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Sample records for unique ccr2-tropic virus

  1. CCR5 Disruption in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using CRISPR/Cas9 Provides Selective Resistance of Immune Cells to CCR5-tropic HIV-1 Virus.

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    Kang, HyunJun; Minder, Petra; Park, Mi Ae; Mesquitta, Walatta-Tseyon; Torbett, Bruce E; Slukvin, Igor I

    2015-12-15

    The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) serves as an HIV-1 co-receptor and is essential for cell infection with CCR5-tropic viruses. Loss of functional receptor protects against HIV infection. Here, we report the successful targeting of CCR5 in GFP-marked human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 with single and dual guide RNAs (gRNAs). Following CRISPER/Cas9-mediated gene editing using a single gRNA, 12.5% of cell colonies demonstrated CCR5 editing, of which 22.2% showed biallelic editing as determined by a Surveyor nuclease assay and direct sequencing. The use of dual gRNAs significantly increased the efficacy of CCR5 editing to 27% with a biallelic gene alteration frequency of 41%. To ensure the homogeneity of gene editing within cells, we used single cell sorting to establish clonal iPSC lines. Single cell-derived iPSC lines with homozygous CCR5 mutations displayed the typical characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and differentiated efficiently into hematopoietic cells, including macrophages. Although macrophages from both wild-type and CCR5-edited iPSCs supported CXCR4-tropic virus replication, macrophages from CCR5-edited iPSCs were uniquely resistant to CCR5-tropic virus challenge. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying iPSC technology for the study of the role of CCR5 in HIV infection in vitro, and generation of HIV-resistant cells for potential therapeutic applications.

  2. Involvement of both the V2 and V3 Regions of the CCR5-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope in Reduced Sensitivity to Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1α

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    Maeda, Yosuke; Foda, Mohamed; Matsushita, Shuzo; Harada, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether C-C chemokines play an important role in the phenotype switch of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from CCR5 to CXCR4 usage during the course of an infection in vivo, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α-resistant variants were isolated from CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 in vitro. The selected variants displayed reduced sensitivities to MIP-1α (fourfold) through CCR5-expressing CD4-HeLa/long terminal repeat–β-galactosidase (MAGI/CCR5) cells. The variants were also resistant to other natural ligands for CCR5, namely, MIP-1β (>4-fold) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (6-fold). The env sequence analyses revealed that the variants had amino acid substitutions in V2 (valine 166 to methionine) and V3 (serine 303 to glycine), although the same V3 substitution appeared in virus passaged without MIP-1α. A single-round replication assay using a luciferase reporter HIV-1 strain pseudotyped with mutant envelopes confirmed that mutations in both V2 and V3 were necessary to confer the reduced sensitivity to MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES. However, the double mutant did not switch its chemokine receptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4, indicating the altered recognition of CCR5 by this mutant. These results indicated that V2 combined with the V3 region of the CCR5-tropic HIV-1 envelope modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to C-C chemokines without altering the ability to use chemokine receptors. PMID:10644351

  3. Influence of the CCR2-V64I Polymorphism on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coreceptor Activity and on Chemokine Receptor Function of CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Benhur; Doranz, Benjamin J.; Rana, Shalini; Yi, Yanji; Mellado, Mario; Frade, Jose M. R.; Martinez-A., Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Dean, Michael; Collman, Ronald G.; Doms, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells. In addition, some virus strains can use alternative chemokine receptors, including CCR2b and CCR3, for infection. A polymorphism in CCR2 (CCR2-V64I) is associated with a 2- to 4-year delay in the progression to AIDS. To investigate the mechanism of this protective effect, we studied the expression of CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I, their chemokine and HIV-1 coreceptor ...

  4. Role of the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR4 in the pathogenesis of experimental dengue infection in mice.

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    Rodrigo Guabiraba

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a public health problem in many tropical countries. Recent clinical data have shown an association between levels of different chemokines in plasma and severity of dengue. We evaluated the role of CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR4 in an experimental model of DENV-2 infection in mice. Infection of mice induced evident clinical disease and tissue damage, including thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, lymphopenia, increased levels of transaminases and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and lethality in WT mice. Importantly, infected WT mice presented increased levels of chemokines CCL2/JE, CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL5/RANTES in spleen and liver. CCR1⁻/⁻ mice had a mild phenotype with disease presentation and lethality similar to those of WT mice. In CCR2⁻/⁻ mice, lethality, liver damage, levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and leukocyte activation were attenuated. However, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration and systemic TNF-α levels were similar to infected WT mice. Infection enhanced levels of CCL17/TARC, a CCR4 ligand. In CCR4⁻/⁻ mice, lethality, tissue injury and systemic inflammation were markedly decreased. Despite differences in disease presentation in CCR-deficient mice, there was no significant difference in viral load. In conclusion, activation of chemokine receptors has discrete roles in the pathogenesis of dengue infection. These studies suggest that the chemokine storm that follows severe primary dengue infection associates mostly to development of disease rather than protection.

  5. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

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    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  6. Limited protective effect of the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype on human immunodeficiency virus infection incidence in a cohort of patients with hemophilia and selection for genotypic X4 virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Astrid K N; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype (which occurs in approximately 2% of the Scand......The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype (which occurs in approximately 2...

  7. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a Potent, Orally Bioavailable, and Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Chemokine Receptor CCR5 with Broad-Spectrum Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades a...

  8. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by a dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princen, Katrien; Hatse, Sigrid; Vermeire, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Here we report that the N-pyridinylmethyl cyclam analog AMD3451 has antiviral activity against a wide variety of R5, R5/X4, and X4 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] ranging from 1.2 to 26.5 microM) in various T-cell lines, CCR5...... at the virus entry stage. AMD3451 dose-dependently inhibited the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling induced by the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in T-lymphocytic cells and in CXCR4-transfected cells, as well as the Ca(2+) flux induced by the CCR5 ligands CCL5, CCL3, and CCL4 in CCR5-transfected cells. The compound did...... not interfere with chemokine-induced Ca(2+) signaling through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR9, or CXCR3 and did not induce intracellular Ca(2+) signaling by itself at concentrations up to 400 microM. In freshly isolated monocytes, AMD3451 inhibited the Ca(2+) flux induced by CXCL12 and CCL4...

  9. CD4 is expressed on a heterogeneous subset of hematopoietic progenitors, which persistently harbor CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes in vivo.

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    Nadia T Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Latent HIV infection of long-lived cells is a barrier to viral clearance. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are a heterogeneous population of cells, some of which are long-lived. CXCR4-tropic HIVs infect a broad range of HSPC subtypes, including hematopoietic stem cells, which are multi-potent and long-lived. However, CCR5-tropic HIV infection is limited to more differentiated progenitor cells with life spans that are less well understood. Consistent with emerging data that restricted progenitor cells can be long-lived, we detected persistent HIV in restricted HSPC populations from optimally treated people. Further, genotypic and phenotypic analysis of amplified env alleles from donor samples indicated that both CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic viruses persisted in HSPCs. RNA profiling confirmed expression of HIV receptor RNA in a pattern that was consistent with in vitro and in vivo results. In addition, we characterized a CD4high HSPC sub-population that was preferentially targeted by a variety of CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIVs in vitro. Finally, we present strong evidence that HIV proviral genomes of both tropisms can be transmitted to CD4-negative daughter cells of multiple lineages in vivo. In some cases, the transmitted proviral genomes contained signature deletions that inactivated the virus, eliminating the possibility that coincidental infection explains the results. These data support a model in which both stem and non-stem cell progenitors serve as persistent reservoirs for CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes that can be passed to daughter cells.

  10. CD4 is expressed on a heterogeneous subset of hematopoietic progenitors, which persistently harbor CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes in vivo.

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    Sebastian, Nadia T; Zaikos, Thomas D; Terry, Valeri; Taschuk, Frances; McNamara, Lucy A; Onafuwa-Nuga, Adewunmi; Yucha, Ryan; Signer, Robert A J; Riddell, James; Bixby, Dale; Markowitz, Norman; Morrison, Sean J; Collins, Kathleen L

    2017-07-01

    Latent HIV infection of long-lived cells is a barrier to viral clearance. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are a heterogeneous population of cells, some of which are long-lived. CXCR4-tropic HIVs infect a broad range of HSPC subtypes, including hematopoietic stem cells, which are multi-potent and long-lived. However, CCR5-tropic HIV infection is limited to more differentiated progenitor cells with life spans that are less well understood. Consistent with emerging data that restricted progenitor cells can be long-lived, we detected persistent HIV in restricted HSPC populations from optimally treated people. Further, genotypic and phenotypic analysis of amplified env alleles from donor samples indicated that both CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic viruses persisted in HSPCs. RNA profiling confirmed expression of HIV receptor RNA in a pattern that was consistent with in vitro and in vivo results. In addition, we characterized a CD4high HSPC sub-population that was preferentially targeted by a variety of CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIVs in vitro. Finally, we present strong evidence that HIV proviral genomes of both tropisms can be transmitted to CD4-negative daughter cells of multiple lineages in vivo. In some cases, the transmitted proviral genomes contained signature deletions that inactivated the virus, eliminating the possibility that coincidental infection explains the results. These data support a model in which both stem and non-stem cell progenitors serve as persistent reservoirs for CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes that can be passed to daughter cells.

  11. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligation Enhances HIV-1 Replication in Activated CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells by Increasing Virus Entry and Establishing a More Permissive Environment to Infection.

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    Bolduc, Jean-François; Ouellet, Michel; Hany, Laurent; Tremblay, Michel J

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligation on the permissiveness of activated CD4 + T cells to HIV-1 infection by focusing our experiments on the relative susceptibility of cell subsets based on their expression of CCR6. Purified primary human CD4 + T cells were first subjected to a CD3/CD28 costimulation before treatment with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4. Finally, cells were inoculated with R5-tropic HIV-1 particles that permit us to study the effect of TLR2 triggering on virus production at both population and single-cell levels. We report here that HIV-1 replication is augmented in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6 + CD4 + T cells upon engagement of the cell surface TLR2. Additional studies indicate that a higher virus entry and polymerization of the cortical actin are seen in this cell subset following TLR2 stimulation. A TLR2-mediated increase in the level of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 subunit was also detected in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6 + CD4 + T cells. We propose that, upon antigenic presentation, an engagement of TLR2 acts specifically on CCR6 + CD4 + T cells by promoting virus entry in an intracellular milieu more favorable for productive HIV-1 infection. Following primary infection, HIV-1 induces an immunological and structural disruption of the gut mucosa, leading to bacterial translocation and release of microbial components in the bloodstream. These pathogen-derived constituents include several agonists of Toll-like receptors that may affect gut-homing CD4 + T cells, such as those expressing the chemokine receptor CCR6, which are highly permissive to HIV-1 infection. We demonstrate that TLR2 ligation in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6 + CD4 + T cells leads to enhanced virus production. Our results highlight the potential impact of bacterial translocation on the overall permissiveness of CCR6 + CD4 + T cells to productive HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5-using envelopes predominate in dual/mixed-tropic HIV from the plasma of drug-naive individuals.

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    Irlbeck, David M; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Kitrinos, Kathryn M; Labranche, Celia C; Demarest, James F

    2008-07-31

    HIV-1 utilizes CD4 and either chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) or chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) to gain entry into host cells. Small molecule CCR5 antagonists are currently being developed for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Because HIV-1 may also use CXCR4 for entry, the use of CCR5 entry inhibitors is controversial for patients harboring CCR5-using and CXCR4-using (dual/mixed-tropic) viruses. The goal of the present study was to determine the proportion of CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic viruses in dual/mixed-tropic virus isolates from drug-naïve patients and the phenotypic and genotypic relationships of viruses that use CCR5 or CXCR4 or both. Fourteen antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients were identified as having population coreceptor tropism readout of dual/mixed-tropic viruses. Intrapatient comparisons of coreceptor tropism and genotype of env clones were conducted on plasma virus from each patient. Population HIV-1 envelope tropism and susceptibility to the CCR5 entry inhibitor, aplaviroc, were performed using the Monogram Biosciences Trofile Assay. Twelve env clones from each patient were analyzed for coreceptor tropism, aplaviroc sensitivity, genotype, and intrapatient phylogenetic relationships. Viral populations from antiretroviral-naive patients with dual/mixed-tropic virus are composed primarily of CCR5-tropic env clones mixed with those that use both coreceptors (R5X4-tropic) and, occasionally, CXCR4-tropic env clones. Interestingly, the efficiency of CXCR4 use by R5X4-tropic env clones varied with their genetic relationships to CCR5-tropic env clones from the same patient. These data show that the majority of viruses in these dual/mixed-tropic populations use CCR5 and suggest that antiretroviral-naive patients may benefit from combination therapy that includes CCR5 entry inhibitors.

  13. Abnormally high levels of virus-infected IFN-gamma+ CCR4+ CD4+ CD25+ T cells in a retrovirus-associated neuroinflammatory disorder.

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    Yoshihisa Yamano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with both HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, which is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease, and adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is known to be as follows: HTLV-1-infected T cells trigger a hyperimmune response leading to neuroinflammation. However, the HTLV-1-infected T cell subset that plays a major role in the accelerated immune response has not yet been identified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we demonstrate that CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+ T cells are the predominant viral reservoir, and their levels are increased in HAM/TSP patients. While CCR4 is known to be selectively expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg cells in healthy individuals, we demonstrate that IFN-gamma production is extraordinarily increased and IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and Foxp3 expression is decreased in the CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+ T cells of HAM/TSP patients as compared to those in healthy individuals, and the alteration in function is specific to this cell subtype. Notably, the frequency of IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+CD25(+CCR4(+Foxp3(- T cells is dramatically increased in HAM/TSP patients, and this was found to be correlated with disease activity and severity. CONCLUSIONS: We have defined a unique T cell subset--IFN-gamma(+CCR4(+CD4(+CD25(+ T cells--that is abnormally increased and functionally altered in this retrovirus-associated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system.

  14. CCR2-64I polymorphism is not associated with altered CCR5 expression or coreceptor function.

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    Mariani, R; Wong, S; Mulder, L C; Wilkinson, D A; Reinhart, A L; LaRosa, G; Nibbs, R; O'Brien, T R; Michael, N L; Connor, R I; Macdonald, M; Busch, M; Koup, R A; Landau, N R

    1999-03-01

    A polymorphism in the gene encoding CCR2 is associated with a delay in progression to AIDS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The polymorphism, CCR2-64I, changes valine 64 of CCR2 to isoleucine. However, it is not clear whether the effect on AIDS progression results from the amino acid change or whether the polymorphism marks a genetically linked, yet unidentified mutation that mediates the effect. Because the gene encoding CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV type 1 primary isolates, lies 15 kb 3' to CCR2, linked mutations in the CCR5 promoter or other regulatory sequences could explain the association of CCR2-64I with slowed AIDS pathogenesis. Here, we show that CCR2-64I is efficiently expressed on the cell surface but does not have dominant negative activity on CCR5 coreceptor function. A panel of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from uninfected donors representing the various CCR5/CCR2 genotypes was assembled. Activated primary CD4(+) T cells of CCR2 64I/64I donors expressed cell surface CCR5 at levels comparable to those of CCR2 +/+ donors. A slight reduction in CCR5 expression was noted, although this was not statistically significant. CCR5 and CCR2 mRNA levels were nearly identical for each of the donor PBMC, regardless of genotype. Cell surface CCR5 and CCR2 levels were more variable than mRNA transcript levels, suggesting that an alternative mechanism may influence CCR5 cell surface levels. CCR2-64I is linked to the CCR5 promoter polymorphisms 208G, 303A, 627C, and 676A; however, in transfected promoter reporter constructs, these did not affect transcriptional activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that CCR2-64I does not act by influencing CCR5 transcription or mRNA levels.

  15. Limited protective effect of the CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 genotype on human immunodeficiency virus infection incidence in a cohort of patients with hemophilia and selection for genotypic X4 virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Astrid K. N.; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 genotype (which occurs in ∼2% of the Scandinavian population...

  16. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-11-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 microM), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

  17. [The expression of periphery blood leucocyte CCR3 and CCR5 in the children with Epstein-Barr virus associated infectious mononucleosis].

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    Qi, Tie-xiong; Gao, Guo-hua; Liu, Shi-hua

    2010-10-01

    To explore the expression of periphery blood leucocyte CCR3 and CCR5 and to comprehend T helper cell in the Children with Epstein-Barr virus associated infectious mononucleosis. We defined the children according to the diagnosis criterion through Paul-Bunnell test inspecting the children's periphery blood unusual lymphocyte and detecting their anti-EBV-CA-IgM, anti-EBV-CA-IgG and anti-EBV-NA-IgG by ELISA and counted the ratio of CCR3 + and CCR5 + cells in lymphocytes with flow cytometry. The ratio of unusual lymphocyte in IM was higher than that of the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of CCR3 + cells in IM group was higher than that of the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of CCR5 + cells in IM group was significantly lower than that of the healthy control group. CCR3 + had direct interrelation with fever continued time and the ratio of unusual lymphocyte. There was a negative interrelation between CCR5 and fever continued time (P < 0.05). Children infectious of IM expressed higher level of CCR3 + and lower level of CCR5 + and there was a tendency of Th2 polarization with over production of T helper cell divide imbalance. CCR3 + and CCR5 + may be important targets to judge the degree of seriousness of IM.

  18. Dengue virus requires the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5 for replication and infection development.

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    Marques, Rafael E; Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Del Sarto, Juliana L; Rocha, Rebeca F; Queiroz, Ana Luiza; Cisalpino, Daniel; Marques, Pedro E; Pacca, Carolina C; Fagundes, Caio T; Menezes, Gustavo B; Nogueira, Maurício L; Souza, Danielle G; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2015-08-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that affects millions of people worldwide yearly. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific treatment available. Further investigation on dengue pathogenesis is required to better understand the disease and to identify potential therapeutic targets. The chemokine system has been implicated in dengue pathogenesis, although the specific role of chemokines and their receptors remains elusive. Here we describe the role of the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5 in Dengue virus (DENV-2) infection. In vitro experiments showed that CCR5 is a host factor required for DENV-2 replication in human and mouse macrophages. DENV-2 infection induces the expression of CCR5 ligands. Incubation with an antagonist prevents CCR5 activation and reduces DENV-2 positive-stranded (+) RNA inside macrophages. Using an immunocompetent mouse model of DENV-2 infection we found that CCR5(-/-) mice were resistant to lethal infection, presenting at least 100-fold reduction of viral load in target organs and significant reduction in disease severity. This phenotype was reproduced in wild-type mice treated with CCR5-blocking compounds. Therefore, CCR5 is a host factor required for DENV-2 replication and disease development. Targeting CCR5 might represent a therapeutic strategy for dengue fever. These data bring new insights on the association between viral infections and the chemokine receptor CCR5. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Upregulation of the Chemokine Receptor CCR2B in Epstein‒Barr Virus-Positive Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Lines with the Latency III Program

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    Svetlana Kozireva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available CCR2 is the cognate receptor to the chemokine CCL2. CCR2–CCL2 signaling mediates cancer progression and metastasis dissemination. However, the role of CCR2–CCL2 signaling in pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies is not clear. Previously, we showed that CCR2B was upregulated in ex vivo peripheral blood B cells upon Epstein‒Barr virus (EBV infection and in established lymphoblastoid cell lines with the EBV latency III program. EBV latency III is associated with B-cell lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. The majority of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL tumors are characterized by latency I, but the BL cell lines drift towards latency III during in vitro culture. In this study, the CCR2A and CCR2B expression was assessed in the isogenic EBV-positive BL cell lines with latency I and III using RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunostaining analyses. We found that CCR2B is upregulated in the EBV-positive BL cells with latency III. Consequently, we detected the migration of latency III cells toward CCL2. Notably, the G190A mutation, corresponding to SNP CCR2-V64I, was found in one latency III cell line with a reduced migratory response to CCL2. The upregulation of CCR2B may contribute to the enhanced migration of malignant B cells into CCL2-rich compartments.

  20. Both Cerebral and Hematopoietic Deficiencies in CCR2 Result in Uncontrolled Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System in Mice.

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    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Gosselin, Jean; Boivin, Guy

    2016-01-01

    CCR2 is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of blood leukocytes, particularly «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes and microglia. Signaling through this receptor is thought to influence the immune activity of microglia as well as monocytes egress from the bone marrow (BM) and their trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CCR2 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CCR2 expressed in cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in the protection against HSE remains unclear. To dissect the differential role of CCR2 during HSE, chimeric mice with receptor deficiency in the brain or blood cells were generated by transplanting wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 or CCR2-/- BM-derived cells in CCR2-/- (WT→CCR2-/-) and WT (CCR2-/-→WT) mice, respectively. Our results indicate that following intranasal infection with 1.2x106 plaque forming units of HSV-1, CCR2 deficiency in hematopoietic cells and, to a lesser extent, in CNS exacerbates the outcome of HSE. Mortality rates of CCR2-/- (71.4%) and CCR2-/-→WT (57.1%) mice were significantly higher than that of WT (15.3%; Pdeficiencies in CCR2 resulted in increased infectious viral titers and wider dissemination of HSV antigens in the brain as well as an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5. Furthermore, CCR2 deficiency in the hematopoietic system altered monocytes egress from the BM and their recruitment to the CNS, which may contribute to the failure in HSV-1 containment. Collectively, these data suggest that CCR2 expressed on cells of CNS and especially on peripheral monocytes is important for the control of HSV-1 replication and inflammatory environment during experimental HSE.

  1. CCR2+ and CCR5+ CD8+ T cells increase during viral infection and migrate to sites of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nansen, A; Marker, O; Bartholdy, C

    2000-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in the selective recruitment of various leukocyte subsets. In this study, we correlated the expression of multiple chemokine and CC chemokine receptor (CCR) genes during the course of intracerebral (i.c.) infection with lymphocytic choriomeningi......Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in the selective recruitment of various leukocyte subsets. In this study, we correlated the expression of multiple chemokine and CC chemokine receptor (CCR) genes during the course of intracerebral (i.c.) infection with lymphocytic...... a rapidly lethal, T cell-independent encephalitis, and infection resulted in a dramatic early up-regulation of chemokine gene expression. Similar marked up-regulation of chemokine expression was not seen until late after LCMV infection and required the presence of activated T cells. Cerebral CCR gene...... expression was dominated by CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5. However, despite a stronger initial chemokine signal in VSV-infected mice, only LCMV-induced T cell-dependent inflammation was found to be associated with substantially increased expression of CCR genes. Virus-activated CD8+ T cells were found to express CCR2...

  2. Frequencies of CCR5-D32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’A mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive subjects and seronegative individuals from the state of Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott Carvalhaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of genetic polymorphisms of chemokine receptors CCR5-delta32, CCR2-64I and chemokine (SDF1-3’A mutations were studied in 110 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals (seropositive group and 139 seronegative individuals (seronegative group from the population of the northern Brazilian city of Belém which is the capital of the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. The CCR5-delta32 mutation was found in the two groups at similar frequencies, i.e. 2.2% for the seronegative group and 2.7% for the seropositive group. The frequencies of the SDF1-3’A mutation were 21.0% for the seronegative group and 15.4% for the seropositive group, and the CCR2-64I allele was found at frequencies of 12.5% for the seronegative group and 5.4% for the seropositive group. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both groups, suggesting that none of the three mutations has a detectable selective effect. Difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies was statistically significant for the CCR2 locus, the frequency in the seronegative group being twice that found in the seropositive group. This finding may indicate a protective effect of the CCR2-64I mutation in relation to HIV transmission. However, considering that the CCR2-64I mutation has been more strongly associated with a decreased risk for progression for AIDS than to the resistance to the HIV infection, this could reflect an aspect of population structure or a Type I error.

  3. CCR1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory protein II; Bioinformatics; Protease digestion; HEK293 cells; Radioligand binding. Tropical ... development of many diseases. ... diseases, antagonism of CCR1 has become an ..... importance of molecular conformation in terms of.

  4. CCR5 Signal Transduction in Macrophages by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Arthos, James; Rubbert, Andrea; Rabin, Ronald L.; Cicala, Claudia; Machado, Elizabeth; Wildt, Kathryne; Hanbach, Meredith; Steenbeke, Tavis D.; Swofford, Ruth; Farber, Joshua M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelopes to transduce signals through chemokine coreceptors on macrophages was examined by measuring the ability of recombinant envelope proteins to mobilize intracellular calcium stores. Both HIV and SIV envelopes mobilized calcium via interactions with CCR5. The kinetics of these responses were similar to those observed when macrophages were treated with MIP-1β. Distinct differences in the capacity o...

  5. Prognostic value of a CCR5 defective allele in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiti, M L; Colognesi, C; Cancrini, C; Mas, A; Berrino, M; Salvatori, F; Orlandi, P; Jansson, M; Palomba, E; Plebani, A; Bertran, J M; Hernandez, M; de Martino, M; Amoroso, A; Tovo, P A; Rossi, P; Espanol, T; Scarlatti, G

    2000-01-01

    A deletion of 32 base pairs in the CCR5 gene (delta32 CCR5) has been linked to resistance to HIV-1 infection in exposed adults and to the delay of disease progression in infected adults. To determine the role of delta32 CCR5 in disease progression of HIV-1 infected children born to seropositive mothers, we studied a polymerase chain reaction in 301 HIV-1 infected, 262 HIV-1 exposed-uninfected and 47 HIV-1 unexposed-uninfected children of Spanish and Italian origin. Infected children were further divided into two groups according to their rate of HIV-1 disease progression: rapid progressors who developed severe clinical and/or immunological conditions within the second year of life, and delayed progressors with any other evolution of disease. Among the latter were the long-term, non-progressors (LTNP) who presented with mild or no symptoms of HIV-1 infection above 8 years of age. Viral phenotype was studied for 45 delayed progressors. No correlation was found between delta32 CCR5 and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. However, the frequency of the deletion was substantially higher in LTNP, compared with delayed (p = 0.019) and rapid progressors (p = 0.0003). In children carrying the delta32 CCRS mutation, the presence of MT-2 tropic virus isolate was associated with a severe immune suppression (p = 0.028); whereas, the presence of MT-2 negative viruses correlated with LTNP (p = 0.010). Given the rapidity and simplicity of the assay, the delta32 CCR5 mutation may be a useful predictive marker to identify children with delayed disease progression who, consequently, may not require immediate antiretroviral treatment.

