also includes the discussion on the current issues related to each topic.

  10. TBI server: a web server for predicting ion effects in RNA folding. (United States)

    Zhu, Yuhong; He, Zhaojian; Chen, Shi-Jie


    Metal ions play a critical role in the stabilization of RNA structures. Therefore, accurate prediction of the ion effects in RNA folding can have a far-reaching impact on our understanding of RNA structure and function. Multivalent ions, especially Mg²⁺, are essential for RNA tertiary structure formation. These ions can possibly become strongly correlated in the close vicinity of RNA surface. Most of the currently available software packages, which have widespread success in predicting ion effects in biomolecular systems, however, do not explicitly account for the ion correlation effect. Therefore, it is important to develop a software package/web server for the prediction of ion electrostatics in RNA folding by including ion correlation effects. The TBI web server provides predictions for the total electrostatic free energy, the different free energy components, and the mean number and the most probable distributions of the bound ions. A novel feature of the TBI server is its ability to account for ion correlation and ion distribution fluctuation effects. By accounting for the ion correlation and fluctuation effects, the TBI server is a unique online tool for computing ion-mediated electrostatic properties for given RNA structures. The results can provide important data for in-depth analysis for ion effects in RNA folding including the ion-dependence of folding stability, ion uptake in the folding process, and the interplay between the different energetic components.

  11. TBI server: a web server for predicting ion effects in RNA folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Zhu

    Full Text Available Metal ions play a critical role in the stabilization of RNA structures. Therefore, accurate prediction of the ion effects in RNA folding can have a far-reaching impact on our understanding of RNA structure and function. Multivalent ions, especially Mg²⁺, are essential for RNA tertiary structure formation. These ions can possibly become strongly correlated in the close vicinity of RNA surface. Most of the currently available software packages, which have widespread success in predicting ion effects in biomolecular systems, however, do not explicitly account for the ion correlation effect. Therefore, it is important to develop a software package/web server for the prediction of ion electrostatics in RNA folding by including ion correlation effects.The TBI web server provides predictions for the total electrostatic free energy, the different free energy components, and the mean number and the most probable distributions of the bound ions. A novel feature of the TBI server is its ability to account for ion correlation and ion distribution fluctuation effects.By accounting for the ion correlation and fluctuation effects, the TBI server is a unique online tool for computing ion-mediated electrostatic properties for given RNA structures. The results can provide important data for in-depth analysis for ion effects in RNA folding including the ion-dependence of folding stability, ion uptake in the folding process, and the interplay between the different energetic components.

  12. RNAiFold: a web server for RNA inverse folding and molecular design. (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter; Dotu, Ivan


    Synthetic biology and nanotechnology are poised to make revolutionary contributions to the 21st century. In this article, we describe a new web server to support in silico RNA molecular design. Given an input target RNA secondary structure, together with optional constraints, such as requiring GC-content to lie within a certain range, requiring the number of strong (GC), weak (AU) and wobble (GU) base pairs to lie in a certain range, the RNAiFold web server determines one or more RNA sequences, whose minimum free-energy secondary structure is the target structure. RNAiFold provides access to two servers: RNA-CPdesign, which applies constraint programming, and RNA-LNSdesign, which applies the large neighborhood search heuristic; hence, it is suitable for larger input structures. Both servers can also solve the RNA inverse hybridization problem, i.e. given a representation of the desired hybridization structure, RNAiFold returns two sequences, whose minimum free-energy hybridization is the input target structure. The web server is publicly accessible at, which provides access to two specialized servers: RNA-CPdesign and RNA-LNSdesign. Source code for the underlying algorithms, implemented in COMET and supported on linux, can be downloaded at the server website.

  13. Glycoprotein folding and quality-control mechanisms in protein-folding diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Ferris


    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of proteins – from translation to folding to export – encompasses a complex set of events that are exquisitely regulated and scrutinized to ensure the functional quality of the end products. Cells have evolved to capitalize on multiple post-translational modifications in addition to primary structure to indicate the folding status of nascent polypeptides to the chaperones and other proteins that assist in their folding and export. These modifications can also, in the case of irreversibly misfolded candidates, signal the need for dislocation and degradation. The current Review focuses on the glycoprotein quality-control (GQC system that utilizes protein N-glycosylation and N-glycan trimming to direct nascent glycopolypeptides through the folding, export and dislocation pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A diverse set of pathological conditions rooted in defective as well as over-vigilant ER quality-control systems have been identified, underlining its importance in human health and disease. We describe the GQC pathways and highlight disease and animal models that have been instrumental in clarifying our current understanding of these processes.

  14. Effect of Vocal Fold Medialization on Dysphagia in Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Immobility. (United States)

    Cates, Daniel J; Venkatesan, Naren N; Strong, Brandon; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C


    The effect of vocal fold medialization (VFM) on vocal improvement in persons with unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) is well established. The effect of VFM on the symptom of dysphagia is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate dysphagia symptoms in patients with UVFI pre- and post-VFM. Case series with chart review. Academic tertiary care medical center. The charts of 44 persons with UVFI who underwent VFM between June 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, were abstracted from a prospectively maintained database at the University of California, Davis, Voice and Swallowing Center. Patient demographics, indications, and type of surgical procedure were recorded. Self-reported swallowing impairment was assessed with the validated 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) before and after surgery. A paired samples t test was used to compare pre- and postmedialization EAT-10 scores. Forty-four patients met criteria and underwent either vocal fold injection (73%) or thyroplasty (27%). Etiologies of vocal fold paralysis were iatrogenic (55%), idiopathic (29%), benign or malignant neoplastic (9%), traumatic (5%), or related to the late effects of radiation (2%). EAT-10 (mean ± SD) scores improved from 12.2 ± 11.1 to 7.7 ± 7.2 after medialization (P dysphagia and report significant improvement in swallowing symptoms following VFM. The symptomatic improvement appears to be durable over time. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  15. Self-folding origami at any energy scale (United States)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Stern, Menachem; Carruthers Ferrero, Alexandra; Witten, Thomas A.; Chen, Elizabeth; Murugan, Arvind


    Programmable stiff sheets with a single low-energy folding motion have been sought in fields ranging from the ancient art of origami to modern meta-materials research. Despite such attention, only two extreme classes of crease patterns are usually studied; special Miura-Ori-based zero-energy patterns, in which crease folding requires no sheet bending, and random patterns with high-energy folding, in which the sheet bends as much as creases fold. We present a physical approach that allows systematic exploration of the entire space of crease patterns as a function of the folding energy. Consequently, we uncover statistical results in origami, finding the entropy of crease patterns of given folding energy. Notably, we identify three classes of Mountain-Valley choices that have widely varying `typical' folding energies. Our work opens up a wealth of experimentally relevant self-folding origami designs not reliant on Miura-Ori, the Kawasaki condition or any special symmetry in space.

  16. Kinematics of large scale asymmetric folds and associated smaller ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work reiterates the importance of analysis of ... these models is the assumption that the folds are passive folds ... applicability of these models is thus limited in the case of ...... with contrasted rheological properties, a theory for the.

  17. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels


    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases (United States)

    Bohlender, Jörg


    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  19. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  20. Folds in multilayered rocks of Proterozoic age, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Johnson and Johnson 2002 etc) shows that the fold shape modification may be brought about by buckling and flattening operating simultaneously throughout the development of fold. In the present paper a series of F1 folds devel- oped in slates with interlayered alternations with quartzite of Proterozoic age and unaffected ...

  1. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.


    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  2. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, Clark A.; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E.; Young, VyVy N.; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold

  3. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer (United States)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen


    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  4. Technique to achieve the symmetry of the new inframammary fold (United States)

    Pozzi, Marcello; Zoccali, Giovanni; Buccheri, Ernesto Maria; de Vita, Roy


    Summary The literature outlines several surgical techniques to restore inframmammary fold definition, but symmetry of the fold is often left to irreproducible procedures. We report our personal technique to restore the symmetry of the inframmammary fold during multistep breast reconstruction. PMID:25078934

  5. Consistency based correlations for tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, S.; Paul, A.C. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Environmental Systems Engineering


    The extraction of oil, uranium, metals and mineral resources from the earth generates significant amounts of tailings slurry. The tailings are contained in a disposal area with perimeter dykes constructed from the coarser fraction of the slurry. There are many unique challenges pertaining to the management of the containment facilities for several decades beyond mine closure that are a result of the slow settling rates of the fines and the high standing toxic waters. Many tailings dam failures in different parts of the world have been reported to result in significant contaminant releases causing public concern over the conventional practice of tailings disposal. Therefore, in order to reduce and minimize the environmental footprint, the fluid tailings need to undergo efficient consolidation. This paper presented an investigation into the consolidation behaviour of tailings in conjunction with soil consistency that captured physicochemical interactions. The paper discussed the large strain consolidation behaviour (volume compressibility and hydraulic conductivity) of six fine-grained soil slurries based on published data. The paper provided background information on the study and presented the research methodology. The geotechnical index properties of the selected materials were also presented. The large strain consolidation, volume compressibility correlations, and hydraulic conductivity correlations were provided. It was concluded that the normalized void ratio best described volume compressibility whereas liquidity index best explained the hydraulic conductivity. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Fracture patterns in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Kurdistan Region of Iraq (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Decker, Kurt; Grasemann, Bernhard; Peresson, Herwig


    Fracture data have been collected in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, which is a poorly accessible and unexplored area of the Zagros. Pre to early folding NE-SW striking extensional fractures and NW-SE striking contractive elements represent the older set affecting the exposed multilayer of the area. These latter structures are early syn-folding and followed by folding-related mesostructural assemblages, which include elements striking parallel to the axial trend of major folds (longitudinal fractures). Bedding perpendicular joints and veins, and extensional faults belonging to this second fracture set are located in the outer arc of exposed anticlines, whilst longitudinal reverse faults locate in the inner arcs. Consistently, these elements are associated with syn-folding tangential longitudinal strain. The younger two sets are related to E-W extension and NNE-SSW to N-S shortening, frequently displaying reactivation of the older sets. The last shortening event, which is described along the entire Zagros Belt, probably relates with the onset of N-S compression induced by the northward movement of the Arabian plate relative to the Eurasian Plate. In comparison between the inferred palaeostrain directions and the kinematics of recent GPS measurements, we conclude that the N-S compression and the partitioning into NW-SE trending folds and NW to N trending strike-slip faults likely remained unchanged throughout the Neogene tectonic history of the investigated area.

  7. Optimal fold symmetry of LH2 rings on a photosynthetic membrane. (United States)

    Cleary, Liam; Chen, Hang; Chuang, Chern; Silbey, Robert J; Cao, Jianshu


    An intriguing observation of photosynthetic light-harvesting systems is the N-fold symmetry of light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of purple bacteria. We calculate the optimal rotational configuration of N-fold rings on a hexagonal lattice and establish two related mechanisms for the promotion of maximum excitation energy transfer (EET). (i) For certain fold numbers, there exist optimal basis cells with rotational symmetry, extendable to the entire lattice for the global optimization of the EET network. (ii) The type of basis cell can reduce or remove the frustration of EET rates across the photosynthetic network. We find that the existence of a basis cell and its type are directly related to the number of matching points S between the fold symmetry and the hexagonal lattice. The two complementary mechanisms provide selection criteria for the fold number and identify groups of consecutive numbers. Remarkably, one such group consists of the naturally occurring 8-, 9-, and 10-fold rings. By considering the inter-ring distance and EET rate, we demonstrate that this group can achieve minimal rotational sensitivity in addition to an optimal packing density, achieving robust and efficient EET. This corroborates our findings i and ii and, through their direct relation to S, suggests the design principle of matching the internal symmetry with the lattice order.

  8. Self-organization and mismatch tolerance in protein folding: General theory and an application (United States)

    Fernández, Ariel; Berry, R. Stephen


    The folding of a protein is a process both expeditious and robust. The analysis of this process presented here uses a coarse, discretized representation of the evolving form of the backbone chain, based on its torsional states. This coarse description consists of discretizing the torsional coordinates modulo the Ramachandran basins in the local softmode dynamics. Whenever the representation exhibits "contact patterns" that correspond to topological compatibilities with particular structural forms, secondary and then tertiary, the elements constituting the pattern are effectively entrained by a reduction of their rates of exploration of their discretized configuration space. The properties "expeditious and robust" imply that the folding protein must have some tolerance to both torsional "frustrated" and side-chain contact mismatches which may occur during the folding process. The energy-entropy consequences of the staircase or funnel topography of the potential surface should allow the folding protein to correct these mismatches, eventually. This tolerance lends itself to an iterative pattern-recognition-and-feedback description of the folding process that reflects mismatched local torsional states and hydrophobic/polar contacts. The predictive potential of our algorithm is tested by application to the folding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), a protein whose ability to form its active structure is contingent upon its frustration tolerance.

  9. Four residues of propeptide are essential for precursor folding of nattokinase. (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Cao, Xinhua; Deng, Yu; Bao, Wei; Tang, Changyan; Ding, Hanjing; Zheng, Zhongliang; Zou, Guolin


    Subtilisin propeptide functions as an intramolecular chaperone that guides precursor folding. Nattokinase, a member of subtilisin family, is synthesized as a precursor consisting of a signal peptide, a propeptide, and a subtilisin domain, and the mechanism of its folding remains to be understood. In this study, the essential residues of nattokinase propeptide which contribute to precursor folding were determined. Deletion analysis showed that the conserved regions in propeptide were important for precursor folding. Single-site and multi-site mutagenesis studies confirmed the role of Tyr10, Gly13, Gly34, and Gly35. During stage (i) and (ii) of precursor folding, Tyr10 and Gly13 would form the part of interface with subtilisin domain. While Gly34 and Gly35 connected with an α-helix that would stabilize the structure of propeptide. The quadruple Ala mutation, Y10A/G13A/G34A/G35A, resulted in a loss of the chaperone function for the propeptide. This work showed the essential residues of propeptide for precursor folding via secondary structure and kinetic parameter analyses. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. RsaM: a transcriptional regulator of Burkholderia spp. with novel fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Chhor, Gekleng [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Clancy, Shonda [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Jedrzejczak, Robert [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Winans, Stephen C. [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, IL USA


    Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a set of closely related bacterial species that are notorious pathogens of cystic fibrosis patients, responsible for life-threatening lung infections. Expression of several virulence factors of Bcc is controlled by a mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). QS is a means of bacterial communication used to coordinate gene expression in a cell-density-dependent manner. The system involves the production of diffusible signaling molecules (N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, AHLs), that bind to cognate transcriptional regulators and influence their ability to regulate gene expression. One such system that is highly conserved in Bcc consists of CepI and CepR. CepI is AHL synthase, while CepR is an AHL-dependent transcription factor. In most members of the Bcc group, the cepI and cepR genes are divergently transcribed and separated by additional genes. One of them, bcam1869, encodes the BcRsaM protein, which was recently postulated to modulate the abundance or activity of CepI or CepR. Here we show the crystal structure of BcRsaM from B. cenocepacia J2315. It is a single-domain protein with unique topology and presents a novel fold. The protein is a dimer in the crystal and in solution. This regulator has no known DNA binding motifs and direct binding of BcRsaM to the cepI promoter could not be detected in in vitro assays. Therefore, we propose that the modulatory action of RsaM might result from interactions with other components of the QS machinery rather than from direct association with the DNA promoter.

  11. Island of stability for consistent deformations of Einstein's gravity. (United States)

    Berkhahn, Felix; Dietrich, Dennis D; Hofmann, Stefan; Kühnel, Florian; Moyassari, Parvin


    We construct deformations of general relativity that are consistent and phenomenologically viable, since they respect, in particular, cosmological backgrounds. These deformations have unique symmetries in accordance with their Minkowski cousins (Fierz-Pauli theory for massive gravitons) and incorporate a background curvature induced self-stabilizing mechanism. Self-stabilization is essential in order to guarantee hyperbolic evolution in and unitarity of the covariantized theory, as well as the deformation's uniqueness. We show that the deformation's parameter space contains islands of absolute stability that are persistent through the entire cosmic evolution.

  12. Folding very short peptides using molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco K Ho


    Full Text Available Peptides often have conformational preferences. We simulated 133 peptide 8-mer fragments from six different proteins, sampled by replica-exchange molecular dynamics using Amber7 with a GB/SA (generalized-Born/solvent-accessible electrostatic approximation to water implicit solvent. We found that 85 of the peptides have no preferred structure, while 48 of them converge to a preferred structure. In 85% of the converged cases (41 peptides, the structures found by the simulations bear some resemblance to their native structures, based on a coarse-grained backbone description. In particular, all seven of the beta hairpins in the native structures contain a fragment in the turn that is highly structured. In the eight cases where the bioinformatics-based I-sites library picks out native-like structures, the present simulations are largely in agreement. Such physics-based modeling may be useful for identifying early nuclei in folding kinetics and for assisting in protein-structure prediction methods that utilize the assembly of peptide fragments.

  13. Delayed Collapse of Wooden Folding Stairs (United States)

    Krentowski, Janusz; Chyzy, Tadeusz


    During operation of folding stairs, a fastener joining the ladder hanger with the frame was torn off. A person using the stairs sustained serious injury. In several dozen other locations similar accidents were observed. As a result of inspections, some threaded parts of the screws were found in the gaps between the wooden elements of the stairs’ flaps. In the construction a hatch made of wooden strips is attached to an external frame by means of metal hangers. Laboratory strength tests were conducted on three samples made of wooden elements identical to the ones used in the damaged stairs. Due to complex load distribution mechanism acting on the base of the structure, a three-dimensional FEM model was created. An original software was used for calculations. Five computational model variants were considered. As a result of the numerical analyses, it was unquestionably shown that faulty connections were the cause of the destruction of the stairs. The weakest link in the load transmission chain were found to have been the screws connecting the hatch board with the hangers.

  14. Folding and unfolding phylogenetic trees and networks. (United States)

    Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Steel, Mike; Wu, Taoyang


    Phylogenetic networks are rooted, labelled directed acyclic graphswhich are commonly used to represent reticulate evolution. There is a close relationship between phylogenetic networks and multi-labelled trees (MUL-trees). Indeed, any phylogenetic network N can be "unfolded" to obtain a MUL-tree U(N) and, conversely, a MUL-tree T can in certain circumstances be "folded" to obtain aphylogenetic network F(T) that exhibits T. In this paper, we study properties of the operations U and F in more detail. In particular, we introduce the class of stable networks, phylogenetic networks N for which F(U(N)) is isomorphic to N, characterise such networks, and show that they are related to the well-known class of tree-sibling networks. We also explore how the concept of displaying a tree in a network N can be related to displaying the tree in the MUL-tree U(N). To do this, we develop aphylogenetic analogue of graph fibrations. This allows us to view U(N) as the analogue of the universal cover of a digraph, and to establish a close connection between displaying trees in U(N) and reconciling phylogenetic trees with networks.

  15. The pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmsted, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekita, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.


    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is at the limit of resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they appear radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor,inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  16. Pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekitka, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Buck, J.L.