  6. Molekulare Klonierung, stabile Transfektion und funktionelle Expression der murinen Chemokinrezeptoren Ccr2 und Ccr5

    OpenAIRE

    Simonis, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The two chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 play important roles in the recruitment and activation of monocytes/macrophages and T-lymphocytes at sites of infection and inflammation. To further examine their function, I cloned the two murine chemokine receptors Ccr2 and Ccr5 from genomic mouse DNA by a PCR-based cloning strategy and functionally expressed them in stably transfected CHO-cells. These cells were used to generate the first monoclonal antibodies against Ccr2 and Ccr5.

  7. Role of CCL-2, CCR-2 and CCR-4 in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean Louis; Lenglet, Sébastien; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Galan, Katia; Pelli, Graziano; Spahr, Laurent; Mach, Francois; Hadengue, Antoine

    2011-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of variable severity. Leucocytes are thought to play a key role in the development of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. The interactions between inflammatory cells and their mediators are crucial for determining tissue damage. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (or CCL-2), CCR-2 and CCR-4 are chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in leucocyte trafficking. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the CCL-2, CCR-2 and CCR-4 chemokine receptors in the pathogenesis of cerulein-induced pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. To address the role of CCL-2, CCR-2 and CCR-4 that attracts leucocytes cells in inflamed tissues, pancreatitis was induced by administering supramaximal doses of cerulein in mice that do not express CCL-2, CCR-2 or CCR-4. The severity of pancreatitis was measured by serum amylase, pancreatic oedema and acinar cell necrosis. Lung injury was quantitated by evaluating lung microvascular permeability and lung myeloperoxidase activity. Chemokine and chemokine-receptor expression were quantitated by real-time PCR. The nature of inflammatory cells invading the pancreas and lungs was studied by immunostaining. The authors have found that pancreas CCL-2 and CCR-2 levels rise during pancreatitis. Both pancreatitis and the associated lung injury are blunted, but not completely prevented, in mice deficient in CCL-2, whereas the deficiency in either CCR-2 or CCR-4 does not reduce the severity of both the pancreatitis and the lung injury. The amounts of neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages (MOMA)-2 cells were significantly lower in mice deficient in CCL-2 compared with their sufficient littermates. These results suggest that CCL-2 plays a key role in pancreatitis by modulating the infiltration by neutrophils and MOMA-2 cells, and that its deficiency may improve the outcome of the disease.

  8. CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 variation and HIV/AIDS in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlotra, Rajeev K; Hall, Noemi B; Bruse, Shannon E; John, Bangan; Zikursh, Melinda J Blood; Stein, Catherine M; Siba, Peter M; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphisms in chemokine receptors, serving as HIV co-receptors, and their ligands are among the well-known host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to HIV infection and/or disease progression. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has one of the highest adult HIV prevalences in the Asia-Pacific region. However, information regarding the distribution of polymorphisms in chemokine receptor (CCR5, CCR2) and chemokine (CXCL12) genes in PNG is very limited. In this study, we genotyped a total of nine CCR2-CCR5 polymorphisms, including CCR2 190G >A, CCR5 -2459G >A and Δ32, and CXCL12 801G >A in PNG (n=258), North America (n=184), and five countries in West Africa (n=178). Using this data, we determined previously characterized CCR5 haplotypes. In addition, based on the previously reported associations of CCR2 190, CCR5 -2459, CCR5 open reading frame, and CXCL12 801 genotypes with HIV acquisition and/or disease progression, we calculated composite full risk scores, considering both protective as well as susceptibility effects of the CXCL12 801 AA genotype. We observed a very high frequency of the CCR5 -2459A allele (0.98) in the PNG population, which together with the absence of Δ32 resulted in a very high frequency of the HHE haplotype (0.92). These frequencies were significantly higher than in any other population (all P-valuesnew insights regarding CCR5 variation in the PNG population, and suggest that the collective variation in CCR2, CCR5, and CXCL12 may increase the risk of HIV/AIDS in a large majority of Papua New Guineans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and characterization of HIV-2 strains obtained from asymptomatic patients that do not use CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo-Pereira, J.M.; Santos-Costa, Q.; Mansinho, K.; Moniz-Pereira, J.

    2003-01-01

    In vivo, human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection reveals several unique characteristics when compared to HIV-1 infection, the most remarkable of which is the extraordinarily long asymptomatic period. Here we describe two HIV-2 primary isolates, obtained from asymptomatic individuals, which do not infect any coreceptor-expressing cell lines tested. In those cells, we show that the absence of replication is directly related to cell entry events. Furthermore, productive infection observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was not inhibited by natural ligands and monoclonal antibodies directed to CCR5 and CXCR4. Finally, viral entry efficiency and viral progeny production of these viruses are markedly impaired in PBMC, indicating a reduced replicative fitness of both viruses. In conclusion, our data suggest that in some HIV-2 asymptomatic individuals, the circulating viruses are unable to use the major coreceptors to infect PBMC. This fact should have important implications in HIV-2 pathogenesis and transmission

  10. Why CCR2 and CCR5 blockade failed and why CCR1 blockade might still be effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lebre, M.C.; Vergunst, C.E.; Choi, I.Y.K.; Aarrass, S.; Oliveira, A.S.F.; Wyant, T.; Horuk, R.; Reedquist, K.A.; Tak, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to provide more insight into the question as to why blockade of CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 may have failed in clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, using an in vitro monocyte migration system model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monocytes from healthy donors (HD; n = 8) or from RA patients (for CCR2 and CCR5 antibody n = 8; for CCR1 blockade n = 13) were isolated from peripheral blood and pre-incubated with different concentrations of either ...

  11. Highly leukemogenic radiation leukemia virus isolate is a thymotropic, immunosuppressive retrovirus with a unique RNA structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben David, Y.; Kotler, M.; Yefenof, E.

    1987-04-15

    Clones of N-, B- and NB-fibrotropic viruses were isolated from weakly (D-RadLV) and strongly (A-RadLV) leukomogenic RadLV preparations. A highly leukemogenic, thymotropic virus (TV) was isolated by ex-vivo infection of thymocytes with A-RadLV. This virus could not be isolated from D-RadLV. Two-dimensional fingerprint analysis suggested that TV recombines unique RNA sequences with RNA genomic material derived from a B-tropic endogenous virus. C57BL/6 (B6) mice injected with B- or NB-fibrotropic clones, but not with TV or N-tropic viral clones, developed reactive T lymphocytes (Tr), capable of differentiating into anti-tumor cytotoxic cells. The N-tropic virus isolates were non-immunogenic in B6 mice whereas the TV isolate induced suppressor T lymphocytes (Ts) that abrogated a potential Tr response. These results suggest that emergence of highly leukemogenic RadLV involves activation of endogenous fibrotropic virus which is immunogenic in its natural host strain (B6). This virus can further recombine with other retroviral genetic sequences, resulting in a suppressogenic and thymotropic, highly leukemogenic virus.

  12. Influence of the CCR-5/MIP-1 α axis in the pathogenesis of Rocio virus encephalitis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Juliana H; França, Rafael F O; Oliveira, Carlo J F; de Aquino, Maria T P; Farias, Kleber J S; Machado, Paula R L; de Oliveira, Thelma F M; Yokosawa, Jonny; Soares, Edson G; da Silva, João S; da Fonseca, Benedito A L; Figueiredo, Luiz T M

    2013-11-01

    Rocio virus (ROCV) caused an outbreak of human encephalitis during the 1970s in Brazil and its immunopathogenesis remains poorly understood. CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that binds to macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1 α). Both molecules are associated with inflammatory cells migration during infections. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of the CCR5 and MIP-1 α, in the outcome of viral encephalitis of ROCV-infected mice. CCR5 and MIP-1 α knockout mice survived longer than wild-type (WT) ROCV-infected animals. In addition, knockout mice had reduced inflammation in the brain. Assessment of brain viral load showed mice virus detection five days post-infection in wild-type and CCR5-/- mice, while MIP-1 α-/- mice had lower viral loads seven days post-infection. Knockout mice required a higher lethal dose than wild-type mice as well. The CCR5/MIP-1 α axis may contribute to migration of infected cells to the brain and consequently affect the pathogenesis during ROCV infection.

  13. Chemokine Receptor CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc: Medicinal Chemistry and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the worst global pandemic. The virus infects human CD4 T cells and macrophages, and causes CD4 depletion. HIV enters target cells through the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. In particular, the CCR5-utilizing viruses predominate in the blood during the disease course. CCR5 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells including macrophages, monocytes, microglia, dendric cells, and active memory CD4 T cells. In the human population, the CCR5 genomic mutation, CCR5Δ32, is associated with relative resistance to HIV. These findings paved the way for the discovery and development of CCR5 inhibitors to block HIV transmission and replication. Maraviroc, discovered as a CCR5 antagonist, is the only CCR5 inhibitor that has been approved by both US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treating HIV/AIDS patients. In this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry and clinical studies of Maraviroc. PMID:25159165

  14. CD4-independent use of the CCR5 receptor by sequential primary SIVsm isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorstensson Rigmor

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4-independence has been taken as a sign of a more open envelope structure that is more accessible to neutralizing antibodies and may confer altered cell tropism. In the present study, we analyzed SIVsm isolates for CD4-independent use of CCR5, mode of CCR5-use and macrophage tropism. The isolates have been collected sequentially from 13 experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques and have previously been shown to use CCR5 together with CD4. Furthermore, viruses obtained early after infection were neutralization sensitive, while neutralization resistance appeared already three months after infection in monkeys with progressive immunodeficiency. Results Depending whether isolated early or late in infection, two phenotypes of CD4-independent use of CCR5 could be observed. The inoculum virus (SIVsm isolate SMM-3 and reisolates obtained early in infection often showed a pronounced CD4-independence since virus production and/or syncytia induction could be detected directly in NP-2 cells expressing CCR5 but not CD4 (CD4-independent-HIGH. Conversely, late isolates were often more CD4-dependent in that productive infection in NP-2/CCR5 cells was in most cases weak and was revealed only after cocultivation of infected NP-2/CCR5 cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD4-independent-LOW. Considering neutralization sensitivity of these isolates, newly infected macaques often harbored virus populations with a CD4-independent-HIGH and neutralization sensitive phenotype that changed to a CD4-independent-LOW and neutralization resistant virus population in the course of infection. Phenotype changes occurred faster in progressor than long-term non-progressor macaques. The phenotypes were not reflected by macrophage tropism, since all isolates replicated efficiently in macrophages. Infection of cells expressing CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors revealed that SIVsm used the CCR5 receptor in a different mode than HIV-1. Conclusion Our

  15. Preferential susceptibility of Th9 and Th2 CD4+ T cells to X4-tropic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova-Fink, Nina; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Sun, Xiaoming; Harrington, Sean; Rosenberg, Eric S; Yu, Xu G; Lichterfeld, Mathias

    2017-10-23

    The functional polarization of CD4 T cells determines their antimicrobial effector profile, but may also impact the susceptibility to infection with HIV-1. Here, we analyzed the susceptibility of CD4 T cells with different functional polarization to infection with X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1. CD4 T cells with a Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 polarization were subjected to in-vitro infection assays with X4, R5, or vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1. In addition, we sorted differentially polarized CD4 T-cell subsets from individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy and analyzed the tropism of viral env sequences. Th9-polarized CD4 T cells and, to a lesser extent, Th2-polarized CD4 T cells expressed higher surface levels of CXCR4, and are more permissive to X4-tropic infection in vitro. In contrast, Th1 and Th17 CD4 T cells exhibited stronger surface expression of CCR5, and were more susceptible to infection with R5-tropic viruses. Correspondingly, the distribution of X4-tropic viral sequences in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected patients was biased toward Th9/Th2 cells, whereas R5-tropic sequences were more frequently observed in Th17 cells. CD4 T-cell polarization is associated with a distinct susceptibility to X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1 infection.

  16. Appraising the performance of genotyping tools in the prediction of coreceptor tropism in HIV-1 subtype C viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crous Saleema

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection, transmitted viruses generally use the CCR5 chemokine receptor as a coreceptor for host cell entry. In more than 50% of subtype B infections, a switch in coreceptor tropism from CCR5- to CXCR4-use occurs during disease progression. Phenotypic or genotypic approaches can be used to test for the presence of CXCR4-using viral variants in an individual’s viral population that would result in resistance to treatment with CCR5-antagonists. While genotyping approaches for coreceptor-tropism prediction in subtype B are well established and verified, they are less so for subtype C. Methods Here, using a dataset comprising V3 loop sequences from 349 CCR5-using and 56 CXCR4-using HIV-1 subtype C viruses we perform a comparative analysis of the predictive ability of 11 genotypic algorithms in their prediction of coreceptor tropism in subtype C. We calculate the sensitivity and specificity of each of the approaches as well as determining their overall accuracy. By separating the CXCR4-using viruses into CXCR4-exclusive (25 sequences and dual-tropic (31 sequences we evaluate the effect of the possible conflicting signal from dual-tropic viruses on the ability of a of the approaches to correctly predict coreceptor phenotype. Results We determined that geno2pheno with a false positive rate of 5% is the best approach for predicting CXCR4-usage in subtype C sequences with an accuracy of 94% (89% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Contrary to what has been reported for subtype B, the optimal approaches for prediction of CXCR4-usage in sequence from viruses that use CXCR4 exclusively, also perform best at predicting CXCR4-use in dual-tropic viral variants. Conclusions The accuracy of genotyping approaches at correctly predicting the coreceptor usage of V3 sequences from subtype C viruses is very high. We suggest that genotyping approaches can be used to test for coreceptor tropism in HIV-1

  17. Functional analysis of the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) on virus-specific CD8+ T cells following coronavirus infection of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, William G.; Lane, Thomas E.

    2003-01-01

    Intracranial infection of C57BL/6 mice with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) results in an acute encephalomyelitis followed by a demyelinating disease similar in pathology to the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). T cells participate in both defense and disease progression following MHV infection. Expression of chemokine receptors on activated T cells is important in allowing these cells to traffic into and accumulate within the central nervous system (CNS) of MHV-infected mice. The present study evaluated the contributions of CCR5 to the activation and trafficking of virus-specific CD8 + T cells into the MHV-infected CNS mice. Comparable numbers of virus-specific CD8 + T cells derived from immunized CCR5 +/+ or CCR5 -/- mice were present within the CNS of MHV-infected RAG1 -/- mice following adoptive transfer, indicating that CCR5 is not required for trafficking of these cells into the CNS. RAG1 -/- recipients of CCR5 -/- -derived CD8 + T cells exhibited a modest, yet significant (P ≤ 0.05), reduction in viral burden within the brain which correlated with increased CTL activity and IFN-γ expression. Histological analysis of RAG1 -/- recipients of either CCR5 +/+ or CCR5 -/- -derived CD8 + T cells revealed only focal areas of demyelination with no significant differences in white matter destruction. These data indicate that CCR5 signaling on CD8 + T cells modulates antiviral activities but is not essential for entry into the CNS

  18. High frequency of the CCR5delta32 variant among individuals from an admixed Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.B. Chies

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In Brazil, the main cause of death of individuals with SCD is recurrent infection. The CCR5delta32 allele, which confers relative resistance to macrophage-tropic HIV virus infection, probably has reached its frequency and world distribution due to other pathogens that target macrophage in European populations. In the present investigation a relatively higher prevalence (5.1% of the CCR5delta32 allele was identified, by PCR amplification using specific primers, in 79 SCD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.3% with the same ethnic background (Afro-Brazilians. Based on a hypothesis that considers SCD as a chronic inflammatory condition, and since the CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in directing a Th1-type immune response, we suggest that a Th1/Th2 balance can influence the morbidity of SCD. If the presence of the null CCR5delta32 allele results in a reduction of the chronic inflammation state present in SCD patients, this could lead to differential survival of SCD individuals who are carriers of the CCR5delta32 allele. This differential survival could be due to the development of less severe infections and consequently reduced or less severe vaso-occlusive crises.

  19. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  20. Analysis of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus sciuri: identification of a novel ccr gene complex with a newly identified ccrA allotype (ccrA7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushibara, Noriko; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2011-06-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is conferred by the acquisition in its chromosome of the mecA gene, which is located on a mobile genetic element called staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Genetic type of SCCmec is defined by combination of mec gene complex class and cassette chromosome recombinase gene (ccr) allotype. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity of the SCCmec in 11 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains and a Staphylococcus sciuri strain, which were recently isolated from clinical specimens in Bangladesh. Among these strains, only two S. haemolyticus strains were proved to have the known types of SCCmec, that is, SCCmec V (class C2 mec-ccrC) and VII (class C1 mec-ccrC). Five S. haemolyticus strains were assigned two unique mec-ccr gene complexes combination; that is, class C1 mec-ccrA4B4 (four isolates) and class A mec-ccrC (one isolate). In the remaining four S. haemolyticus strains with class C1 mec, no known ccr allotypes could be detected. A single S. sciuri strain with class A mec complex carried a ccrA gene belonging to a novel allotype designated ccrA7, together with ccrB3. The ccrA7 gene in the S. sciuri strain showed 61.7%-82.7% sequence identity to the ccrA gene sequences published so far, and 75.3% identity to ccrA3, which is a component of the type 3 ccr complex (ccrA3-ccrB3) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results of the present study indicated that mec gene complex and ccr genes in coagulase-negative staphylococci are highly divergent, and distinct from those of common methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Identification of the novel ccrA7 allotype combined with ccrB3 suggested an occurrence of recombination between different ccr complexes in nature.

  1. CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101 preferentially inhibit drug-bound CCR5 infection and restore drug sensitivity of Maraviroc-resistant HIV-1 in primary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latinovic, Olga; Reitz, Marvin; Le, Nhut M.; Foulke, James S.; Faetkenheuer, Gerd; Lehmann, Clara; Redfield, Robert R.; Heredia, Alonso

    2011-01-01

    R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity against MVC-bound compared to MVC-free CCR5 infection. However, in PBMCs, only ECL2 CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, inhibited infection by MVC resistant HIV-1 more potently with MVC-bound than with free CCR5. In addition, HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, restored the antiviral activity of MVC against resistant virus in PBMCs. In flow cytometric studies, CCR5 binding by the HGS mAbs, but not by 2D7, was increased when PBMCs were treated with MVC, suggesting MVC increases exposure of the relevant epitope. Thus, HGS004 and HGS101 have antiviral mechanisms distinct from 2D7 and could help overcome MVC resistance.

  2. Systemic MCP1/CCR2 blockade and leukocyte specific MCP1/CCR2 inhibition affect aortic aneurysm formation differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Vivian; Bot, Ilze; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Talib, Sara; Egashira, Kensuke; de Vries, Margreet R.; Quax, Paul H. A.; Biessen, Erik A. L.; van Berkel, Theo J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: CCR2, the receptor for monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), is involved in atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Here, we explored the potential beneficial blockade of the MCP1/CCR2 pathway. Methods: We applied an AAA model in aging apolipoprotein E deficient mice

  3. Association of TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 gene polymorphisms in type-2 diabetes and renal insufficiency among Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Arvind

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines play an important role in the development of diabetic chronic renal insufficiency (CRI. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1 induces renal hypertrophy and fibrosis, and cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and regulated upon activation and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES mediate macrophage infiltration into kidney. Over expression of these chemokines leads to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. The effect of MCP-1 and RANTES on kidney is conferred by their receptors i.e., chemokine receptor (CCR-2 and CCR-5 respectively. We tested association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes among individuals with type-2 diabetes with and without renal insufficiency. Methods Type-2 diabetes subjects with chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine ≥ 3.0 mg/dl constituted the cases, and matched individuals with diabetes of duration ≥ 10 years and normoalbuminuria were evaluated as controls from four centres in India. Allelic and genotypic contributions of nine SNPs from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes to diabetic CRI were tested by computing odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Sub-analysis of CRI cases diabetic retinopathy status as dependent variable and SNP genotypes as independent variable in a univariate logistic regression was also performed. Results SNPs Tyr81His and Thr263Ile in TGF β1 gene were monomorphic, and Arg25Pro in TGF β1 gene and Δ32 polymorphism in CCR5 gene were minor variants (minor allele frequency A SNP of CCR5 gene has been observed and the allele 59029A seems to confer predisposition to development of diabetic CRI (OR 1.39; CI 1.04–1.84. In CRI subjects a compound group of genotypes "GA and AA" of SNP G>A -800 was found to confer predisposition for proliferative retinopathy (OR 3.03; CI 1.08–8.50, p = 0.035. Conclusion Of the various cytokine gene

  4. Chemokine CCL2 and chemokine receptor CCR2 in early active multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Ransohoff, R M; Strieter, R M

    2004-01-01

    The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 have been strongly implicated in disease pathogenesis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), whereas data on the CCL2-CCR2 axis are scarce in MS. We studied...... the expression of CCR2 on leukocytes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis and MS, and the concentration of CCL2 in the CSF from these patients. Results were compared with the results in non-inflammatory neurological controls and were correlated with other...... parameters (magnetic resonance imaging and CSF data). Our findings suggest a limited role for CCL2/CCR2 in early active MS....

  5. [CCR5, CCR2, apoe, p53, ITGB3 and HFE gene polymorphism in Western Siberia long-livers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoshchuk, D E; Mikhaĭlova, S V; Kulikov, I V; Maksimov, V N; Voevoda, M I; Romashchenko, A G

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the distribution of some polymorphisms for the CCR5, CCR2, apoE, p53, ITGB3, and HFE genes in Russian long-livers from Western Siberia, a sample of 271 individuals (range 90-105 years) was examined. It was demonstrated that carriage of the delta32 polymorphism for the CCR5 gene, V64/polymorphism for the CCR2 gene, e2/e3/e4 for the apoE gene, L33P for the ITGB3 gene, as well as H63D and S65C polymorphisms for the HFE gene does not influence on predisposition to the longevity; carriage of the 282 Y allele for the HFE gene negatively influences on the longevity; carriage of the heterozygous genotype for the R72P polymorphism for the p53 gene correlates with the longevity of elderly people.

  6. CCL2 recruits T cells into the brain in a CCR2-independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cédile, Oriane; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Owens, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    CCR2, a receptor for CCL2. Expression of another receptor for CCL2, CCR4, and CXCR3, a receptor for CXCL10, which was also induced, were both increased in CCL2-treated CNS. CCR4 was expressed by neurons and astrocytes as well as CD4 T cells, and CXCR3 was expressed by CD4 and CD8 T cells. Chemokine...

  7. Resistance of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate to a small molecule CCR5 inhibitor can involve sequence changes in both gp120 and gp41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassopoulou, Cleo G.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Depetris, Rafael S.; Thomas, Antonia M.; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe the genetic pathways taken by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate, D101.12, to become resistant to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, vicriviroc (VCV), in vitro. Resistant D101.12 variants contained at least one substitution in the gp120 V3 region (H308P), plus one of two patterns of gp41 sequence changes involving the fusion peptide (FP) and a downstream residue: G514V+V535M or M518V+F519L+V535M. Studies of Env-chimeric and point-substituted viruses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TZM-bl cells showed that resistance can arise from the cooperative action of gp120 and gp41 changes, while retaining CCR5 usage. Modeling the VCV inhibition data from the two cell types suggests that D101.12 discriminates between high- and low-VCV affinity forms of CCR5 less than D1/85.16, a resistant virus with three FP substitutions.

  8. CCR2 mediates Helicobacter pylori-induced immune tolerance and contributes to mucosal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xia; Zhang, Min; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Huffnagle, Gray B; Kao, John Y

    2017-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that H. pylori infection leads to increased induction of regulatory T cells in local and systemic immune compartments. Here, we investigate the role of CCR2 in the tolerogenic programing of dendritic cells in a mouse model of H. pylori infection. CCR2 deficient (CCR2KO) mice and wild-type (Wt) mice infected with H. pylori SS1 strain were analyzed by qPCR and FACS analysis. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DC on day 6 from CCR2KO and Wt mice cocultured with or without H. pylori were examined to determine the impact of CCR2 signaling on dendritic cells function by qPCR, ELISA, and FACS analyses. Acute H. pylori infection was associated with a threefold increase in CCR2 mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa. H. pylori-infected CCR2KO mice exhibited a higher degree of mucosal inflammation, that is, increased gastritis scores and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, but lower degree of H. pylori gastric colonization compared to infected Wt mice. Peripheral H. pylori-specific immune response measured in the CCR2KO spleen was characterized by a higher Th17 response and a lower Treg response. In vitro, CCR2KO bone marrow-derived DC was less mature and shown a lower Treg/Th17 ratio. Moreover, blockade of CCR2 signaling by MCP-1 neutralizing antibody inhibited H. pylori-stimulated bone marrow-derived DC maturation. Our results indicate that CCR2 plays an essential role in H. pylori-induced immune tolerance and shed light on a novel mechanism of CCR2-dependent DC Treg induction, which appears to be important in maintaining mucosal homeostasis during H. pylori infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Peripheral Blood CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells Are Highly Permissive to HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Annie; Monteiro, Patricia; Chomont, Nicolas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Said, Elias A.; Fonseca, Simone; Wacleche, Vanessa; El-Far, Mohamed; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2009-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the identity of primary CD4+ T cell subsets selectively targeted by HIV-1 in vivo. In this study, we established a link between HIV permissiveness, phenotype/homing potential, and lineage commitment in primary CD4+ T cells. CCR4+CCR6+, CCR4+CCR6−, CXCR3+CCR6+, and CXCR3+CCR6− T cells expressed cytokines and transcription factors specific for Th17, Th2, Th1Th17, and Th1 lineages, respectively. CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ T cells expressed the HIV coreceptors CCR5 a...