    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is just at the resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they can be seen radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor, inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  17. The unique cysteine knot regulates the pleotropic hormone leptin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Haglund

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a key role in regulating energy intake/expenditure, metabolism and hypertension. It folds into a four-helix bundle that binds to the extracellular receptor to initiate signaling. Our work on leptin revealed a hidden complexity in the formation of a previously un-described, cysteine-knotted topology in leptin. We hypothesized that this unique topology could offer new mechanisms in regulating the protein activity. A combination of in silico simulation and in vitro experiments was used to probe the role of the knotted topology introduced by the disulphide-bridge on leptin folding and function. Our results surprisingly show that the free energy landscape is conserved between knotted and unknotted protein, however the additional complexity added by the knot formation is structurally important. Native state analyses led to the discovery that the disulphide-bond plays an important role in receptor binding and thus mediate biological activity by local motions on distal receptor-binding sites, far removed from the disulphide-bridge. Thus, the disulphide-bridge appears to function as a point of tension that allows dissipation of stress at a distance in leptin.

  18. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.


    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  19. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.


    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  20. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.


    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  1. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  2. Protein Folding Free Energy Landscape along the Committor - the Optimal Folding Coordinate. (United States)

    Krivov, Sergei V


    Recent advances in simulation and experiment have led to dramatic increases in the quantity and complexity of produced data, which makes the development of automated analysis tools very important. A powerful approach to analyze dynamics contained in such data sets is to describe/approximate it by diffusion on a free energy landscape - free energy as a function of reaction coordinates (RC). For the description to be quantitatively accurate, RCs should be chosen in an optimal way. Recent theoretical results show that such an optimal RC exists; however, determining it for practical systems is a very difficult unsolved problem. Here we describe a solution to this problem. We describe an adaptive nonparametric approach to accurately determine the optimal RC (the committor) for an equilibrium trajectory of a realistic system. In contrast to alternative approaches, which require a functional form with many parameters to approximate an RC and thus extensive expertise with the system, the suggested approach is nonparametric and can approximate any RC with high accuracy without system specific information. To avoid overfitting for a realistically sampled system, the approach performs RC optimization in an adaptive manner by focusing optimization on less optimized spatiotemporal regions of the RC. The power of the approach is illustrated on a long equilibrium atomistic folding simulation of HP35 protein. We have determined the optimal folding RC - the committor, which was confirmed by passing a stringent committor validation test. It allowed us to determine a first quantitatively accurate protein folding free energy landscape. We have confirmed the recent theoretical results that diffusion on such a free energy profile can be used to compute exactly the equilibrium flux, the mean first passage times, and the mean transition path times between any two points on the profile. We have shown that the mean squared displacement along the optimal RC grows linear with time as for

  3. Design and simulation of origami structures with smooth folds. (United States)

    Peraza Hernandez, E A; Hartl, D J; Lagoudas, D C


    Origami has enabled new approaches to the fabrication and functionality of multiple structures. Current methods for origami design are restricted to the idealization of folds as creases of zeroth-order geometric continuity. Such an idealization is not proper for origami structures of non-negligible fold thickness or maximum curvature at the folds restricted by material limitations. For such structures, folds are not properly represented as creases but rather as bent regions of higher-order geometric continuity. Such fold regions of arbitrary order of continuity are termed as smooth folds . This paper presents a method for solving the following origami design problem: given a goal shape represented as a polygonal mesh (termed as the goal mesh ), find the geometry of a single planar sheet, its pattern of smooth folds, and the history of folding motion allowing the sheet to approximate the goal mesh. The parametrization of the planar sheet and the constraints that allow for a valid pattern of smooth folds are presented. The method is tested against various goal meshes having diverse geometries. The results show that every determined sheet approximates its corresponding goal mesh in a known folded configuration having fold angles obtained from the geometry of the goal mesh.

  4. Single-Chain Folding of Synthetic Polymers: A Critical Update. (United States)

    Altintas, Ozcan; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher


    The current contribution serves as a critical update to a previous feature article from us (Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2012, 33, 958-971), and highlights the latest advances in the preparation of single chain polymeric nanoparticles and initial-yet promising-attempts towards mimicking the structure of natural biomacromolecules via single-chain folding of well-defined linear polymers via so-called single chain selective point folding and repeat unit folding. The contribution covers selected examples from the literature published up to ca. September 2015. Our aim is not to provide an exhaustive review but rather highlight a selection of new and exciting examples for single-chain folding based on advanced macromolecular precision chemistry. Initially, the discussion focuses on the synthesis and characterization of single-chain folded structures via selective point folding. The second part of the feature article addresses the folding of well-defined single-chain polymers by means of repeat unit folding. The current state of the art in the field of single-chain folding indicates that repeat unit folding-driven nanoparticle preparation is well-advanced, while initial encouraging steps towards building selective point folding systems have been taken. In addition, a summary of the-in our view-open key questions is provided that may guide future biomimetic design efforts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Folding in and out: passive morphing in flapping wings. (United States)

    Stowers, Amanda K; Lentink, David


    We present a new mechanism for passive wing morphing of flapping wings inspired by bat and bird wing morphology. The mechanism consists of an unactuated hand wing connected to the arm wing with a wrist joint. Flapping motion generates centrifugal accelerations in the hand wing, forcing it to unfold passively. Using a robotic model in hover, we made kinematic measurements of unfolding kinematics as functions of the non-dimensional wingspan fold ratio (2-2.5) and flapping frequency (5-17 Hz) using stereo high-speed cameras. We find that the wings unfold passively within one to two flaps and remain unfolded with only small amplitude oscillations. To better understand the passive dynamics, we constructed a computer model of the unfolding process based on rigid body dynamics, contact models, and aerodynamic correlations. This model predicts the measured passive unfolding within about one flap and shows that unfolding is driven by centrifugal acceleration induced by flapping. The simulations also predict that relative unfolding time only weakly depends on flapping frequency and can be reduced to less than half a wingbeat by increasing flapping amplitude. Subsequent dimensional analysis shows that the time required to unfold passively is of the same order of magnitude as the flapping period. This suggests that centrifugal acceleration can drive passive unfolding within approximately one wingbeat in small and large wings. Finally, we show experimentally that passive unfolding wings can withstand impact with a branch, by first folding and then unfolding passively. This mechanism enables flapping robots to squeeze through clutter without sophisticated control. Passive unfolding also provides a new avenue in morphing wing design that makes future flapping morphing wings possibly more energy efficient and light-weight. Simultaneously these results point to possible inertia driven, and therefore metabolically efficient, control strategies in bats and birds to morph or recover

  6. Identification of distinct layers within the stratified squamous epithelium of the adult human true vocal fold. (United States)

    Dowdall, Jayme R; Sadow, Peter M; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj


    A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. A unique tripartite collision tumor of the esophagus (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Moris, Demetrios; Baliou, Evangelia; Tsilimigras, Diamantis; Throupis, Theodore; Liakakos, Theodore


    Abstract Rationale: We report a unique case of a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of three separate histologic types. Patients concerns: Therapeutic dilemmas on the proper treatment of those rare neoplasms remain unanswered considering both proper surgical therapy and adjuvant therapy. Diagnose: In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of a small cell carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma of medium differentiation and a signet ring cell carcinoma. Diagnosis is difficult as clinical presentation of the patient was undistinguishable from other, commoner tumor types. Interventions: The patient's diagnostic and therapeutic course along with available data on the collisions tumor's biological behavior and treatment are briefly discussed. Outcomes: Esophagectomy is the best treatment options for these patients. Unique nature of this tumor demands aggresive oncologic treatment. Lessons: Collision tumors are rare neoplasms consisting of distinct cell populations developing in juxtaposition to one another without any areas of intermingling. Various cell types can be found. However, collision neoplasms of the esophagus combining adenomatous and neuroendocrine components are exceedingly rare, with only 5 cases described to date in the literature. Given their rarity, limited information is available on their tumorigenesis, biological behavior and clinical course. In general, these tumors are aggressive neoplasms and significantly affect patient treatment and prognosis. PMID:29245236

  8. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.


    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  9. Accurately controlled sequential self-folding structures by polystyrene film (United States)

    Deng, Dongping; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yong; Lan, Xing; Tice, Jesse


    Four-dimensional (4D) printing overcomes the traditional fabrication limitations by designing heterogeneous materials to enable the printed structures evolve over time (the fourth dimension) under external stimuli. Here, we present a simple 4D printing of self-folding structures that can be sequentially and accurately folded. When heated above their glass transition temperature pre-strained polystyrene films shrink along the XY plane. In our process silver ink traces printed on the film are used to provide heat stimuli by conducting current to trigger the self-folding behavior. The parameters affecting the folding process are studied and discussed. Sequential folding and accurately controlled folding angles are achieved by using printed ink traces and angle lock design. Theoretical analyses are done to guide the design of the folding processes. Programmable structures such as a lock and a three-dimensional antenna are achieved to test the feasibility and potential applications of this method. These self-folding structures change their shapes after fabrication under controlled stimuli (electric current) and have potential applications in the fields of electronics, consumer devices, and robotics. Our design and fabrication method provides an easy way by using silver ink printed on polystyrene films to 4D print self-folding structures for electrically induced sequential folding with angular control.

  10. Vocal fold paresis - a debilitating and underdiagnosed condition. (United States)

    Harris, G; O'Meara, C; Pemberton, C; Rough, J; Darveniza, P; Tisch, S; Cole, I


    To review the clinical signs of vocal fold paresis on laryngeal videostroboscopy, to quantify its impact on patients' quality of life and to confirm the benefit of laryngeal electromyography in its diagnosis. Twenty-nine vocal fold paresis patients were referred for laryngeal electromyography. Voice Handicap Index 10 results were compared to 43 patients diagnosed with vocal fold paralysis. Laryngeal videostroboscopy analysis was conducted to determine side of paresis. Blinded laryngeal electromyography confirmed vocal fold paresis in 92.6 per cent of cases, with vocal fold lag being the most common diagnostic sign. The laryngology team accurately predicted side of paresis in 76 per cent of cases. Total Voice Handicap Index 10 responses were not significantly different between vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis groups (26.08 ± 0.21 and 22.93 ± 0.17, respectively). Vocal fold paresis has a significant impact on quality of life. This study shows that laryngeal electromyography is an important diagnostic tool. Patients with persisting dysphonia and apparently normal vocal fold movement, who fail to respond to appropriate speech therapy, should be investigated for a diagnosis of vocal fold paresis.

  11. Quantitative electromyographic characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis. (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Han; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng


    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis with no preceding causes is diagnosed as idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis. However, comprehensive guidelines for evaluating the defining characteristics of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis are still lacking. In the present study, we hypothesized that idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis may have different clinical and neurologic characteristics from unilateral vocal fold paralysis caused by surgical trauma. Retrospective, case series study. Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis were evaluated using quantitative laryngeal electromyography, videolaryngostroboscopy, voice acoustic analysis, the Voice Outcome Survey, and the Short Form-36 Health Survey quality-of-life questionnaire. Patients with idiopathic and iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis were compared. A total of 124 patients were recruited. Of those, 17 with no definite identified causes after evaluation and follow-up were assigned to the idiopathic group. The remaining 107 patients with surgery-induced vocal fold paralysis were assigned to the iatrogenic group. Patients in the idiopathic group had higher recruitment of the thyroarytenoid-lateral cricoarytenoid muscle complex and better quality of life compared with the iatrogenic group. Idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis has a distinct clinical presentation, with relatively minor denervation changes in the involved laryngeal muscles, and less impact on quality of life compared with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:E362-E368, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Insights into the role of elastin in vocal fold health and disease (United States)

    Moore, Jaime


    Elastic fibers are large, complex and surprisingly poorly understood extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules. The elastin fiber, generated from a single human gene - elastin (ELN), is a self assembling integral protein that endows critical mechanic proprieties to elastic tissues and organs such as the skin, lungs, and arteries. The biology of elastic fibers is complex because they have multiple components, a tightly regulated developmental deposition, a multi-step hierarchical assembly and unique biomechanical functions. Elastin is present in vocal folds, where it plays a pivotal role in the quality of phonation. This review article provides an overview of the genesis of elastin and its wide- ranging structure and function. Specific distribution within the vocal fold lamina propria across the lifespan in normal and pathological states and its contribution to vocal fold biomechanics will be examined. Elastin and elastin-derived molecules are increasingly investigated for their application in tissue engineering. The properties of various elastin– based materials will be discussed and their current and future applications evaluated. A new level of understanding of the biomechanical properties of vocal fold elastin composites and their molecular basis should lead to new strategies for elastic fiber repair and regeneration in aging and disease. PMID:21708449

  13. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness? (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A


    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  15. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.


    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  16. Cation-induced folding of alginate-bearing bilayer gels: an unusual example of spontaneous folding along the long axis. (United States)

    Athas, Jasmin C; Nguyen, Catherine P; Kummar, Shailaa; Raghavan, Srinivasa R


    The spontaneous folding of flat gel films into tubes is an interesting example of self-assembly. Typically, a rectangular film folds along its short axis when forming a tube; folding along the long axis has been seen only in rare instances when the film is constrained. Here, we report a case where the same free-swelling gel film folds along either its long or short axis depending on the concentration of a solute. Our gels are sandwiches (bilayers) of two layers: a passive layer of cross-linked N,N'-dimethylyacrylamide (DMAA) and an active layer of cross-linked DMAA that also contains chains of the biopolymer alginate. Multivalent cations like Ca2+ and Cu2+ induce these bilayer gels to fold into tubes. The folding occurs instantly when a flat film of the gel is introduced into a solution of these cations. The likely cause for folding is that the active layer stiffens and shrinks (because the alginate chains in it get cross-linked by the cations) whereas the passive layer is unaffected. The resulting mismatch in swelling degree between the two layers creates internal stresses that drive folding. Cations that are incapable of cross-linking alginate, such as Na+ and Mg2+, do not induce gel folding. Moreover, the striking aspect is the direction of folding. When the Ca2+ concentration is high (100 mM or higher), the gels fold along their long axis, whereas when the Ca2+ concentration is low (40 to 80 mM), the gels fold along their short axis. We hypothesize that the folding axis is dictated by the inhomogeneous nature of alginate-cation cross-linking, i.e., that the edges get cross-linked before the faces of the gel. At high Ca2+ concentration, the stiffer edges constrain the folding; in turn, the gel folds such that the longer edges are deformed less, which explains the folding along the long axis. At low Ca2+ concentration, the edges and the faces of the gel are more similar in their degree of cross-linking; therefore, the gel folds along its short axis. An analogy

  17. The Ventricular-Fold Dynamics in Human Phonation


    Bailly , Lucie; Henrich Bernardoni , Nathalie; Müller , Frank; Rohlfs , Anna-Katharina; Hess , Markus


    International audience; Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed (a) to provide a classification of the ventricular-fold dynamics during voicing, (b) to study the aerodynamic impact of these motions on vocal-fold vibrations, and (c) to assess whether ventricularfold oscillations could be sustained by aerodynamic coupling with the vocal folds. Method: A 72-sample database of vocal gestures accompanying different acoustical events comprised highspeed cinematographic, audio, and electroglottogr...

  18. Comparing the Folding and Misfolding Energy Landscapes of Phosphoglycerate Kinase


    Agocs, Gergely; Szabo, Bence T.; Koehler, Gottfried; Osvath, Szabolcs


    Partitioning of polypeptides between protein folding and amyloid formation is of outstanding pathophysiological importance. Using yeast phosphoglycerate kinase as model, here we identify the features of the energy landscape that decide the fate of the protein: folding or amyloidogenesis. Structure formation was initiated from the acid-unfolded state, and monitored by fluorescence from 10 ms to 20 days. Solvent conditions were gradually shifted between folding and amyloidogenesis, and the prop...

  19. Ligand-promoted protein folding by biased kinetic partitioning. (United States)

    Hingorani, Karan S; Metcalf, Matthew C; Deming, Derrick T; Garman, Scott C; Powers, Evan T; Gierasch, Lila M


    Protein folding in cells occurs in the presence of high concentrations of endogenous binding partners, and exogenous binding partners have been exploited as pharmacological chaperones. A combined mathematical modeling and experimental approach shows that a ligand improves the folding of a destabilized protein by biasing the kinetic partitioning between folding and alternative fates (aggregation or degradation). Computationally predicted inhibition of test protein aggregation and degradation as a function of ligand concentration are validated by experiments in two disparate cellular systems.

  20. Iterative Controller Tuning for Process with Fold Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    Processes involving fold bifurcation are notoriously difficult to control in the vicinity of the fold where most often optimal productivity is achieved . In cases with limited process insight a model based control synthesis is not possible. This paper uses a data driven approach with an improved...... version of iterative feedback tuning to optimizing a closed loop performance criterion, as a systematic tool for tuning process with fold bifurcations....

  1. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology (United States)

    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc


    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  2. Do mesoscale faults in a young fold belt indicate regional or local stress? (United States)

    Kokado, Akihiro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi


    The result of paleostress analyses of mesoscale faults is usually thought of as evidence of a regional stress. On the other hand, the recent advancement of the trishear modeling has enabled us to predict the deformation field around fault-propagation folds without the difficulty of assuming paleo mechanical properties of rocks and sediments. We combined the analysis of observed mesoscale faults and the trishear modeling to understand the significance of regional and local stresses for the formation of mesoscale faults. To this end, we conducted the 2D trishear inverse modeling with a curved thrust fault to predict the subsurface structure and strain field of an anticline, which has a more or less horizontal axis and shows a map-scale plane strain perpendicular to the axis, in the active fold belt of Niigata region, central Japan. The anticline is thought to have been formed by fault-propagation folding under WNW-ESE regional compression. Based on the attitudes of strata and the positions of key tephra beds in Lower Pleistocene soft sediments cropping out at the surface, we obtained (1) a fault-propagation fold with the fault tip at a depth of ca. 4 km as the optimal subsurface structure, and (2) the temporal variation of deformation field during the folding. We assumed that mesoscale faults were activated along the direction of maximum shear strain on the faults to test whether the fault-slip data collected at the surface were consistent with the deformation in some stage(s) of folding. The Wallace-Bott hypothesis was used to estimate the consistence of faults with the regional stress. As a result, the folding and the regional stress explained 27 and 33 of 45 observed faults, respectively, with the 11 faults being consistent with the both. Both the folding and regional one were inconsistent with the remaining 17 faults, which could be explained by transfer faulting and/or the gravitational spreading of the growing anticline. The lesson we learnt from this work was

  3. Competition between folding and glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Bruun, A W; Kielland-Brandt, Morten


    Using carboxypeptidase Y in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, the in vivo relationship between protein folding and N-glycosylation was studied. Seven new sites for N-glycosylation were introduced at positions buried in the folded protein structure. The level of glycosylation of such new...... acceptor sites. In some cases, all the newly synthesized mutant protein was modified at the novel site while in others no modification took place. In the most interesting category of mutants, the level of glycosylation was dependent on the conditions for folding. This shows that folding and glycosylation...

  4. Folding System for the Clothes by a Robot and Tools


    大澤, 文明; 関, 啓明; 神谷, 好承


    The works of a home robot has the laundering. The purpose of this study is to find a means of folding of the clothes and store the clothes in a drawer by a home robot. Because the shape of cloth tends to change in various ways depending on the situation, it is difficult for robot hands to fold the clothes. In this paper, we propose a realistic folding system for the clothes by a robot and tools. The function of a tool is folding the clothes in half by inserting the clothes using two plates. T...