  10. Characterization of the virus-cell interactions by HIV-1 subtype C variants from an antiretroviral therapy-naïve subject with baseline resistance to the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard

    The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc (MVC) exerts its antiviral activity by binding to- and altering the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops such that HIV-1 gp120 no longer recognizes CCR5. Viruses that have become resistant to MVC through long-term in vitro culture, or from treatment failure...... in vivo, can use the MVCbound form of CCR5 for HIV-1 entry via adaptive alterations in gp120. Partial baseline resistance to another CCR5 inhibitor through this mechanism, AD101, has been noted recently in one subject (1). Here, we identified and characterized envelope (Env) clones with baseline...

  11. Accelerated in vivo proliferation of memory phenotype CD4+ T-cells in human HIV-1 infection irrespective of viral chemokine co-receptor tropism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available CD4(+ T-cell loss is the hallmark of HIV-1 infection. CD4 counts fall more rapidly in advanced disease when CCR5-tropic viral strains tend to be replaced by X4-tropic viruses. We hypothesized: (i that the early dominance of CCR5-tropic viruses results from faster turnover rates of CCR5(+ cells, and (ii that X4-tropic strains exert greater pathogenicity by preferentially increasing turnover rates within the CXCR4(+ compartment. To test these hypotheses we measured in vivo turnover rates of CD4(+ T-cell subpopulations sorted by chemokine receptor expression, using in vivo deuterium-glucose labeling. Deuterium enrichment was modeled to derive in vivo proliferation (p and disappearance (d* rates which were related to viral tropism data. 13 healthy controls and 13 treatment-naive HIV-1-infected subjects (CD4 143-569 cells/ul participated. CCR5-expression defined a CD4(+ subpopulation of predominantly CD45R0(+ memory cells with accelerated in vivo proliferation (p = 2.50 vs 1.60%/d, CCR5(+ vs CCR5(-; healthy controls; P<0.01. Conversely, CXCR4 expression defined CD4(+ T-cells (predominantly CD45RA(+ naive cells with low turnover rates. The dominant effect of HIV infection was accelerated turnover of CCR5(+CD45R0(+CD4(+ memory T-cells (p = 5.16 vs 2.50%/d, HIV vs controls; P<0.05, naïve cells being relatively unaffected. Similar patterns were observed whether the dominant circulating HIV-1 strain was R5-tropic (n = 9 or X4-tropic (n = 4. Although numbers were small, X4-tropic viruses did not appear to specifically drive turnover of CXCR4-expressing cells (p = 0.54 vs 0.72 vs 0.44%/d in control, R5-tropic, and X4-tropic groups respectively. Our data are most consistent with models in which CD4(+ T-cell loss is primarily driven by non-specific immune activation.

  12. Effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles on disease progression of perinatally HIV-1-infected children: an international meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Rosenberg, Philip S; Goedert, James J; De Rossi, Anita; Espanol, Teresa; Frenkel, Lisa; Mayaux, Marie-Jeanne; Newell, Marie-Louise; Pahwa, Savita G; Rousseau, Christine; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Sei, Shizuko; Sen, Luisa; O'Brien, Thomas R

    2003-07-25

    Among perinatally infected children, the effects of certain alleles of the CCR5 and CCR2 genes on the rate of disease progression remain unclear. We addressed the effects of CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I in an international meta-analysis. Genotype data were contributed from 10 studies with 1317 HIV-1-infected children (7263 person-years of follow-up). Time-to-event analyses were performed stratified by study and racial group. Endpoints included progression to clinical AIDS, death, and death after the diagnosis of clinical AIDS. The time-dependence of the genetic effects was specifically investigated. There was large heterogeneity in the observed rates of disease progression between different cohorts. For progression to clinical AIDS, both CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I showed overall non-significant trends for protection [hazard ratios 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-1.23; and 0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.14, respectively]. However, analyses of survival showed statistically significant time-dependence. No deaths occurred among CCR5-delta32 carriers in the first 3 years of life, whereas there was no protective effect (hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI 0.43-2.10) in later years (P=0.01 for the time-dependent model). For CCR2-64I, the hazard ratio for death was 0.69 (95% CI 0.39-1.21) in the first 6 years of life and 2.56 (95% CI 1.26-5.20) in subsequent years (P<0.01 for the time-dependent model). CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I offered no clear protection after clinical AIDS had developed. The CCR5-delta32 and CCR2-64I alleles are associated with a decreased risk of death among perinatally infected children, but only for the first years of life.

  13. Benzimidazoles as benzamide replacements within cyclohexane-based CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Robert J; Mo, Ruowei; Meyer, Dayton T; Pechulis, Anthony D; Guaciaro, Michael A; Lo, Yvonne C; Yang, Gengjie; Miller, Persymphonie B; Scherle, Peggy A; Zhao, Qihong; Cvijic, Mary Ellen; Barrish, Joel C; Decicco, Carl P; Carter, Percy H

    2012-10-01

    We describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of benzimidazoles as benzamide replacements within a series of trisubstituted cyclohexane CCR2 antagonists. 7-Trifluoromethylbenzimidazoles displayed potent binding and functional antagonism of CCR2 while being selective over CCR3. These benzimidazoles were also incorporated into lactam-containing antagonists, thus completely eliminating the customary bis-amide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Critical amino acids within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein V4 N- and C-terminals contribute to virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available The importance of the fourth variable (V4 region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env in virus infection has not been well clarified, though the polymorphism of this region has been found to be associated with disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. In the present work, we focused on the correlation between HIV-1 gp120 V4 region polymorphism and the function of the region on virus entry, and the possible mechanisms for how the V4 region contributes to virus infectivity. Therefore, we analyzed the differences in V4 sequences along with coreceptor usage preference from CCR5 to CXCR4 and examined the importance of the amino acids within the V4 region for CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic virus entry. In addition, we determined the influence of the V4 amino acids on Env expression and gp160 processing intracellularly, as well as the amount of Env on the pseudovirus surface. The results indicated that V4 tended to have a shorter length, fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS, greater evolutionary distance, and a lower negative net charge when HIV-1 isolates switched from a coreceptor usage preference for CCR5 to CXCR4. The N- and C-terminals of the HIV-1 V4 region are highly conserved and critical to maintain virus entry ability, but only the mutation at position 417 in the context of ADA (a R5-tropic HIV-1 strain resulted in the ability to utilize CXCR4. In addition, 390L, 391F, 414I, and 416L are critical to maintain gp160 processing and maturation. It is likely that the hydrophobic properties and the electrostatic surface potential of gp120, rather than the conformational structure, greatly contribute to this V4 functionality. The findings provide information to aid in the understanding of the functions of V4 in HIV-1 entry and offer a potential target to aid in the development of entry inhibitors.

  15. The ins and outs of ligand binding to CCR2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweemer, Annelien Jacomina Maria

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides novel insights in the molecular mechanism of action of antagonists for the chemokine receptor CCR2. CCR2 belongs to the protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is involved in several inflammatory diseases and therefore many small molecule antagonists targeting

  16. The chemokine receptor CCR2 maintains plasmacytoid dendritic cell homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cédile, Oriane; Østerby Jørgensen, Line; Frank, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Thymic dendritic cells (DC) play a role in central tolerance. Three thymic DC subtypes have been described: plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and two conventional DC (cDC), CD8α+ Sirpα- DC and Sirpα+ CD8α- cDC. Both pDC and Sirpα+ cDC can take up antigen in periphery and migrate into the thymus in response t...... by CCL2 or CCR2 deficiency. Although some thymic progenitors expressed CCR2, this did not include those that give rise to pDC. Based on these results, we propose that CCR2 is involved in pDC homeostasis but its ligand CCL2 does not play a major role....

  17. Inhibitory function of adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit in the process of nuclear translocation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yukiko; Kameoka, Masanori; Shoji-Kawata, Sanae; Iwabu, Yukie; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Fujino, Masato; Natori, Yukikazu; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The transfection of human cells with siRNA against adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit (AP2α) was revealed to significantly up-regulate the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This effect was confirmed by cell infection with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1 as well as CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Viral adsorption, viral entry and reverse transcription processes were not affected by cell transfection with siRNA against AP2α. In contrast, viral nuclear translocation as well as the integration process was significantly up-regulated in cells transfected with siRNA against AP2α. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that a subpopulation of AP2α was not only localized in the cytoplasm but was also partly co-localized with lamin B, importin β and Nup153, implying that AP2α negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in the process of nuclear translocation of viral DNA in the cytoplasm or the perinuclear region. We propose that AP2α may be a novel target for disrupting HIV-1 replication in the early stage of the viral life cycle

  18. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of four fish-specific CC chemokine receptors CCR4La, CCR4Lc1, CCR4Lc2 and CCR11 in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhitao; Holland, Jason W; Jiang, Yousheng; Secombes, Christopher J; Nie, Pin; Wang, Tiehui

    2017-09-01

    The chemokine and chemokine receptor networks regulate leukocyte trafficking, inflammation, immune cell differentiation, cancer and other biological processes. Comparative immunological studies have revealed that both chemokines and their receptors have expanded greatly in a species/lineage specific way. Of the 10 human CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-10) that bind CC chemokines, orthologues only to CCR6, 7, 9 and 10 are present in teleost fish. In this study, four fish-specific CCRs, termed as CCR4La, CCR4Lc1, CCR4Lc2 and CCR11, with a close link to human CCR1-5 and 8, in terms of amino acid homology and syntenic conservation, have been identified and characterized in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These CCRs were found to possess the conserved features of the G protein-linked receptor family, including an extracellular N-terminal, seven TM domains, three extracellular loops and three intracellular loops, and a cytoplasmic carboxyl tail with multiple potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. Four cysteine residues known to be involved in forming two disulfide bonds are present in the extracellular domains and a DRY motif is present in the second intracellular loop. Signaling mediated by these receptors might be regulated by N-glycosylation, tyrosine sulfation, S-palmitoylation, a PDZ ligand motif and di-leucine motifs. Studies of intron/exon structure revealed distinct fish-specific CCR gene organization in different fish species/lineages that might contribute to the diversification of the chemokine ligand-receptor networks in different fish lineages. Fish-specific trout CCRs are highly expressed in immune tissues/organs, such as thymus, spleen, head kidney and gills. Their expression can be induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFNγ, by the pathogen associated molecular patterns, PolyIC and peptidoglycan, and by bacterial infection. These data suggest that fish-specific CCRs are likely to have an important role in immune

  19. Polymorphisms of CCL3L1/CCR5 genes and recurrence of hepatitis B in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Wei-Lin; Liang, Ting-Bo; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2011-12-01

    The genetic diversity of chemokines and chemokine receptors has been associated with the outcome of hepatitis B virus infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the copy number variation in the CCL3L1 gene and the polymorphisms of CCR5Δ32 and CCR5-2459A→G (rs1799987) are associated with recurrent hepatitis B in liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus infection-related end-stage liver disease. A total of 185 transplant recipients were enrolled in this study. The genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, the copy number of the CCL3L1 gene was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR based assay, CCR5Δ32 was detected by a sizing PCR method, and a single-nucleotide polymorphism in CCR5-2459 was detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. No CCR5Δ32 mutation was detected in any of the individuals from China. Neither copy number variation nor polymorphism in CCR5-2459 was associated with post-transplant re-infection with hepatitis B virus. However, patients with fewer copies (CCR5 genes might be more likely to have recurrence of hepatitis B after transplantation.

  20. CCR2-V64I genetic polymorphism: a possible involvement in HER2+ breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin-Hirata, Bruna Karina; Losi-Guembarovski, Roberta; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Campos, Clodoaldo Zago; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Ceribelli, Jesus Roberto; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2016-05-01

    Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and these molecules can affect both tumor progression and anti-tumor immune response. Genetic polymorphisms of some chemokine receptors were found to be closely related to malignant tumors, especially in metastasis process, including breast cancer (BC). Considering this, it was investigated a possible role for CCR2-V64I (C-C chemokine receptor 2) and CCR5-Δ32 (C-C chemokine receptor 5) genetic variants in BC context. Patients were divided into subgroups according to immunohistochemical profile of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. No significant associations were found in relation to susceptibility (CCR2-V64I: OR 1.32; 95 % CI 0.57-3.06; CCR5-∆32: OR 1.04; 95 % CI 0.60-1.81), clinical outcome (tumor size, lymph nodes commitment and/or distant metastasis, TNM staging and nuclear grade) or therapeutic response (recurrence and survival). However, it was found a significant correlation between CCR2-V64I allelic variant and HER2 immunohistochemical positive samples (p = 0.026). All in all, we demonstrate, for the first time, a positive correlation between CCR2 receptor gene polymorphism and a subgroup of BC related to poor prognosis, which deserves further investigation in larger samples for validation.

  1. CCR5 Gene Disruption via Lentiviral Vectors Expressing Cas9 and Single Guided RNA Renders Cells Resistant to HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Di; Kimata, Jason T.; Zhou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    CCR5, a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry, is a major target for drug and genetic intervention against HIV-1. Genetic intervention strategies have knocked down CCR5 expression levels by shRNA or disrupted the CCR5 gene using zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) or Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN). In the present study, we silenced CCR5 via CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) and single guided RNAs (sgRNAs). We constructed lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs. We show that a single round transduction of lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs into HIV-1 susceptible human CD4+ cells yields high frequencies of CCR5 gene disruption. CCR5 gene-disrupted cells are not only resistant to R5-tropic HIV-1, including transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV-1 isolates, but also have selective advantage over CCR5 gene-undisrupted cells during R5-tropic HIV-1 infection. Importantly, using T7 endonuclease I assay we did not detect genome mutations at potential off-target sites that are highly homologous to these CCR5 sgRNAs in stably transduced cells even at 84 days post transduction. Thus we conclude that silencing of CCR5 via Cas9 and CCR5-specific sgRNAs could be a viable alternative strategy for engineering resistance against HIV-1. PMID:25541967

  2. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  3. CCR5 internalisation and signalling have different dependence on membrane lipid raft integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaba, Clara Moyano; Kerr, Jason S; Mueller, Anja

    2008-09-01

    The chemokine receptor, CCR5, acts as a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus entry into cells. CCR5 has been shown to be targeted to cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains termed lipid rafts or caveolae. Cholesterol is essential for CCL4 binding to CCR5 and for keeping the conformational integrity of the receptor. Filipin treatment leads to loss of caveolin-1 from the membrane and therefore to a collapse of the caveolae. We have found here that sequestration of membrane cholesterol with filipin did not affect receptor signalling, however a loss of ligand-induced internalisation of CCR5 was observed. Cholesterol extraction with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) reduced signalling through CCR5 as measured by release of intracellular Ca(2+) and completely abolished the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation with no effect on internalisation. Pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment inhibited the intracellular release of calcium that is transduced via Galphai G-proteins. Depletion of cholesterol destroyed microdomains in the membrane and switched CCR5/G-protein coupling to a PTX-independent G-protein. We conclude that cholesterol in the membrane is essential for CCR5 signalling via the Galphai G-protein subunit, and that integrity of lipid rafts is not essential for effective CCR5 internalisation however it is crucial for proper CCR5 signal transduction via Galphai G-proteins.

  4. An anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody and small molecule CCR5 antagonists synergize by inhibiting different stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarian, Diana; Carnec, Xavier; Tsamis, Fotini; Kajumo, Francis; Dragic, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    HIV-1 coreceptors are attractive targets for novel antivirals. Here, inhibition of entry by two classes of CCR5 antagonists was investigated. We confirmed previous findings that HIV-1 isolates vary greatly in their sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors of CCR5-mediated entry, SCH-C and TAK-779. In contrast, an anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody (PA14) similarly inhibited entry of diverse viral isolates. Sensitivity to small molecules was V3 loop-dependent and inversely proportional to the level of gp120 binding to CCR5. Moreover, combinations of the MAb and small molecules were highly synergistic in blocking HIV-1 entry, suggesting different mechanisms of action. This was confirmed by time course of inhibition experiments wherein the PA14 MAb and small molecules were shown to inhibit temporally distinct stages of CCR5 usage. We propose that small molecules inhibit V3 binding to the second extracellular loop of CCR5, whereas PA14 preferentially inhibits subsequent events such as CCR5 recruitment into the fusion complex or conformational changes in the gp120-CCR5 complex that trigger fusion. Importantly, our findings suggest that combinations of CCR5 inhibitors with different mechanisms of action will be central to controlling HIV-1 infection and slowing the emergence of resistant strains

  5. Blocking spinal CCR2 with AZ889 reversed hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaillancourt François

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CCR2/CCL2 system has been identified as a regulator in the pathogenesis of neuropathy-induced pain. However, CCR2 target validation in analgesia and the mechanism underlying antinociception produced by CCR2 antagonists remains poorly understood. In this study, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological approaches using a novel CCR2 antagonist, AZ889, strengthened the hypothesis of a CCR2 contribution to neuropathic pain and provided confidence over the possibilities to treat neuropathic pain with CCR2 antagonists. Results We provided evidence that dorsal root ganglia (DRG cells harvested from CCI animals responded to stimulation by CCL2 with a concentration-dependent calcium rise involving PLC-dependent internal stores. This response was associated with an increase in evoked neuronal action potentials suggesting these cells were sensitive to CCR2 signalling. Importantly, treatment with AZ889 abolished CCL2-evoked excitation confirming that this activity is CCR2-mediated. Neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the spinal cord were also excited by CCL2 applications indicating an important role of spinal CCR2 in neuropathic pain. We next showed that in vivo spinal intrathecal injection of AZ889 produced dose-dependent analgesia in CCI rats. Additionally, application of AZ889 to the exposed spinal cord inhibited evoked neuronal activity and confirmed that CCR2-mediated analgesia involved predominantly the spinal cord. Furthermore, AZ889 abolished NMDA-dependent wind-up of spinal withdrawal reflex pathway in neuropathic animals giving insight into the spinal mechanism underlying the analgesic properties of AZ889. Conclusions Overall, this study strengthens the important role of CCR2 in neuropathic pain and highlights feasibility that interfering on this mechanism at the spinal level with a selective antagonist can provide new analgesia opportunities.

  6. A CCR2 macrophage endocytic pathway mediates extravascular fibrin clearance in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motley, Michael P; Madsen, Daniel H; Jürgensen, Henrik J

    2016-01-01

    cellular endocytosis and lysosomal targeting, revealing a novel intracellular pathway for extravascular fibrin degradation. A C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-positive macrophage subpopulation constituted the majority of fibrin-uptaking cells. Consequently, cellular fibrin uptake was diminished...... by elimination of CCR2-expressing cells. The CCR2-positive macrophage subtype was different from collagen-internalizing M2-like macrophages. Cellular fibrin uptake was strictly dependent on plasminogen and plasminogen activator. Surprisingly, however, fibrin endocytosis was unimpeded by the absence of the fibrin...... subsets of macrophages employing distinct molecular pathways....

  7. Pulmonary CCR2+CD4+ T cells are immune regulatory and attenuate lung fibrosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milger, Katrin; Yu, Yingyan; Brudy, Eva; Irmler, Martin; Skapenko, Alla; Mayinger, Michael; Lehmann, Mareike; Beckers, Johannes; Reichenberger, Frank; Behr, Jürgen; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Animal models have suggested that CCR2-dependent signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but global blockade of CCL2 failed to improve the clinical course of patients with lung fibrosis. However, as levels of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in paediatric lung fibrosis had previously been found to be increased, correlating with clinical symptoms, we hypothesised that distinct CCR2 + cell populations might either increase or decrease disease pathogenesis depending on their subtype. To investigate the role of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in experimental lung fibrosis and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrosis. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were analysed using flow cytometry and mRNA profiling, followed by in silico pathway analysis, in vitro assays and adoptive transfer experiments. Frequencies of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were increased in experimental fibrosis-specifically the CD62L - CD44 + effector memory T cell phenotype, displaying a distinct chemokine receptor profile. mRNA profiling of isolated CCR2 + CD4 + T cells from fibrotic lungs suggested immune regulatory functions, a finding that was confirmed in vitro using suppressor assays. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells attenuated fibrosis development. The results were partly corroborated in patients with lung fibrosis, by showing higher percentages of Foxp3 + CD25 + cells within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CCR2 + CD4 + T cells as compared with CCR2 - CD4 + T cells. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells are immunosuppressive, and could attenuate lung inflammation and fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies completely abrogating CCR2-dependent signalling will therefore also eliminate cell populations with protective roles in fibrotic lung disease. This emphasises the need for a detailed understanding of the functions of immune cell subsets in fibrotic lung disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  8. Interaction of small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry with CCR5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, Christoph; Ying Weiwen; Gavrilov, Svetlana; Tsamis, Fotini; Kuhmann, Shawn E.; Palani, Anandan; Tagat, Jayaram R.; Clader, John W.; McCombie, Stuart W.; Baroudy, Bahige M.; Smith, Steven O.; Dragic, Tatjana; Moore, John P.; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the major coreceptor for macrophage-tropic (R5) HIV-1 strains. Several small molecule inhibitors of CCR5 that block chemokine binding and HIV-1 entry are being evaluated as drug candidates. Here we define how CCR5 antagonists TAK-779, AD101 (SCH-350581) and SCH-C (SCH-351125), which inhibit HIV-1 entry, interact with CCR5. Using a mutagenesis approach in combination with a viral entry assay to provide a direct functional read out, we tested predictions based on a homology model of CCR5 and analyzed the functions of more than 30 amino acid residues. We find that a key set of aromatic and aliphatic residues serves as a hydrophobic core for the ligand binding pocket, while E283 is critical for high affinity interaction, most likely by acting as the counterion for a positively charged nitrogen atom common to all three inhibitors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding how specific antagonists interact with CCR5, and may be useful for the rational design of new, improved CCR5 ligands

  9. Expression pattern of Ccr2 and Cx3cr1 in inherited retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Hideo; Koso, Hideto; Okano, Kiichiro; Sundermeier, Thomas R; Saito, Saburo; Watanabe, Sumiko; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Tsutomu

    2015-10-12

    Though accumulating evidence suggests that microglia, resident macrophages in the retina, and bone marrow-derived macrophages can cause retinal inflammation which accelerates photoreceptor cell death, the details of how these cells are activated during retinal degeneration (RD) remain uncertain. Therefore, it is important to clarify which cells play a dominant role in fueling retinal inflammation. However, distinguishing between microglia and macrophages is difficult using conventional techniques such as cell markers (e.g., Iba-1). Recently, two mouse models for visualizing chemokine receptors were established, Cx3cr1 (GFP/GFP) and Ccr2 (RFP/RFP) mice. As Cx3cr1 is expressed in microglia and Ccr2 is reportedly expressed in activated macrophages, these mice have the potential to distinguish microglia and macrophages, yielding novel information about the activation of these inflammatory cells and their individual roles in retinal inflammation. In this study, c-mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (Mertk) (-/-) mice, which show photoreceptor cell death due to defective retinal pigment epithelium phagocytosis, were employed as an animal model of RD. Mertk (-/-) Cx3cr1 (GFP/+) Ccr2 (RFP/+) mice were established by breeding Mertk (-/-) , Cx3cr1 (GFP/GFP) , and Ccr2 (RFP/RFP) mice. The retinal morphology and pattern of inflammatory cell activation and invasion of Mertk (-/-) Cx3cr1 (GFP/+) Ccr2 (RFP/+) mice were evaluated using retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) flat mounts, retinal sections, and flow cytometry. Four-week-old Mertk (-/-) Cx3cr1 (GFP/+) Ccr2 (RFP/+) mice showed Cx3cr1-GFP-positive microglia in the inner retina. Cx3cr1-GFP and Ccr2-RFP dual positive activated microglia were observed in the outer retina and subretinal space of 6- and 8-week-old animals. Ccr2-RFP single positive bone marrow-derived macrophages were observed to migrate into the retina of Mertk (-/-) Cx3cr1 (GFP/+) Ccr2 (RFP/+) mice. These invading cells were still observed in the

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF CCR2-64I GENE AMONG THE TRIBES AND CASTE POPULATION OF VIDARBHA, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind B Chavhan

    2013-08-01

    Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.

  11. CCR5 and CXCR3 are dispensable for liver infiltration, but CCR5 protects against virus-induced T-cell-mediated hepatic steatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, P J; Orskov, C; Qvortrup, K

    2007-01-01

    CCR5 and CXCR3 are important molecules in regulating the migration of activated lymphocytes. Thus, the majority of tissue-infiltrating T cells found in the context of autoimmune conditions and viral infections express CCR5 and CXCR3, and the principal chemokine ligands are expressed within inflam...... of CCR5 is associated with the induction of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunopathology consisting of marked hepatic microvesicular steatosis....

  12. The Central Conserved Region (CCR) of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G Protein Modulates Host miRNA Expression and Alters the Cellular Response to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Harcourt, Jennifer L; Haynes, Lia M; Anderson, Larry J; Tripp, Ralph A

    2017-07-03

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infects respiratory epithelial cells and deregulates host gene expression by many mechanisms including expression of RSV G protein (RSV G). RSV G protein encodes a central conserved region (CCR) containing a CX3C motif that functions as a fractalkine mimic. Disruption of the CX3C motif (a.a. 182-186) located in the CCR of the G protein has been shown to affect G protein function in vitro and the severity of RSV disease pathogenesis in vivo. We show that infection of polarized Calu3 respiratory cells with recombinant RSV having point mutations in Cys173 and 176 (C173/176S) (rA2-GC12), or Cys186 (C186S) (rA2-GC4) is associated with a decline in the integrity of polarized Calu-3 cultures and decreased virus production. This is accompanied with downregulation of miRNAs let-7f and miR-24 and upregulation of interferon lambda (IFNλ), a primary antiviral cytokine for RSV in rA2-GC12/rA2-GC4 infected cells. These results suggest that residues in the cysteine noose region of RSV G protein can modulate IFN λ expression accompanied by downregulation of miRNAs, and are important for RSV G protein function and targeting.

  13. Opposing effects of CXCR3 and CCR5 deficiency on CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system of virus-infected mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos, Carina; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Nansen, Anneline

    2005-01-01

    and therefore protect mice against the otherwise fatal CD8+ T cell-mediated immune attack. Contrary to expectations, the accumulation of mononuclear cells in cerebrospinal fluid was only slightly delayed compared with mice with normal expression of both receptors. Even more surprising, CXCR3/CCR5 double-deficient......T cells play a key role in the control of viral infection in the CNS but may also contribute to immune-mediated cell damage. To study the redundancy of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 in regulating virus-induced CD8+ T cell-mediated inflammation in the brain, CXCR3/CCR5 double-deficient mice...... mice were more susceptible to intracerebral infection than CXCR3-deficient mice. Analysis of effector T cell generation revealed an accelerated antiviral CD8+ T cell response in CXCR3/CCR5 double-deficient mice. Furthermore, while the accumulation of CD8+ T cells in the neural parenchyma...

  14. Structural refinement and prediction of potential CCR2 antagonists through validated multi-QSAR modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sk Abdul; Adhikari, Nilanjan; Baidya, Sandip Kumar; Gayen, Shovanlal; Jha, Tarun

    2018-01-03

    Chemokines trigger numerous inflammatory responses and modulate the immune system. The interaction between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) may be the cause of atherosclerosis, obesity, and insulin resistance. However, CCR2 is also implicated in other inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and neuropathic pain. Therefore, there is a paramount importance of designing potent and selective CCR2 antagonists despite a number of drug candidates failed in clinical trials. In this article, 83 CCR2 antagonists by Jhonson and Jhonson Pharmaceuticals have been considered for robust validated multi-QSAR modeling studies to get an idea about the structural and pharmacophoric requirements for designing more potent CCR2 antagonists. All these QSAR models were validated and statistically reliable. Observations resulted from different modeling studies correlated and validated results of other ones. Finally, depending on these QSAR observations, some new molecules were proposed that may exhibit higher activity against CCR2.

  15. Increased frequency of CCR4+ and CCR6+ memory T-cells including CCR7+CD45RAmed very early memory cells in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)

    OpenAIRE

    Fagin, Ursula; Pitann, Silke; Gross, Wolfgang L; Lamprecht, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chemokine receptors play an important role in mediating the recruitment of T cells to inflammatory sites. Previously, small proportions of circulating Th1-type CCR5+ and Th2-type CCR3+ cells have been shown in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Wondering to what extent CCR4 and CCR6 expression could also be implicated in T cell recruitment to inflamed sites in GPA, we investigated the expression of CCR4 and CCR6 on T cells and its association with T cell diversity and polari...

  16. Moderate restriction of macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Kahoru; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains are able to grow to high titers in human monocyte-derived macrophages. However, it was recently reported that cellular protein SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in human cells of the myeloid lineage, including monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we show that degradation of SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with moderately enhanced growth of the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. SAMHD1 degradation was induced by treating target macrophages with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) particles containing viral protein X. For undifferentiated monocytes, HIV-2 particle treatment allowed undifferentiated monocytes to be fully permissive for productive infection by the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. In contrast, untreated monocytes were totally resistant to HIV-1 replication. These results indicated that SAMHD1 moderately restricts even a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain in monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas the protein potently restricts HIV-1 replication in undifferentiated monocytes.

  17. VEGF-production by CCR2-dependent macrophages contributes to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten A Krause

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most prevalent cause of blindness in the elderly, and its exsudative subtype critically depends on local production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF. Mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and microglia cells, can produce VEGF. Their precursors, for example monocytes, can be recruited to sites of inflammation by the chemokine receptor CCR2, and this has been proposed to be important in AMD. To investigate the role of macrophages and CCR2 in AMD, we studied intracellular VEGF content in a laser-induced murine model of choroidal neovascularisation. To this end, we established a technique to quantify the VEGF content in cell subsets from the laser-treated retina and choroid separately. 3 days after laser, macrophage numbers and their VEGF content were substantially elevated in the choroid. Macrophage accumulation was CCR2-dependent, indicating recruitment from the circulation. In the retina, microglia cells were the main VEGF+ phagocyte type. A greater proportion of microglia cells contained VEGF after laser, and this was CCR2-independent. On day 6, VEGF-expressing macrophage numbers had already declined, whereas numbers of VEGF+ microglia cells remained increased. Other sources of VEGF detectable by flow cytometry included in dendritic cells and endothelial cells in both retina and choroid, and Müller cells/astrocytes in the retina. However, their VEGF content was not increased after laser. When we analyzed flatmounts of laser-treated eyes, CCR2-deficient mice showed reduced neovascular areas after 2 weeks, but this difference was not evident 3 weeks after laser. In summary, CCR2-dependent influx of macrophages causes a transient VEGF increase in the choroid. However, macrophages augmented choroidal neovascularization only initially, presumably because VEGF production by CCR2-independent eye cells prevailed at later time points. These findings identify macrophages as a relevant source

  18. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, W Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  19. Ccr2 deletion dissociates cavity size and tau pathology after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Stefka; Kim, Daniel; Katsumoto, Atsuko; Kokiko-Cochran, O Nicole; Lamb, Bruce T; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2015-12-03

    Millions of people experience traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a result of falls, car accidents, sports injury, and blast. TBI has been associated with the development of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In the initial hours and days, the pathology of TBI comprises neuronal injury, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and inflammation. At the cellular level, the inflammatory reaction consists of responses by brain-resident microglia, astrocytes, and vascular elements as well as infiltration of peripheral cells. After TBI, signaling by chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) to the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) is a key regulator of brain infiltration by monocytes. We utilized mice with one or both copies of Ccr2 disrupted by red fluorescent protein (RFP, Ccr2 (RFP/+) and Ccr2 (RFP/RFP) ). We subjected these mice to the mild lateral fluid percussion model of TBI and examined several pathological outcomes 3 days later in order to determine the effects of altered monocyte entry into the brain. Ccr2 deletion reduced monocyte infiltration, diminished lesion cavity volume, and lessened axonal damage after mild TBI, but the microglial reaction to the lesion was not affected. We further examined phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which aggregates in brains of people with TBI, AD, and CTE. Surprisingly, Ccr2 deletion was associated with increased tau mislocalization to the cell body in the cortex and hippocampus by tissue staining and increased levels of phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus by Western blot. Disruption of CCR2 enhanced tau pathology and reduced cavity volume in the context of TBI. The data reveal a complex role for CCR2(+) monocytes in TBI, as monitored by cavity volume, axonal damage, and tau phosphorylation.

  20. CCR3, CCR5, CCR8 and CXCR3 expression in memory T helper cells from allergic rhinitis patients, asymptomatically sensitized and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Mille; Assing, Kristian; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Chemokine receptors have been suggested to be preferentially expressed on CD4+ T cells with CCR3 and CCR8 linked to the T helper (Th) 2 subset and CCR5 and CXCR3 to the Th1 subset, however this remains controversial....

  1. A stable CC-chemokine receptor (CCR)-5 tropic virus is correlated with the persistence of HIV RNA at less than 2.5 copies in successfully treated naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Andreis, Samantha; Mengoli, Carlo; Scaggiante, Renzo; Cruciani, Mario; Ferretto, Roberto; Manfrin, Vinicio; Panese, Sandro; Basso, Monica; Boldrin, Caterina; Bressan, Stefania; Sarmati, Loredana; Andreoni, Massimo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-07-11

    To determine if tropism for CXCR4 or CCR5 correlates with cellular HIV DNA load, residual viraemia and CD4 count in 219 successfully treated naive subjects with HIV infection enrolled in five infectious diseases units in Northeastern Italy. A subset of subjects, achieving plasma HIV RNA level <50 copies/ml after initiation of first-line therapy and maintaining it until follow-up time points, was retrospectively selected from a prospective cohort. Blood samples were collected before the beginning of therapy (T0), at the first follow-up time (T1) and, when available, at a second (T2) follow-up time. HIV DNA, CD4 count and plasma viraemia were available from all 219 patients at T0 and T1, and in 86 subjects at T2, while tropism determinations were available from 109 subjects at T0, 219 at T1, and from 86 subjects at T2. Achieving residual viraemia <2.5 copies/ml at T1 correlated with having the same condition at T2 (p = 0.0007). X4 tropism at T1 was negatively correlated with the possibility of achieving viraemia<2.5 copies/ml at T2 (p = 0.0076). T1-T2 tropism stability was significant (p <0.0001). T0 tropism correlated with T1 and T2 tropism (p < 0.001); therefore the stability of the tropism over the two follow-up periods was significant (p = 0.0003). An effective viremic suppression (viraemia<2.5 copies/ml) correlated with R5 coreceptor affinity (p= 0.047). The tropism of archived virus was stable during an effective treatment, with 15-18% of subjects switching over time, despite a viraemia<50 copies/ml. R5 tropism and its stability were related to achieving and maintaining viraemia<2.5 copies/ml.

  2. Co-Introduced Functional CCR2 Potentiates In Vivo Anti-Lung Cancer Functionality Mediated by T Cells Double Gene-Modified to Express WT1-Specific T-Cell Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; An, Jun; Ochi, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Nagai, Kozo; Okamoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Junichi; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Shiku, Hiroshi; Inoue, Hirofumi; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although gene-modification of T cells to express tumor-related antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has clinically proved promise, there still remains room to improve the clinical efficacy of re-directed T-cell based antitumor adoptive therapy. In order to achieve more objective clinical responses using ex vivo-expanded tumor-responsive T cells, the infused T cells need to show adequate localized infiltration into the tumor. Methodology/Principal Findings Human lung cancer cells variously express a tumor antigen, Wilms' Tumor gene product 1 (WT1), and an inflammatory chemokine, CCL2. However, CCR2, the relevant receptor for CCL2, is rarely expressed on activated T-lymphocytes. A HLA-A2402+ human lung cancer cell line, LK79, which expresses high amounts of both CCL2 and WT1 mRNA, was employed as a target. Normal CD8+ T cells were retrovirally gene-modified to express both CCR2 and HLA-A*2402-restricted and WT1235–243 nonapeptide-specific TCR as an effector. Anti-tumor functionality mediated by these effector cells against LK79 cells was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Finally the impact of CCL2 on WT1 epitope-responsive TCR signaling mediated by the effector cells was studied. Introduced CCR2 was functionally validated using gene-modified Jurkat cells and human CD3+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. Double gene-modified CD3+ T cells successfully demonstrated both CCL2-tropic tumor trafficking and cytocidal reactivity against LK79 cells in vitro and in vivo. CCL2 augmented the WT1 epitope-responsive TCR signaling shown by relevant luciferase production in double gene-modified Jurkat/MA cells to express luciferase and WT1-specific TCR, and CCL2 also dose-dependently augmented WT1 epitope-responsive IFN-γ production and CD107a expression mediated by these double gene-modifiedCD3+ T cells. Conclusion/Significance Introduction of the CCL2/CCR2 axis successfully potentiated in vivo anti-lung cancer

  3. Co-introduced functional CCR2 potentiates in vivo anti-lung cancer functionality mediated by T cells double gene-modified to express WT1-specific T-cell receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Asai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although gene-modification of T cells to express tumor-related antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR has clinically proved promise, there still remains room to improve the clinical efficacy of re-directed T-cell based antitumor adoptive therapy. In order to achieve more objective clinical responses using ex vivo-expanded tumor-responsive T cells, the infused T cells need to show adequate localized infiltration into the tumor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human lung cancer cells variously express a tumor antigen, Wilms' Tumor gene product 1 (WT1, and an inflammatory chemokine, CCL2. However, CCR2, the relevant receptor for CCL2, is rarely expressed on activated T-lymphocytes. A HLA-A2402(+ human lung cancer cell line, LK79, which expresses high amounts of both CCL2 and WT1 mRNA, was employed as a target. Normal CD8(+ T cells were retrovirally gene-modified to express both CCR2 and HLA-A*2402-restricted and WT1(235-243 nonapeptide-specific TCR as an effector. Anti-tumor functionality mediated by these effector cells against LK79 cells was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. Finally the impact of CCL2 on WT1 epitope-responsive TCR signaling mediated by the effector cells was studied. Introduced CCR2 was functionally validated using gene-modified Jurkat cells and human CD3(+ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. Double gene-modified CD3(+ T cells successfully demonstrated both CCL2-tropic tumor trafficking and cytocidal reactivity against LK79 cells in vitro and in vivo. CCL2 augmented the WT1 epitope-responsive TCR signaling shown by relevant luciferase production in double gene-modified Jurkat/MA cells to express luciferase and WT1-specific TCR, and CCL2 also dose-dependently augmented WT1 epitope-responsive IFN-γ production and CD107a expression mediated by these double gene-modified CD3(+ T cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Introduction of the CCL2/CCR2 axis successfully potentiated in

  4. Travel to tropical areas: Zika virus disease

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2016-01-01

    Transmitted by the bite of a certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes), the Zika virus is spreading quickly in tropical areas of Central America, the Caribbean and South America.   Although no specific treatment nor vaccine is currently available, the most effective preventive measures are those focused on avoiding mosquito bites. There are no travel restrictions in place at present. However it is recommended that pregnant women defer travel plans to countries affected by the Zika virus. For further information on symptoms and prevention measures, please click on the Zika virus link or contact the Medical Service.

  5. CCR2 V64I polymorphism in rifampicin resistant tuberculosis patients in Moewardi General Hospital Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwoto; Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Reviono; Suradi

    2018-05-01

    CC chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) play important roles in inflammation. The CCR2 V64I polymorphism already reported associated with many diseases; however, the association of CCR2 V64I polymorphism with tuberculosis is still unknown. Also, there is no report about the presentation of CCR2 V64I polymorphisms in Indonesian tuberculosis patients with rifampicin-mono resistant status has ever been published, to the best of our knowledge. This study evaluated the presence of CCR2 V64I polymorphisms in Javanese rifampicin-mono resistant tuberculosis patients. In an ongoing molecular epidemiology study of human genomic polymorphisms and infection, 51 Javanese rifampicin-mono resistant tuberculosis patients in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital in Surakarta were enrolled in the study. The blood samples were aliquoted and fractionated. The nucleic acids were extracted from all blood samples and subjected to the CCR2 V64I polymorphisms detection by a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) technique. PCR products were analyzed in 3% agarose. CCR2 64V and 64I homozygote were found in 23.5% (12/51) and 23.5% (12/51) blood samples, respectively. The CCR2 VI genotype was found in 52.9% (27/51) blood samples. The CCR2 VI genotype was found predominant in Javanese rifampicin-mono resistant tuberculosis patients and may have anassociation with the clinical progression.

  6. Identification of dual-tropic HIV-1 using evolved neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Gary B; Lamers, Susanna L; Liu, Enoch S; Salemi, Marco; McGrath, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Blocking the binding of the envelope HIV-1 protein to immune cells is a popular concept for development of anti-HIV therapeutics. R5 HIV-1 binds CCR5, X4 HIV-1 binds CXCR4, and dual-tropic HIV-1 can bind either coreceptor for cellular entry. R5 viruses are associated with early infection and over time can evolve to X4 viruses that are associated with immune failure. Dual-tropic HIV-1 is less studied; however, it represents functional antigenic intermediates during the transition of R5 to X4 viruses. Viral tropism is linked partly to the HIV-1 envelope V3 domain, where the amino acid sequence helps dictate the receptor a particular virus will target; however, using V3 sequence information to identify dual-tropic HIV-1 isolates has remained difficult. Our goal in this study was to elucidate features of dual-tropic HIV-1 isolates that assist in the biological understanding of dual-tropism and develop an approach for their detection. Over 1559 HIV-1 subtype B sequences with known tropisms were analyzed. Each sequence was represented by 73 structural, biochemical and regional features. These features were provided to an evolved neural network classifier and evaluated using balanced and unbalanced data sets. The study resolved R5X4 viruses from R5 with an accuracy of 81.8% and from X4 with an accuracy of 78.8%. The approach also identified a set of V3 features (hydrophobicity, structural and polarity) that are associated with tropism transitions. The ability to distinguish R5X4 isolates will improve computational tropism decisions for R5 vs. X4 and assist in HIV-1 research and drug development efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Discovery and mapping of an intracellular antagonist binding site at the chemokine receptor CCR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zweemer, Annelien J M; Bunnik, Julia; Veenhuizen, Margo

    2014-01-01

    be divided into two groups with most likely two topographically distinct binding sites. The aim of the current study was to identify the binding site of one such group of ligands, exemplified by three allosteric antagonists, CCR2-RA-[R], JNJ-27141491, and SD-24. We first used a chimeric CCR2/CCR5 receptor...

  8. Antifibrotic Effects of the Dual CCR2/CCR5 Antagonist Cenicriviroc in Animal Models of Liver and Kidney Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lefebvre

    Full Text Available Interactions between C-C chemokine receptor types 2 (CCR2 and 5 (CCR5 and their ligands, including CCL2 and CCL5, mediate fibrogenesis by promoting monocyte/macrophage recruitment and tissue infiltration, as well as hepatic stellate cell activation. Cenicriviroc (CVC is an oral, dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist with nanomolar potency against both receptors. CVC's anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects were evaluated in a range of preclinical models of inflammation and fibrosis.Monocyte/macrophage recruitment was assessed in vivo in a mouse model of thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. CCL2-induced chemotaxis was evaluated ex vivo on mouse monocytes. CVC's antifibrotic effects were evaluated in a thioacetamide-induced rat model of liver fibrosis and mouse models of diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and renal fibrosis. Study assessments included body and liver/kidney weight, liver function test, liver/kidney morphology and collagen deposition, fibrogenic gene and protein expression, and pharmacokinetic analyses.CVC significantly reduced monocyte/macrophage recruitment in vivo at doses ≥20 mg/kg/day (p < 0.05. At these doses, CVC showed antifibrotic effects, with significant reductions in collagen deposition (p < 0.05, and collagen type 1 protein and mRNA expression across the three animal models of fibrosis. In the NASH model, CVC significantly reduced the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (p < 0.05 vs. controls. CVC treatment had no notable effect on body or liver/kidney weight.CVC displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in a range of animal fibrosis models, supporting human testing for fibrotic diseases. Further experimental studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of CVC's antifibrotic effects. A Phase 2b study in adults with NASH and liver fibrosis is fully enrolled (CENTAUR Study 652-2-203; NCT02217475.

  9. Chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the medullary dorsal horn are involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain in the trigeminal system is frequently observed in clinic, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In addition, the function of immune cells and related chemicals in the mechanism of pain has been recognized, whereas few studies have addressed the potential role of chemokines in the trigeminal system in chronic pain. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2-chemokine C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 signaling in the trigeminal nucleus is involved in the maintenance of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Methods The inferior alveolar nerve and mental nerve transection (IAMNT was used to induce trigeminal neuropathic pain. The expression of ATF3, CCL2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and CCR2 were detected by immunofluorescence histochemical staining and western blot. The cellular localization of CCL2 and CCR2 were examined by immunofluorescence double staining. The effect of a selective CCR2 antagonist, RS504393 on pain hypersensitivity was checked by behavioral testing. Results IAMNT induced persistent (>21 days heat hyperalgesia of the orofacial region and ATF3 expression in the mandibular division of the trigeminal ganglion. Meanwhile, CCL2 expression was increased in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH from 3 days to 21 days after IAMNT. The induced CCL2 was colocalized with astroglial marker GFAP, but not with neuronal marker NeuN or microglial marker OX-42. Astrocytes activation was also found in the MDH and it started at 3 days, peaked at 10 days and maintained at 21 days after IAMNT. In addition, CCR2 was upregulated by IAMNT in the ipsilateral medulla and lasted for more than 21 days. CCR2 was mainly colocalized with NeuN and few cells were colocalized with GFAP. Finally, intracisternal injection of CCR2 antagonist, RS504393 (1, 10 μg significantly attenuated IAMNT-induced heat hyperalgesia. Conclusion The data suggest that CCL2-CCR

  10. Solution Structure of LC4 Transmembrane Segment of CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescdence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 ...

  11. Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors

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    Pugach, Pavel; Ketas, Thomas J.; Michael, Elizabeth; Moore, John P.

    2008-01-01

    The small molecule CCR5 inhibitors are a new class of drugs for treating infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). They act by binding to the CCR5 co-receptor and preventing its use during HIV-1-cell fusion. Escape mutants can be raised against CCR5 inhibitors in vitro and will arise when these drugs are used clinically. Here, we have assessed the responses of CCR5 inhibitor-resistant viruses to other anti-retroviral drugs that act by different mechanisms, and their sensitivities to neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The rationale for the latter study is that the resistance pathway for CCR5 inhibitors involves changes in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), which are also targets for NAbs. The escape mutants CC101.19 and D1/85.16 were selected for resistance to AD101 and vicriviroc (VVC), respectively, from the primary R5 HIV-1 isolate CC1/85. Each escape mutant was cross-resistant to other small molecule CCR5 inhibitors (aplaviroc, maraviroc, VVC, AD101 and CMPD 167), but sensitive to protein ligands of CCR5: the modified chemokine PSC-RANTES and the humanized MAb PRO-140. The resistant viruses also retained wild-type sensitivity to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) zidovudine, the non-nucleoside RTI nevirapine, the protease inhibitor atazanavir and other attachment and fusion inhibitors that act independently of CCR5 (BMS-806, PRO-542 and enfuvirtide). Of note is that the escape mutants were more sensitive than the parental CC1/85 isolate to a subset of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and to some sera from HIV-1-infected people, implying that sequence changes in Env that confer resistance to CCR5 inhibitors can increase the accessibility of some NAb epitopes. The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo

  12. Murine macrophage response from peritoneal cavity requires signals mediated by chemokine receptor CCR-2 during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-02-01

    C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2) is a cognate receptor for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and recent studies revealed that MCP-1-CCR-2 signaling is involved in several inflammatory diseases characterized by macrophage infiltration. Currently, there is no study on the involvement of CCR-2 in the killing of S. aureus by macrophages of Swiss albino mice, and its substantial role in host defense against S. aureus infection in murine macrophages is still unclear. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the functional and interactive role of CCR-2 and MCP-1 in regulating peritoneal macrophage responses with respect to acute S. aureus infection. We found that phagocytosis of S. aureus can serve as an important stimulus for MCP-1 production by peritoneal macrophages, which is dependent directly or indirectly on cytokines, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Neutralization of CCR-2 in macrophages leads to increased production of IL-10 and decreased production of IFN-γ and IL-6. In CCR-2 blocked macrophages, pretreatment with specific blocker of NF-κB or p38-MAPK causes elevation in MCP-1 level and subsequent downregulation of CCR-2 itself. We speculate that CCR-2 is involved in S. aureus-induced MCP-1 production via NF-κB or p38-MAPK signaling. We also hypothesized that unnaturally high level of MCP-1 that build up upon CCR-2 neutralization might allow promiscuous binding to one or more other chemokine receptors, a situation that would not occur in CCR-2 non-neutralized condition. This may be the plausible explanation for such observed Th-2 response in CCR-2 blocked macrophages infected with S. aureus in the present study.

  13. Vpx complementation of 'non-macrophage tropic' R5 viruses reveals robust entry of infectious HIV-1 cores into macrophages.

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    Mlcochova, Petra; Watters, Sarah A; Towers, Greg J; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Gupta, Ravindra K

    2014-03-21

    It is now known that clinically derived viruses are most commonly R5 tropic with very low infectivity in macrophages. As these viruses utilize CD4 inefficiently, defective entry has been assumed to be the dominant restriction. The implication is that macrophages are not an important reservoir for the majority of circulating viruses. Macrophage infection by clinical transmitted/founder isolates was 10-100 and 30-450 fold less efficient as compared to YU-2 and BaL respectively. Vpx complementation augmented macrophage infection by non-macrophage tropic viruses to the level of infectivity observed for YU-2 in the absence of Vpx. Augmentation was evident even when Vpx was provided 24 hours post-infection. The entry defect was measured as 2.5-5 fold, with a further 3.5-10 fold block at strong stop and subsequent stages of reverse transcription as compared to YU-2. The overall block to infection was critically dependent on the mechanism of entry as demonstrated by rescue of infection after pseudotyping with VSV-G envelope. Reverse transcription in macrophages could not be enhanced using a panel of cytokines or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although the predominant block to clinical transmitted/founder viruses is post-entry, infectivity is determined by Env-CD4 interactions and can be rescued with VSV-G pseudotyping. This suggests a functional link between the optimal entry pathway taken by macrophage tropic viruses and downstream events required for reverse transcription. Consistent with a predominantly post-entry block, replication of R5 using viruses can be greatly enhanced by Vpx. We conclude therefore that entry is not the limiting step and that macrophages represent clinically relevant reservoirs for 'non-macrophage tropic' viruses.

  14. Identification of four families of yCCR4- and Mg2+-dependent endonuclease-related proteins in higher eukaryotes, and characterization of orthologs of yCCR4 with a conserved leucine-rich repeat essential for hCAF1/hPOP2 binding

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    Corbo Laura

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast yCCR4 factor belongs to the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex, in which it interacts, through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR motif with yPOP2. Recently, yCCR4 was shown to be a component of the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, and to contain a fold related to the Mg2+-dependent endonuclease core. Results Here, we report the identification of nineteen yCCR4-related proteins in eukaryotes (including yeast, plants and animals, which all contain the yCCR4 endonuclease-like fold, with highly conserved CCR4-specific residues. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses show that they form four distinct families, one of which contains the yCCR4 orthologs. The orthologs in animals possess a leucine-rich repeat domain. We show, using two-hybrid and far-Western assays, that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, i.e. hCAF1 and hPOP2, in a LRR-dependent manner. Conclusions We have identified the mammalian orthologs of yCCR4 and have shown that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, thus strongly suggesting conservation of the CCR4-NOT complex from yeast to human. All members of the four identified yCCR4-related protein families show stricking conservation of the endonuclease-like catalytic motifs of the yCCR4 C-terminal domain and therefore constitute a new family of potential deadenylases in mammals.