  5. Thermodynamics of protein folding: a random matrix formulation. (United States)

    Shukla, Pragya


    The process of protein folding from an unfolded state to a biologically active, folded conformation is governed by many parameters, e.g. the sequence of amino acids, intermolecular interactions, the solvent, temperature and chaperon molecules. Our study, based on random matrix modeling of the interactions, shows, however, that the evolution of the statistical measures, e.g. Gibbs free energy, heat capacity, and entropy, is single parametric. The information can explain the selection of specific folding pathways from an infinite number of possible ways as well as other folding characteristics observed in computer simulation studies. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd

  6. Arytenoid and posterior vocal fold surgery for bilateral vocal fold immobility. (United States)

    Young, VyVy N; Rosen, Clark A


    Many procedures exist to address the airway restriction often seen with bilateral vocal fold immobility. We review the most recent studies involving arytenoid and/or posterior vocal fold surgery to provide an update on the issues related to these procedures. Specific focus is placed on selection of the surgical approach and operative side, use of adjunctive therapies, and outcome measures including decannulation rate, revision and complication rate, and postoperative results. Ten studies were identified between 2004 and 2011. Modifications to the orginal transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy techniques continue to be investigated to seek improvement in dyspnea symptoms with minimal decline in voice and/or swallowing function. Decannulation rates for these approaches are high. Postoperative dysphagia appears to be less commonly observed but requires continued study. The use of mitomycin-C in these procedures has been poorly studied to date. Both transverse cordotomy and medial arytenoidectomy procedures result in high success rates. However, many questions related to these procedures remain unanswered, particularly with respect to preoperative and postoperative evaluations of voice quality, swallowing function, and pulmonary status. There is need for rigorous prospective clinical studies to address these many issues further.

  7. Endo-extralaryngeal Laterofixation of the Vocal Folds in Patients with Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility. (United States)

    Wiegand, Susanne; Teymoortash, Afshin; Hanschmann, Holger


    Bilateral vocal fold paralysis can result in shortness of breath and severe dyspnea which can be life-threatening. Thirty-five patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent endo-extralaryngeal laterofixation according to Lichtenberger were retrospectively analyzed regarding etiology, symptoms, treatment and complications. In 27 patients, laterofixation of the vocal cord alone was performed. Eight patients underwent laterofixation and additional posterior chordectomy of the opposite vocal cord according to Dennis and Kashima. The time of intervention ranged from 1 day to 38 years after the onset of bilateral vocal cord immobility. The intraoperative course was uneventful in all patients. None of the patients had postoperative aspiration. Postoperative voice function was acceptable in all patients. Complications of suture laterofixation were laryngeal edema, formation of fibrin, and malposition of the suture. Laterofixation of the vocal cords according to Lichtenberger is a safe and easy method that can be used as a first-stage treatment of vocal cord paralysis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of a reduced-order FSI model for flow-induced vocal fold vibration (United States)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Chang, Siyuan; Chen, Ye; Rousseau, Bernard; PhonoSim Team


    Vocal fold vibration during speech production involves a three-dimensional unsteady glottal jet flow and three-dimensional nonlinear tissue mechanics. A full 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is computationally expensive even though it provides most accurate information about the system. On the other hand, an efficient reduced-order FSI model is useful for fast simulation and analysis of the vocal fold dynamics, which can be applied in procedures such as optimization and parameter estimation. In this work, we study performance of a reduced-order model as compared with the corresponding full 3D model in terms of its accuracy in predicting the vibration frequency and deformation mode. In the reduced-order model, we use a 1D flow model coupled with a 3D tissue model that is the same as in the full 3D model. Two different hyperelastic tissue behaviors are assumed. In addition, the vocal fold thickness and subglottal pressure are varied for systematic comparison. The result shows that the reduced-order model provides consistent predictions as the full 3D model across different tissue material assumptions and subglottal pressures. However, the vocal fold thickness has most effect on the model accuracy, especially when the vocal fold is thin.

  9. Improvement of high-fold gamma-ray data processing: the spherical gate method

    CERN Document Server

    Theisen, C; Stezowski, O; Vivien, J P


    A new method for optimizing the processing of events from a highly efficient large array gamma-ray detector is described in this article. The spherical gates technique, developed to project high-fold events, consists of optimizing n-dimensional gate shape as a function of peak width and shape of each detector. Formulas in closed form are proposed for determining the projected statistics from coincidence fold and peak shape and for estimating the increased quality of projected spectra. This procedure has been tested on high-fold, high statistics data sets including superdeformed cascades. Compared to the classical 'square-gate' technique, better peak-to-background ratios as well as a reduction in fluctuations are observed. A quality parameter is defined to characterize the optimal parameter set. This method leads roughly to a gain in spectral quality equivalent of one fold. It is also shown that the efficiency of the method increases with coincidence fold. This should be particularly suited for future higher-f...

  10. Folding and membrane insertion of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin occur as a concerted process. (United States)

    Hicks, Matthew R; Damianoglou, Angeliki; Rodger, Alison; Dafforn, Timothy R


    Many antibiotic peptides function by binding and inserting into membranes. Understanding this process provides an insight into the fundamentals of both membrane protein folding and antibiotic peptide function. For the first time, in this work, flow-aligned linear dichroism (LD) is used to study the folding of the antibiotic peptide gramicidin. LD provides insight into the combined processes of peptide folding and insertion and has the advantage over other similar techniques of being insensitive to off-membrane aggregation events. By combining LD data with conventional measurements of protein fluorescence and circular dichroism, the mechanism of gramicidin insertion is elucidated. The mechanism consists of five separately assignable steps that include formation of a water-insoluble gramicidin aggregate, dissociation from the aggregate, partitioning of peptide to the membrane surface, oligomerisation on the surface and concerted insertion and folding of the peptide to the double-helical form of gramicidin. Measurement of the rates of each step shows that although changes in the fluorescence signal cease 10 s after the initiation of the process, the insertion of the peptide into the membrane is actually not complete for a further 60 min. This last membrane insertion phase is only apparent by measurement of LD and circular dichroism signal changes. In summary, this study demonstrates the importance of multi-technique approaches, including LD, in studies of membrane protein folding.

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cell injection promotes vocal fold scar repair without long-term engraftment (United States)



    Background Regenerative medicine holds promise for restoring voice in patients with vocal fold scarring. As experimental treatments approach clinical translation, several considerations remain. Our objective was to evaluate efficacy and biocompatibility of four bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) and tunable hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (HyStem-VF) treatments for vocal fold scar using clinically acceptable materials, a preclinical sample size and a dosing comparison. Methods Vocal folds of 84 rabbits were injured and injected with four treatment variations (BM-MSC, HyStem-VF, and BM-MSC in HyStem-VF at two concentrations) 6 weeks later. Efficacy was assessed with rheometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histology at 2, 4 and 10 weeks following treatment. Lung, liver, kidney, spleen and vocal folds were screened for biocompatibility by a pathologist. Results and discussion Persistent inflammation was identified in all hydrogel-injected groups. The BM-MSC alone treatment appeared to be the most efficacious and safe, providing an early resolution of viscoelasticity, gene expression consistent with desirable extracellular matrix remodeling (less fibronectin, collagen 1α2, collagen 3, procollagen, transforming growth factor [TGF]β1, alpha smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-17β and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] than injured controls) and minimal inflammation. Human beta actin expression in BM-MSC–treated vocal folds was minimal after 2 weeks, suggesting that paracrine signaling from the BM-MSCs may have facilitated tissue repair. PMID:27637759

  12. Conical expansion of the outer subventricular zone and the role of neocortical folding in evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLewitus


    Full Text Available There is a basic rule to mammalian neocortical expansion: as it expands, so does it fold. The degree to which it folds, however, cannot strictly be attributed to its expansion. Across species, cortical volume does not keep pace with cortical surface area, but rather folds appear more rapidly than expected. As a result, larger brains quickly become disproportionately more convoluted than smaller brains. Both the absence (lissencephaly and presence (gyrencephaly of cortical folds is observed in all mammalian orders and, while there is likely some phylogenetic signature to the evolutionary appearance of gyri and sulci, there are undoubtedly universal trends to the acquisition of folds in an expanding neocortex. Whether these trends are governed by conical expansion of neocortical germinal zones, the distribution of cortical connectivity, or a combination of growth- and connectivity-driven forces remains an open question. But the importance of cortical folding for evolution of the uniquely mammalian neocortex, as well as for the incidence of neuropathologies in humans, is undisputed. In this hypothesis and theory article, we will summarize the development of cortical folds in the neocortex, consider the relative influence of growth- versus connectivity-driven forces for the acquisition of cortical folds between and within species, assess the genetic, cell-biological, and mechanistic implications for neocortical expansion, and discuss the significance of these implications for human evolution, development, and disease. We will argue that evolutionary increases in the density of neuron production, achieved via maintenance of a basal proliferative niche in the neocortical germinal zones, drive the conical migration of neurons towards the cortical surface and ultimately lead to the establishment of cortical folds in large-brained mammal species.

  13. Self-consistent electron transport in collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.


    A self-consistent scheme has been developed to model electron transport in evolving plasmas of arbitrary classical collisionality. The electrons and ions are treated as either multiple donor-cell fluids, or collisional particles-in-cell. Particle suprathermal electrons scatter off ions, and drag against fluid background thermal electrons. The background electrons undergo ion friction, thermal coupling, and bremsstrahlung. The components move in self-consistent advanced E-fields, obtained by the Implicit Moment Method, which permits Δt >> ω/sub p/ -1 and Δx >> lambda/sub D/ - offering a 10 2 - 10 3 -fold speed-up over older explicit techniques. The fluid description for the background plasma components permits the modeling of transport in systems spanning more than a 10 7 -fold change in density, and encompassing contiguous collisional and collisionless regions. Results are presented from application of the scheme to the modeling of CO 2 laser-generated suprathermal electron transport in expanding thin foils, and in multi-foil target configurations

  14. Structural Conservation of the Myoviridae Phage Tail Sheath Protein Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Kurochkina, Lidia P.; Fokine, Andrei; Forouhar, Farhad; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Tong, Liang; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue); (Columbia)


    Bacteriophage phiKZ is a giant phage that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human pathogen. The phiKZ virion consists of a 1450 {angstrom} diameter icosahedral head and a 2000 {angstrom}-long contractile tail. The structure of the whole virus was previously reported, showing that its tail organization in the extended state is similar to the well-studied Myovirus bacteriophage T4 tail. The crystal structure of a tail sheath protein fragment of phiKZ was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. Furthermore, crystal structures of two prophage tail sheath proteins were determined to 1.9 and 3.3 {angstrom} resolution. Despite low sequence identity between these proteins, all of these structures have a similar fold. The crystal structure of the phiKZ tail sheath protein has been fitted into cryo-electron-microscopy reconstructions of the extended tail sheath and of a polysheath. The structural rearrangement of the phiKZ tail sheath contraction was found to be similar to that of phage T4.

  15. Incidence of vocal fold immobility in patients with dysphagia. (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Ross, Douglas A


    This study prospectively investigated the incidence of vocal fold immobility, unilateral and bilateral, and its influence on aspiration status in a referred population of 1452 patients for a dysphagia evaluation from a large, urban, tertiary-care, teaching hospital. Main outcome measures included overall incidence of vocal fold immobility and aspiration status, with specific emphasis on age, etiology, and side of vocal fold immobility, i.e., right, left, or bilateral. Overall incidence of vocal fold immobility was 5.6% (81 of 1452 patients), including 47 males (mean age 55.7 yr) and 34 females (mean age 59.7 yr). In the subgroup of patients with vocal fold immobility, 31% (25 of 81) exhibited unilateral right, 60% (49 of 81) unilateral left, and 9% (7 of 81) bilateral impairment. Overall incidence of aspiration was found to be 29% (426 of 1452) of all patients referred for a swallow evaluation. Aspiration was observed in 44% (36 of 81) of patients presenting with vocal fold immobility, i.e., 44% (11 of 25) unilateral right, 43% (21 of 49) unilateral left, and 57% (4 of 7) bilateral vocal fold immobility. Left vocal fold immobility occurred most frequently due to surgical trauma. A liquid bolus was aspirated more often than a puree bolus. Side of vocal fold immobility and age were not factors that increased incidence of aspiration. In conclusion, vocal fold immobility, with an incidence of 5.6%, is not an uncommon finding in patients referred for a dysphagia evaluation in the acute-care setting, and vocal fold immobility, when present, was associated with a 15% increased incidence of aspiration when compared with a population already being evaluated for dysphagia.

  16. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance. (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard


    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Quantification of fold growth of frontal antiforms in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE Iraq) (United States)

    Bretis, Bernhard; Bartl, Nikolaus; Graseman, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan


    The Zagros fold and thrust belt is a seismically active orogen, where actual kinematic models based on GPS networks suggest a north-south shortening between Arabian and Eurasian in the order of 1.5-2.5 cm/yr. Most of this deformation is partitioned in south-southwest oriented folding and thrusting with northwest-southeast to north-south trending dextral strike slip faults. The Zagros fold and thrust belt is of great economic interest because it has been estimated that this area contains about 15% of the global recoverable hydrocarbons. Whereas the SE parts of the Zagros have been investigated by detailed geological studies, the NW extent being part of the Republic of Iraq have experienced considerably less attention. In this study we combine field work and remote sensing techniques in order to investigate the interaction of erosion and fold growth in the area NE of Erbil (Kurdistan, Iraq). In particular we focus on the interaction of the transient development of drainage patterns along growing antiforms, which directly reflects the kinematics of progressive fold growth. Detailed geomorphological studies of the Bana Bawi-, Permam- and Safeen fold trains show that these anticlines have not developed from subcylindrical embryonic folds but they have merged from different fold segments that joined laterally during fold amplification. This fold segments with length between 5 and 25 km have been detected by mapping ancient and modern river courses that initially cut the nose of growing folds and eventually got defeated leaving behind a wind gap. Fold segments, propagating in different directions force rivers to join resulting in steep gorges, which dissect the merging fold noses. Along rapidly lateral growing folds (e.g. at the SE end of the Bana Bawi Anticline) we observed "curved wind gaps", a new type of abandoned river course, where form of the wind gap mimics a formed nose of a growing antiform. The inherited curved segments of uplifted curved river courses strongly

  18. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Environmental Data Record (EDR) Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of numerous retrieved estimates of hydrological variables and trace gases as Environmental Data Record (EDR) products from the NOAA Unique...

  19. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the...

  20. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS...

  1. Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, D.


    Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein's amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate

  2. A dominant TRPV4 variant underlies osteochondrodysplasia in Scottish fold cats. (United States)

    Gandolfi, B; Alamri, S; Darby, W G; Adhikari, B; Lattimer, J C; Malik, R; Wade, C M; Lyons, L A; Cheng, J; Bateman, J F; McIntyre, P; Lamandé, S R; Haase, B


    Scottish fold cats, named for their unique ear shape, have a dominantly inherited osteochondrodysplasia involving malformation in the distal forelimbs, distal hindlimbs and tail, and progressive joint destruction. This study aimed to identify the gene and the underlying variant responsible for the osteochondrodysplasia. DNA samples from 44 Scottish fold and 54 control cats were genotyped using a feline DNA array and a case-control genome-wide association analysis conducted. The gene encoding a calcium permeable ion channel, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) was identified as a candidate within the associated region and sequenced. Stably transfected HEK293 cells were used to compare wild-type and mutant TRPV4 expression, cell surface localisation and responses to activation with a synthetic agonist GSK1016709A, hypo-osmolarity, and protease-activated receptor 2 stimulation. The dominantly inherited folded ear and osteochondrodysplasia in Scottish fold cats is associated with a p.V342F substitution (c.1024G>T) in TRPV4. The change was not found in 648 unaffected cats. Functional analysis in HEK293 cells showed V342F mutant TRPV4 was poorly expressed at the cell surface compared to wild-type TRPV4 and as a consequence the maximum response to a synthetic agonist was reduced. Mutant TRPV4 channels had a higher basal activity and an increased response to hypotonic conditions. Access to a naturally-occurring TRPV4 mutation in the Scottish fold cat will allow further functional studies to identify how and why the mutations affect cartilage and bone development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Status report on the folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Folded tandem ion accelerator; charged particle beams; voltage stability; Rutherford backscattering; ion optics; beam lines. Abstract. The folded tandem ion accelerator (FOTIA) facility set up at BARC has become operational. At present, it is used for elemental analysis studies using the Rutherford backscattering technique.

  4. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on vocal fold position. (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Poletto, Christopher J; Saxon, Keith G; Kearney, Pamela R; Ludlow, Christy L


    Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and may benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Prospective single effects study. The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using 10 different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (P vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (P = .03). Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing, and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening.

  5. Cotranslational protein folding reveals the selective use of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to fold properly by decelerating the translation rate at these sites. Thus the cotranslational protein folding is believed to be true for many proteins and is an important selection factor for the selective codon usage to optimize proper gene expres- sion and function (Komar 2009). A web server CS and S has been created by ...

  6. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.


    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  7. Surfing the free energy landscape of flavodoxin folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Y.J.M.


    The research described in this thesis has been carried out to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental rules describing protein folding. Protein folding is the process in which a linear chain of amino acids contracts to a compact state in which it is active. Flavodoxin from Azotobacter

  8. New variants of known folds: do they bring new biology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, Eugene V.


    New distinct versions of known protein folds provide a powerful means of protein-function prediction that complements sequence and genomic context analysis. New distinct versions of known protein folds provide a powerful means of protein-function prediction that complements sequence and genomic context analysis. These structures do not supplant direct biochemical experiments, but are indispensable for the complete characterization of proteins

  9. Transiently disordered tails accelerate folding of globular proteins. (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Ray, Tanaya; Kundu, Sudip


    Numerous biological proteins exhibit intrinsic disorder at their termini, which are associated with multifarious functional roles. Here, we show the surprising result that an increased percentage of terminal short transiently disordered regions with enhanced flexibility (TstDREF) is associated with accelerated folding rates of globular proteins. Evolutionary conservation of predicted disorder at TstDREFs and drastic alteration of folding rates upon point-mutations suggest critical regulatory role(s) of TstDREFs in shaping the folding kinetics. TstDREFs are associated with long-range intramolecular interactions and the percentage of native secondary structural elements physically contacted by TstDREFs exhibit another surprising positive correlation with folding kinetics. These results allow us to infer probable molecular mechanisms behind the TstDREF-mediated regulation of folding kinetics that challenge protein biochemists to assess by direct experimental testing. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.


    The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.

  11. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration. (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R


    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Right- and left-handed three-helix proteins. I. Experimental and simulation analysis of differences in folding and structure. (United States)

    Glyakina, Anna V; Pereyaslavets, Leonid B; Galzitskaya, Oxana V


    Despite the large number of publications on three-helix protein folding, there is no study devoted to the influence of handedness on the rate of three-helix protein folding. From the experimental studies, we make a conclusion that the left-handed three-helix proteins fold faster than the right-handed ones. What may explain this difference? An important question arising in this paper is whether the modeling of protein folding can catch the difference between the protein folding rates of proteins with similar structures but with different folding mechanisms. To answer this question, the folding of eight three-helix proteins (four right-handed and four left-handed), which are similar in size, was modeled using the Monte Carlo and dynamic programming methods. The studies allowed us to determine the orders of folding of the secondary-structure elements in these domains and amino acid residues which are important for the folding. The obtained data are in good correlation with each other and with the experimental data. Structural analysis of these proteins demonstrated that the left-handed domains have a lesser number of contacts per residue and a smaller radius of cross section than the right-handed domains. This may be one of the explanations of the observed fact. The same tendency is observed for the large dataset consisting of 332 three-helix proteins (238 right- and 94 left-handed). From our analysis, we found that the left-handed three-helix proteins have some less-dense packing that should result in faster folding for some proteins as compared to the case of right-handed proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised. (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  14. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.


    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004

  15. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics. (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.


    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  16. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  17. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter


    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  18. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.


    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  19. Entropic formulation for the protein folding process: Hydrophobic stability correlates with folding rates (United States)

    Dal Molin, J. P.; Caliri, A.


    Here we focus on the conformational search for the native structure when it is ruled by the hydrophobic effect and steric specificities coming from amino acids. Our main tool of investigation is a 3D lattice model provided by a ten-letter alphabet, the stereochemical model. This minimalist model was conceived for Monte Carlo (MC) simulations when one keeps in mind the kinetic behavior of protein-like chains in solution. We have three central goals here. The first one is to characterize the folding time (τ) by two distinct sampling methods, so we present two sets of 103 MC simulations for a fast protein-like sequence. The resulting sets of characteristic folding times, τ and τq were obtained by the application of the standard Metropolis algorithm (MA), as well as by an enhanced algorithm (Mq A). The finding for τq shows two things: (i) the chain-solvent hydrophobic interactions {hk } plus a set of inter-residues steric constraints {ci,j } are able to emulate the conformational search for the native structure. For each one of the 103MC performed simulations, the target is always found within a finite time window; (ii) the ratio τq / τ ≅ 1 / 10 suggests that the effect of local thermal fluctuations, encompassed by the Tsallis weight, provides to the chain an innate efficiency to escape from energetic and steric traps. We performed additional MC simulations with variations of our design rule to attest this first result, both algorithms the MA and the Mq A were applied to a restricted set of targets, a physical insight is provided. Our second finding was obtained by a set of 600 independent MC simulations, only performed with the Mq A applied to an extended set of 200 representative targets, our native structures. The results show how structural patterns should modulate τq, which cover four orders of magnitude; this finding is our second goal. The third, and last result, was obtained with a special kind of simulation performed with the purpose to explore a

  20. The role of the mesenchyme in cranial neural fold elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris-Wiman, J.A.


    It has been previously postulated that the expansion of an hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix in the fold mesenchyme is responsible for neural fold elevation. In this study we provide evidence that such expansions may play an important role in cranial neural fold elevation by pushing the folds towards the dorsal midline to assist in their elevation. For mesenchymal expansion to result in fold elevation, hyaluronate (HA) and mesenchymal cells must be non-randomly distributed within the mesenchyme. Patterns of mesenchymal cell distribution and cell proliferation were analyzed using the computer-assisted method of smoothed spatial averaging. The distribution of Alcian blue-stained and 3 H-glucosamine-labelled HA was also analyzed during cranial neural fold elevation using established image processing techniques. Analysis of the distribution of 3 H-thymidine-labelled mesenchymal cells indicated that differential mitotic activity was not responsible for decreased mesenchymal cell density. Likewise, analysis of distribution patterns of 3 H-glucosamine-labelled HA indicated that decreased HA concentration was not produced by regional differences in HA synthesis. These results suggest that decreases in mesenchymal cell density and HA concentration that occur during neural fold elevation are produced by mesenchymal expansion

  1. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels (United States)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert


    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  2. Unraveling metamaterial properties in zigzag-base folded sheets. (United States)

    Eidini, Maryam; Paulino, Glaucio H


    Creating complex spatial objects from a flat sheet of material using origami folding techniques has attracted attention in science and engineering. In the present work, we use the geometric properties of partially folded zigzag strips to better describe the kinematics of known zigzag/herringbone-base folded sheet metamaterials such as Miura-ori. Inspired by the kinematics of a one-degree of freedom zigzag strip, we introduce a class of cellular folded mechanical metamaterials comprising different scales of zigzag strips. This class of patterns combines origami folding techniques with kirigami. Using analytical and numerical models, we study the key mechanical properties of the folded materials. We show that our class of patterns, by expanding on the design space of Miura-ori, is appropriate for a wide range of applications from mechanical metamaterials to deployable structures at small and large scales. We further show that, depending on the geometry, these materials exhibit either negative or positive in-plane Poisson's ratios. By introducing a class of zigzag-base materials in the current study, we unify the concept of in-plane Poisson's ratio for similar materials in the literature and extend it to the class of zigzag-base folded sheet materials.

  3. Fluorescence of Alexa fluor dye tracks protein folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lindhoud

    Full Text Available Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important tool for the characterization of protein folding. Often, a protein is labeled with appropriate fluorescent donor and acceptor probes and folding-induced changes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET are monitored. However, conformational changes of the protein potentially affect fluorescence properties of both probes, thereby profoundly complicating interpretation of FRET data. In this study, we assess the effects protein folding has on fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 488 (A488, which is commonly used as FRET donor. Here, A488 is covalently attached to Cys69 of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii. Although coupling of A488 slightly destabilizes apoflavodoxin, the three-state folding of this protein, which involves a molten globule intermediate, is unaffected. Upon folding of apoflavodoxin, fluorescence emission intensity of A488 changes significantly. To illuminate the molecular sources of this alteration, we applied steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The results obtained show that tryptophans cause folding-induced changes in quenching of Alexa dye. Compared to unfolded protein, static quenching of A488 is increased in the molten globule. Upon populating the native state both static and dynamic quenching of A488 decrease considerably. We show that fluorescence quenching of Alexa Fluor dyes is a sensitive reporter of conformational changes during protein folding.

  4. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean


    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  5. Idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis in the adult. (United States)

    Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Alciato, L; Slaïm, L; Bonfils, P; Laccourreye, O


    To analyze the characteristics of adult idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis. Retrospective study of diagnostic problems, clinical data and recovery in an inception cohort of 100 adult patients with idiopathic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group A) and comparison with a cohort of 211 patients with isolated non-idiopathic non-traumatic unilateral vocal-fold paralysis (Group B). Diagnostic problems were noted in 24% of cases in Group A: eight patients with concomitant common upper aerodigestive tract infection, five patients with a concomitant condition liable to induce immunodepression and 11 patients in whom a malignant tumor occurred along the path of the ipsilateral vagus and inferior laryngeal nerves or in the ipsilateral paralyzed larynx. There was no recovery of vocal-fold motion beyond 51 months after onset of paralysis. The 5-year actuarial estimate for recovery differed significantly (Pvocal-fold paralysis. In non-traumatic vocal-fold paralysis in adult patients, without recovery of vocal-fold motion, a minimum three years' regular follow-up is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.


    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  7. The structure of KPN03535 (gi|152972051), a novel putative lipoprotein from Klebsiella pneumoniae, reveals an OB-fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debanu; Kozbial, Piotr; Han, Gye Won; Carlton, Dennis; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chiu, Michelle; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Elsliger, Marc-André; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Anna; Grant, Joanna C.; Jin, Kevin K.; Johnson, Hope A.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.


    KPN03535 is a protein unique to K. pneumoniae. The crystal structure reveals that KPN03535 represents a novel variant of the OB-fold and is likely to be a DNA-binding lipoprotein. KPN03535 (gi|152972051) is a putative lipoprotein of unknown function that is secreted by Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578. The crystal structure reveals that despite a lack of any detectable sequence similarity to known structures, it is a novel variant of the OB-fold and structurally similar to the bacterial Cpx-pathway protein NlpE, single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins and toxins. K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 forms part of the normal human skin, mouth and gut flora and is an opportunistic pathogen that is linked to about 8% of all hospital-acquired infections in the USA. This structure provides the foundation for further investigations into this divergent member of the OB-fold family

  8. Endoscopic Anatomy of the Tensor Fold and Anterior Attic. (United States)

    Li, Bin; Doan, Phi; Gruhl, Robert R; Rubini, Alessia; Marchioni, Daniele; Fina, Manuela


    Objectives The objectives of the study were to (1) study the anatomical variations of the tensor fold and its anatomic relation with transverse crest, supratubal recess, and anterior epitympanic space and (2) explore the most appropriate endoscopic surgical approach to each type of the tensor fold variants. Study Design Cadaver dissection study. Setting Temporal bone dissection laboratory. Subjects and Methods Twenty-eight human temporal bones (26 preserved and 2 fresh) were dissected through an endoscopic transcanal approach between September 2016 and June 2017. The anatomical variations of the tensor fold, transverse crest, supratubal recess, and anterior epitympanic space were studied before and after removing ossicles. Results Three different tensor fold orientations were observed: vertical (type A, 11/28, 39.3%) with attachment to the transverse crest, oblique (type B, 13/28, 46.4%) with attachment to the anterior tegmen tympani, and horizontal (type C, 4/28, 14.3%) with attachment to the tensor tympani canal. The tensor fold was a complete membrane in 20 of 28 (71.4%) specimens, preventing direct ventilation between the supratubal recess and anterior epitympanic space. We identified 3 surgical endoscopic approaches, which allowed visualization of the tensor fold without removing the ossicles. Conclusions The orientation of the tensor fold is the determining structure that dictates the conformation and limits of the epitympanic space. We propose a classification of the tensor fold based on 3 anatomical variants. We also describe 3 different minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to identify the orientation of the tensor fold while maintaining ossicular chain continuity.

  9. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions. (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T


    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Radiation Fibrosis of the Vocal Fold: From Man to Mouse (United States)

    Johns, Michael M.; Kolachala, Vasantha; Berg, Eric; Muller, Susan; Creighton, Frances X.; Branski, Ryan C.


    Objectives To characterize fundamental late tissue effects in the human vocal fold following radiation therapy. To develop a murine model of radiation fibrosis to ultimately develop both treatment and prevention paradigms. Design Translational study using archived human and fresh murine irradiated vocal fold tissue. Methods 1) Irradiated vocal fold tissue from patients undergoing laryngectomy for loss of function from radiation fibrosis were identified from pathology archives. Histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and whole-genome microarray as well as real-time transcriptional analyses was performed. 2) Focused radiation to the head and neck was delivered to mice in a survival fashion. One month following radiation, vocal fold tissue was analyzed with histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR transcriptional analysis for selected markers of fibrosis. Results Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrated increased collagen transcription with increased deposition and disorganization of collagen in both the thyroarytenoid muscle and the superficial lamina propria. Fibronectin were increased in the superficial lamina propria. Laminin decreased in the thyroarytenoid muscle. Whole genome microarray analysis demonstrated increased transcription of markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glycosaminoglycan production and apoptosis. Irradiated murine vocal folds demonstrated increases in collagen and fibronectin transcription and deposition in the lamina propria. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased in the lamina propria. Conclusion Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrate molecular changes leading to fibrosis that underlie loss of vocal fold pliability that occurs in patients following laryngeal irradiation. Irradiated murine tissue demonstrates similar findings, and this mouse model may have utility in creating prevention and treatment strategies for vocal fold radiation fibrosis. PMID:23242839

  11. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Meng; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Yao, Xin-Qiu; She, Zhen-Su


    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  12. Microwave-enhanced folding and denaturation of globular proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Bohr, Jakob


    It is shown that microwave irradiation can affect the kinetics of the folding process of some globular proteins, especially beta-lactoglobulin. At low temperature the folding from the cold denatured phase of the protein is enhanced, while at a higher temperature the denaturation of the protein from...... its folded state is enhanced. In the latter case, a negative temperature gradient is needed for the denaturation process, suggesting that the effects of the microwaves are nonthermal. This supports the notion that coherent topological excitations can exist in proteins. The application of microwaves...

  13. Protein folding and the organization of the protein topology universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen,, Kresten; Røgen, Peter; Paci, Emanuele


    residues and, in addition, that the topology of the transition state is closer to that of the native state than to that of any other fold in the protein universe. Here, we review the evidence for these conclusions and suggest a molecular mechanism that rationalizes these findings by presenting a view...... of protein folds that is based on the topological features of the polypeptide backbone, rather than the conventional view that depends on the arrangement of different types of secondary-structure elements. By linking the folding process to the organization of the protein structure universe, we propose...

  14. Adjustable thermal resistor by reversibly folding a graphene sheet. (United States)

    Song, Qichen; An, Meng; Chen, Xiandong; Peng, Zhan; Zang, Jianfeng; Yang, Nuo


    Phononic (thermal) devices such as thermal diodes, thermal transistors, thermal logic gates, and thermal memories have been studied intensively. However, tunable thermal resistors have not been demonstrated yet. Here, we propose an instantaneously adjustable thermal resistor based on folded graphene. Through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, we study the phonon-folding scattering effect and the dependence of thermal resistivity on the length between two folds and the overall length. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of realizing instantaneously adjustable thermal resistors in experiment. Our studies bring new insights into designing thermal resistors and understanding the thermal modulation of 2D materials by adjusting basic structure parameters.

  15. Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Human Vocal Fold Subunits. (United States)

    Kirgezen, Tolga; Sunter, Ahmet Volkan; Yigit, Ozgur; Huq, Gulben Erdem


    The study aimed to evaluate the existence of sex hormone receptors in the subunits of vocal fold. This is a cadaver study. The androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors were examined in the epithelium (EP), superficial layer of the lamina propria (SLP), vocal ligament (VL), and macula flava (MF) of the vocal folds from 42 human cadavers (21 male, 21 female) by immunohistochemical methods. Their staining ratios were scored and statistically compared. The androgen receptor score was significantly higher for the MF than for the EP and SLP (P vocal fold, mostly in the MF and VLs. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Miniaturization of Multiple-Layer Folded Patch Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A new folded patch antenna with multiple layers was developed in this paper, by folding the patch in a proper way, and a highly miniaturized antenna can be realized. The multiple layer patch with 4-layer and 6-layer are designed and evaluated at 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, and 415 MHz respectively. Then a 4...... layer patch is fabricated and measured to validate the design method. The theoretical analysis, design and simulations, fabrications, as well as the measurements are presented in this paper. All the results show that the folded patch antenna is a good candidate in making a highly miniaturized compact...

  17. Endoscopic vocal fold injection using a 25-gauge butterfly needle. (United States)

    Buchanan, M A; Riffat, F; Palme, C E


    To describe a useful technique for infiltrating a bulking agent using a butterfly needle, as part of a transoral endoscopic vocal fold medialisation procedure. This paper describes the procedure of grasping the needle with phonosurgery forceps and administering the injectate to the vocal fold through careful application of the syringe plunger via a length of rubber tubing from outside the mouth. This procedure is performed routinely in our institution without complication. The advantages of this technique are discussed. This is a safe and easy method of injecting into a vocal fold.

  18. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness]. (United States)

    Yamaoka, S


    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  19. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs


    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson


    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  20. Therapeutic potential of gel-based injectables for vocal fold regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S; Thibeault, Susan L; Prestwich, Glenn D


    Vocal folds are anatomically and biomechanically unique, thus complicating the design and implementation of tissue engineering strategies for repair and regeneration. Integration of an enhanced understanding of tissue biomechanics, wound healing dynamics and innovative gel-based therapeutics has generated enthusiasm for the notion that an efficacious treatment for vocal fold scarring could be clinically attainable within several years. Fibroblast phenotype and gene expression are mediated by the three-dimensional mechanical and chemical microenvironment at an injury site. Thus, therapeutic approaches need to coordinate spatial and temporal aspects of the wound healing response in an injured vocal tissue to achieve an optimal clinical outcome. Successful gel-based injectables for vocal fold scarring will require a keen understanding of how the native inflammatory response sets into motion the later extracellular matrix remodeling, which in turn will determine the ultimate biomechanical properties of the tissue. We present an overview of the challenges associated with this translation as well as the proposed gel-based injectable solutions. (paper)

  1. Isothermal folding of a light-up bio-orthogonal RNA origami nanoribbon. (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Kozyra, Jerzy Wieslaw; Gu, Jing-Ying; Stimming, Ulrich; Piantanida, Luca; Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Krasnogor, Natalio


    RNA presents intringuing roles in many cellular processes and its versatility underpins many different applications in synthetic biology. Nonetheless, RNA origami as a method for nanofabrication is not yet fully explored and the majority of RNA nanostructures are based on natural pre-folded RNA. Here we describe a biologically inert and uniquely addressable RNA origami scaffold that self-assembles into a nanoribbon by seven staple strands. An algorithm is applied to generate a synthetic De Bruijn scaffold sequence that is characterized by the lack of biologically active sites and repetitions larger than a predetermined design parameter. This RNA scaffold and the complementary staples fold in a physiologically compatible isothermal condition. In order to monitor the folding, we designed a new split Broccoli aptamer system. The aptamer is divided into two nonfunctional sequences each of which is integrated into the 5' or 3' end of two staple strands complementary to the RNA scaffold. Using fluorescence measurements and in-gel imaging, we demonstrate that once RNA origami assembly occurs, the split aptamer sequences are brought into close proximity forming the aptamer and turning on the fluorescence. This light-up 'bio-orthogonal' RNA origami provides a prototype that can have potential for in vivo origami applications.

  2. Fluidic origami cellular structure -- combining the plant nastic movements with paper folding art (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K. W.


    By combining the physical principles behind the nastic plant movements and the rich designs of paper folding art, we propose a new class of multi-functional adaptive structure called fluidic origami cellular structure. The basic elements of this structure are fluid filled origami "cells", made by connecting two compatible Miura-Ori stripes along their crease lines. These cells are assembled seamlessly into a three dimensional topology, and their internal fluid pressure or volume are strategically controlled just like in plants for nastic movements. Because of the unique geometry of the Miura-Ori, the relationships among origami folding, internal fluid properties, and the crease bending are intricate and highly nonlinear. Fluidic origami can exploit such relationships to provide multiple adaptive functions concurrently and effectively. For example, it can achieve actuation or morphing by actively changing the internal fluid volume, and stillness tuning by constraining the fluid volume. Fluidic origami can also be bistable because of the nonlinear correlation between folding and crease material bending, and such bistable character can be altered significantly by fluid pressurization. These functions are natural and essential companions with respect to each other, so that fluidic origami can holistically exhibit many attractive characteristics of plants and deliver rapid and efficient actuation/morphing while maintaining a high structural stillness. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design and working principles of the fluidic origami, as well as to explore and demonstrate its performance potential.

  3. Therapeutic potential of gel-based injectables for vocal fold regeneration (United States)

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Thibeault, Susan L.; Prestwich, Glenn D.


    Vocal folds are anatomically and biomechanically unique, thus complicating the design and implementation of tissue engineering strategies for repair and regeneration. Integration of an enhanced understanding of tissue biomechanics, wound healing dynamics and innovative gel-based therapeutics has generated enthusiasm for the notion that an efficacious treatment for vocal fold scarring could be clinically attainable within several years. Fibroblast phenotype and gene expression are mediated by the three-dimensional mechanical and chemical microenvironment at an injury site. Thus, therapeutic approaches need to coordinate spatial and temporal aspects of the wound healing response in an injured vocal tissue to achieve an optimal clinical outcome. Successful gel-based injectables for vocal fold scarring will require a keen understanding of how the native inflammatory response sets into motion the later extracellular matrix remodeling, which in turn will determine the ultimate biomechanical properties of the tissue. We present an overview of the challenges associated with this translation as well as the proposed gel-based injectable solutions. PMID:22456756

  4. Cross-sample validation provides enhanced proteome coverage in rat vocal fold mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan V Welham


    Full Text Available The vocal fold mucosa is a biomechanically unique tissue comprised of a densely cellular epithelium, superficial to an extracellular matrix (ECM-rich lamina propria. Such ECM-rich tissues are challenging to analyze using proteomic assays, primarily due to extensive crosslinking and glycosylation of the majority of high M(r ECM proteins. In this study, we implemented an LC-MS/MS-based strategy to characterize the rat vocal fold mucosa proteome. Our sample preparation protocol successfully solubilized both proteins and certain high M(r glycoconjugates and resulted in the identification of hundreds of mucosal proteins. A straightforward approach to the treatment of protein identifications attributed to single peptide hits allowed the retention of potentially important low abundance identifications (validated by a cross-sample match and de novo interpretation of relevant spectra while still eliminating potentially spurious identifications (global single peptide hits with no cross-sample match. The resulting vocal fold mucosa proteome was characterized by a wide range of cellular and extracellular proteins spanning 12 functional categories.