  15. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  16. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

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    Pardis C Sabeti

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen at CCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  17. CCL5, CCR1 and CCR5 in murine glioblastoma: immune cell infiltration and survival rates are not dependent on individual expression of either CCR1 or CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Kien; Luo, Defang; Liu, Che; Harrison, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor. Microglia/macrophages are found within human GBM where they likely promote tumor progression. We report that CCL5, CCR1, and CCR5 are expressed in glioblastoma. Individual deletion of CCR1 or CCR5 had little to no effect on survival of tumor bearing mice, or numbers of glioblastoma-infiltrated microglia/macrophages or lymphocytes. CCL5 promoted in vitro migration of wild type, CCR1- or CCR5-deficient microglia/macrophages that w...

  18. Distribution of the CCR5delta32 allele (gene variant CCR5) in Rondônia, Western Amazonian region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Josileide Duarte; Santos, Marlene Guimarães; de França, Andonai Krauze; Delani, Daniel; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Casseb, Almeida Andrade; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; Engracia, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Since around 1723, on the occasion of its initial colonization by Europeans, Rondonia has received successive waves of immigrants. This has been further swelled by individuals from northeastern Brazil, who began entering at the beginning of the twentieth century. The ethnic composition varies across the state according to the various sites of settlement of each wave of immigrants. We analyzed the frequency of the CCR5Δ32 allele of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, which is considered a Caucasian marker, in five sample sets from the population. Four were collected in Porto Velho, the state capital and the site of several waves of migration. Of these, two, from the Hospital de Base were comprised of HB Mothers and HB Newborns presenting allele frequencies of 3.5% and 3.1%, respectively, a third from the peri-urban neighborhoods of Candelária/Bate-Estaca (1.8%), whereas a fourth, from the Research Center on Tropical Medicine/CEPEM (0.6%), was composed of malaria patients under treament. The fifth sample (3.4%) came from the inland Quilombola village of Pedras Negras. Two homozygous individuals (CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32) were detected among the HB Mother samples. The frequency of this allele was heterogeneous and higher where the European inflow was more pronounced. The presence of the allele in Pedras Negras revealed European miscegenation in a community largely comprising Quilombolas. PMID:22481870

  19. Haplotypes in CCR5-CCR2, CCL3 and CCL5 are associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in a Colombian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jorge A; Villegas-Ospina, Simón; Aguilar-Jiménez, Wbeimar; Rugeles, María T; Bedoya, Gabriel; Zapata, Wildeman

    2017-06-01

    Variants in genes encoding for HIV-1 co-receptors and their natural ligands have been individually associated to natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. However, the simultaneous presence of these variants has been poorly studied. To evaluate the association of single and multilocus haplotypes in genes coding for the viral co-receptors CCR5 and CCR2, and their ligands CCL3 and CCL5, with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Nine variants in CCR5-CCR2, two SNPs in CCL3 and two in CCL5 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 35 seropositive (cases) and 49 HIV-1-exposed seronegative Colombian individuals (controls). Haplotypes were inferred using the Arlequin software, and their frequency in individual or combined loci was compared between cases and controls by the chi-square test. A p' value ;0.05 after Bonferroni correction was considered significant. Homozygosis of the human haplogroup (HH) E was absent in controls and frequent in cases, showing a tendency to susceptibility. The haplotypes C-C and T-T in CCL3 were associated with susceptibility (p'=0.016) and resistance (p';0.0001) to HIV-1 infection, respectively. Finally, in multilocus analysis, the haplotype combinations formed by HHC in CCR5-CCR2, T-T in CCL3 and G-C in CCL5 were associated with resistance (p'=0.006). Our results suggest that specific combinations of variants in genes from the same signaling pathway can define an HIV-1 resistant phenotype. Despite our small sample size, our statistically significant associations suggest strong effects; however, these results should be further validated in larger cohorts.

  20. Frequency of CCR5 Delta-32 Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-seropositive and HIV-exposed Seronegative Individuals and in General Population of Medellin, Colombia

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    Francisco J Díaz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV does not always result in seroconversion. Modifications in coreceptors for HIV entrance to target cells are one of the factors that block the infection. We studied the frequency of Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and eighteen individuals distributed in three different groups were analyzed for Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR: 29 HIV seropositive (SP, 39 exposed seronegative (ESN and 150 individuals as a general population sample (GPS. The frequency of the Delta-32 mutant allele was 3.8% for ESN, 2.7% for GPS and 1.7% for SP. Only one homozygous mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32 was found among the ESN (2.6%. The heterozygous genotype (ccr5/Delta-32 was found in eight GPS (5.3%, in one SP (3.4% and in one ESN (2.6%. The differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the three groups were not statistically significant. A comparison between the expected and the observed genotypic frequencies showed that these frequencies were significantly different for the ESN group, which indirectly suggests a protective effect of the mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32. Since this mutant genotype explained the resistance of infection in only one of our ESN persons, different mechanisms of protection must be playing a more important role in this population.

  1. Engineering HIV-resistant human CD4+ T cells with CXCR4-specific zinc-finger nucleases.

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    Craig B Wilen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5 virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4 in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4 remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals.

  2. Regulation of CCR7-dependent cell migration through?CCR7 homodimer formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Daichi; Endo, Masataka; Ochi, Hirotaka; Hojo, Hironobu; Miyasaka, Masayuki; Hayasaka, Haruko

    2017-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 contributes to various physiological and pathological processes including T cell maturation, T cell migration from the blood into secondary lymphoid tissues, and tumor cell metastasis to lymph nodes. Although a previous study suggested that the efficacy of CCR7 ligand-dependent T cell migration correlates with CCR7 homo- and heterodimer formation, the exact extent of contribution of the CCR7 dimerization remains unclear. Here, by inducing or disrupting CCR7 dimers,...

  3. Chemokine CCL2CCR2 Signaling Induces Neuronal Cell Death via STAT3 Activation and IL-1β Production after Status Epilepticus

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    Tian, Dai-Shi; Feng, Li-Jie; Liu, Jun-Li

    2017-01-01

    Elevated levels of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in experimental seizures. However, the functional significance and molecular mechanism underlying CCL2CCR2 signaling in epileptic brain remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the upregulated CCL2 was mainly expressed in hippocampal neurons and activated microglia from mice 1 d after kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Taking advantage of CX3CR1GFP/+:CCR2RFP/+ double-transgenic mice, we demonstrated that CCL2CCR2 signaling has a role in resident microglial activation and blood-derived monocyte infiltration. Moreover, seizure-induced degeneration of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region was attenuated in mice lacking CCL2 or CCR2. We further showed that CCR2 activation induced STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation and IL-1β production, which are critical for promoting neuronal cell death after status epilepticus. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 by WP1066 reduced seizure-induced IL-1β production and subsequent neuronal death. Two weeks after KA-induced seizures, CCR2 deficiency not only reduced neuronal loss, but also attenuated seizure-induced behavioral impairments, including anxiety, memory decline, and recurrent seizure severity. Together, we demonstrated that CCL2CCR2 signaling contributes to neurodegeneration via STAT3 activation and IL-1β production after status epilepticus, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Epilepsy is a global concern and epileptic seizures occur in many neurological conditions. Neuroinflammation associated with microglial activation and monocyte infiltration are characteristic of epileptic brains. However, molecular mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation in neuronal death following epilepsy remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that CCL2CCR2 signaling is

  4. Preclinical safety and efficacy of an anti–HIV-1 lentiviral vector containing a short hairpin RNA to CCR5 and the C46 fusion inhibitor

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    Orit Wolstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer has therapeutic potential for treating HIV-1 infection by generating cells that are resistant to the virus. We have engineered a novel self-inactivating lentiviral vector, LVsh5/C46, using two viral-entry inhibitors to block early steps of HIV-1 cycle. The LVsh5/C46 vector encodes a short hairpin RNA (shRNA for downregulation of CCR5, in combination with the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, C46. We demonstrate here the effective delivery of LVsh5/C46 to human T cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, primary CD4+ T lymphocytes, and CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC. CCR5-targeted shRNA (sh5 and C46 peptide were stably expressed in the target cells and were able to effectively protect gene-modified cells against infection with CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic strains of HIV-1. LVsh5/C46 treatment was nontoxic as assessed by cell growth and viability, was noninflammatory, and had no adverse effect on HSPC differentiation. LVsh5/C46 could be produced at a scale sufficient for clinical development and resulted in active viral particles with very low mutagenic potential and the absence of replication-competent lentivirus. Based on these in vitro results, plus additional in vivo safety and efficacy data, LVsh5/C46 is now being tested in a phase 1/2 clinical trial for the treatment of HIV-1 disease.

  5. Targeting Spare CC Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) as a Principle to Inhibit HIV-1 Entry*

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jun; Colin, Philippe; Staropoli, Isabelle; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Ferret, Cécile; Demir, Arzu; Rogée, Sophie; Hartley, Oliver; Randriamampita, Clotilde; Scott, Mark G. H.; Marullo, Stefano; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Lagane, Bernard; Brelot, Anne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; : CCR5 binds the chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 and is the major coreceptor for HIV-1 entry into target cells. Chemokines are supposed to form a natural barrier against human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, we showed that their antiviral activity is limited by CCR5 adopting low-chemokine affinity conformations at the cell surface. Here, we investigated whether a pool of CCR5 that is not stabilized by chemokines could represent a target for i...

  6. Prolonged control of replication-competent dual- tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 following cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy

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    Salgado Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART during primary HIV-1 infection occasionally results in transient control of viral replication after treatment interruption, the vast majority of patients eventually experience a rebound in plasma viremia. Results Here we report a case of a patient who was started on HAART during symptomatic primary infection and who has subsequently maintained viral loads of + T cells. In addition, he does not have any known protective HLA alleles. Thus it is unlikely that he was destined to become a natural elite controller or suppressor. The mechanism of control of viral replication is unclear; he is infected with a CCR5/CXCR4 dual-tropic virus that is fully replication-competent in vitro. In addition, his spouse, who transmitted the virus to him, developed AIDS. The patient's CD4+ T cells are fully susceptible to HIV-1 infection, and he has low titers of neutralizing antibodies to heterologous and autologous HIV-1 isolates. Furthermore, his CD8+ T cells do not have potent HIV suppressive activity. Conclusion This report suggests that some patients may be capable of controlling pathogenic HIV-1 isolates for extended periods of time after the cessation of HAART through a mechanism that is distinct from the potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL mediated suppression that has been reported in many elite suppressors.

  7. CCL2 binding is CCR2 independent in primary adult human astrocytes.

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    Fouillet, A; Mawson, J; Suliman, O; Sharrack, B; Romero, I A; Woodroofe, M N

    2012-02-09

    Chemokines are low relative molecular mass proteins, which have chemoattractant actions on many cell types. The chemokine, CCL2, has been shown to play a major role in the recruitment of monocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). Since resident astrocytes constitute a major source of chemokine synthesis including CCL2, we were interested to assess the regulation of CCL2 by astrocytes. We showed that CCL2 bound to the cell surface of astrocytes and binding was not modulated by inflammatory conditions. However, CCR2 protein was not detected nor was activation of the classical CCR2 downstream signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that non-signaling decoy chemokine receptors bind and modulate the expression of chemokines at site of inflammation. Here, we show that the D6 chemokine decoy receptor is constitutively expressed by primary human adult astrocytes at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, CCL3, which binds to D6, but not CCL19, which does not bind to D6, displaced CCL2 binding to astrocytes; indicating that CCL2 may bind to this cell type via the D6 receptor. Our results suggest that CCL2 binding to primary adult human astrocytes is CCR2-independent and is likely to be mediated via the D6 decoy chemokine receptor. Therefore we propose that astrocytes are implicated in both the establishment of chemokine gradients for the migration of leukocytes into and within the CNS and in the regulation of CCL2 levels at inflammatory sites in the CNS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential evolution of a CXCR4-using HIV-1 strain in CCR5wt/wt and CCR5∆32/∆32 hosts revealed by longitudinal deep sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Q; Taylor, Jeremy; Dong, Winnie; McCloskey, Rosemary; Woods, Conan; Danroth, Ryan; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Poon, Art F Y; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2015-12-03

    Rare individuals homozygous for a naturally-occurring 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5∆32/∆32) are resistant to infection by CCR5-using ("R5") HIV-1 strains but remain susceptible to less common CXCR4-using ("X4") strains. The evolutionary dynamics of X4 infections however, remain incompletely understood. We identified two individuals, one CCR5wt/wt and one CCR5∆32/∆32, within the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study who were infected with a genetically similar X4 HIV-1 strain. While early-stage plasma viral loads were comparable in the two individuals (~4.5-5 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml), CD4 counts in the CCR5wt/wt individual reached a nadir of 250 cells/mm(3) in the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual. Ancestral phylogenetic reconstructions using longitudinal envelope-V3 deep sequences suggested that both individuals were infected by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) X4 virus that differed at only one V3 site (codon 24). While substantial within-host HIV-1 V3 diversification was observed in plasma and PBMC in both individuals, the CCR5wt/wt individual's HIV-1 population gradually reverted from 100% X4 to ~60% R5 over ~4 years whereas the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual's remained consistently X4. Our observations illuminate early dynamics of X4 HIV-1 infections and underscore the influence of CCR5 genotype on HIV-1 V3 evolution.

  9. Influence of CCR7 ligand DNA preexposure on the magnitude and duration of immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yunsang; Seong, Kug Eo; Rouse, Richard J.D.; Rouse, Barry T.

    2003-01-01

    The CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 7 ligands CCL21 and CCL19 were recently described as essential elements for establishing the microenvironment needed to initiate optimal immune responses in secondary lymphoid tissues. In the present study we have kinetically investigated the primary responses of naive DO11.10 TCR-transgenic CD4+ T cells (OVA323-339 peptide specific) adoptively transferred into normal BALB/c mice given plasmid DNA encoding CCR7 ligands. The primary responses of CD4+ Tg-T cells in CCR7 ligand DNA recipients occurred more promptly, reaching levels higher than those observed in vector controls. In line with enhanced specific immunity, the T-cell population in CCR7 ligand recipients underwent more in vivo cell division following Ag stimulation, and a higher percentage of Ag-specific T cells expressed an activation phenotype. Moreover, the enhanced primary responses of naive CD4+ T cells appeared to act via affects on migration and maturation of CD11c+ dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes. In addition following mucosal challenge of herpes simplex virus-immune mice with virus, those that had received CCL21 or CCL19 during priming contained a higher frequency of responding CD4 T cells in lymph nodes and the site of infection. Moreover, CCL21- and CCL19-treated mice showed less severe disease and better survival following challenge. Our results are discussed in terms of the relevance of CCR7 ligand preimmunization to improve vaccine

  10. CCR5 Targeted Cell Therapy for HIV and Prevention of Viral Escape

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    Gero Hütter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic transplantation with CCR5-delta 32 (CCR5-d32 homozygous stem cells in an HIV infected individual in 2008, led to a sustained virus control and probably eradication of HIV. Since then there has been a high degree of interest to translate this approach to a wider population. There are two cellular ways to do this. The first one is to use a CCR5 negative cell source e.g., hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to copy the initial finding. However, a recent case of a second allogeneic transplantation with CCR5-d32 homozygous stem cells suffered from viral escape of CXCR4 quasi-species. The second way is to knock down CCR5 expression by gene therapy. Currently, there are five promising techniques, three of which are presently being tested clinically. These techniques include zinc finger nucleases (ZFN, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9, transcription activator-like effectors nuclease (TALEN, short hairpin RNA (shRNA, and a ribozyme. While there are multiple gene therapy strategies being tested, in this review we reflect on our current knowledge of inhibition of CCR5 specifically and whether this approach allows for consequent viral escape.

  11. Aspergillus antigen induces robust Th2 cytokine production, inflammation, airway hyperreactivity and fibrosis in the absence of MCP-1 or CCR2

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    Charo Israel F

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is characterized by type 2 T-helper cell (Th2 inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, and airway fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2 and its receptor, CCR2, have been shown to play important roles in the development of Th2 inflammation. CCR2-deficient mice have been found to have altered inflammatory and physiologic responses in some models of experimental allergic asthma, but the role of CCR2 in contributing to inflammation and airway hyperreactivity appears to vary considerably between models. Furthermore, MCP-1-deficient mice have not previously been studied in models of experimental allergic asthma. Methods To test whether MCP-1 and CCR2 are each required for the development of experimental allergic asthma, we applied an Aspergillus antigen-induced model of Th2 cytokine-driven allergic asthma associated with airway fibrosis to mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2. Previous studies with live Aspergillus conidia instilled into the lung revealed that MCP-1 and CCR2 play a role in anti-fungal responses; in contrast, we used a non-viable Aspergillus antigen preparation known to induce a robust eosinophilic inflammatory response. Results We found that wild-type C57BL/6 mice developed eosinophilic airway inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, elevations in serum IgE, and airway fibrosis in response to airway challenge with Aspergillus antigen. Surprisingly, mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2 had responses to Aspergillus antigen similar to those seen in wild-type mice, including production of Th2 cytokines. Conclusion We conclude that robust Th2-mediated lung pathology can occur even in the complete absence of MCP-1 or CCR2.

  12. Silencing CCR2 in Macrophages Alleviates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and the Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Dietary Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkil; Chung, Kunho; Choi, Changseon; Beloor, Jagadish; Ullah, Irfan; Kim, Nahyeon; Lee, Kuen Yong; Lee, Sang-Kyung; Kumar, Priti

    2016-01-26

    Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM)-mediated inflammation is a key feature contributing to the adverse metabolic outcomes of dietary obesity. Recruitment of macrophages to obese adipose tissues (AT) can occur through the engagement of CCR2, the receptor for MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), which is expressed on peripheral monocytes/macrophages. Here, we show that i.p. administration of a rabies virus glycoprotein-derived acetylcholine receptor-binding peptide effectively delivers complexed siRNA into peritoneal macrophages and ATMs in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Treatment with siRNA against CCR2 inhibited macrophage infiltration and accumulation in AT and, therefore, proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages. Consequently, the treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity profiles, and also alleviated the associated symptoms of hepatic steatosis and reduced hepatic triglyceride production. These results demonstrate that disruption of macrophage chemotaxis to the AT through cell-targeted gene knockdown strategies can provide a therapeutic intervention for obesity-related metabolic diseases. The study also highlights a siRNA delivery approach for targeting specific monocyte subsets that contribute to obesity-associated inflammation without affecting the function of other tissue-resident macrophages that are essential for host homeostasis and survival.

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) genes in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jieqin; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Lihua; Zhan, Qiuwen; Wu, Peijin; Du, Junli; Yang, Xiaocui; Liu, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is the first enzyme in the monolignol-specific branch of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. In this research, three sorghum CCR genes including SbCCR1, SbCCR2-1 and SbCCR2-2 were cloned and characterized. Analyses of the structure and phylogeny of the three CCR genes showed evolutionary conservation of the functional domains and divergence of function. Transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves demonstrated that the three CCR proteins were localized in the cytoplasm. The expression analysis showed that the three CCR genes were induced by drought. But in 48 h, the expression levels of SbCCR1 and SbCCR2-2 did not differ between CK and the drought treatment; while the expression level of SbCCR2-1 in the drought treatment was higher than in CK. The expression of the SbCCR1 and SbCCR2-1 genes was not induced by sorghum aphid [Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner)] attack, but SbCCR2-2 was significantly induced by sorghum aphid attack. It is suggested that SbCCR2-2 is involved in the process of pest defense. Absolute quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the three CCR genes were mainly expressed in lignin deposition organs. The gene copy number of SbCCR1 was significantly higher than those of SbCCR2-1 and SbCCR2-2 in the tested tissues, especially in stem. The results provide new insight into the functions of the three CCR genes in sorghum.

  14. Extracellular Disulfide Bridges Serve Different Purposes in Two Homologous Chemokine Receptors, CCR1 and CCR5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummel, Pia Cwarzko; Thiele, Stefanie; Hansen, Laerke Smidt

    2013-01-01

    interact with residues in the main binding crevice, we show that the 7TM-conserved bridge is essential for all types of ligand-mediated activation, whereas the chemokine-conserved bridge is dispensable for small-molecule activation in CCR1. However, in striking contrast to previous studies in other...... chemokine receptors, high affinity CCL3 chemokine binding was maintained in the absence of either bridge. In CCR5, the closest homolog to CCR1, a completely different dependency was observed as neither chemokine activation nor binding was retained in the absence of either bridge. In contrast, both bridges...... where dispensable for small-molecule activation. This indicates that CCR5 activity is independent of extracellular regions, whereas in CCR1, preserved folding of ECL2 is necessary for activation. These results indicate that conserved structural features in a receptor subgroup, does not necessarily...

  15. Selective chemokine receptor usage by central nervous system myeloid cells in CCR2-red fluorescent protein knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Saederup

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte subpopulations distinguished by differential expression of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 are difficult to track in vivo, partly due to lack of CCR2 reagents.We created CCR2-red fluorescent protein (RFP knock-in mice and crossed them with CX3CR1-GFP mice to investigate monocyte subset trafficking. In mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, CCR2 was critical for efficient intrathecal accumulation and localization of Ly6C(hi/CCR2(hi monocytes. Surprisingly, neutrophils, not Ly6C(lo monocytes, largely replaced Ly6C(hi cells in the central nervous system of these mice. CCR2-RFP expression allowed the first unequivocal distinction between infiltrating monocytes/macrophages from resident microglia.These results refine the concept of monocyte subsets, provide mechanistic insight about monocyte entry into the central nervous system, and present a novel model for imaging and quantifying inflammatory myeloid populations.

  16. A highly selective CCR2 chemokine agonist encoded by human herpesvirus 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttichau, Hans R; Clark-Lewis, Ian; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2003-01-01

    The chemokine-like, secreted protein product of the U83 gene from human herpesvirus 6, here named vCCL4, was chemically synthesized to be characterized in a complete library of the 18 known human chemokine receptors expressed individually in stably transfected cell lines. vCCL4 was found to cause...... being equally or more efficacious in causing cell migration than CCL2 and CCL7 and considerably more efficacious than CCL8 and CCL13. It is concluded that human herpesvirus 6 encodes a highly selective and efficacious CCR2 agonist, which will attract CCR2 expressing cells, for example macrophages...

  17. Antigen-driven C–C Chemokine-mediated HIV-1 Suppression by CD4+ T Cells from Exposed Uninfected Individuals Expressing the Wild-type CCR-5 Allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furci, Lucinda; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Burastero, Samuele; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Colognesi, Claudia; Quillent, Caroline; Longhi, Renato; Loverro, Patrizia; Borgonovo, Barbara; Gaffi, Davide; Carrow, Emily; Malnati, Mauro; Lusso, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio G.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Beretta, Alberto

    1997-01-01

    Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1, certain individuals remain persistently uninfected. Such exposed uninfected (EU) people show evidence of HIV-1–specific T cell immunity and, in rare cases, selective resistance to infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. The latter has been associated with a 32–base pair deletion in the C–C chemokine receptor gene CCR-5, the major coreceptor of macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. We have undertaken an analysis of the HIV-specific T cell responses in 12 EU individuals who were either homozygous for the wild-type CCR-5 allele or heterozygous for the deletion allele (CCR-5Δ32). We have found evidence of an oligoclonal T cell response mediated by helper T cells specific for a conserved region of the HIV-1 envelope. These cells produce very high levels of C–C chemokines when stimulated by the specific antigen and suppress selectively the replication of macrophage-tropic, but not T cell–tropic, strains of HIV-1. These chemokine-producing helper cells may be part of a protective immune response that could be potentially exploited for vaccine development. PMID:9236198

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulates CCR7 expression via AKT-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Sp1 in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Wei; Pan, Mei-Ren; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2013-02-01

    Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently found in human cancers and is significantly associated with tumor metastasis. Our previous results demonstrate that COX-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate the expression of CCR7 chemokine receptor via EP2/EP4 receptors to promote lymphatic invasion in breast cancer cells. In this study, we address the underlying mechanism of COX-2/PGE2-induced CCR7 expression. We find that COX-2/PGE2 increase CCR7 expression via the AKT signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. Promoter deletion and mutation assays identify the Sp1 site located at the -60/-57 region of CCR7 gene promoter is critical for stimulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirms that in vivo binding of Sp1 to human CCR7 promoter is increased by COX-2 and PGE2. Knockdown of Sp1 by shRNA reduces the induction of CCR7 by PGE2. We demonstrate for the first time that AKT may directly phosphorylate Sp1 at S42, T679, and S698. Phosphorylation-mimic Sp1 protein harboring S42D, T679D, and S698D mutation strongly activates CCR7 expression. In contrast, change of these three residues to alanine completely blocks the induction of CCR7 by PGE2. Pathological investigation demonstrates that CCR7 expression is strongly associated with phospho-AKT and Sp1 in 120 breast cancer tissues. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COX-2 up-regulates CCR7 expression via AKT-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Sp1 and this pathway is highly activated in metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. HIV-1 resistance conferred by siRNA cosuppression of CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors by a bispecific lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs has proved to be a highly effective gene silencing mechanism with great potential for HIV/AIDS gene therapy. Previous work with siRNAs against cellular coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 had shown that down regulation of these surface molecules could prevent HIV-1 entry and confer viral resistance. Since monospecific siRNAs targeting individual coreceptors are inadequate in protecting against both T cell tropic (X4 and monocyte tropic (R5 viral strains simultaneously, bispecific constructs with dual specificity are required. For effective long range therapy, the bispecific constructs need to be stably transduced into HIV-1 target cells via integrating viral vectors. Results To achieve this goal, lentiviral vectors incorporating both CXCR4 and CCR5 siRNAs of short hairpin design were constructed. The CXCR4 siRNA was driven by a U6 promoter whereas the CCR5 siRNA was driven by an H1 promoter. A CMV promoter driven EGFP reporter gene is also incorporated in the bispecific construct. High efficiency transduction into coreceptor expressing Magi and Ghost cell lines with a concomitant down regulation of respective coreceptors was achieved with lentiviral vectors. When the siRNA expressing transduced cells were challenged with X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1, they demonstrated marked viral resistance. HIV-1 resistance was also observed in bispecific lentiviral vector transduced primary PBMCs. Conclusions Both CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors could be simultaneously targeted for down regulation by a single combinatorial lentiviral vector incorporating respective anti-coreceptor siRNAs. Stable down regulation of both the coreceptors protects cells against infection by both X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1. Stable down regulation of cellular molecules that aid in HIV-1 infection will be an effective strategy for long range HIV gene therapy.