  5. Three-Fold Embedding: Farm Development in Relation to Its Socio-Material Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Methorst


    Full Text Available Understanding heterogeneity in farm development strategies is important in order to design effective policies and support programs to increase the sustainability of agriculture in relation to its socio-material context. Using a unique case study of 102 dairy farmers in The Netherlands, all operating in a highly similar socio-material context, this paper studies the differences in the relation of farms with the socio-material context. To this end, the concept of three-fold embedding is developed and tested using the ideal-typical characteristics of three patterns of farm development that were identified in the case study: (1 maximising total milk production; (2 optimising milk production using mainly on-farm resources; and (3 diversified on-farm production. Three-fold embedding was conceptualised in relation to the following dimensions: (1 value chain relations; (2 socio-cultural relations; and (3 natural resource relations, while using a scale ranging from a Close to a Stretched set of relations. The concept of three-fold embedding proves to be useful to identify in a non-normative and non-binary manner meaningful differences between patterns of farm development. These differences relate to differences in opportunity identification and strategic decision-making. The concept supports a relational perspective in studying farm strategy development using a sociology of entrepreneurship approach.

  6. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  7. Contralateral Vocal Fold Reactive Lesions: Nomenclature, Treatment Choice, and Outcome. (United States)

    Koss, Shira L; Kidwai, Sarah M; Pitman, Michael J


    Contralateral reactive lesions (RLs) represent a distinct entity among benign bilateral vocal fold (VF) lesions. Lack of uniform nomenclature and a myriad of surgical options have hampered attempts to develop treatment guidelines. The objective of this study is to better define RLs and their prognosis, through the development of a standard nomenclature, with an aim to guide treatment and delineate the role of phonosurgery. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care center. Analysis was performed on patients with Current Procedural Terminology code 31545. Operative reports with a primary lesion and contralateral RL were included. Outcomes included the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scale, lesion persistence/recurrence, mucosal wave, and edge character based on blinded videostroboscopy review. A nomenclature was developed based on intraoperative RLs (n = 30), defined by lesion consistency (fibrous or polypoid) and relationship to normal VF edge (gradual or steep). Reactive lesion treatment included no intervention, excision, potassium titanyl phosphate laser, steroid injection, or a combination thereof. Observations included the following: inconsistent treatment modalities were employed, excision of RLs did not yield better outcomes, fibrous RLs were more likely to persist and polypoid lesions more likely to recur, gradual lesions were more likely to remain disease free, and most treatments showed improved mucosal wave, VHI-10, and GRBAS. Reactive lesions have not been well classified, and treatments are based on subjective intraoperative decision making with unpredictable outcomes. The nomenclature proposed will allow for a better definition of the RL and provide a framework for future research to identify optimal treatment. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  8. Importance of specific nucleotides in the folding of the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme. (United States)

    Wilson, T J; Zhao, Z Y; Maxwell, K; Kontogiannis, L; Lilley, D M


    The hairpin ribozyme in its natural context consists of two loops in RNA duplexes that are connected as arms of a four-way helical junction. Magnesium ions induce folding into the active conformation in which the two loops are in proximity. In this study, we have investigated nucleotides that are important to this folding process. We have analyzed the folding in terms of the cooperativity and apparent affinity for magnesium ions as a function of changes in base sequence and functional groups, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Our results suggest that the interaction between the loops is the sum of a number of component interactions. Some sequence variants such as A10U, G+1A, and C25U exhibit loss of cooperativity and reduced affinity of apparent magnesium ion binding. These variants are also very impaired in ribozyme cleavage activity. Nucleotides A10, G+1, and C25 thus appear to be essential in creating the conformational environment necessary for ion binding. The double variant G+1A/C25U exhibits a marked recovery of both folding and catalytic activity compared to either individual variant, consistent with the proposal of a triple-base interaction among A9, G+1, and C25 [Pinard, R., Lambert, D., Walter, N. G., Heckman, J. E., Major, F., and Burke, J. M. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 16035-16039]. However, substitution of A9 leads to relatively small changes in folding properties and cleavage activity, and the double variant G+1DAP/C25U (DAP is 2,6-diaminopurine), which could form an isosteric triple-base interaction, exhibits folding and cleavage activities that are both very impaired compared to those of the natural sequence. Our results indicate an important role for a Watson--Crick base pair between G+1 and C25; this may be buttressed by an interaction with A9, but the loss of this has less significant consequences for folding. 2'-Deoxyribose substitution leads to folding with reduced magnesium ion affinity in the following order: unmodified RNA > dA9

  9. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.


    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  10. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information. (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio


    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  11. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness


    Shettleworth, Sara J.


    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  12. 100-fold but not 50-fold dystrophin overexpression aggravates electrocardiographic defects in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Yue


    Full Text Available Dystrophin gene replacement holds the promise of treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Supraphysiological expression is a concern for all gene therapy studies. In the case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Chamberlain and colleagues found that 50-fold overexpression did not cause deleterious side effect in skeletal muscle. To determine whether excessive dystrophin expression in the heart is safe, we studied two lines of transgenic mdx mice that selectively expressed a therapeutic minidystrophin gene in the heart at 50-fold and 100-fold of the normal levels. In the line with 50-fold overexpression, minidystrophin showed sarcolemmal localization and electrocardiogram abnormalities were corrected. However, in the line with 100-fold overexpression, we not only detected sarcolemmal minidystrophin expression but also observed accumulation of minidystrophin vesicles in the sarcoplasm. Excessive minidystrophin expression did not correct tachycardia, a characteristic feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Importantly, several electrocardiogram parameters (QT interval, QRS duration and the cardiomyopathy index became worse than that of mdx mice. Our data suggests that the mouse heart can tolerate 50-fold minidystrophin overexpression, but 100-fold overexpression leads to cardiac toxicity.

  13. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelou Valerie


    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group. We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments.

  14. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar (United States)

    Vassiliki, Kalodimou; Irini, Messini; Nikolaos, Psychalakis; Karampela, Eleftheria; Apostolos, Papalois


    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments. PMID:26933440

  15. 'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arumuganathan

    )(ClCH2COO)6(H2O)3]4. [SiW12O40] ... solid state properties to obtain new materials in appli- ... Reflections Collected/unique ... covalent bonds in the relevant crystal lattice having ...... the relevant parameters are given in Tables 5 and 6,.

  16. RNAslider: a faster engine for consecutive windows folding and its application to the analysis of genomic folding asymmetry. (United States)

    Horesh, Yair; Wexler, Ydo; Lebenthal, Ilana; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal; Unger, Ron


    Scanning large genomes with a sliding window in search of locally stable RNA structures is a well motivated problem in bioinformatics. Given a predefined window size L and an RNA sequence S of size N (L free energy (MFE) for the folding of each of the L-sized substrings of S. The consecutive windows folding problem can be naively solved in O(NL3) by applying any of the classical cubic-time RNA folding algorithms to each of the N-L windows of size L. Recently an O(NL2) solution for this problem has been described. Here, we describe and implement an O(NLpsi(L)) engine for the consecutive windows folding problem, where psi(L) is shown to converge to O(1) under the assumption of a standard probabilistic polymer folding model, yielding an O(L) speedup which is experimentally confirmed. Using this tool, we note an intriguing directionality (5'-3' vs. 3'-5') folding bias, i.e. that the minimal free energy (MFE) of folding is higher in the native direction of the DNA than in the reverse direction of various genomic regions in several organisms including regions of the genomes that do not encode proteins or ncRNA. This bias largely emerges from the genomic dinucleotide bias which affects the MFE, however we see some variations in the folding bias in the different genomic regions when normalized to the dinucleotide bias. We also present results from calculating the MFE landscape of a mouse chromosome 1, characterizing the MFE of the long ncRNA molecules that reside in this chromosome. The efficient consecutive windows folding engine described in this paper allows for genome wide scans for ncRNA molecules as well as large-scale statistics. This is implemented here as a software tool, called RNAslider, and applied to the scanning of long chromosomes, leading to the observation of features that are visible only on a large scale.

  17. Mapping of near surface fold structures with GPR and ERT near Steinbrunn (Northern Burgenland, Austria) (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Häusler, Hermann; Scheibz, Jürgen; Steirer, Fritz


    In the transition zone between the southern Vienna Basin and the Eisenstadt basin, close to Wr. Neustadt, spectacular fold structures are exposed in the former sand pit of Steinbrunn. The succession of Upper Pannonian age consists of decimetre to meter thick sandy, silty and clayey beds, which are overlain by sandstone beds (Grundtner et al., 2009). The anticline and syncline structures were interpreted as of gravitational origin by Exner et al. (2009), and reinterpreted as of tectonic origin by Häusler (2012a). In order to gain a more detailed insight to the three dimensional distribution and orientation of the folds high resolution geophysics such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetics (EM) were applied to map the surroundings of the sandpit. The ERT- and EM-profiles show that the uppermost layer is more clayey northwest and sandier southeast of the sandpit. This is important for the GPR because clay attenuates the radar signals and therefore no clear layering of the subsurface could be mapped in these areas. In order to directly compare ERT and GPR results with the lithology of the fold structures observed in the sandpit, a reference profile on top of the 140 m long wall of the sandpit was performed. Both methods clearly reveal fold structures paralleling the folded Pannonian strata of the outcrop. While the GPR data displays boundaries and their geometry in the succession, the resistivities in the ERT portrays a more smoothened image of the observed fold structure. In almost all GPR profiles wavelike structures are visible with axes in northern direction and dome-shaped structures with axes in eastern direction, deepening towards the west. In conclusion this pattern is comparable to sections of rounded buckle folds. Although there are clayey areas wave-like and dome-like reflections can be followed in the GPR profiles over a distance of several hundred meters. This is confirmed by the ERT profiles

  18. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules. (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C


    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  19. New Analysis and Theory of Deployable Folded Structures, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recently developed mathematical folding theory has great value for deployable space structures and in situ manufacture of large beams, panels and cylinders. The...

  20. RNA inverse folding using Monte Carlo tree search. (United States)

    Yang, Xiufeng; Yoshizoe, Kazuki; Taneda, Akito; Tsuda, Koji


    Artificially synthesized RNA molecules provide important ways for creating a variety of novel functional molecules. State-of-the-art RNA inverse folding algorithms can design simple and short RNA sequences of specific GC content, that fold into the target RNA structure. However, their performance is not satisfactory in complicated cases. We present a new inverse folding algorithm called MCTS-RNA, which uses Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS), a technique that has shown exceptional performance in Computer Go recently, to represent and discover the essential part of the sequence space. To obtain high accuracy, initial sequences generated by MCTS are further improved by a series of local updates. Our algorithm has an ability to control the GC content precisely and can deal with pseudoknot structures. Using common benchmark datasets for evaluation, MCTS-RNA showed a lot of promise as a standard method of RNA inverse folding. MCTS-RNA is available at .

  1. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)


    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  2. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika


    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  3. Evidence for multiphase folding of the central Indian Ocean lithosphere

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Bull, J.M.; Scrutton, R.A.

    Long-wavelength (100-300 km) folding in the central Indian Ocean associated with the diffuse plate boundary separating the Indian, Australian, and Capricorn plates is Earth's most convincing example of organized large-scale lithospheric deformation...

  4. Nonlinear vs. linear biasing in Trp-cage folding simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiwok, Vojtěch, E-mail:; Oborský, Pavel; Králová, Blanka [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 3, Prague 6 166 28 (Czech Republic); Pazúriková, Jana [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Křenek, Aleš [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Center CERIT-SC, Masaryk Univerzity, Šumavská 416/15, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    Biased simulations have great potential for the study of slow processes, including protein folding. Atomic motions in molecules are nonlinear, which suggests that simulations with enhanced sampling of collective motions traced by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods may perform better than linear ones. In this study, we compare an unbiased folding simulation of the Trp-cage miniprotein with metadynamics simulations using both linear (principle component analysis) and nonlinear (Isomap) low dimensional embeddings as collective variables. Folding of the mini-protein was successfully simulated in 200 ns simulation with linear biasing and non-linear motion biasing. The folded state was correctly predicted as the free energy minimum in both simulations. We found that the advantage of linear motion biasing is that it can sample a larger conformational space, whereas the advantage of nonlinear motion biasing lies in slightly better resolution of the resulting free energy surface. In terms of sampling efficiency, both methods are comparable.

  5. Trends in Utilization of Vocal Fold Injection Procedures. (United States)

    Rosow, David E


    Office-based vocal fold injections have become increasingly popular over the past 15 years. Examination of trends in procedure coding for vocal fold injections in the United States from 2000 to 2012 was undertaken to see if they reflect this shift. The US Part B Medicare claims database was queried from 2000 through 2012 for multiple Current Procedural Terminology codes. Over the period studied, the number of nonoperative laryngoscopic injections (31513, 31570) and operative medialization laryngoplasties (31588) remained constant. Operative vocal fold injection (31571) demonstrated marked linear growth over the 12-year study period, from 744 procedures in 2000 to 4788 in 2012-an increase >640%. The dramatic increased incidence in the use of code 31571 reflects an increasing share of vocal fold injections being performed in the operating room and not in an office setting, running counter to the prevailing trend toward awake, office-based injection procedures. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Traumatic chorioretinal folds treated with intra-vitreal triamcinolone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook Young Kim


    Full Text Available A 34-year-old male visited the hospital due to decreased visual acuity in the left eye following an injury from a car accident. In the left eye, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was hand motion and intraocular pressure (IOP was 8 mmHg. Choroidal vasodilation and chorioretinal folds were observed by spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Topical and systemic steroid treatments did not improve the chorioretinal folds. Twelve months after the injury, intra-vitreal triamcinolone (4 mg/0.1 ml was injected. Six months after intra-vitreal triamcinolone injection, BCVA in the left eye had improved to 20/100. Fundus examination showed improvement in retinal vascular tortuosity and SD-OCT revealed improvements in choroidal vasodilation and chorioretinal folds. Intra-vitreal triamcinolone injection (IVTI was effective against traumatic chorioretinal folds with no recurrence based on objective observation by fundus photography and SD-OCT.

  7. Phonosurgery of the vocal folds : a classification proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remacle, M; Friedrich, G; Dikkers, FG; de Jong, F

    The Phonosurgery Committee of the European Laryngological Society (ELS) has examined the definition and technical description of phonosurgical procedures. Based on this review, the committee has proposed a working classification. The current presentation is restricted to vocal fold surgery (VFS)

  8. Protein folding and misfolding shining light by infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, Heinz


    Infrared spectroscopy is a new and innovative technology to study protein folding/misfolding events in the broad arsenal of techniques conventionally used in this field. The progress in understanding protein folding and misfolding is primarily due to the development of biophysical methods which permit to probe conformational changes with high kinetic and structural resolution. The most commonly used approaches rely on rapid mixing methods to initiate the folding event via a sudden change in solvent conditions. Traditionally, techniques such as fluorescence, circular dichroism or visible absorption are applied to probe the process. In contrast to these techniques, infrared spectroscopy came into play only very recently, and the progress made in this field up to date which now permits to probe folding events over the time scale from picoseconds to minutes has not yet been discussed in a book. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the developments as seen by some of the main contributors to the field...

  9. Thermal analysis for folded solar array of spacecraft in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.H.; Cheng, H.E.; Cai, A.


    The combined radiation-conduction heat transfer in folded solar array was considered as a three-dimensional anisotropic conduction without inner heat source. The three-dimensional equivalent conductivity in cell plate were obtained. The especially discrete equation coefficients of the nodes on the surfaces of adjacent cell plates were deduced by utilizing the simplified radiation network among the two adjacent cell plate surfaces and the deep cold space. All the thermal influence factors on the temperature response of the folded solar array were considered carefully. SIP method was used to solve the discrete equation. By comparing the calculation results under three cases, the temperature response and the maximum average difference of the folded solar array was obtained during the period of throw-radome of the launch vehicle and spread of the folded solar array. The obtained result is a valuable reference for the selection of the launch time of the spacecraft

  10. A proposed grading system for standardizing tumor consistency of intracranial meningiomas. (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Yashar, Parham; Robison, Aaron; Winer, Jesse; Khalessi, Alexander; Mack, William J; Giannotta, Steven L


    Tumor consistency plays an important and underrecognized role in the surgeon's ability to resect meningiomas, especially with evolving trends toward minimally invasive and keyhole surgical approaches. Aside from descriptors such as "hard" or "soft," no objective criteria exist for grading, studying, and conveying the consistency of meningiomas. The authors designed a practical 5-point scale for intraoperative grading of meningiomas based on the surgeon's ability to internally debulk the tumor and on the subsequent resistance to folding of the tumor capsule. Tumor consistency grades and features are as follows: 1) extremely soft tumor, internal debulking with suction only; 2) soft tumor, internal debulking mostly with suction, and remaining fibrous strands resected with easily folded capsule; 3) average consistency, tumor cannot be freely suctioned and requires mechanical debulking, and the capsule then folds with relative ease; 4) firm tumor, high degree of mechanical debulking required, and capsule remains difficult to fold; and 5) extremely firm, calcified tumor, approaches density of bone, and capsule does not fold. Additional grading categories included tumor heterogeneity (with minimum and maximum consistency scores) and a 3-point vascularity score. This grading system was prospectively assessed in 50 consecutive patients undergoing craniotomy for meningioma resection by 2 surgeons in an independent fashion. Grading scores were subjected to a linear weighted kappa analysis for interuser reliability. Fifty patients (100 scores) were included in the analysis. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. The distribution of overall tumor consistency scores was as follows: Grade 1, 4%; Grade 2, 9%; Grade 3, 43%; Grade 4, 44%; and Grade 5, 0%. Regions of Grade 5 consistency were reported only focally in 14% of heterogeneous tumors. Tumors were designated as homogeneous in 68% and heterogeneous in 32% of grades. The kappa analysis score for overall tumor consistency

  11. Adenovirus fibre shaft sequences fold into the native triple beta-spiral fold when N-terminally fused to the bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon trimerisation motif. (United States)

    Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Teixeira, Susana; Belrhali, Hassan; Forsyth, V Trevor; Mitraki, Anna; van Raaij, Mark J


    Adenovirus fibres are trimeric proteins that consist of a globular C-terminal domain, a central fibrous shaft and an N-terminal part that attaches to the viral capsid. In the presence of the globular C-terminal domain, which is necessary for correct trimerisation, the shaft segment adopts a triple beta-spiral conformation. We have replaced the head of the fibre by the trimerisation domain of the bacteriophage T4 fibritin, the foldon. Two different fusion constructs were made and crystallised, one with an eight amino acid residue linker and one with a linker of only two residues. X-ray crystallographic studies of both fusion proteins shows that residues 319-391 of the adenovirus type 2 fibre shaft fold into a triple beta-spiral fold indistinguishable from the native structure, although this is now resolved at a higher resolution of 1.9 A. The foldon residues 458-483 also adopt their natural structure. The intervening linkers are not well ordered in the crystal structures. This work shows that the shaft sequences retain their capacity to fold into their native beta-spiral fibrous fold when fused to a foreign C-terminal trimerisation motif. It provides a structural basis to artificially trimerise longer adenovirus shaft segments and segments from other trimeric beta-structured fibre proteins. Such artificial fibrous constructs, amenable to crystallisation and solution studies, can offer tractable model systems for the study of beta-fibrous structure. They can also prove useful for gene therapy and fibre engineering applications.

  12. Morphometric Study of Vocal Folds in Indian Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawal J.D.


    Full Text Available Introduction: -The larynx is an air passage and a sphincteric device used in respiration and phonation. The larynx, from inside outwards has a framework of mucosa surrounded by fibro-elastic membrane which in turn is surrounded by cartilages and then a layer of muscles. Vocal folds are intrinsic ligament of larynx covered by mucosal folds. Larynx generates sound through rhythmic opening and closing of the vocal folds. The perceived pitch of human voice mainly depends upon fundamental frequency of sound generated by larynx. Aim: - The aim of present study is to measure various dimensions of vocal folds in Indian cadavers. Material & Methods: - 50 larynx were obtained from embalmed cadavers, of which 10 larynx were of females. Vocal cords were dissected from the larynx and morphometric analysis was done. Results and Conclusions: - The average total length of the vocal folds was found to be 16.11 mm. ± 2.62 mm. in male and 14.10 mm. ± 1.54 mm. in female cadavers. The average width of the vocal folds was found to be 4.38 mm. ± 0.74 mm. in male and 3.60 mm. ± 0.64 mm. in female cadavers. The average total length of the membranous part of the vocal folds was found to be 11.90 mm. ± 1.86 mm. in male and 10.45 mm. ± 1.81 mm. in female cadavers. The average ratio of the length of the membranous and the cartilaginous parts of the vocal folds was calculated to be 3.10 ± 0.96in male and 2.85 ± 0.73in female cadavers.

  13. WW Domain Folding Complexity Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy


    Davis, Caitlin M.; Dyer, R. Brian


    Although the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of proteins offers a convenient probe of protein folding, interpretation of the fluorescence spectrum is often difficult because it is sensitive to both global and local changes. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy offers a complementary measure of structural changes involved in protein folding, because it probes changes in the secondary structure of the protein backbone. Here we demonstrate the advantages of using multiple probes, infrared and fluorescen...

  14. Double folded Yukawa interaction potential between two heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgac, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Dumitrescu, O.


    A simple semi-analytical formula for the heavy ion interaction potential within the double-folding model approximation is obtained. The folded interaction is assumed to be expressed in Yukawa terms or the derivatives of them. The densities used can be both experimental or theoretical (of simple ''step-wise'', ''Fermi-Saxon-Woods'' or complicated ''shell model'' structure) densities. A way of inserting the exchange terms is discussed. Numerical calculations for some colliding partners are reported. (author)

  15. The Arterial Folding Point During Flexion of the Hip Joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Il; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Byung Moon; Kim, Jae Keun; Lee, Do Yun


    Purpose: Endovascular stents placed in periarticular vessels may be at a greater risk of neointimal hyperplasia and eventual occlusion than those placed in non-periarticular vessels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location of maximal conformational change along the iliac and femoral artery, the folding point, during flexion of the hip joint and its location relative to the hip joint and the inguinal ligament. Methods: Seventy patients undergoing femoral artery catheterization were evaluated. The patients were 47 men and 23 women and ranged in age from 26 to 75 years (mean 54 years). The arteries (right:left = 34:36) were measured using a marked catheter for sizing vessels. Fluoroscopic images were obtained in anteroposterior and lateral projections in neutral position, and in the lateral projection in flexed position of the hip joint. The folding point was determined by comparing the lateral projection images in the neutral and flexed positions. The distance from the acetabular roof to the folding point and the distance from the inguinal ligament to the folding point was evaluated. Results: : The folding point was located 42.8 ± 28.6 mm cranial to the acetabular roof and 35.1 ± 30.1 mm cranial to the inguinal ligament. As the patient’s age increased, the folding point was located more cranially (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The folding point during flexion of the hip joint was located 42.8 ± 28.6 mm cranial to the acetabular roof and 35.1 ± 30.1 mm cranial to the inguinal ligament. As the patient's age increased, the folding point was located more cranially. When a stent is inserted over this region, more attention may be needed during follow-up to monitor possible occlusion and stent failure.

  16. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women


    Louzada,Talita; Beraldinelle,Roberta; Berretin-Felix,Giédre; Brasolotto,Alcione Ghedini


    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: F...

  17. Consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary universe models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Jian-Yang


    This study concerns the consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary models. A linear stability analysis is performed to find the slow-roll conditions, characterized by the potential slow-roll (PSR) parameters, for the existence of a tachyon warm inflationary attractor in the system. The PSR parameters in the tachyon warm inflationary models are redefined. Two cases, an exponential potential and an inverse power-law potential, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient Γ = Γ 0 and Γ = Γ(φ), respectively. A crucial condition is obtained for a tachyon warm inflationary model characterized by the Hubble slow-roll (HSR) parameter ε H , and the condition is extendable to some other inflationary models as well. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both cases of the tachyon warm inflation, in contrast to existing works. It is also found that a constant dissipative coefficient (Γ = Γ 0 ) is usually not a suitable assumption for a warm inflationary model

  18. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure. (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti


    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  19. Protein solubility and folding enhancement by interaction with RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Il Choi

    Full Text Available While basic mechanisms of several major molecular chaperones are well understood, this machinery has been known to be involved in folding of only limited number of proteins inside the cells. Here, we report a chaperone type of protein folding facilitated by interaction with RNA. When an RNA-binding module is placed at the N-terminus of aggregation-prone target proteins, this module, upon binding with RNA, further promotes the solubility of passenger proteins, potentially leading to enhancement of proper protein folding. Studies on in vitro refolding in the presence of RNA, coexpression of RNA molecules in vivo and the mutants with impaired RNA binding ability suggests that RNA can exert chaperoning effect on their bound proteins. The results suggest that RNA binding could affect the overall kinetic network of protein folding pathway in favor of productive folding over off-pathway aggregation. In addition, the RNA binding-mediated solubility enhancement is extremely robust for increasing soluble yield of passenger proteins and could be usefully implemented for high-throughput protein expression for functional and structural genomic research initiatives. The RNA-mediated chaperone type presented here would give new insights into de novo folding in vivo.

  20. Self-Folding Textiles through Manipulation of Knit Stitch Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea E. Knittel


    Full Text Available This research presents a preliminary study on finding predictable methods of controlling the self-folding behaviors of weft knit textiles for use in the development of smart textiles and garment devices, such as those with shape memory, auxetic behavior or transformation abilities. In this work, Shima Seiki SDS-One Apex computer-aided knitting technology, Shima Seiki industrial knitting machines, and the study of paper origami tessellation patterns were used as tools to understand and predict the self-folding abilities of weft knit textiles. A wide range of self-folding weft knit structures was produced, and relationships between the angles and ratios of the knit and purl stitch types were determined. Mechanical testing was used as a means to characterize differences produced by stitch patterns, and to further understand the relationships between angles and folding abilities. By defining a formulaic method for predicting the nature of the folds that occur due to stitch architecture patterns, we can better design self-folding fabrics for smart textile applications.

  1. Multi-crease Self-folding by Global Heating. (United States)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Onal, Cagdas D; Rus, Daniela


    This study demonstrates a new approach to autonomous folding for the body of a 3D robot from a 2D sheet, using heat. We approach this challenge by folding a 0.27-mm sheetlike material into a structure. We utilize the thermal deformation of a contractive sheet sandwiched by rigid structural layers. During this baking process, the heat applied on the entire sheet induces contraction of the contracting layer and thus forms an instructed bend in the sheet. To attain the targeted folding angles, the V-fold spans method is used. The targeted angle θout can be kinematically encoded into crease geometry. The realization of this angle in the folded structure can be approximately controlled by a contraction angle θin. The process is non-reversible, is reliable, and is relatively fast. Our method can be applied simultaneously to all the folds in multi-crease origami structures. We demonstrate the use of this method to create a lightweight mobile robot.

  2. Synthetic oligorotaxanes exert high forces when folding under mechanical load (United States)

    Sluysmans, Damien; Hubert, Sandrine; Bruns, Carson J.; Zhu, Zhixue; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Duwez, Anne-Sophie


    Folding is a ubiquitous process that nature uses to control the conformations of its molecular machines, allowing them to perform chemical and mechanical tasks. Over the years, chemists have synthesized foldamers that adopt well-defined and stable folded architectures, mimicking the control expressed by natural systems1,2. Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, are prototypical molecular machines that enable the controlled movement and positioning of their component parts3-5. Recently, combining the exquisite complexity of these two classes of molecules, donor-acceptor oligorotaxane foldamers have been synthesized, in which interactions between the mechanically interlocked component parts dictate the single-molecule assembly into a folded secondary structure6-8. Here we report on the mechanochemical properties of these molecules. We use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy to mechanically unfold oligorotaxanes, made of oligomeric dumbbells incorporating 1,5-dioxynaphthalene units encircled by cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. Real-time capture of fluctuations between unfolded and folded states reveals that the molecules exert forces of up to 50 pN against a mechanical load of up to 150 pN, and displays transition times of less than 10 μs. While the folding is at least as fast as that observed in proteins, it is remarkably more robust, thanks to the mechanically interlocked structure. Our results show that synthetic oligorotaxanes have the potential to exceed the performance of natural folding proteins.

  3. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction: Aromatic Claw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Joseph R. [Biomolecular NMR Core Facility, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Adhikari, Aashish N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Gawlak, Grzegorz [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Hoey, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Liu, Gaohua [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Biological Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Sosnick, Tobin R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Koide, Shohei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and the Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York New York


    We determined the NMR structure of a highly aromatic (13%) protein of unknown function, Aq1974 from Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 5SYQ). The unusual sequence of this protein has a tryptophan content five times the normal (six tryptophan residues of 114 or 5.2% while the average tryptophan content is 1.0%) with the tryptophans occurring in a WXW motif. It has no detectable sequence homology with known protein structures. Although its NMR spectrum suggested that the protein was rich in β-sheet, upon resonance assignment and solution structure determination, the protein was found to be primarily α-helical with a small two-stranded β-sheet with a novel fold that we have termed an Aromatic Claw. As this fold was previously unknown and the sequence unique, we submitted the sequence to CASP10 as a target for blind structural prediction. At the end of the competition, the sequence was classified a hard template based model; the structural relationship between the template and the experimental structure was small and the predictions all failed to predict the structure. CSRosetta was found to predict the secondary structure and its packing; however, it was found that there was little correlation between CSRosetta score and the RMSD between the CSRosetta structure and the NMR determined one. This work demonstrates that even in relatively small proteins, we do not yet have the capacity to accurately predict the fold for all primary sequences. The experimental discovery of new folds helps guide the improvement of structural prediction methods.

  4. The quality control of glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, a trip from trypanosomes to mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Parodi


    Full Text Available The present review deals with the stages of synthesis and processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides occurring in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and their relationship to the acquisition by glycoproteins of their proper tertiary structures. Special emphasis is placed on reactions taking place in trypanosomatid protozoa since their study has allowed the detection of the transient glucosylation of glycoproteins catalyzed by UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase and glucosidase II. The former enzyme has the unique property of covalently tagging improperly folded conformations by catalyzing the formation of protein-linked Glc1Man7GlcNAc2, Glc1Man8GlcNac2 and Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 from the unglucosylated proteins. Glucosyltransferase is a soluble protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that recognizes protein domains exposed in denatured but not in native conformations (probably hydrophobic amino acids and the innermost N-acetylglucosamine unit that is hidden from macromolecular probes in most native glycoproteins. In vivo, the glucose units are removed by glucosidase II. The influence of oligosaccharides in glycoprotein folding is reviewed as well as the participation of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones (calnexin and calreticulin that recognize monoglucosylated species in the same process. A model for the quality control of glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum, i.e., the mechanism by which cells recognize the tertiary structure of glycoproteins and only allow transit to the Golgi apparatus of properly folded species, is discussed. The main elements of this control are calnexin and calreticulin as retaining components, the UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase as a sensor of tertiary structures and glucosidase II as the releasing agent.

  5. Vocal fold self-disruption after phonotrauma on a lead actor: a case presentation. (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Oliveira, Gisele; Pontes, Paulo


    It is well known that phonotraumatic events may produce laryngeal inflammation, vocal fold hemorrhage and different types of mass lesions. This study describes a vocal fold self-disruption that occurred on stage to a lead actor in the role of Richard III. The study design is as case presentation. A 43-year-old actor presented with a sudden voice loss that first occurred on stage after a series of presentations. He also had a cold-like condition that had not been treated. His past medical history included an average of ten cigarettes per day for ten years and a 10-year history of gastritis and stomach ulcer. Perceptual, acoustic, and laryngeal analyses were performed following pharmacological and voice therapy. Perceptual and acoustic analyses showed mild deviations whereas laryngeal visual examination revealed a complete right vocal fold detachment from the anterior commissure to the vocal process, with generalized hyperemia. A mild diffuse Reinke's edema was observed on the left vocal fold. Mild discomfort was present only during the first day of the acute period. Modified vocal rest was recommended and a series of vocal exercises were administered. The patient performed again 4 days later, after following a series of behavioral modification techniques that included casting guidelines during the subsequent 15 days. Healing was exceptional and his voice returned to normal. This unique case with an exceptional recovery emphasizes the etiological aspects of scar formation after phonotrauma. Positive contributing factors may include a good vocal technique and adequate training as well as the protective upregulated genes present in Reinke's edema.

  6. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas


    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  7. One Peptide Reveals the Two Faces of α-Helix Unfolding-Folding Dynamics. (United States)

    Jesus, Catarina S H; Cruz, Pedro F; Arnaut, Luis G; Brito, Rui M M; Serpa, Carlos


    discrete side chain interactions, a salt bridge, and in particular a single cation-π interaction in the folding dynamics of a naturally occurring α-helix peptide is uniquely revealed by these data.

  8. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir


    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  9. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt


    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  10. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli


    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  11. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer


    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  12. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus


    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  13. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel


    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  14. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian


    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  15. On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.


    A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of open-quote open-quote history close-quote close-quote is generalized to the notion of open-quote open-quote effect history.close-quote close-quote The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omngrave es close-quote logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander


    Salt structures have been identified as a potential target for hydrocarbon, CO2, or radioactive waste storage. The most suitable locations for magazines are considered in the thick and relatively homogeneous rock salt layers. However, salt structures often consist of the evaporite sequence including rock salt intercalated with other rock types e.g.: anhydrite, gypsum, potassium and magnesium salt, calcite, dolomite, or shale. The presence of such heterogeneities causes a serious disturbance in the structure management. Detailed analysis of the internal architecture and internal dynamics of the salt structure are crucial for evaluating them as suitable repositories and also their long-term stability. The goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the presence of anhydrite layers on the internal dynamics of salt structures. Anhydrite is a common rock in evaporite sequences. Its physical and mechanical properties strongly differ from the properties of rock salt. The density of anhydrite is much higher than the density of salt, thus anhydrite is likely to sink in salt causing the disturbance of the surrounding structures. This suggestion was the starting point to the discussion about the long-term stability of the magazines in salt structures [1]. However, the other important parameter that has to be taken into account is the viscosity of anhydrite. The high viscosity ratio between salt and anhydrite can restrain the layer from sinking. The rheological behaviour of anhydrite has been studied in laboratory experiments [2], but the results only provide information about the short-term behaviour. The long-term behaviour can be best predicted using indirect methods e.g. based on the analysis of natural structures that developed over geological time scale. One of the most promising are fold structures, the shape of which is very sensitive to the rheological parameters of the deforming materials. Folds can develop in mechanically stratified materials during layer

  17. RNA folding kinetics using Monte Carlo and Gillespie algorithms. (United States)

    Clote, Peter; Bayegan, Amir H


    RNA secondary structure folding kinetics is known to be important for the biological function of certain processes, such as the hok/sok system in E. coli. Although linear algebra provides an exact computational solution of secondary structure folding kinetics with respect to the Turner energy model for tiny ([Formula: see text]20 nt) RNA sequences, the folding kinetics for larger sequences can only be approximated by binning structures into macrostates in a coarse-grained model, or by repeatedly simulating secondary structure folding with either the Monte Carlo algorithm or the Gillespie algorithm. Here we investigate the relation between the Monte Carlo algorithm and the Gillespie algorithm. We prove that asymptotically, the expected time for a K-step trajectory of the Monte Carlo algorithm is equal to [Formula: see text] times that of the Gillespie algorithm, where [Formula: see text] denotes the Boltzmann expected network degree. If the network is regular (i.e. every node has the same degree), then the mean first passage time (MFPT) computed by the Monte Carlo algorithm is equal to MFPT computed by the Gillespie algorithm multiplied by [Formula: see text]; however, this is not true for non-regular networks. In particular, RNA secondary structure folding kinetics, as computed by the Monte Carlo algorithm, is not equal to the folding kinetics, as computed by the Gillespie algorithm, although the mean first passage times are roughly correlated. Simulation software for RNA secondary structure folding according to the Monte Carlo and Gillespie algorithms is publicly available, as is our software to compute the expected degree of the network of secondary structures of a given RNA sequence-see .

  18. Solitons and protein folding: An In Silico experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.; Dai, J.; Sieradzan, A.; Niemi, A.