  20. POTENTIAL EXPANSION OF TROPICAL VIRUSES IN SERBIA AND EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Deljanin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current, hot topic is the risk of introducing new vector-borne diseases and harmful ectoparasites into Europe, or of the geographic extension of the existing ones. There are many doubts that global warming affects the transfer of a number of vectorborne diseases. Special emphasis was placed on spreading the Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile fever and leishmaniasis, the recurrence of malaria and dengue fever. Climate models predict a 2-5ºC temperature increase and a significant increase in rainfall in Europe in the following years. However, non-environmental variables such as socio-economic situation and agriculture should be considered. The main problem can be expected when new viruses emerge. As they change, their mutations can enter into the population and thus have “the greater potential” for the spread of the epidemic. The control network of the health system in our country and in Europe is very dense, and the outbreak of the virus can be always registered, giving the authorities enough time to take measures. Although modeling studies indicate that climate change could increase the risk of transmission of vector-transmitted diseases in Serbia and Europe, historical analyses indicate that, at least for malaria, socio-economic conditions in combination with effective surveillance and early treatment are likely to prevent further spread, which is the main task of the Public Health Institutes. Tropical medicine experts said that the so-called supervirus causes mutations of the virus, and represents the greatest danger for human population. The circumstances that allow such a development already exist, an additional climate change is not necessary. The challenge for future research is the mechanism of tropical viruses and their persistence in endemic foci in temperate climate area in Europe.

  1. Correlating HIV tropism with immunological response under combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J; Schöni-Affolter, F; Böni, J; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, M; Martinetti, G; Battegay, M; Klimkait, T

    2016-09-01

    A significant percentage of patients infected with HIV-1 experience only suboptimal CD4 cell recovery while treated with combination therapy (cART). It is still unclear whether viral properties such as cell tropism play a major role in this incomplete immune response. This study therefore intended to follow the tropism evolution of the HIV-1 envelope during periods of suppressive cART. Viruses from two distinct patient groups, one with good and another one with poor CD4 recovery after 5 years of suppressive cART, were genotypically analysed for viral tropism at baseline and at the end of the study period. Patients with CCR5-tropic CC-motif chemokine receptor 5 viruses at baseline tended to maintain this tropism to the study end. Patients who had a CXCR4-tropic CXC-motif chemokine receptor 4 virus at baseline were overrepresented in the poor CD4 recovery group. Overall, however, the majority of patients presented with CCR5-tropic viruses at follow-up. Our data lend support to the hypothesis that tropism determination can be used as a parameter for disease progression even if analysed long before the establishment of a poorer immune response. Moreover, the lasting predominating CCR5-tropism during periods of full viral control suggests the involvement of cellular mechanisms that preferentially reduce CXCR4-tropic viruses during cART. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  2. Exploring a model of human chemokine receptor CCR2 in presence of TAK779: A membrane based molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balupuri, Anand; Sobhia, M. Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and a crucial target for various inflammation-driven diseases. In the present study, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed on a CCR2 homology model. This work includes the comparative MD simulations of uncomplexed and ‘antagonist-complexed’ CCR2 models. These simulations yield insights into the binding mechanism of antagonist TAK779 and improve the understanding of various structural changes induced by the ligand in the CCR2 protein. Here, one 20 ns MD simulation was carried out on the uncomplexed CCR2 model in lipid bilayer to explore the effects of lipid membrane on the protein. Another 20 ns MD simulation was performed under the similar conditions on the docked CCR2-TAK779 complex. An alteration in the position and orientation of the ligand in binding site was observed after the simulation. Examination of protein-ligand complex suggested that TAK779 produced a greater structural change on the TM-III, TM-IV, TM-V and TM-VI than TM-I, TM-II and TM-VII. Interaction networks involving the conserved residues of uncomplexed and ‘antagonist-complexed’ CCR2 models were also examined. The major difference was observed to be the role of conserved residues of the DRY motif of TM-III and the NPxxY motif of TM-VII of CCR2.

  3. Lymphotropic Virions Affect Chemokine Receptor-Mediated Neural Signaling and Apoptosis: Implications for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Associated Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jialin; Ghorpade, Anuja; Niemann, Douglas; Cotter, Robin L.; Thylin, Michael R.; Epstein, Leon; Swartz, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Robin B.; Liu, Xiaojuan; Nukuna, Adeline; Gendelman, Howard E.

    1999-01-01

    Chemokine receptors pivotal for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in lymphocytes and macrophages (CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4) are expressed on neural cells (microglia, astrocytes, and/or neurons). It is these cells which are damaged during progressive HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system. We theorize that viral coreceptors could effect neural cell damage during HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) without simultaneously affecting viral replication. To these ends, we studied the ability of diverse viral strains to affect intracellular signaling and apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Inhibition of cyclic AMP, activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and apoptosis were induced by diverse HIV-1 strains, principally in neurons. Virions from T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains (MN, IIIB, and Lai) produced the most significant alterations in signaling of neurons and astrocytes. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, induced markedly less neural damage than purified virions. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) strains (ADA, JR-FL, Bal, MS-CSF, and DJV) produced the least neural damage, while 89.6, a dual-tropic HIV-1 strain, elicited intermediate neural cell damage. All T-tropic strain-mediated neuronal impairments were blocked by the CXCR4 antibody, 12G5. In contrast, the M-tropic strains were only partially blocked by 12G5. CXCR4-mediated neuronal apoptosis was confirmed in pure populations of rat cerebellar granule neurons and was blocked by HA1004, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C. Taken together, these results suggest that progeny HIV-1 virions can influence neuronal signal transduction and apoptosis. This process occurs, in part, through CXCR4 and is independent of CD4 binding. T-tropic viruses that traffic in and out of the brain during progressive HIV-1 disease may play an important role in HAD neuropathogenesis. PMID:10482576

  4. CCR+: Metadata Based Extended Personal Health Record Data Model Interoperable with the ASTM CCR Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Jang, Tae Hun; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Ju Han

    2014-01-01

    Extension of the standard model while retaining compliance with it is a challenging issue because there is currently no method for semantically or syntactically verifying an extended data model. A metadata-based extended model, named CCR+, was designed and implemented to achieve interoperability between standard and extended models. Furthermore, a multilayered validation method was devised to validate the standard and extended models. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Community Care Record (CCR) standard was selected to evaluate the CCR+ model; two CCR and one CCR+ XML files were evaluated. In total, 188 metadata were extracted from the ASTM CCR standard; these metadata are semantically interconnected and registered in the metadata registry. An extended-data-model-specific validation file was generated from these metadata. This file can be used in a smartphone application (Health Avatar CCR+) as a part of a multilayered validation. The new CCR+ model was successfully evaluated via a patient-centric exchange scenario involving multiple hospitals, with the results supporting both syntactic and semantic interoperability between the standard CCR and extended, CCR+, model. A feasible method for delivering an extended model that complies with the standard model is presented herein. There is a great need to extend static standard models such as the ASTM CCR in various domains: the methods presented here represent an important reference for achieving interoperability between standard and extended models.

  5. The frequency of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 32 mutation in Iranian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare-Bidaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence showed that chemokines serve as pro-migratory factors for immune cells. CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, as the main CC  chemokines subfamily members, activate immune cells through binding to CC chemokine receptor 5 or CCR5. Macrophages, NK cells and T lymphocytes express CCR5 and thus, affected CCR5 expression or functions could be associated with altered immune responses. Deletion of 32 base pairs (D 32 in the exon 1 of the CCR5 gene, which is known as CCR5 D 32 mutation causes down regulation and malfunction of the molecule. Furthermore, it has been evidenced that three polymorphisms in the promoter region of CCR5 modulate its expression. Altered CCR5 expression in microbial infection and immune related diseases have been reported by several researchers but the role of CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 D 32 mutation in Iranian patients suffering from these diseases are controversial. Due to the fact that Iranian people have different genetic backgrounds compared to other ethnics, hence, CCR5 promoter polymorphisms and CCR5 D 32 mutation association with the diseases may be different in Iranian patients. Therefore, this review addresses the most recent information regarding the prevalence as well as association of the mutation and polymorphisms in Iranian patients with microbial infection and immune related diseases as along with normal population.

  6. Silencing CCR2 in Macrophages Alleviates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and the Associated Metabolic Syndrome in Dietary Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkil Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM-mediated inflammation is a key feature contributing to the adverse metabolic outcomes of dietary obesity. Recruitment of macrophages to obese adipose tissues (AT can occur through the engagement of CCR2, the receptor for MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which is expressed on peripheral monocytes/macrophages. Here, we show that i.p. administration of a rabies virus glycoprotein-derived acetylcholine receptor-binding peptide effectively delivers complexed siRNA into peritoneal macrophages and ATMs in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Treatment with siRNA against CCR2 inhibited macrophage infiltration and accumulation in AT and, therefore, proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages. Consequently, the treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity profiles, and also alleviated the associated symptoms of hepatic steatosis and reduced hepatic triglyceride production. These results demonstrate that disruption of macrophage chemotaxis to the AT through cell-targeted gene knockdown strategies can provide a therapeutic intervention for obesity-related metabolic diseases. The study also highlights a siRNA delivery approach for targeting specific monocyte subsets that contribute to obesity-associated inflammation without affecting the function of other tissue-resident macrophages that are essential for host homeostasis and survival.

  7. HIV-1 entry inhibition by small-molecule CCR5 antagonists: A combined molecular modeling and mutant study using a high-throughput assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrecque, Jean; Metz, Markus; Lau, Gloria; Darkes, Marilyn C.; Wong, Rebecca S.Y.; Bogucki, David; Carpenter, Bryon; Chen Gang; Li Tongshuang; Nan, Susan; Schols, Dominique; Bridger, Gary J.; Fricker, Simon P.; Skerlj, Renato T.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the attrition rate of CCR5 small molecule antagonists in the clinic the discovery and development of next generation antagonists with an improved pharmacology and safety profile is necessary. Herein, we describe a combined molecular modeling, CCR5-mediated cell fusion, and receptor site-directed mutagenesis approach to study the molecular interactions of six structurally diverse compounds (aplaviroc, maraviroc, vicriviroc, TAK-779, SCH-C and a benzyloxycarbonyl-aminopiperidin-1-yl-butane derivative) with CCR5, a coreceptor for CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains. This is the first study using an antifusogenic assay, a model of the interaction of the gp120 envelope protein with CCR5. This assay avoids the use of radioactivity and HIV infection assays, and can be used in a high throughput mode. The assay was validated by comparison with other established CCR5 assays. Given the hydrophobic nature of the binding pocket several binding models are suggested which could prove useful in the rational drug design of new lead compounds.

  8. The positive correlation of the CCL2-CCR2 axis with the disease activity may indicate the fundamental role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jingfang; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Qi; Yang, Linglan; Cheng, Bin; Tao, Xiaoan

    2016-01-01

    The important roles of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 had been reported in a series of inflammatory disorders. However, few studies investigated the potential role of CCL2/CCR2 axis in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore, this study aimed to detect the expression of CCL2 and CCR2 in OLP lesions and compare their changes before and after treatment. CCL2 and CCR2 expression was investigated using immunohistochemical staining and real-time RT-PCR in 32 patients with OLP and eight controls. Moreover, changes in their expression after treatment with triamcinolone acetonide were assessed in lesions from three patients. CCL2+ and CCR2+ cells were few in the controls and remarkably increased in the epithelial and subepithelial layers of lesions (n = 32, all P < 0.001). However, the densities of CCL2+ and CCR2+ cells were not significantly different between reticular (n = 12) and erythematous/erosive lesions (n = 20), although they significantly decreased after treatment (627.7 ± 108.2 vs. 258.3 ± 148.3, P = 0.017; 1034.7 ± 74.6 vs. 648 ± 77.6, P = 0.003, respectively). CCL2+/CCR2+ cell numbers were positively correlated with disease activity (correlation coefficient, 0.588; P < 0.001; correlation coefficient, 0.409; P = 0.02, respectively). The results of this study indicated that the CCL2-CCR2 axis was involved in the pathogenesis of OLP and was positively correlated with disease activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CCR-2 neutralization augments murine fresh BMC activation by Staphylococcus aureus via two distinct mechanisms: at the level of ROS production and cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2017-05-01

    CCR-2 signaling regulates recruitment of monocytes from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then to sites of infection. We sought to determine whether CCL-2/CCR-2 signaling is involved in the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by murine bone marrow cells (BMCs). The intermittent link of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-NF-κB/p38-MAPK-mediated CCL-2 production in CCR-2 signaling prompted us to determine whether neutralization of CCR-2 augments the response of murine fresh BMCs (FBMCs) after S. aureus infection. It was observed that anti-CCR-2 Ab-treated FBMCs released fewer ROS on encountering S. aureus infection than CCR-2 non-neutralized FBMCs, also correlating with reduced killing of S. aureus in CCR-2 neutralized FBMCs. Staphylococcal catalase and SOD were also found to play a role in protecting S. aureus from the ROS-mediated killing of FBMC. S. aureus infection of CCR-2 intact FBMCs pre-treated with either NF-κB or p-38-MAPK blocker induced less CCL-2, suggesting that NF-κB or p-38-MAPK is required for CCL-2 production by FBMCs. Moreover, blocking of CCR-2 along with NF-κB or p-38-MAPK resulted in elevated CCL-2 production and reduced CCR-2 expression. Inhibition of CCR-2 impairs the response of murine BMCs to S. aureus infection by attenuation ROS production and modulating the cytokine response.

  10. TRPV1 and the MCP-1/CCR2 Axis Modulate Post-UTI Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, John M; Yaggie, Ryan E; Woida, Patrick J; Miller, Richard J; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Klumpp, David J

    2018-05-08

    The etiology of chronic pelvic pain syndromes remains unknown. In a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model, lipopolysaccharide of uropathogenic E. coli and its receptor TLR4 are required for post-UTI chronic pain development. However, downstream mechanisms of post-UTI chronic pelvic pain remain unclear. Because the TRPV1 and MCP-1/CCR2 pathways are implicated in chronic neuropathic pain, we explored their role in post-UTI chronic pain. Mice were infected with the E. coli strain SΦ874, known to produce chronic allodynia, and treated with the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Mice treated with capsazepine at the time of SΦ874 infection failed to develop chronic allodynia, whereas capsazepine treatment of mice at two weeks following SΦ874 infection did not reduce chronic allodynia. TRPV1-deficient mice did not develop chronic allodynia either. Similar results were found using novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) to assess depressive behavior associated with neuropathic pain. Imaging of reporter mice also revealed induction of MCP-1 and CCR2 expression in sacral dorsal root ganglia following SΦ874 infection. Treatment with a CCR2 receptor antagonist at two weeks post-infection reduced chronic allodynia. Taken together, these results suggest that TRPV1 has a role in the establishment of post-UTI chronic pain, and CCR2 has a role in maintenance of post-UTI chronic pain.

  11. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 and CCL2/CCR2 Chemokine/Chemokine Receptor Complex in Patients with AMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Mads Krüger; Singh, Amardeep; Faber, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The chemokine receptors CX3CR1 and CCR2 have been implicated in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The evidence is mainly derived from experimental cell studies and murine models of AMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between expression...... of CX3CR1 and CCR2 on different leukocyte subsets and AMD. Furthermore we measured the plasma levels of ligands CX3CL1 and CCL2. METHODS: Patients attending our department were asked to participate in the study. The diagnosis of AMD was based on clinical examination and multimodal imaging techniques...... positive correlation between CCR2 and CX3CR1 expression on CD8+ cells (r = 0.727, p = 0.0001). We found no difference in plasma levels of CX3CL1 and CCL2 among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a down regulation of CX3CR1 on CD8+ cells; this correlated to a low expression of CCR2 on CD8+ cells...

  12. Parainfluenza virus infections in a tropical city: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mota Moura Fé

    Full Text Available Little information on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV infections, especially in children from tropical countries, has been published. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of HPIV infections in children attended at a large hospital in Fortaleza in Northeast Brazil, and describe seasonal patterns, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these infections. From January 2001 to December 2006, a total of 3070 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children were screened by indirect immunofluorescence for human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3 (HPIV-1, 2 and 3 and other respiratory viruses. Viral antigens were identified in 933 samples and HPIV in 117. The frequency of HPIV-3, HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 was of 83.76%, 11.96% and 4.27%, respectively. Only HPIV-3 showed a seasonal occurrence, with most cases observed from September to November, and with an inverse relationship to the rainy season. Most HPIV-3 infections seen in outpatients were diagnosed as upper respiratory tract infections.

  13. Upregulation of the Chemokine Receptor CCR7 expression by HIF-1αand HIF-2α in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective CCR7 is closely related with the lymph node metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. The objective of this work is to investigate the expressions of chemokine receptor CCR7, hypoxiainducible factor 1α (HIF-1α and hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α protein in non small cell lung cancer and the relationships of their expression, and to study the mechanism of CCR7 upregulation in NSCLC. Methods T he levels of expressions of CCR7, HIF-1α and HIF-2α protein were detected in 94 specimens of human primary non small cell lung cancer by immunohistochemical S-P method. Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells were transfected by lipofection with HIF-1α siRNA、HIF-2α siRNA, the change of CCR7 was observed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Correlations between the expression of CCR7 and HIF-1α, HIF-2α were respectively analyzed. Results Immunohistochemistry showed that CCR7 was distributed in cytoplasm and/or membrane of tumor cells, HIF-1α, HIF-2α was distributed in nucleus and/or cytoplasm of tumor cells. The levels of expressions of CCR7, HIF-1α and HIF-2α protein were found to be 75.53% (71/94, 54.25% (51/ 94 and 70.21% (66/94 in non small celllung cancer, respectively. the levels of expression of CCR7 protein were closely related to the clinical stages (P 0.05. Furthermore, A significant correlation were found among CCR7, Hif-1α and HIF-2α (r =0.272, P <0.01 (r=0.225, P <0.05. In addition, the expression of CCR7 mRNA and protein levels were decreased in the transfected specificHIF-1α, HIF-2αsiRNA group (P <0.05. Conclusion CCR7 expression is significantly associated with non small cell lung cancer invasion and metastasis. The upregulation of CCR7 is regulated by HIF-1α and HIF-2α in non small cell lung cancer.

  14. Relationship between white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads and characterizations of water quality in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds during the tropical storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J S; Li, Z J; Wen, G L; Wang, Y L; Luo, L; Zhang, H J; Dong, H B

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of tropical storm on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads in Litopenaeus vannamei rearing ponds. White spot syndrome virus loads, heterotrophic bacteria, Vibrio and water quality (including temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, NH 4 -N, and NO 2 -N) were continually monitored through one tropical storm. The WSSV loads decreased when tropical storm made landfall, and substantially increased when typhoon passed. The variation of WSSV loads was correlated with DO, temperature, heterotrophic bacteria count, and ammonia-N concentrations. These results suggested that maintaining high level DO and promoting heterotrophic bacteria growth in the shrimp ponds might prevent the diseases' outbreak after the landfall of tropical storm.

  15. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  16. Flexible use of CCR5 in the absence of CXCR4 use explains the immune deficiency in HIV-1 infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Karlsson, Ingrid; Ripamonti, Chiara; Plebani, Anna; Fenyo, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2010-10-23

    CCR5-using HIV-1 (R5 viruses) are usually isolated during acute infection from both adults and children. We have recently demonstrated that R5 viruses with a flexible use of CCR5 (called R5broad) can be detected in children close to birth and are predictive of a fast immunological failure. The aim of the present work was to investigate viral phenotype variation during disease progression in HIV-1 infected children, six slow and eight fast progressors. A total of 74 viral isolates obtained sequentially from 14 HIV-1 infected children were tested for their ability to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing a set of six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors or wild-type coreceptors. The sensitivity of 35 R5 viruses to inhibition with the CC-chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) was evaluated in a peripheral blood mononuclear cells based assay. Viral evolution to R5broad or to R5X4 phenotype occurred with one exception, in all children, although at a different time point according to rate of disease progression. Immune deficiency in the children was significantly associated with the appearance of R5broad phenotype or R5X4 viruses. Analysis of the sensitivity to inhibition by RANTES revealed a significant correlation between the R5broad phenotype and an augmented resistance to this CC-chemokine. We demonstrate that the viral evolution to a more flexible CCR5-use is sufficient to explain the immunological failure in the absence of CXCR4 usage. These results warrant detailed analysis of the R5 phenotype in forthcoming clinical studies introducing CCR5 inhibitors for the treatment of pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  17. Allosteric and orthosteric sites in CC chemokine receptor (CCR5), a chimeric receptor approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Stefanie; Steen, Anne; Jensen, Pia C

    2011-01-01

    -allosteric molecules. A chimera was successfully constructed between CCR5 and the closely related CCR2 by transferring all extracellular regions of CCR2 to CCR5, i.e. a Trojan horse that resembles CCR2 extracellularly but signals through a CCR5 transmembrane unit. The chimera bound CCR2 (CCL2 and CCL7), but not CCR5...... preserved, the allosteric enhancement of chemokine binding was disrupted. In summary, the Trojan horse chimera revealed that orthosteric and allosteric sites could be structurally separated and still act together with transmission of agonism and antagonism across the different receptor units....

  18. Impact of MCP-1 and CCR-2 gene polymorphisms on coronary artery disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Ling; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chiang, Whei-Ling; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chu, Shu-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the second leading cause of death during the last 3 years in Taiwan. Smooth muscle cells, monocytes/macrophages, and endothelial cells produce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) within atherosclerotic plaques following binding to the chemokine receptor-2 (CCR-2). Previous studies have well-documented the association between MCP-1 expression and susceptibility to, or clinicopathological features, of CAD. This study investigated the relationships between MCP-1-2518A/G and CCR-2-V64I genetic polymorphisms and CAD in the Taiwanese population. A total of 608 subjects, including 392 non-CAD controls and 216 patients with CAD, were recruited and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to evaluate the effects of these two polymorphic variants on CAD. Results indicated a significant association between MCP-1 -2548 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to CAD. GG genotypes (OR = 1.629; 95 % CI = 1.003-2.644), or individuals with at least one G allele (OR = 1.511; 95 % CI = 1.006-2.270), had a higher risk of CAD as compared with AA genotypes. Results also revealed that subjects with at least one A allele of the V64I CCR2 gene polymorphism had significantly increased risk of CAD. G allele in MCP-1-2518 might contribute to higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation in CAD patients (OR = 4.254; p CCR-2 64I gene polymorphisms represent important factors in determining susceptibility to CAD, and the contribution of MCP-1-2518G could be through effects on atrial fibrillation in CAD patients.

  19. CCR3 expression induced by IL-2 and IL-4 functioning as a death receptor for B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, Tan; Jacobi, Henrik H; Jing, Chen

    2003-01-01

    We report that CCR3 is not expressed on freshly isolated peripheral and germinal B cells, but is up-regulated after stimulation with IL-2 and IL-4 (approximately 98% CCR3(+)). Ligation of CCR3 by eotaxin/chemokine ligand (CCL) 11 induces apoptosis in IL-2- and IL-4-stimulated primary CD19......-4, and eotaxin/CCL11 (88% CD95 and 84% CD95L). We therefore propose that ligation of such newly induced CCR3 on peripheral and germinal B cells by eotaxin/CCL11 leads to the enhanced levels of CD95 and CD95L expression. Ligation of CD95 by its CD95L expressed on neigboring B cells triggers relevant....... Interaction between CCR3 and eotaxin/CCL11 may, besides promoting allergic reactions, drive activated B cells to apoptosis, thereby reducing levels of Ig production, including IgE, and consequently limit the development of the humoral immune response. The apoptotic action of eotaxin/CCL11 suggests...

  20. Generation and Characterization of HIV-1 Transmitted and Founder Virus Consensus Sequence from Intravenous Drug Users in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Ma, Liying; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ni, Na; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus. The variable region (V1, V2, and V4 loop) of IDU.CON showed length variation compared with the heterosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (HSX.CON) and homosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (MSM.CON). A total of 26 N-linked glycosylation sites were discovered in the IDU.CON sequence, which is less than that of MSM.CON and HSX.CON. Characterization of T/F virus from IDUs highlights the genetic make-up and complexity of virus near the moment of transmission or in early infection preceding systemic dissemination and is important toward the development of an effective HIV-1 preventive methods, including vaccines.