    Protein folding [1] is the process of formation of a functional 3D structure from a random coil — the shape in which amino-acid chains leave the ribosome. Anfinsen’s dogma states that the native 3D shape of a protein is completely determined by protein’s amino acid sequence. Despite the progress in understanding the process rate and the success in folding prediction for some small proteins, with presently available physics-based methods it is not yet possible to reliably deduce the shape of a biologically active protein from its amino acid sequence. The protein-folding problem endures as one of the most important unresolved problems in science; it addresses the origin of life itself. Furthermore, a wrong fold is a common cause for a protein to lose its function or even endanger the living organism. Soliton solutions of a generalized discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (GDNLSE) obtained from the energy function in terms of bond and torsion angles κ and τ provide a constructive theoretical framework for describing protein folds and folding patterns [2]. Here we study the dynamics of this process by means of molecular-dynamics simulations. The soliton manifestation is the pattern helix–loop–helix in the secondary structure of the protein, which explains the importance of understanding loop formation in helical proteins. We performed in silico experiments for unfolding one subunit of the core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein (PDB ID: 1AIK [3]) by molecular-dynamics simulations with the MD package GROMACS. We analyzed 80 ns trajectories, obtained with one united-atom and two different all-atom force fields, to justify the side-chain orientation quantification scheme adopted in the studies and to eliminate force-field based artifacts. Our results are compatible with the soliton model of protein folding and provide first insight into soliton-formation dynamics

  19. Solitons and protein folding: An In Silico experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilieva, N., E-mail: [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Bulgarian Aacademy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dai, J., E-mail: [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Sieradzan, A., E-mail: [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk (Poland); Niemi, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); LMPT–CNRS, Université de Tours, Tours (France)


    Protein folding [1] is the process of formation of a functional 3D structure from a random coil — the shape in which amino-acid chains leave the ribosome. Anfinsen’s dogma states that the native 3D shape of a protein is completely determined by protein’s amino acid sequence. Despite the progress in understanding the process rate and the success in folding prediction for some small proteins, with presently available physics-based methods it is not yet possible to reliably deduce the shape of a biologically active protein from its amino acid sequence. The protein-folding problem endures as one of the most important unresolved problems in science; it addresses the origin of life itself. Furthermore, a wrong fold is a common cause for a protein to lose its function or even endanger the living organism. Soliton solutions of a generalized discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (GDNLSE) obtained from the energy function in terms of bond and torsion angles κ and τ provide a constructive theoretical framework for describing protein folds and folding patterns [2]. Here we study the dynamics of this process by means of molecular-dynamics simulations. The soliton manifestation is the pattern helix–loop–helix in the secondary structure of the protein, which explains the importance of understanding loop formation in helical proteins. We performed in silico experiments for unfolding one subunit of the core structure of gp41 from the HIV envelope glycoprotein (PDB ID: 1AIK [3]) by molecular-dynamics simulations with the MD package GROMACS. We analyzed 80 ns trajectories, obtained with one united-atom and two different all-atom force fields, to justify the side-chain orientation quantification scheme adopted in the studies and to eliminate force-field based artifacts. Our results are compatible with the soliton model of protein folding and provide first insight into soliton-formation dynamics.

  20. The nature of folded states of globular proteins. (United States)

    Honeycutt, J D; Thirumalai, D


    We suggest, using dynamical simulations of a simple heteropolymer modelling the alpha-carbon sequence in a protein, that generically the folded states of globular proteins correspond to statistically well-defined metastable states. This hypothesis, called the metastability hypothesis, states that there are several free energy minima separated by barriers of various heights such that the folded conformations of a polypeptide chain in each of the minima have similar structural characteristics but have different energies from one another. The calculated structural characteristics, such as bond angle and dihedral angle distribution functions, are assumed to arise from only those configurations belonging to a given minimum. The validity of this hypothesis is illustrated by simulations of a continuum model of a heteropolymer whose low temperature state is a well-defined beta-barrel structure. The simulations were done using a molecular dynamics algorithm (referred to as the "noisy" molecular dynamics method) containing both friction and noise terms. It is shown that for this model there are several distinct metastable minima in which the structural features are similar. Several new methods of analyzing fluctuations in structures belonging to two distinct minima are introduced. The most notable one is a dynamic measure of compactness that can in principle provide the time required for maximal compactness to be achieved. The analysis shows that for a given metastable state in which the protein has a well-defined folded structure the transition to a state of higher compactness occurs very slowly, lending credence to the notion that the system encounters a late barrier in the process of folding to the most compact structure. The examination of the fluctuations in the structures near the unfolding----folding transition temperature indicates that the transition state for the unfolding to folding process occurs closer to the folded state.

  1. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador


    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  2. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.


    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  3. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  4. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian. (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C


    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  5. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.


    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  6. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.


    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  8. Young children's preference for unique owned objects. (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S


    An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory. (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M


    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of elastic scattering of polarized proton with 6He by folding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseri, Y.; Tanifuji, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Hiyama, E.; Yamamoto, Y.


    Experimental data of the elastic scattering of 6 He with polarized proton target has been analyzed using a simple folding model. As we regard 6 He as three bodies consisting of 4 He+n+n, the potential between the proton and 6 He is obtained by folding the two potentials, one between a proton and 4 He and another between a proton and a neutron, with the density distribution of 6 He. Calculated results of both the differential cross section and the vector analyzing power reproduce the experimental data satisfactorily. It is shown that the vector analyzing power of the p- 6 He scattering is mainly due to the spin orbit interaction between the proton and 4 He. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current (United States)

    Park, Sangtak; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa


    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2 ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2 ω a , 4 ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3 ω a , 5 ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation.

  12. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangtak; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Yavuz, Mustafa


    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2  ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2  ω a , 4  ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3  ω a , 5  ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation. (paper)

  13. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  14. Vocal Fold Injection: Review of Indications, Techniques, and Materials for Augmentation


    Mallur, Pavan S.; Rosen, Clark A.


    Vocal fold injection is a procedure that has over a 100 year history but was rarely done as short as 20 years ago. A renaissance has occurred with respect to vocal fold injection due to new technologies (visualization and materials) and new injection approaches. Awake, un-sedated vocal fold injection offers many distinct advantages for the treatment of glottal insufficiency (vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold atrophy and vocal fold scar). A review of materials available and ...

  15. WW domain folding complexity revealed by infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Davis, Caitlin M; Dyer, R Brian


    Although the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of proteins offers a convenient probe of protein folding, interpretation of the fluorescence spectrum is often difficult because it is sensitive to both global and local changes. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy offers a complementary measure of structural changes involved in protein folding, because it probes changes in the secondary structure of the protein backbone. Here we demonstrate the advantages of using multiple probes, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy, to study the folding of the FBP28 WW domain. Laser-induced temperature jumps coupled with fluorescence or infrared spectroscopy have been used to probe changes in the peptide backbone on the submillisecond time scale. The relaxation dynamics of the β-sheets and β-turn were measured independently by probing the corresponding IR bands assigned in the amide I region. Using these wavelength-dependent measurements, we observe three kinetics phases, with the fastest process corresponding to the relaxation kinetics of the turns. In contrast, fluorescence measurements of the wild-type WW domain and tryptophan mutants exhibit single-exponential kinetics with a lifetime that corresponds to the slowest phase observed by infrared spectroscopy. Mutant sequences provide evidence of an intermediate dry molten globule state. The slowest step in the folding of this WW domain is the tight packing of the side chains in the transition from the dry molten globule intermediate to the native structure. This study demonstrates that using multiple complementary probes enhances the interpretation of protein folding dynamics.

  16. Fold maps and positive topological quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrazidlo, Dominik Johannes


    The notion of positive TFT as coined by Banagl is specified by an axiomatic system based on Atiyah's original axioms for TFTs. By virtue of a general framework that is based on the concept of Eilenberg completeness of semirings from computer science, a positive TFT can be produced rigorously via quantization of systems of fields and action functionals - a process inspired by Feynman's path integral from classical quantum field theory. The purpose of the present dissertation thesis is to investigate a new differential topological invariant for smooth manifolds that arises as the state sum of the fold map TFT, which has been constructed by Banagl as a example of a positive TFT. By eliminating an internal technical assumption on the fields of the fold map TFT, we are able to express the informational content of the state sum in terms of an extension problem for fold maps from cobordisms into the plane. Next, we use the general theory of generic smooth maps into the plane to improve known results about the structure of the state sum in arbitrary dimensions, and to determine it completely in dimension two. The aggregate invariant of a homotopy sphere, which is derived from the state sum, naturally leads us to define a filtration of the group of homotopy spheres in order to understand the role of indefinite fold lines beyond a theorem of Saeki. As an application, we show how Kervaire spheres can be characterized by indefinite fold lines in certain dimensions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Patricia


    Full Text Available Background: The proximal fold is an important part of the nail apparatus it contributes to the formation of the nail plate and through the cuticle acts as an impermeable barrier protecting it from any cause.Objective: To know the proximal nail fold hematoma caused by the use of pulse oximeter.Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 41 patients with proximal nail hematoma secondary to the use of oximetry in patients hospitalized in the Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit at the Hospital General de Enfermedades from December 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010.Results: We studied 41 patients with proximal nail fold hematoma secondary to the use of oximeter, 30 (73.1% were males and 11 (26.8% females. The numbers of fingers affected by pulse oximeter were in one digit. 30 (73.1% cases, in two digits 6 (14.6%, in three digits 3 (7.3%, in 4 digits 1 (2.4% and in 5 digits 1 (2.4% case. The most affected proximal nail fold was right index: 24 (58.5%, right middle 11 (26.8%, right ring 6 (14.6%, left index 12 (29.2%, and left middle 6 (14.6% cases.Conclusions: Hematomas of the proximal nail fold may be caused by different traumatisms. The use of pulse oximeter is one of them.

  18. Recurrence of vocal fold leukoplakia after carbon dioxide laser therapy. (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Haitao


    This work aims to analyze the recurrence of vocal fold leukoplakia after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser resection. In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing CO 2 laser resection of vocal fold leukoplakia were followed up for at least 2 years. Recurrence was diagnosed as any presence of leukoplakia in the vocal cord subsequent to previous successful complete resection. A total of 326 patients with complete resection of vocal fold leukoplakia and follow-up subsequent surveillance laryngoscopy were studied. The recurrence rate, the recurrence time, and risk factors were evaluated. Of these, 52 (16.0%) patients experienced recurrence with a mean follow-up time of 50.5 ± 15.4 months. The mean time to recurrence was 16.2 ± 14.1 months. Univariate analysis showed that the size of lesion (P vocal fold leukoplakia, long-term follow-up is required after CO 2 laser resection. In conclusion, the size of lesion combined with the pathological grade are important risk factors that predict vocal fold leukoplakia recurrence.

  19. Possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and vocal fold leukoplakia. (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Hai-Tao


    Several studies have indicated the larynx as possible Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) reservoirs. This study explored the association between H. pylori and vocal fold leukoplakia. The case-control study involved 51 patients with vocal fold leukoplakia and 35 control patients with vocal polyps. Helicobacter pylori was detected in tissues by the rapid urease test, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and single-step PCR. The H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin antibodies were detected in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Helicobacter pylori-positive rate of vocal fold leukoplakia and vocal polyps was 23.5% versus 11.4% (P = .157), 37.2% versus 14.3% (P = .020), 27.5% versus 8.6% (P = .031), and 70.6% versus 68.6% (P = .841) detected by rapid urease test, nested PCR, single-step PCR, and ELISA, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that H. pylori infection (P = .044) was the independent risk factor for vocal fold leukoplakia. Helicobacter pylori infection exists in the larynx and may be associated with vocal fold leukoplakia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human vocal fold lamina propria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Park

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.

  1. Modeling Vocal Fold Intravascular Flow using Synthetic Replicas (United States)

    Terry, Aaron D.; Ricks, Matthew T.; Thomson, Scott L.


    Vocal fold vibration that is induced by air flowing from the lungs is believed to decrease blood flow through the vocal folds. This is important due to the critical role of blood flow in maintaining tissue health. However, the precise mechanical relationships between vocal fold vibration and blood perfusion remain understudied. A platform for studying liquid perfusion in a synthetic, life-size, self-oscillating vocal fold replica has recently been developed. The replicas are fabricated using molded silicone with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissues and that include embedded microchannels through which liquid is perfused. The replicas are mounted on an air flow supply tube to initiate flow-induced vibration. A liquid reservoir is attached to the microchannel to cause liquid to perfuse through replica in the anterior-posterior direction. As replica vibration is initiated and amplitude increases, perfusion flow rate decreases. In this presentation, the replica design will be presented, along with data quantifying the relationships between parameters such as replica vibration amplitude, stiffness, microchannel diameter, and perfusion flow rate. This work was supported by Grant NIDCD R01DC005788 from the National Institutes of Health.

  2. Recovery of Vocal Fold Epithelium after Acute Phonotrauma. (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Valenzuela, Carla V; Mizuta, Masanobu; Daniero, James J; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti


    We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2. This initial 24-h period was also characterized by the significant downregulation of junction proteins. Interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β1 were upregulated for 3 and 7 days, respectively, followed by an increase in epithelial cell surface depth at 3 and 7 days. These data appear to demonstrate a shift from inflammatory response to the initiation of a restorative process in the vocal fold epithelium between 24 h and 3 days. Despite the initial damage from raised-intensity phonation, the vocal fold epithelium demonstrates a remarkable capacity for the expeditious recovery of structural changes from transient episodes of acute phonotrauma. While structurally intact, the return of functional barrier integrity may be delayed by repeated episodes of phonotrauma and may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of vocal fold lesions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia. (United States)

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S


    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Probabilistic analysis for identifying the driving force of protein folding (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yoshihiko; Yamamori, Yu; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki


    Toward identifying the driving force of protein folding, energetics was analyzed in water for Trp-cage (20 residues), protein G (56 residues), and ubiquitin (76 residues) at their native (folded) and heat-denatured (unfolded) states. All-atom molecular dynamics simulation was conducted, and the hydration effect was quantified by the solvation free energy. The free-energy calculation was done by employing the solution theory in the energy representation, and it was seen that the sum of the protein intramolecular (structural) energy and the solvation free energy is more favorable for a folded structure than for an unfolded one generated by heat. Probabilistic arguments were then developed to determine which of the electrostatic, van der Waals, and excluded-volume components of the interactions in the protein-water system governs the relative stabilities between the folded and unfolded structures. It was found that the electrostatic interaction does not correspond to the preference order of the two structures. The van der Waals and excluded-volume components were shown, on the other hand, to provide the right order of preference at probabilities of almost unity, and it is argued that a useful modeling of protein folding is possible on the basis of the excluded-volume effect.

  5. The influence of material anisotropy on vibration at onset in a three-dimensional vocal fold model (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan


    Although vocal folds are known to be anisotropic, the influence of material anisotropy on vocal fold vibration remains largely unknown. Using a linear stability analysis, phonation onset characteristics were investigated in a three-dimensional anisotropic vocal fold model. The results showed that isotropic models had a tendency to vibrate in a swing-like motion, with vibration primarily along the superior-inferior direction. Anterior-posterior (AP) out-of-phase motion was also observed and large vocal fold vibration was confined to the middle third region along the AP length. In contrast, increasing anisotropy or increasing AP-transverse stiffness ratio suppressed this swing-like motion and allowed the vocal fold to vibrate in a more wave-like motion with strong medial-lateral motion over the entire medial surface. Increasing anisotropy also suppressed the AP out-of-phase motion, allowing the vocal fold to vibrate in phase along the entire AP length. Results also showed that such improvement in vibration pattern was the most effective with large anisotropy in the cover layer alone. These numerical predictions were consistent with previous experimental observations using self-oscillating physical models. It was further hypothesized that these differences may facilitate complete glottal closure in finite-amplitude vibration of anisotropic models as observed in recent experiments. PMID:24606284

  6. Single-Molecule Fluorescence Reveals the Oligomerization and Folding Steps Driving the Prion-like Behavior of ASC. (United States)

    Gambin, Yann; Giles, Nichole; O'Carroll, Ailís; Polinkovsky, Mark; Hunter, Dominic; Sierecki, Emma


    Single-molecule fluorescence has the unique ability to quantify small oligomers and track conformational changes at a single-protein level. Here we tackled one of the most extreme protein behaviors, found recently in an inflammation pathway. Upon danger recognition in the cytosol, NLRP3 recruits its signaling adaptor, ASC. ASC start polymerizing in a prion-like manner and the system goes in "overdrive" by producing a single micron-sized "speck." By precisely controlling protein expression levels in an in vitro translation system, we could trigger the polymerization of ASC and mimic formation of specks in the absence of inflammasome nucleators. We utilized single-molecule spectroscopy to fully characterize prion-like behaviors and self-propagation of ASC fibrils. We next used our controlled system to monitor the conformational changes of ASC upon fibrillation. Indeed, ASC consists of a PYD and CARD domains, separated by a flexible linker. Individually, both domains have been found to form fibrils, but the structure of the polymers formed by the full-length ASC proteins remains elusive. For the first time, using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, we studied the relative positions of the CARD and PYD domains of full-length ASC. An unexpectedly large conformational change occurred upon ASC fibrillation, suggesting that the CARD domain folds back onto the PYD domain. However, contradicting current models, the "prion-like" conformer was not initiated by binding of ASC to the NLRP3 platform. Rather, using a new method, hybrid between Photon Counting Histogram and Number and Brightness analysis, we showed that NLRP3 forms hexamers with self-binding affinities around 300nM. Overall our data suggest a new mechanism, where NLRP3 can initiate ASC polymerization simply by increasing the local concentration of ASC above a supercritical level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. RNAslider: a faster engine for consecutive windows folding and its application to the analysis of genomic folding asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziv-Ukelson Michal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scanning large genomes with a sliding window in search of locally stable RNA structures is a well motivated problem in bioinformatics. Given a predefined window size L and an RNA sequence S of size N (L 3 by applying any of the classical cubic-time RNA folding algorithms to each of the N-L windows of size L. Recently an O(NL2 solution for this problem has been described. Results Here, we describe and implement an O(NLψ(L engine for the consecutive windows folding problem, where ψ(L is shown to converge to O(1 under the assumption of a standard probabilistic polymer folding model, yielding an O(L speedup which is experimentally confirmed. Using this tool, we note an intriguing directionality (5'-3' vs. 3'-5' folding bias, i.e. that the minimal free energy (MFE of folding is higher in the native direction of the DNA than in the reverse direction of various genomic regions in several organisms including regions of the genomes that do not encode proteins or ncRNA. This bias largely emerges from the genomic dinucleotide bias which affects the MFE, however we see some variations in the folding bias in the different genomic regions when normalized to the dinucleotide bias. We also present results from calculating the MFE landscape of a mouse chromosome 1, characterizing the MFE of the long ncRNA molecules that reside in this chromosome. Conclusion The efficient consecutive windows folding engine described in this paper allows for genome wide scans for ncRNA molecules as well as large-scale statistics. This is implemented here as a software tool, called RNAslider, and applied to the scanning of long chromosomes, leading to the observation of features that are visible only on a large scale.

  8. The use of folding structures in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, T.


    Folding structures can be used with advantage in fusion machines. They have been used in Space for decades to extend antennas, sensors and solar panels; terrestrial versions have been used as retractable antennas and antennas masts. They have also been used in the Joint European Torus (JET) and other nuclear applications. In this paper, three types are described, together with concepts for use in fusion machines. The Storable Tubular Extendible Member (STEM) was conceived by the National Research Council of Canada and developed by Spar Aerospace Limited. The Astromast is a folding truss developed by Astro Aerospace Corporation, a US subsidiary of Spar. The X-Beam is an ultra-stiff folding truss

  9. Self-organized critical model for protein folding (United States)

    Moret, M. A.


    The major factor that drives a protein toward collapse and folding is the hydrophobic effect. At the folding process a hydrophobic core is shielded by the solvent-accessible surface area of the protein. We study the fractal behavior of 5526 protein structures present in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Power laws of protein mass, volume and solvent-accessible surface area are measured independently. The present findings indicate that self-organized criticality is an alternative explanation for the protein folding. Also we note that the protein packing is an independent and constant value because the self-similar behavior of the volumes and protein masses have the same fractal dimension. This power law guarantees that a protein is a complex system. From the analyzed data, q-Gaussian distributions seem to fit well this class of systems.

  10. A biomorphic origami actuator fabricated by folding a conducting paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzaki, H; Saido, T; Suzuki, H; Hara, Y; Yan, H [Laboratory of Organic Robotics, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, 400-8511 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Cooperation between the electrical conductivity and hygroscopic nature of conducting polymers can provide an insight into the development of a new class of electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators or soft robots working in ambient air. In this paper, we describe an 'origami' actuator fabricated by folding a sheet of conducting 'paper'. The principle lies in the electrically induced changes in the elastic modulus of a humidosensitive conducting polymer film through reversible sorption and desorption of water vapor molecules, which is responsible for amplifying a contraction of the film ({approx} 1%) to more than a 100-fold expansion (> 100%) of the origami actuator. Utilizing the origami technique, we have fabricated a biomorphic origami robot by folding an electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole film into the figure of an accordion shape, which can move with a caterpillar-like motion by repeated expansion and contraction at a velocity of 2 cm min{sup -1}.