  1. Monocytes infiltrate the pancreas via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway and differentiate into stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Ino

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that monocytes possess pluripotent plasticity. We previously reported that monocytes could differentiate into hepatic stellate cells. Although stellate cells are also present in the pancreas, their origin remains unclear. An accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+CD45(- cells was observed in the pancreases and livers of chimeric mice, which were transplanted with a single hematopoietic stem cell isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice and treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Because the vast majority of EGFP(+CD45(- cells in the pancreas expressed stellate cell-associated antigens such as vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, procollagen-I, and α-smooth muscle actin, they were characterized as pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs. EGFP(+ PaSCs were also observed in CCl4-treated mice adoptively transferred with monocytes but not with other cell lineages isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. The expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and angiotensin II (Ang II increased in the pancreas of CCl4-treated mice and their respective receptors, C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R, were expressed on Ly6C(high monocytes isolated from EGFP-transgenic mice. We examined the effect of an AT1R antagonist, irbesartan, which is also a CCR2 antagonist, on the migration of monocytes into the pancreas. Monocytes migrated toward MCP-1 but not Ang II in vitro. Irbesartan inhibited not only their in vitro chemotaxis but also in vivo migration of adoptively transferred monocytes from peripheral blood into the pancreas. Irbesartan treatment significantly reduced the numbers of EGFP(+F4/80(+CCR2(+ monocytic cells and EGFP(+ PaSCs in the pancreas of CCl4-treated chimeric mice receiving EGFP(+ bone marrow cells. A specific CCR2 antagonist RS504393 inhibited the occurrence of EGFP(+ PaSCs in injured mice. We propose that CCR2(+ monocytes migrate into the pancreas possibly via the

  2. Response to Vicriviroc in Treatment-Experienced Subjects Using an Enhanced Sensitivity Co-receptor Tropism Assay: Reanalysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaohui; Gulick, Roy M.; Krambrink, Amy; Coakley, Eoin; Hughes, Michael D.; Han, Dong; Flexner, Charles; Wilkin, Timothy J.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Greaves, Wayne L.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced sensitivity Trofile assay was used to re-test co-receptor usage at study screening and entry for the 118 ACTG A5211 treatment-experienced subjects who had CCR5-tropic (R5) virus by the original Trofile assay at study screening. Among 90 vicriviroc recipients, a significantly (P<0.001) greater mean reduction in HIV-1 RNA was observed in 72 subjects with R5 virus versus 15 subjects reclassified with dual/mixed-tropic viruses at screening: −1.11 vs. −0.09 (day 14), −1.91 vs. −0.57 (week 24) log10 copies/mL, respectively. Results suggest that the enhanced sensitivity assay is a better screening tool for determining patient eligibility for CCR5 antagonist therapy. PMID:19874179

  3. Gas6 Promotes Inflammatory (CCR2hiCX3CR1lo) Monocyte Recruitment in Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, Sandrine; Bertin, François-René; Ebrahimian, Talin; Kassim, Yusra; Rys, Ryan N; Lehoux, Stéphanie; Lemarié, Catherine A; Blostein, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    Coagulation and inflammation are inter-related. Gas6 (growth arrest-specific 6) promotes venous thrombosis and participates to inflammation through endothelial-innate immune cell interactions. Innate immune cells can provide the initiating stimulus for venous thrombus development. We hypothesize that Gas6 promotes monocyte recruitment during venous thrombosis. Deep venous thrombosis was induced in wild-type and Gas6-deficient (-/-) mice using 5% FeCl 3 and flow reduction in the inferior vena cava. Total monocyte depletion was achieved by injection of clodronate before deep venous thrombosis. Inflammatory monocytes were depleted using an anti-C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antibody. Similarly, injection of an anti-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) antibody induced CCL2 depletion. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to characterize the monocytes recruited to the thrombus. In vivo, absence of Gas6 was associated with a reduction of monocyte recruitment in both deep venous thrombosis models. Global monocyte depletion by clodronate leads to smaller thrombi in wild-type mice. Compared with wild type, the thrombi from Gas6 -/- mice contain less inflammatory (CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo ) monocytes, consistent with a Gas6-dependent recruitment of this monocyte subset. Correspondingly, selective depletion of CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes reduced the formation of venous thrombi in wild-type mice demonstrating a predominant role of the inflammatory monocytes in thrombosis. In vitro, the expression of both CCR2 and CCL2 were Gas6 dependent in monocytes and endothelial cells, respectively, impacting monocyte migration. Moreover, Gas6-dependent CCL2 expression and monocyte migration were mediated via JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). This study demonstrates that Gas6 specifically promotes the recruitment of inflammatory CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes through the regulation of both CCR2 and CCL2 during deep venous thrombosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. MCP-1/CCR-2-double-deficiency severely impairs the migration of hematogenous inflammatory cells following transient cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Strecker, Jan-Kolja; Minnerup, Jens; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Schilling, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor CCR-2 are known to play a major role in inflammatory responses after cerebral ischemia. Mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR-2 have been reported to develop smaller infarct sizes and show decreased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells. In the present study we used green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to investigate the effect of MCP-1/CCR-2-double deficiency on the recruitment of inflammatory cells in a model of both, mild and severe cerebral ischemia. We show that MCP-1/CCR-2-double deficiency virtually entirely abrogates the recruitment of hematogenous macrophages and significantly reduces neutrophil migration to the ischemic brain 4 and 7 days following focal cerebral ischemia. This argues for a predominant role of the MCP-1/CCR-2 axis in chemotaxis of monocytes despite a wide redundancy in the chemokine-receptor-system. Chemokine analysis revealed that even candidates known to be involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment like MIP-1α, CXCL-1, C5a, G-CSF and GM-CSF showed a reduced and delayed or even a lack of relevant compensatory response in MCP-1(-/-)/CCR-2(-/-)-mice. Solely, chemokine receptor 5 (CCR-5) increased early in both, but rose above wildtype levels at day 7 in MCP-1(-/-)/CCR-2(-/-)-animals, which might explain the higher number of activated microglial cells compared to control mice. Our study was, however, not powered to investigate infarct volumes. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these mechanisms of inflammatory cell recruitment might be essential for early infarct development and final infarct size and to evaluate potential therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of emergent HIV resistance in treatment-naive subjects enrolled in a vicriviroc phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Paul; Wei, Yi; Whitcomb, Jeannette; Greaves, Wayne; Black, Todd A; Tremblay, Cecile L; Strizki, Julie M

    2010-05-15

    Vicriviroc is a C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist that is in clinical development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This study explored the molecular basis for the development of phenotypically resistant virus. HIV-1 RNA from treatment-naive subjects who experienced virological failure in a phase 2 dose-finding trial was evaluated for coreceptor usage and susceptibility. For viruses that exhibited reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, envelope clones were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Twenty-six vicriviroc-treated subjects experienced virological failure; for 24 the virus remained CCR5-tropic, and 2 had dual/X4 virus. Reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, manifested as decreases in the maximum percent inhibition value (no increase in median inhibitory concentration), was detected in 4 of the 26 subjects who experienced virological failure. Clonal analysis of envelopes in samples from these 4 subjects revealed multiple sequence changes in gp160, principally within the variable domain 1/variable domain 2, variable domain 3, and variable domain 4 loops. However, no consistent pattern of mutations was observed across subjects. In this study, only a small proportion of treatment failures were associated with tropism changes or reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc. Genotypic analysis of cloned env sequences revealed no specific mutational pattern associated with reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, although numerous changes were observed in the variable domain 3 loop and in other regions of gp160.

  6. CCR2+ Monocyte-Derived Infiltrating Macrophages Are Required for Adverse Cardiac Remodeling During Pressure Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindiya Patel, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although chronic inflammation is a central feature of heart failure (HF, the immune cell profiles differ with different underlying causes. This suggests that for immunomodulatory therapy in HF to be successful, it needs to be tailored to the specific etiology. Here, the authors demonstrate that monocyte-derived C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2+ macrophages infiltrate the heart early during pressure overload in mice, and that blocking this response either pharmacologically or with antibody-mediated CCR2+ monocyte depletion alleviates late pathological left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction, T-cell expansion, and cardiac fibrosis. Hence, suppression of CCR2+ monocytes/macrophages may be an important immunomodulatory therapeutic target to ameliorate pressure-overload HF. Key Words: cardiac remodeling, heart failure, inflammation, macrophages, T cells

  7. A novel CCR-2/TLR-2 triggered signaling in murine peritoneal macrophages intensifies bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus) killing by reactive oxygen species through TNF-R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2017-10-01

    Macrophages are remarkably versatile in their ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of stimuli by expressing a variety of surface and intracellular receptors and triggering multiple signal transduction pathways. The onset of microbial infection is primarily determined by the initial contacts made by the microbes with the host macrophages. Although there prevail a relationship between the chemokine receptor and Toll like receptors during disease, particularly TLR-2 and CCR-2 signaling interdependence on each other has not been yet investigated during acute staphylococcal infection. Thus, the present study was aimed to trace possible interaction between CCR-2 and TLR-2 in peritoneal macrophages during acute Staphylococcus aureus infection. We found that neutralization of CCR-2 attenuates TLR-2 expression and restricts S. aureus burden but TLR-2 neutralization augments CCR-2 expression in macrophages, along with compromised host-derived reactive oxygen species production. S. aureus infection to CCR-2 intact but TLR-2 neutralized macrophages triggered production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and expression of iNOS, TNFR-1 and GPx with concomitant decrease in IL-10 production. Further, study with NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) [iNOS blocker] and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) [GPx blocker] revealed that S. aureus infection enhanced TLR-2 expression in CCR-2 intact and TLR-2 neutralized macrophages possibly via iNOS and TNFR-1 up regulation and GPx down regulation. Overall, our data indicate that targeting CCR-2 with neutralizing antibody in the early phase of S. aureus infection could restrict excessive inflammation with less compromised bacterial killing. It certainly would be a therapeutic strategy in S. aureus induced inflammatory and infective diseases. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical Case Registries (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Clinical Case Registries (CCR) replaced the former Immunology Case Registry and the Hepatitis C Case Registry with local and national databases. The CCR:HIV and...

  9. Investigation of Chemokine Receptor CCR2V64Il Gene Polymorphism and Migraine without Aura in the Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zandifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Migraine is a multifactorial common neurovascular disease with a polygenic inheritance. Inflammation plays an important part in migraine pathophysiology. C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2 is an important chemokine for monocyte aggregation and transendothelial monocyte migration. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of migraine with CCR2V64Il polymorphism in the Iranian population. Methods. We assessed 103 patients with newly diagnosed migraine and 100 healthy subjects. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood and genotypes of CCR2V64Il gene polymorphism were determined. For measuring the severity of headache, every patient filled out the MIGSEV questionnaire. Results. There were no significant differences in the distribution of both 64Il allele and heterozygote (GA genotype of CCR2 gene polymorphism (P=0.396; OR=0.92, 95% CI = 0.50–1.67 and P=0.388; OR=0.91, 95% CI = 0.47–1.73, resp. between case and control groups. There was no significant difference of alleles frequency between three grades of MIGSEV (P=0.922. Conclusions. In conclusion our results revealed no association between CCR2V64Il polymorphism and susceptibility to migraine and also headache severity in the Iranian population.

  10. Elucidating a Key Anti-HIV-1 and Cancer-Associated Axis: The Structure of CCL5 (Rantes) in Complex with CCR5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamis, Phanourios; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2014-06-01

    CCL5 (RANTES) is an inflammatory chemokine which binds to chemokine receptor CCR5 and induces signaling. The CCL5:CCR5 associated chemotactic signaling is of critical biological importance and is a potential HIV-1 therapeutic axis. Several studies provided growing evidence for the expression of CCL5 and CCR5 in non-hematological malignancies. Therefore, the delineation of the CCL5:CCR5 complex structure can pave the way for novel CCR5-targeted drugs. We employed a computational protocol which is primarily based on free energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, and report, what is to our knowledge, the first computationally derived CCL5:CCR5 complex structure which is in excellent agreement with experimental findings and clarifies the functional role of CCL5 and CCR5 residues which are associated with binding and signaling. A wealth of polar and non-polar interactions contributes to the tight CCL5:CCR5 binding. The structure of an HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop in complex with CCR5 has recently been derived through a similar computational protocol. A comparison between the CCL5 : CCR5 and the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop : CCR5 complex structures depicts that both the chemokine and the virus primarily interact with the same CCR5 residues. The present work provides insights into the blocking mechanism of HIV-1 by CCL5.

  11. β-Arrestin-2-Dependent Signaling Promotes CCR4-mediated Chemotaxis of Murine T-Helper Type 2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui; Choi, Yeon Ho; Zidar, David A; Walker, Julia K L

    2018-06-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disease that leads to significant healthcare costs and reduction in quality of life. Although many cell types are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, CD4 + T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) cells are centrally involved. We previously reported that the asthma phenotype is virtually absent in ovalbumin-sensitized and -challenged mice that lack global expression of β-arrestin (β-arr)-2 and that CD4 + T cells from these mice displayed significantly reduced CCL22-mediated chemotaxis. Because CCL22-mediated activation of CCR4 plays a role in Th2 cell regulation in asthmatic inflammation, we hypothesized that CCR4-mediated migration of CD4 + Th2 cells to the lung in asthma may use β-arr-dependent signaling. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of various signaling inhibitors on CCL22-induced chemotaxis using in vitro-polarized primary CD4 + Th2 cells from β-arr2-knockout and wild-type mice. Our results show, for the first time, that CCL22-induced, CCR4-mediated Th2 cell chemotaxis is dependent, in part, on a β-arr2-dependent signaling pathway. In addition, we show that this chemotactic signaling mechanism involves activation of P-p38 and Rho-associated protein kinase. These findings point to a proinflammatory role for β-arr2-dependent signaling and support β-arr2 as a novel therapeutic target in asthma.

  12. Expression of RANTES, eotaxin-2, ICAM-1, LFA-1 and CCR-3 in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Fransérgio Emílio; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Gallego, Aline Jorge; Malinsky, Rafael Rossell; Küpper, Daniel Salgado; Milanezi, Cristiane; Silva, João Santana da; Tamashiro, Edwin; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2012-09-01

    To compare gene expression of the chemokines RANTES and eotaxin-2, its receptor, CCR-3, adhesion molecule ICAM-1 and its receptor LFA-1 in eosinophilic polyps and in control normal nasal mucosa. Gene expression was quantified by Real Time PCR in polyps (n=35) and in healthy nasal mucosa (n=15). Eosinophilic polyps showed a higher expression of eotaxin-2 and RANTES, but not of CCR-3, ICAM-1 or LFA-1 compared to control nasal mucosa. Eosinophilic polyps present greater expression of eotaxin-2 and RANTES, but not of CCR-3, ICAM-1 or LFA-1 compared to control nasal mucosa.

  13. Response to vicriviroc in treatment-experienced subjects, as determined by an enhanced-sensitivity coreceptor tropism assay: reanalysis of AIDS clinical trials group A5211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaohui; Gulick, Roy M; Krambrink, Amy; Coakley, Eoin; Hughes, Michael D; Han, Dong; Flexner, Charles; Wilkin, Timothy J; Skolnik, Paul R; Greaves, Wayne L; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Reeves, Jacqueline D

    2009-12-01

    The enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) was used to retest coreceptor use at both study screening and study entry for 118 treatment-experienced subjects in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5211 who had CCR5-tropic (R5) virus detected by the original Trofile assay at study screening. Among 90 recipients of vicriviroc, a significantly (P< .001) greater mean reduction in HIV-1 RNA was observed in 72 subjects with R5 virus versus 15 subjects reclassified as having dual/mixed-tropic viruses at screening: -1.11 versus -0.09 log(10) copies/mL at day 14 and -1.91 versus -0.57 log(10) copies/mL at week 24, respectively. Results suggest that the enhanced-sensitivity assay is a better screening tool for determining patient eligibility for CCR5 antagonist therapy.

  14. Downregulation of CCR1 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Fan Jia; Wang Xiaoying; Zhou Jian; Qiu Shuangjian; Yu Yao; Liu Yinkun; Tang Zhaoyou

    2007-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. The migration and metastasis of tumor cells shares many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is mainly regulated by chemokine receptor-ligand interactions. CCR1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and tissues with unknown functions. In this study, we silenced CCR1 expression in the human HCC cell line HCCLM3 using artificial microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) and examined the invasiveness and proliferation of CCR1-silenced HCCLM3 cells and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The miRNA-mediated knockdown expression of CCR1 significantly inhibited the invasive ability of HCCLM3 cells, but had only a minor effect on the cellular proliferation rate. Moreover, CCR1 knockdown significantly reduced the secretion of MMP-2. Together, these findings indicate that CCR1 has an important role in HCCLM3 invasion and that CCR1 might be a new target of HCC treatment

  15. CCR2 and CD44 promote inflammatory cell recruitment during fatty liver formation in a lithogenic diet fed mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E Egan

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a common disease with a spectrum of presentations. The current study utilized a lithogenic diet model of NAFLD. The diet was fed to mice that are either resistant (AKR or susceptible (BALB/c and C57BL/6 to hepatitis followed by molecular and flow cytometric analysis. Following this, a similar approach was taken in congenic mice with specific mutations in immunological genes. The initial study identified a significant and profound increase in multiple ligands for the chemokine receptor CCR2 and an increase in CD44 expression in susceptible C57BL/6 (B6 but not resistant AKR mice. Ccr2(-/- mice were completely protected from hepatitis and Cd44(-/- mice were partially protected. Despite protection from inflammation, both strains displayed similar histological steatosis scores and significant increases in serum liver enzymes. CD45(+CD44(+ cells bound to hyaluronic acid (HA in diet fed B6 mice but not Cd44(-/- or Ccr2(-/- mice. Ccr2(-/- mice displayed a diminished HA binding phenotype most notably in monocytes, and CD8(+ T-cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that absence of CCR2 completely and CD44 partially reduces hepatic leukocyte recruitment. These data also provide evidence that there are multiple redundant CCR2 ligands produced during hepatic lipid accumulation and describes the induction of a strong HA binding phenotype in response to LD feeding in some subsets of leukocytes from susceptible strains.

  16. The role of MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis in chondrocyte degradation and disease progress in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-kun Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common arthritic disease and multifactorial whole-joint disease. Interactions of chemokines and OA is inadequately documented RESULTS: In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to investigate monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and receptor chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 in chondrocyte degradation and cartilage degeneration. Chondrocytes from 16 OA patients and 6 normal controls were involved in this study. After stimulation of MCP-1, the expression of MCP-1 and CCR2 increased significantly (P < 0.001 and the expression of MMP-13 also increased (P < 0.05. MCP-1 stimulation also induced (or enhanced the apoptosis of OA chondrocytes (P < 0.05. Additionally, the degradation of cartilage matrix markers (metalloproteinase 3 and 13, MMP3 and MMP13 in the culture medium of normal chondrocytes was also assessed. Furthermore, intra-articular injection of MCP-1 in mouse knees induced cartilage degradation and the CCR2 antagonist did not impede cartilage destroy in rats knees of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA model CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that the MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis plays a special role in the initiation and progression of OA pathology. Patients with ambiguous etiology can gain some insight from the MCP-1-CCR2 ligand-receptor axis

  17. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide Miyamoto

    Full Text Available CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  18. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  19. Virus tropical: Presencia y relevancia del personaje autobiográfico femenino en la novela gráfica colombiana

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    Felipe Gómez Gutiérrez

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Here I analyze Virus Tropical (Colombia, 2009, a graphic novel by PowerPaola. Despite having achieved great popularity for a Latin American graphic novel –with national and international publications in both print and electronic formats–, it still has not been properly considered or analyzed in traditional academic media; particularly in Latin America where the study of comics is considered a matter of minor importance, and therefore discussions about Virus Tropical were relegated to alternative, communitarian spaces, such as public libraries or bookstores. Because Virus Tropical poses a challenge to the notion of the male comic book creator, because of its use of visual language to defy stereotypical female characters, and because of the way it engages issues of contemporary comic production, in this article I argue for a sound academic engagement with comics like this one.

  20. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

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    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  1. Phenotype Variation in Human Immunodeficiency virus Type 1 Transmission and Disease Progression

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    Mariangela Cavarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  2. Phenotype variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  3. Investigation of the Binding Site of CCR2 using 4-Azetidinyl-1-aryl-cyclohexane Derivatives: A Membrane Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Study

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    Kothandan, Gugan; Gadhe, Changdev G.; Cho, Seung Joo [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Chemokine receptor (CCR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor that contains seven transmembrane helices. Recent pharmaceutical research has focused on the antagonism of CCR2 and candidate drugs are currently undergoing clinical studies for the treatment of diseases like arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we analyzed the time dependent behavior of CCR2 docked with a potent 4-azetidinyl-1-aryl-cyclohexane (4AAC) derivative using molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) for 20 nanoseconds (ns). Homology modeling of CCR2 was performed and the 4AAC derivative was docked into this binding site. The docked model of selected conformations was then utilized to study the dynamic behavior of the 4AAC enzyme complexes inside lipid membrane. MDS of CCR2-16b of 4AAC complexes allowed us to refine the system since binding of an inhibitor to a receptor is a dynamic process and identify stable structures and better binding modes. Structure activity relationships (SAR) for 4AAC derivatives were investigated and reasons for the activities were determined. Probable binding pose for some CCR2 antagonists were determined from the perspectives of binding site. Initial modeling showed that Tyr49, Trp98, Ser101, Glu291, and additional residues are crucial for 4AAC binding, but MDS analysis showed that Ser101 may not be vital. 4AAC moved away from Ser101 and the hydrogen bonding between 4AAC and Ser101 vanished. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the structure-based drug design of CCR2 antagonists and additionally suggest key residues for further study by mutagenesis.

  4. Human Eosinophils Express Functional CCR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Estanislau, Jessica; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Human eosinophils display directed chemotactic activity toward an array of soluble chemokines. Eosinophils have been observed to migrate to draining lymph nodes in experimental models of allergic inflammation, yet it is unknown whether eosinophils express CCR7, a key chemokine receptor in coordinating leukocyte trafficking to lymph nodes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate expression of CCR7 by human eosinophils and functional responses to CCL19 and CCL21, the known ligands of CCR7. Human eosinophils were purified by negative selection from healthy donors. CCR7 expression of freshly purified, unstimulated eosinophils and of IL-5–primed eosinophils was determined by flow cytometry and Western blot. Chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21 was measured in transwell assays. Shape changes to CCL19 and CCL21 were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Calcium fluxes of fluo-4 AM–loaded eosinophils were recorded by flow cytometry after chemokine stimulation. ERK phosphorylation of CCL19- and CCL21-stimulated eosinophils was measured by Western blot and Luminex assay. Human eosinophils expressed CCR7 as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blots. Eosinophils exhibited detectable cell surface expression of CCR7. IL-5–primed eosinophils exhibited chemotaxis toward CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon stimulation with CCL19 or CCL21, IL-5–primed eosinophils demonstrated dose-dependent shape changes with polarization of F-actin and exhibited calcium influxes. Finally, primed eosinophils stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21 exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to both CCR7 ligands. We demonstrate that human eosinophils express CCR7 and have multipotent responses to the known ligands of CCR7. PMID:23449735

  5. Roles of CcrA and CcrB in Excision and Integration of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec, a Staphylococcus aureus Genomic Island▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Archer, Gordon L.

    2010-01-01

    The gene encoding resistance to methicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics in staphylococci, mecA, is carried on a genomic island, SCCmec (for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec). The chromosomal excision and integration of types I to IV SCCmec are catalyzed by the site-specific recombinases CcrA and CcrB, the genes for which are encoded on each element. We sought to identify the relative contributions of CcrA and CcrB in the excision and integration of SCCmec. Purified CcrB but not CcrA ...

  6. Significance of CCL2, CCL5 and CCR2 polymorphisms for adverse prognosis of Japanese encephalitis from an endemic population of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Purvita; Khan, Siraj Ahmed

    2017-10-20

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major contributor for viral encephalitis in Asia. Vaccination programme has limited success for largely populated JE endemic countries like India and disease exposure is unavoidable. Involvement of chemokines and its co-receptors for adverse prognosis of JE have been documented both in vitro and in vivo. Identification of the genetic predisposing factor for JE infection in humans is crucial but not yet established. Therefore, we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5) and its co-receptors (CCR2 and CCR5) with their protein level for JE. The study enrolled 87 symptomatic JE cases (mild: severe = 24:63) and 94 asymptomatic controls. Our study demonstrated that CCL2 (rs1024611G), CCL5 (rs2280788G) and CCR2 (rs1799864A) significantly associated with JE (Odds ratio = 1.63, 2.95 and 2.62, respectively and P = 0.045, P = 0.05 and P = 0.0006, respectively). The study revealed that rs1024611G allele was associated with elevated level of CCL2. CCL5 elevation associated with JE mortality having a Cox proportional hazard of 1.004 (P = 0.033). In conclusion, SNPs of chemokine viz. CCL2 (rs1024611G) and its receptor CCR2 (rs1799864A) significantly associated with JE which may serve as possible genetic predisposing factor and CCL5 protein level may act as marker for disease survival.