  11. A biomorphic origami actuator fabricated by folding a conducting paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzaki, H; Saido, T; Suzuki, H; Hara, Y; Yan, H


    Cooperation between the electrical conductivity and hygroscopic nature of conducting polymers can provide an insight into the development of a new class of electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators or soft robots working in ambient air. In this paper, we describe an 'origami' actuator fabricated by folding a sheet of conducting 'paper'. The principle lies in the electrically induced changes in the elastic modulus of a humidosensitive conducting polymer film through reversible sorption and desorption of water vapor molecules, which is responsible for amplifying a contraction of the film (∼ 1%) to more than a 100-fold expansion (> 100%) of the origami actuator. Utilizing the origami technique, we have fabricated a biomorphic origami robot by folding an electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole film into the figure of an accordion shape, which can move with a caterpillar-like motion by repeated expansion and contraction at a velocity of 2 cm min -1 .

  12. IMPAIRED MOBILITY OF VOCAL FOLDS - etiology and symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Pintarić


    Full Text Available Paresis or paralysis of one or both vocal cords affects some significant aspects of a human life: breathing, swallowing and speech. The major causes for reduced mobility or even immobility are innervation damage, less often fixation of vocal cord or impaired mobility of crycoarytenoid joint. An injury of the superior or/and inferior laryngeal nerve can be a consequence of different medical procedures, tumor growth, trauma, infection, neurological disorders, radiation exposure, toxic damage, impaired circulation of the area or it is idiopathic. The symptoms are different in the case of unilateral and bilateral paresis of the vocal folds. They also depend on the cause for the impaired mobility. In the patients with unilateral vocal fold paresis, hoarseness and aspiration during swallowing are the leading symptoms. In the bilateral vocal fold paralysis, dyspnea prevails. 

  13. Peptide folding in the presence of interacting protein crowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bille, Anna, E-mail:; Irbäck, Anders, E-mail: [Computational Biology and Biological Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Sölvegatan 14A, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Mohanty, Sandipan, E-mail: [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)


    Using Monte Carlo methods, we explore and compare the effects of two protein crowders, BPTI and GB1, on the folding thermodynamics of two peptides, the compact helical trp-cage and the β-hairpin-forming GB1m3. The thermally highly stable crowder proteins are modeled using a fixed backbone and rotatable side-chains, whereas the peptides are free to fold and unfold. In the simulations, the crowder proteins tend to distort the trp-cage fold, while having a stabilizing effect on GB1m3. The extent of the effects on a given peptide depends on the crowder type. Due to a sticky patch on its surface, BPTI causes larger changes than GB1 in the melting properties of the peptides. The observed effects on the peptides stem largely from attractive and specific interactions with the crowder surfaces, and differ from those seen in reference simulations with purely steric crowder particles.

  14. Dermofat graft in deep nasolabial fold and facial rhytidectomy. (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Han, Jin Yi; Kim, Dae Joong


    Fat and dermis or the combined tissues are used commonly in augmentation of the nasolabial fold. Guyuron obtained the dermofat graft from either the suprapubic or the groin region. The thickness of the preauricular skin was measured in seven Korean cadavers, five male and two female. We used the dermofat graft out of the preauricular skin remnant after facial rhytidectomy to augment the deep nasolabial fold in a patient. The average thickness of the epidermis was 56 +/- 12 microm, the dermis was 1820 +/- 265 microm thick, and the subcutaneous tissue was 4783 +/- 137 microm. More dense connective tissues, such as SMAS, are seen in the preauricular skin. The dermofat graft was easily obtained and prepared from the leftover preauricular skin after dissection of the lax skin in face lifting. This technique could be employed effectively and successfully to alleviate a deep nasolabial fold and concomitant facial rhytidectomy in an Asian with a thick preauricular skin.

  15. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian


    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  16. Is physical space unique or optional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstein, H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille


    There are two concepts of the physical space-time. One, S(F), is that of a fixed arena in which events take place. The other S(D), is that of a space-time shaped by events. The second depends on the state (initial conditions) or on the external field, the first does not. The main assertions of the present paper are: 1) the fixed space-time S(F) is neither incompatibles with nor made superfluous, by Einstein's theory. S(F) is experimentally explorable, unique, and probably identical with Minkowski space M. 2) The dynamical space S(D) is largely optional. It can be chosen to be M, but the natural choice is Einstein's pseudo-Riemanian manifold [fr

  17. Unique computer system for safeguards use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Pratt, J.C.


    Microprocessors have been used to implement specialized scientific data processing systems since 1976. One such system, the LeCroy 3500, is presently being used by the Detection and Verification Group of the Energy Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for a large variety of tasks involving measurement of various nuclear parameters associated with radioactive materials. The system is unique because it can do not only sophisticated pulse height and multi-scale analyses but also other analyses that are limited only by the availability fo CAMAC modules that would acquire data from exotic experiments. The system is also field portable which extends the range of experiments that it can control. Four applications of this system are described in this paper: (1) plutonium storage vault monitoring, (2) coded aperture image reconstruction, (3) spatial distribution of gamma radiation, and (4) nuclear waste management. 7 figures

  18. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.


    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  19. The unique ethics of sports medicine. (United States)

    Johnson, Rob


    The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices.

  20. MRI: unique costing and pricing issues. (United States)

    Schwartz, H W; Jarl, D F


    Acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves a plethora of costs not traditionally encountered in radiology procedure cost accounting models. Experiences with MRI gained at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics during 1984 uncovered a wide variety of unique costing issues which were eventually identified at the time when the MRI hospital charge was being established. Our experience at UMHC can provide those radiology departments now acquiring MRI with an earlier awareness of these special costing issues, hopefully resulting in better and more timely data collection. Current reimbursement and pricing issues are also having a dramatic impact on MRI costs at each institution and must be assessed in terms of third-party payor intentions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley K. Wallace; Catherine L. Hanks; Jerry Jensen; Michael T. Whalen


    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group is a major carbonate reservoir unit in northern Alaska. The Lisburne is detachment folded where it is exposed throughout the northeastern Brooks Range, but is relatively undeformed in areas of current production in the subsurface of the North Slope. The objectives of this study are to develop a better understanding of four major aspects of the Lisburne: (1) The geometry and kinematics of detachment folds and their truncation by thrust faults. (2) The influence of folding on fracture patterns. (3) The influence of deformation on fluid flow. (4) Lithostratigraphy and its influence on folding, faulting, fracturing, and reservoir characteristics. The Lisburne in the main axis of the Brooks Range is characteristically deformed into imbricate thrust sheets with asymmetrical hanging wall anticlines and footwall synclines. In contrast, the Lisburne in the northeastern Brooks Range is characterized by symmetrical detachment folds. The focus of our 2000 field studies was at the boundary between these structural styles in the vicinity of Porcupine Lake, in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The northern edge of thrust-truncated folds in Lisburne is marked by a local range front that likely represents an eastward continuation of the central Brooks Range front. This is bounded to the north by a gently dipping panel of Lisburne with local asymmetrical folds. The leading edge of the flat panel is thrust over Permian to Cretaceous rocks in a synclinal depression. These younger rocks overlie symmetrically detachment-folded Lisburne, as is extensively exposed to the north. Six partial sections were measured in the Lisburne of the flat panel and local range front. The Lisburne here is about 700 m thick and is interpreted to consist primarily of the Wachsmuth and Alapah Limestones, with only a thin veneer of Wahoo Limestone. The Wachsmuth (200 m) is gradational between the underlying Missippian Kayak Shale and the overlying Mississippian Alapah, and

  2. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.


    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  3. Quantum consistency of open string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, J.


    We discuss how Virasoro anomalies in open string theories uniquely select the gauge group SO(2 D/2 ) independently of any regularisation, although the cancellation of these anomalies does not occur in tachyonic theories, and regulators can always be chosen to make these theories (one-loop) finite for any SO(n) and USp(n) gauge group. The discussion is mainly restricted to open bosonic strings. These results open new perspectives for the recent suggestion made by Sagnotti, the generalisations of which allow for the construction of new open string theories in less than ten dimensions. (orig.)

  4. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  5. Consistent histories and operational quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.


    In this work a generalization of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics is presented. We first critically review the consistent histories approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way and give some general comments about it. We investigate to what extent the consistent histories scheme is compatible with the results of the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. According to the operational approach, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is most generally formulated in terms of effects, states, and operations. We formulate a generalized consistent histories theory using the concepts and the terminology which have proven useful in the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. The logical rule of the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics is generalized to the present context. The algebraic structure of the generalized theory is studied in detail

  6. Vocal fold composition and early glottic carcinoma infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging techniques provide only limited information pertaining to the extent of infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas into vocal fold tissue layers. Therefore, it is needed to seek the contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding examination and characterization in laryngeal carcinoma infiltration. Methods Excised larynges were collected from 30 male laryngectomy patients with an average age of 43.5 years (ranging 36 to 55 years and history of smoking (≥10 years exhibiting T1, T2, or subglottal (normal vocal fold carcinomas. Vocal folds were preserved via freezing or immersion in paraffin. The depth of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in both normal vocal folds and tumor tissues of afflicted vocal folds was measured. Results The average depths of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in normal vocal folds were 0.15 ± 0.06 mm, 2.30 ± 0.59 mm, and 2.87 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Infiltration measurements of T1 tumors showed a depth of 1.62 ± 0.51 mm and 1.32 ± 0.49 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. Similarly, T2 tumors showed a depth of 2.87 ± 0.68 mm and 2.58 ± 0.67 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. T1 and T2 tumors occupied 24.8 ± 10 and 48.5 ± 15 percent of the normal vocal fold depth, respectively. Conclusion This data provides a baseline for estimating infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas in vocal fold tissue layers, of particular interest to surgeons. This information may be used to assess typical depths of infiltration, thus allowing for more appropriate selection of surgical procedures based on individual patient assessment.

  7. A folding algorithm for extended RNA secondary structures. (United States)

    Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian; Bernhart, Stephan H; Stadler, Peter F; Hofacker, Ivo L


    RNA secondary structure contains many non-canonical base pairs of different pair families. Successful prediction of these structural features leads to improved secondary structures with applications in tertiary structure prediction and simultaneous folding and alignment. We present a theoretical model capturing both RNA pair families and extended secondary structure motifs with shared nucleotides using 2-diagrams. We accompany this model with a number of programs for parameter optimization and structure prediction. All sources (optimization routines, RNA folding, RNA evaluation, extended secondary structure visualization) are published under the GPLv3 and available at

  8. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.


    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  9. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models


    Chen, Jiahua


    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  10. Unique strategies for technical information management at Johnson Space Center (United States)

    Krishen, Vijay


    In addition to the current NASA manned programs, the maturation of Space Station and the introduction of the Space Exploration programs are anticipated to add substantially to the number and variety of data and documentation at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). This growth in the next decade has been estimated at five to ten fold compared to the current numbers. There will be an increased requirement for the tracking and currency of space program data and documents with National pressures to realize economic benefits from the research and technological developments of space programs. From a global perspective the demand for NASA's technical data and documentation is anticipated to increase at local, national, and international levels. The primary users will be government, industry, and academia. In our present national strategy, NASA's research and technology will assume a great role in the revitalization of the economy and gaining international competitiveness. Thus, greater demand will be placed on NASA's data and documentation resources. In this paper the strategies and procedures developed by DDMS, Inc., to accommodate the present and future information utilization needs are presented. The DDMS, Inc., strategies and procedures rely on understanding user requirements, library management issues, and technological applications for acquiring, searching, storing, and retrieving specific information accurately and quickly. The proposed approach responds to changing customer requirements and product deliveries. The unique features of the proposed strategy include: (1) To establish customer driven data and documentation management through an innovative and unique methods to identify needs and requirements. (2) To implement a structured process which responds to user needs, aimed at minimizing costs and maximizing services, resulting in increased productivity. (3) To provide a process of standardization of services and procedures. This standardization is the central

  11. Keys to the Stars : A Unique Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 saw the birth of a remarkable arts and science collaboration, between a piano duo and an astronomer. Since 2009, the Dutch Grieg Piano Duo, consisting of the professional pianists Elles van der Heiden and Siebert Nix, and the author have performed together in

  12. A unique radiation area monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.C.; Allen, G.C.


    The Remote Area Monitoring Systems (RAMS) monitors four radiation areas with two independent systems in each area. Each system consists of power supplies, four ionization chambers, and four analog and digital circuits. The first system controls the warning beacons, horns, annunciation panel and interlocks. The second system presents a quantitative dose rate indication at the console and in the radiation area

  13. Self-consistent asset pricing models (United States)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.


    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  14. The Port Isabel Fold Belt: Salt enhanced Neogene Gravitational Spreading in the East Breaks, Western Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Lebit, Hermann; Clavaud, Marie; Whitehead, Sam; Opdyke, Scott; Luneburg, Catalina


    The Port Isabel fold belt is situated at the northwestern corner of the deep water Gulf of Mexico where the regional E-W trending Texas-Louisiana shelf bends into the NNE-SSW trend of the East Mexico Shelf. The fold belt forms an allochthonous wedge that ramps up from West to East with its front occupied by shallow salt complexes (local canopies). It is assumed that the belt predominantly comprises Oligocene siliciclastic sequences which reveal eastward facing folds and thrusts with a NE-SW regional trend. The structural architecture of the fold belt is very well imaged on recently processed 3D seismic volumes. Crystal III is a wide-azimuth survey acquired in 2011 and reprocessed in 2016 leveraging newly developed state-of-the-art technology. 3D deghosting, directional designature and multi-model 3D SRME resulted in broader frequency spectrum. The new image benefits from unique implementation of FWI, combined with classic tomographic updates. Seismically transparent zones indicating over-pressured shales are limited to the core of anticlines or to the footwall of internal thrust. Mobile shales associated with diapirs are absent in the study area. In contrast, salt is mobile and apparently forms the major decollement of the PIFB as indicated by remnant salt preferentially located in triangles along the major thrusts and fault intersections or at the core of anticlines. Shallow salt diapirs seam to root in the fold belt, while lacking evidence for salt feeders being connected to the deep salt underlying the Mesozoic to Paleogene substratum of the fold belt. Towards the WNW the fold belt is transient into a extensional regime, characterized by roll-over structures associated with deep reaching normal faults which form ultra-deep mini basins filled with Neogene deposits. Kinematic restorations confirm the simultaneous evolution of the deep mini basins and the outboard fold belt. This resembles a gravitational spreading system with the extensional tectonics of the deep

  15. Single injection of basic fibroblast growth factor to treat severe vocal fold lesions and vocal fold paralysis. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Komazawa, Daigo; Indo, Kanako; Akagi, Yusuke; Lee, Yogaku; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Matsushima, Koji; Kunieda, Chikako; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yusuke


    Severe vocal fold lesions such as vocal fold sulcus, scars, and atrophy induce a communication disorder due to severe hoarseness, but a treatment has not been established. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) therapies by either four-time repeated local injections or regenerative surgery for vocal fold scar and sulcus have previously been reported, and favorable outcomes have been observed. In this study, we modified bFGF therapy using a single of bFGF injection, which may potentially be used in office procedures. Retrospective chart review. Five cases of vocal fold sulcus, six cases of scars, seven cases of paralysis, and 17 cases of atrophy were treated by a local injection of bFGF. The injection regimen involved injecting 50 µg of bFGF dissolved in 0.5 mL saline only once into the superficial lamina propria using a 23-gauge injection needle. Two months to 3 months after the injection, phonological outcomes were evaluated. The maximum phonation time (MPT), mean airflow rate, pitch range, speech fundamental frequency, jitter, and voice handicap index improved significantly after the bFGF injection. Furthermore, improvement in the MPT was significantly greater in patients with (in increasing order) vocal fold atrophy, scar, and paralysis. The improvement in the MPT among all patients was significantly correlated with age; the MPT improved more greatly in younger patients. Regenerative treatments by bFGF injection—even a single injection—effectively improve vocal function in vocal fold lesions. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. 3D geometry and kinematic evolution of the Wadi Mayh sheath fold, Oman, using detailed mapping from high-resolution photography (United States)

    Cornish, Sam; Searle, Mike


    The Wadi Mayh sheath fold in north-eastern Oman is one of the largest and best-exposed sheath folds known, and presents a unique opportunity to better understand this somewhat enigmatic style of deformation. We undertook high-resolution photographic surveying along Wadi Mayh to document the sheath fold in 61 georeferenced panoramic photomerges. Here we present ten such images that provide a structural interpretation of the sheath fold and surrounding structure. We resolve this structure in a simplified three-dimensional model and in two orthogonal cross sections, and propose a kinematic evolution to explain the geometry. The Wadi Mayh sheath fold is the most prominent example within what we suggest is a composite sequence of sheath folds, which is itself enclosed within a SSW-closing recumbent syncline at the base of the major Saih Hatat nappe. Sheath folding is accommodated within Permian Saiq Formation limestones showing carpholite assemblages (6-8 kbar; 275-375 °C). A major discontinuity separates this sequence from enveloping older rock units. The sequence formed during progressive top-to-north, ductile shearing as the overlying nappe migrated northwards with respect to the underthrusting Hulw unit. This process occurred during SSW-directed exhumation of partially subducted continental crust in NE Oman, approximately 15 Ma after obduction of the Oman ophiolite initiated.

  17. Formation of hydrogen bonds precedes the rate-limiting formation of persistent structure in the folding of ACBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, K; Kragelund, B B; Knudsen, J


    A burst phase in the early folding of the four-helix two-state folder protein acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP) has been detected using quenched-flow in combination with site-specific NMR-detected hydrogen exchange. Several of the burst phase structures coincide with a structure consisting...... of eight conserved hydrophobic residues at the interface between the two N and C-terminal helices. Previous mutation studies have shown that the formation of this structure is rate limiting for the final folding of ACBP. The burst phase structures observed in ACBP are different from the previously reported...

  18. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.


    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  19. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall ... role of transverse fault tectonics in the formation of the curvature cannot be ruled out. 1. .... Piedmont surface is made up of gravelliferous and ... made to compute the wedge failure analysis (Hoek .... (∼T2) is at the elevation of ∼272 m asl measured.

  20. A history of folding in mathematics mathematizing the margins

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Michael


    While it is well known that the Delian problems are impossible to solve with a straightedge and compass – for example, it is impossible to construct a segment whose length is ∛2 with these instruments – the Italian mathematician Margherita Beloch Piazzolla's discovery in 1934 that one can in fact construct a segment of length ∛2 with a single paper fold was completely ignored (till the end of the 1980s). This comes as no surprise, since with few exceptions paper folding was seldom considered as a mathematical practice, let alone as a mathematical procedure of inference or proof that could prompt novel mathematical discoveries. A few question immediately arise: Why did paper folding become a non-instrument? What caused the marginalisation of this technique? And how was the mathematical knowledge, which was nevertheless transmitted and prompted by paper folding, later treated and conceptualised? Aiming to answer these questions, this volume provides, for the first time, an extensive historical study...