  7. HIV-1 and SIV Predominantly Use CCR5 Expressed on a Precursor Population to Establish Infection in T Follicular Helper Cells

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    John Zaunders

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundT follicular helper (Tfh cells are increasingly recognized as a major reservoir of HIV infection that will likely need to be addressed in approaches to curing HIV. However, Tfh express minimal CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV-1, and the mechanism by which they are infected is unclear. We have previously shown that macaque Tfh lack CCR5, but are infected in vivo with CCR5-using SIV at levels comparable to other memory CD4+ T cells. Similarly, human splenic Tfh cells are highly infected with HIV-1 DNA. Therefore, we set out to examine the mechanism of infection of Tfh cells.MethodologyTfh and other CD4+ T cell subsets from macaque lymph nodes and spleens, splenic Tfh from HIV+ subjects, and tonsillar Tfh from HIV-uninfected subjects were isolated by cell sorting prior to cell surface and molecular characterization. HIV proviral gp120 sequences were submitted to genotypic and phenotypic tropism assays. Entry of CCR5- and CXCR4-using viruses into Tfh from uninfected tonsillar tissue was measured using a fusion assay.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis, genotypic, and phenotypic analysis showed that splenic Tfh cells from chronic HIV+ subjects were predominantly infected with CCR5-using viruses. In macaques, purified CCR5+PD-1intermediate(int+ memory CD4+ T cells were shown to include pre-Tfh cells capable of differentiating in vitro to Tfh by upregulation of PD-1 and Bcl6, confirmed by qRT-PCR and single-cell multiplex PCR. Infected PD-1int cells survive, carry SIV provirus, and differentiate into PD-1hi Tfh after T cell receptor stimulation, suggesting a pathway for SIV infection of Tfh. In addition, a small subset of macaque and human PD-1hi Tfh can express low levels of CCR5, which makes them susceptible to infection. Fusion assays demonstrated CCR5-using HIV-1 entry into CCR5+ Tfh and pre-Tfh cells from human tonsils.ConclusionThe major route of infection of Tfh in macaques and humans appears to be via a CCR5-expressing pre-Tfh population

  8. Genetic Polymorphism at CCL5 Is Associated With Protection in Chagas' Heart Disease: Antagonistic Participation of CCR1+ and CCR5+ Cells in Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Angelica Martins; Alvarado-Arnez, Lucia Elena; Alves, Silvia Marinho; Melo, Gloria; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Gibaldi, Daniel; da Silva, Thayse do E S Protásio; de Lorena, Virginia Maria Barros; de Melo, Adriene Siqueira; de Araújo Soares, Ana Karine; Barros, Michelle da Silva; Costa, Vláudia Maria Assis; Cardoso, Cynthia C; Pacheco, Antonio G; Carrazzone, Cristina; Oliveira, Wilson; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2018-01-01

    Chronic cardiomyopathy is the main clinical manifestation of Chagas disease (CD), a disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. A hallmark of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is a fibrogenic inflammation mainly composed of CD8 + and CD4 + T cells and macrophages. CC-chemokine ligands and receptors have been proposed to drive cell migration toward the heart tissue of CD patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CC-chemokine ligand and receptor genes may determine protein expression. Herein, we evaluated the association of SNPs in the CC-chemokines CCL2 (rs1024611) and CCL5 (rs2107538, rs2280788) and the CCL5/RANTES receptors CCR1 (rs3181077, rs1491961, rs3136672) and CCR5 (rs1799987) with risk and progression toward CCC. We performed a cross-sectional association study of 406 seropositive patients from endemic areas for CD in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The patients were classified as non-cardiopathic (A, n  = 110) or cardiopathic (mild, B1, n  = 163; severe, C, n  = 133). Serum levels of CCL5 and CCL2/MCP-1 were elevated in CD patients but were neither associated with risk/severity of CCC nor with SNP genotypes. After logistic regression analysis with adjustment for the covariates gender and ethnicity, CCL5 -403 (rs2107538) CT heterozygotes (OR = 0.5, P -value = 0.04) and T carriers (OR = 0.5, P -value = 0.01) were associated with protection against CCC. To gain insight into the participation of the CCL5-CCR5/CCR1 axis in CCC, mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Increased CCL5 concentrations were detected in cardiac tissue. In spleen, frequencies of CCR1 + CD8 + T cells and CD14 + macrophages were decreased, while frequencies of CCR5 + cells were increased. Importantly, CCR1 + CD14 + macrophages were mainly IL-10 + , while CCR5 + cells were mostly TNF + . CCR5-deficient infected mice presented reduced TNF concentrations and injury in heart tissue. Selective blockade of CCR1 (Met

  9. Genetic Polymorphism at CCL5 Is Associated With Protection in Chagas’ Heart Disease: Antagonistic Participation of CCR1+ and CCR5+ Cells in Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Angelica Martins; Alvarado-Arnez, Lucia Elena; Alves, Silvia Marinho; Melo, Gloria; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Gibaldi, Daniel; da Silva, Thayse do E. S. Protásio; de Lorena, Virginia Maria Barros; de Melo, Adriene Siqueira; de Araújo Soares, Ana Karine; Barros, Michelle da Silva; Costa, Vláudia Maria Assis; Cardoso, Cynthia C.; Pacheco, Antonio G.; Carrazzone, Cristina; Oliveira, Wilson; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2018-01-01

    Chronic cardiomyopathy is the main clinical manifestation of Chagas disease (CD), a disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. A hallmark of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is a fibrogenic inflammation mainly composed of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and macrophages. CC-chemokine ligands and receptors have been proposed to drive cell migration toward the heart tissue of CD patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CC-chemokine ligand and receptor genes may determine protein expression. Herein, we evaluated the association of SNPs in the CC-chemokines CCL2 (rs1024611) and CCL5 (rs2107538, rs2280788) and the CCL5/RANTES receptors CCR1 (rs3181077, rs1491961, rs3136672) and CCR5 (rs1799987) with risk and progression toward CCC. We performed a cross-sectional association study of 406 seropositive patients from endemic areas for CD in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The patients were classified as non-cardiopathic (A, n = 110) or cardiopathic (mild, B1, n = 163; severe, C, n = 133). Serum levels of CCL5 and CCL2/MCP-1 were elevated in CD patients but were neither associated with risk/severity of CCC nor with SNP genotypes. After logistic regression analysis with adjustment for the covariates gender and ethnicity, CCL5 −403 (rs2107538) CT heterozygotes (OR = 0.5, P-value = 0.04) and T carriers (OR = 0.5, P-value = 0.01) were associated with protection against CCC. To gain insight into the participation of the CCL5–CCR5/CCR1 axis in CCC, mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Increased CCL5 concentrations were detected in cardiac tissue. In spleen, frequencies of CCR1+ CD8+ T cells and CD14+ macrophages were decreased, while frequencies of CCR5+ cells were increased. Importantly, CCR1+CD14+ macrophages were mainly IL-10+, while CCR5+ cells were mostly TNF+. CCR5-deficient infected mice presented reduced TNF concentrations and injury in heart tissue. Selective blockade of CCR1 (Met-RANTES therapy) in

  10. Genetic Polymorphism at CCL5 Is Associated With Protection in Chagas’ Heart Disease: Antagonistic Participation of CCR1+ and CCR5+ Cells in Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Martins Batista

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cardiomyopathy is the main clinical manifestation of Chagas disease (CD, a disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. A hallmark of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC is a fibrogenic inflammation mainly composed of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and macrophages. CC-chemokine ligands and receptors have been proposed to drive cell migration toward the heart tissue of CD patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CC-chemokine ligand and receptor genes may determine protein expression. Herein, we evaluated the association of SNPs in the CC-chemokines CCL2 (rs1024611 and CCL5 (rs2107538, rs2280788 and the CCL5/RANTES receptors CCR1 (rs3181077, rs1491961, rs3136672 and CCR5 (rs1799987 with risk and progression toward CCC. We performed a cross-sectional association study of 406 seropositive patients from endemic areas for CD in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The patients were classified as non-cardiopathic (A, n = 110 or cardiopathic (mild, B1, n = 163; severe, C, n = 133. Serum levels of CCL5 and CCL2/MCP-1 were elevated in CD patients but were neither associated with risk/severity of CCC nor with SNP genotypes. After logistic regression analysis with adjustment for the covariates gender and ethnicity, CCL5 −403 (rs2107538 CT heterozygotes (OR = 0.5, P-value = 0.04 and T carriers (OR = 0.5, P-value = 0.01 were associated with protection against CCC. To gain insight into the participation of the CCL5–CCR5/CCR1 axis in CCC, mice were infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain. Increased CCL5 concentrations were detected in cardiac tissue. In spleen, frequencies of CCR1+ CD8+ T cells and CD14+ macrophages were decreased, while frequencies of CCR5+ cells were increased. Importantly, CCR1+CD14+ macrophages were mainly IL-10+, while CCR5+ cells were mostly TNF+. CCR5-deficient infected mice presented reduced TNF concentrations and injury in heart tissue. Selective blockade of CCR1 (Met-RANTES therapy

  11. Interaction between NANOS2 and the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex is essential for male germ cell development in mouse.

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    Atsushi Suzuki

    Full Text Available Nanos is one of the evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in germ cell development and we have previously shown that it interacts with the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex leading to the suppression of specific RNAs. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological significance of this interaction have remained elusive. In our present study, we identify CNOT1, a component of the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, as a direct factor mediating the interaction with NANOS2. We find that the first 10 amino acids (AAs of NANOS2 are required for this binding. We further observe that a NANOS2 mutant lacking these first 10 AAs (NANOS2-ΔN10 fails to rescue defects in the Nanos2-null mouse. Our current data thus indicate that the interaction with the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex is essential for NANOS2 function. In addition, we further demonstrate that NANOS2-ΔN10 can associate with specific mRNAs as well as wild-type NANOS2, suggesting the existence of other NANOS2-associated factor(s that determine the specificity of RNA-binding independently of the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex.

  12. Preclinical discovery and development of maraviroc for the treatment of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljkovic, Nevena; Vucicevic, Jelica; Tassini, Sabrina; Glisic, Sanja; Veljkovic, Veljko; Radi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Maraviroc is a first-in-class antiretroviral (ARV) drug acting on a host cell target (CCR5), which blocks the entry of the HIV virus into the cell. Maraviroc is currently indicated for combination ARV treatment in adults infected only with CCR5-tropic HIV-1. This drug discovery case history focuses on the key studies that led to the discovery and approval of maraviroc, as well as on post-launch clinical reports. The article is based on the data reported in published preclinical and clinical studies, conference posters and on drug package data. The profound understanding of HIV's entry mechanisms has provided a strong biological rationale for targeting the chemokine receptor CCR5. The CCR5-antagonist mariviroc, with its unique mode of action and excellent safety profile, is an important therapeutic option for HIV patients. In general, the authors believe that targeting host factors is a useful approach for combating new and re-emerging transmissible diseases, as well as pathogens that easily become resistant to common antiviral drugs. Maraviroc, offering a potent and safe cellular receptor-mediated pharmacological response to HIV, has paved the way for the development of a new generation of host-targeting antivirals.

  13. Phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus inactivates dengue virus and other enveloped viruses by disrupting the viral envelope.

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    Vanessa Danielle Muller

    Full Text Available The Flaviviridae family includes several virus pathogens associated with human diseases worldwide. Within this family, Dengue virus is the most serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific antiviral drugs against Dengue virus or against most of the viruses of this family. Therefore, the development of vaccines and the discovery of therapeutic compounds against the medically most important flaviviruses remain a global public health priority. We previously showed that phospholipase A2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was able to inhibit Dengue virus and Yellow fever virus infection in Vero cells. Here, we present evidence that phospholipase A2 has a direct effect on Dengue virus particles, inducing a partial exposure of genomic RNA, which strongly suggests inhibition via the cleavage of glycerophospholipids at the virus lipid bilayer envelope. This cleavage might induce a disruption of the lipid bilayer that causes a destabilization of the E proteins on the virus surface, resulting in inactivation. We show by computational analysis that phospholipase A2 might gain access to the Dengue virus lipid bilayer through the pores found on each of the twenty 3-fold vertices of the E protein shell on the virus surface. In addition, phospholipase A2 is able to inactivate other enveloped viruses, highlighting its potential as a natural product lead for developing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.

  14. Molecular anatomy of CCR5 engagement by physiologic and viral chemokines and HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: differences in primary structural requirements for RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navenot, J M; Wang, Z X; Trent, J O; Murray, J L; Hu, Q X; DeLeeuw, L; Moore, P S; Chang, Y; Peiper, S C

    2001-11-09

    Molecular analysis of CCR5, the cardinal coreceptor for HIV-1 infection, has implicated the N-terminal extracellular domain (N-ter) and regions vicinal to the second extracellular loop (ECL2) in this activity. It was shown that residues in the N-ter are necessary for binding of the physiologic ligands, RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-1 alpha (CCL3). vMIP-II, encoded by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, is a high affinity CCR5 antagonist, but lacks efficacy as a coreceptor inhibitor. Therefore, we compared the mechanism for engagement by vMIP-II of CCR5 to its interaction with physiologic ligands. RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II bound CCR5 at high affinity, but demonstrated partial cross-competition. Characterization of 15 CCR5 alanine scanning mutants of charged extracellular amino acids revealed that alteration of acidic residues in the distal N-ter abrogated binding of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and vMIP-II. Whereas mutation of residues in ECL2 of CCR5 dramatically reduced the binding of RANTES and MIP-1 alpha and their ability to induce signaling, interaction with vMIP-II was not altered by any mutation in the exoloops of the receptor. Paradoxically, monoclonal antibodies to N-ter epitopes did not block chemokine binding, but those mapped to ECL2 were effective inhibitors. A CCR5 chimera with the distal N-ter residues of CXCR2 bound MIP-1 alpha and vMIP-II with an affinity similar to that of the wild-type receptor. Engagement of CCR5 by vMIP-II, but not RANTES or MIP-1 alpha blocked the binding of monoclonal antibodies to the receptor, providing additional evidence for a distinct mechanism for viral chemokine binding. Analysis of the coreceptor activity of randomly generated mouse-human CCR5 chimeras implicated residues in ECL2 between H173 and V197 in this function. RANTES, but not vMIP-II blocked CCR5 M-tropic coreceptor activity in the fusion assay. The insensitivity of vMIP-II binding to mutations in ECL2 provides a potential rationale to its inefficiency as an

  15. Relevance of CCL3/CCR5 axis in oral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Janine Mayra; Moreira Dos Santos, Tálita Pollyanna; Sobral, Lays Martin; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Proudfoot, Amanda E I; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; Russo, Remo Castro; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2017-08-01

    The chemokine CCL3 is a chemotactic cytokine crucial for inflammatory cell recruitment in homeostatic and pathological conditions. CCL3 might stimulate cancer progression by promoting leukocyte accumulation, angiogenesis and tumour growth. The expression of CCL3 and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 was demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but their role was not defined. Here, the functions of CCL3 were assessed using a model of chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Lineages of OSCC were used to analyse the effects of CCL3 in vitro . The 4NQO-induced lesions exhibited increased expression of CCL3, CCR1 and CCR5. CCL3 -/- and CCR5 -/- mice presented reduced incidence of tongue tumours compared to wild-type (WT) and CCR1 -/- mice. Consistently, attenuated cytomorphological atypia and reduced cell proliferation were observed in lesions of CCL3 -/- and CCR5 -/- mice. OSCC from CCL3 -/- mice exhibited lower infiltration of eosinophils and reduced expression of Egf, Fgf1, Tgf-β1, Vegfa, Vegfb, Itga-4, Vtn, Mmp-1a, Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 than WT mice. In vitro , CCL3 induced invasion and production of CCL5, IL-6, MMP -2, -8, -9. Blockage of CCL3 in vitro using α-CCL3 or Evasin-1 (a CCL3-binding protein) impaired tumour cell invasion. In conclusion, CCL3/CCR5 axis has pro-tumourigenic effects in oral carcinogenesis. The induction of inflammatory and angiogenic pathways and eosinophils recruitment appear to be the underlying mechanism explaining these effects. These data reveal potential protective effects of CCL3 blockade in oral cancer.

  16. Impact of CCR5 Delta32/+ deletion on herpes zoster among HIV-1-infected homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Anneke; Lensen, Ruud; Veenstra, Jan; Prins, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2006-01-01

    The association between the presence of CCR5 Delta32 heterozygosity and incidence of clinical herpes zoster was studied among 296 homosexual men from the Amsterdam cohort study (ACS) infected with human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) with an estimated date of seroconversion. Of them 63 were

  17. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-09-01

    HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1 receptor antagonist, NF

  18. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Karlsson, Ingrid; Zanchetta, Marisa; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Giaquinto, Carlo; Fenyö, Eva Maria; De Rossi, Anita; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2008-09-29

    HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad) viruses), was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting) and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow) phenotype (n = 20), but R5(broad) and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad) and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3) or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad) phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad) virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad) viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad) phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. Our results show that R5(broad) viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow) phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  19. Characterization of Chemokine Receptor Utilization of Viruses in the Latent Reservoir for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Theodore; Hoffman, Trevor L.; Blankson, Joel; Finzi, Diana; Chadwick, Karen; Margolick, Joseph B.; Buck, Christopher; Siliciano, Janet D.; Doms, Robert W.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2000-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells provide a long-term reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and are likely to represent the major barrier to virus eradication in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms by which viruses enter the latent reservoir and the nature of the chemokine receptors involved have not been determined. To evaluate the phenotype of the virus in this compartment with respect to chemokine receptor utilization, full-length HIV-1 env genes were cloned from latently infected cells and assayed functionally. We demonstrate that the majority of the viruses in the latent reservoir utilize CCR5 during entry, although utilization of several other receptors, including CXCR4, was observed. No alternative coreceptors were shown to be involved in a systematic fashion. Although R5 viruses are present in the latent reservoir, CCR5 was not expressed at high levels on resting CD4+ T cells. To understand the mechanism by which R5 viruses enter latent reservoir, the ability of an R5 virus, HIV-1 Ba-L, to infect highly purified resting CD4+ T lymphocytes from uninfected donors was evaluated. Entry of Ba-L could be observed when virus was applied at a multiplicity approaching 1. However, infection was limited to a subset of cells expressing low levels of CCR5 and markers of immunologic memory. Naive cells could not be infected by an R5 virus even when challenged with a large inoculum. Direct cell fractionation studies showed that latent virus is present predominantly in resting memory cells but also at lower levels in resting naive cells. Taken together, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that the direct infection of naive T cells is not the major mechanism by which the latent infection of resting T cells is established. PMID:10933689

  20. Measles Outbreak with Unique Virus Genotyping, Ontario, Canada, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shari; Hiebert, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Gournis, Effie; Sharron, Jennifer; Severini, Alberto; Jiaravuthisan, Manisa; Shane, Amanda; Jaeger, Valerie; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Fediurek, Jill; Sander, Beate; Mazzulli, Tony; Schulz, Helene; Deeks, Shelley L

    2017-07-01

    The province of Ontario continues to experience measles virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in Canada. We describe an unusual outbreak of measles in Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a unique strain of virus and no known association among primary case-patients. A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from 4 public health units during the outbreak period (January 25-March 23, 2015); none of these cases occurred in persons who had recently traveled. Despite enhancements to case-patient interview methods and epidemiologic analyses, a source patient was not identified. However, the molecular epidemiologic analysis, which included extended sequencing, strongly suggested that all cases derived from a single importation of measles virus genotype D4. The use of timely genotype sequencing, rigorous epidemiologic investigation, and a better understanding of the gaps in surveillance are needed to maintain Ontario's measles elimination status.

  1. The innate immune response to lower respiratory tract E. Coli infection and the role of the CCL2-CCR2 axis in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Ndeh, Roland; Collaco, Joseph M; Poupore, Amy K; Dikeman, Dustin; Zhong, Qiong; Singer, Benjamin D; D'Alessio, Franco; Scott, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2 -/- C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E. coli or PBS by direct pharyngeal aspiration. Flow cytometry was used to measure immune cell dynamics and identify cytokine-producing cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure cytokine/chemokine expression. Innate immune cell recruitment in response to E. coli-induced LRTI was delayed in the neonatal lung compared to juvenile lung. Lung clearance of bacteria was also significantly delayed in the neonate. Ccr2 -/- neonates, which lack an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, had higher mortality after E. coli challenged than Ccr2 +/+ neonates. A greater percentage of CD8 + T cells and monocytes from WT neonates challenged with E. coli produced TNF compared to controls. The pulmonary immune response to E. coli-induced LRTI differed significantly between neonatal and juvenile mice. Neonates were more susceptible to increasing doses of E. coli and exhibited greater mortality than juveniles. In the absence of an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, susceptibility to LRTI-induced mortality was further increased in neonatal mice. Taken together these findings underscore the importance of age-related differences in the innate immune response to LRTI during early stages of postnatal life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Natural CCR2 Antagonist Relieves Tumor-associated Macrophage-mediated Immunosuppression to Produce a Therapeutic Effect for Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Yao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignant tumor in the digestive tract with limited therapeutic choices. Although sorafenib, an orally administered multikinase inhibitor, has produced survival benefits for patients with advanced HCC, favorable clinical outcomes are limited due to individual differences and resistance. The application of immunotherapy, a promising approach for HCC is urgently needed. Macrophage infiltration, mediated by the CCL2/CCR2 axis, is a potential immunotherapeutic target. Here, we report that a natural product from Abies georgei, named 747 and related in structure to kaempferol, exhibits sensitivity and selectivity as a CCR2 antagonist. The specificity of 747 on CCR2 was demonstrated via calcium flux, the binding domain of CCR2 was identified in an extracellular loop by chimera binding assay, and in vivo antagonistic activity of 747 was confirmed through a thioglycollate-induced peritonitis model. In animals, 747 elevated the number of CD8+ T cells in tumors via blocking tumor-infiltrating macrophage-mediated immunosuppression and inhibited orthotopic and subcutaneous tumor growth in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. Further, 747 enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose sorafenib without obvious toxicity, through elevating the numbers of intra-tumoral CD8+ T cells and increasing death of tumor cells. Thus, we have discovered a natural CCR2 antagonist and have provided a new perspective on development of this antagonist for treatment of HCC. In mouse models of HCC, 747 enhanced the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment and potentiated the therapeutic effect of sorafenib, indicating that the combination of an immunomodulator with a chemotherapeutic drug could be a new approach for treating HCC.

  3. Differential impact of lytic viruses on prokaryotic morphopopulations in a tropical estuarine system (Cochin estuary, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasna, Vijayan; Pradeep Ram, Angia Sriram; Parvathi, Ammini; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding on the importance of viral lysis in the functioning of tropical estuarine ecosystem is limited. This study examines viral infection of prokaryotes and subsequent lysis of cells belonging to different morphotypes across a salinity gradient in monsoon driven estuarine ecosystem (Cochin estuary, India). High standing stock of viruses and prokaryotes accompanied by lytic infection rates in the euryhaline/mesohaline region of the estuary suggests salinity to have an influential role in driving interactions between prokaryotes and viruses. High prokaryotic mortality rates, up to 42% of prokaryote population in the pre-monsoon season is further substantiated by a high virus to prokaryote ratio (VPR), suggesting that maintenance of a high number of viruses is dependent on the most active fraction of bacterioplankton. Although myoviruses were the dominant viral morphotype (mean = 43%) throughout the study period, there was significant variation among prokaryotic morphotypes susceptible to viral infection. Among them, the viral infected short rod prokaryote morphotype with lower burst estimates (mean = 18 viruses prokaryote-1) was dominant (35%) in the dry seasons whereas a substantial increase in cocci forms (30%) infected by viruses with high burst size (mean = 31 viruses prokaryote-1) was evident during the monsoon season. Such preferential infections of prokaryotic morphopopulations with respect to seasons can have a strong and variable impact on the carbon and energy flow in this tropical ecosystem.

  4. Identification of full-length transmitted/founder viruses and their progeny in primary HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hraber, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giorgi, Elena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharya, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and their progeny by is a novel strategy for probing the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and for evaluating the genetic imprint of viral and host factors that act to constrain or facilitate virus replication. Here, we show in a cohort of twelve acutely infected subjects (9 clade B; 3 clade C), that complete genomic sequences of transmitted/founder viruses could be inferred using single genome amplification of plasma viral RNA, direct amplicon sequencing, and a model of random virus evolution. This allowed for the precise identification, chemical synthesis, molecular cloning, and biological analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection and for a comprehensive mapping of sequential viral genomes and proteomes for mutations that are necessary or incidental to the establishment of HIV-1 persistence. Transmitted/founder viruses were CD4 and CCR5 tropic, replicated preferentially in activated primary T-Iymphocytes but not monocyte-derived macrophages, and were effectively shielded from most heterologous or broadly neutralizing antibodies. By 3 months of infection, the evolving viral quasispecies in three subjects showed mutational fixation at only 2-5 discreet genomic loci. By 6-12 months, mutational fixation was evident at 18-27 genomic loci. Some, but not all, of these mutations were attributable to virus escape from cytotoxic Tlymphocytes or neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that other viral or host factors may influence early HIV -1 fitness.

  5. CCR5 signalling, but not DARC or D6 regulatory, chemokine receptors are targeted by herpesvirus U83A chemokine which delays receptor internalisation via diversion to a caveolin-linked pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusse, Julie; Clark, David J; Gompels, Ursula A

    2009-07-30

    Herpesviruses have evolved chemokines and chemokine receptors, which modulate the recruitment of human leukocytes during the inflammatory response to infection. Early post-infection, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) infected cells express the chemokine receptor U51A and chemokine U83A which have complementary effects in subverting the CC-chemokine family thereby controlling anti-viral leukocyte recruitment. Here we show that, to potentiate this activity, the viral chemokine can also avoid clearance by scavenger chemokine receptors, DARC and D6, which normally regulate an inflammatory response. Conversely, U83A delays internalisation of its signalling target receptor CCR5 with diversion to caveolin rich membrane domains. This mechanism can redirect displaced human chemokines to DARC and D6 for clearance of the anti-viral inflammatory response, leaving the viral chemokine unchecked. Cell models for competitive binding assays were established using radiolabeled human chemokines and cold U83A on CCR5, DARC or D6 expressing cells. Flow cytometry was used to assess specific chemotaxis of CCR5 bearing cells to U83A, and internalisation of CCR5 specific chemokine CCL4 after stimulation with U83A. Internalisation analyses were supported by confocal microscopy of internalisation and co-localisation of CCR5 with caveosome marker caveolin-1, after virus or human chemokine stimulation. U83A displaced efficiently human chemokines from CCR5, with a high affinity of 0.01nM, but not from DARC or D6. Signalling via CCR5 resulted in specific chemoattraction of primary human leukocytes bearing CCR5. However, U83A effective binding and signalling to CCR5 resulted in delayed internalisation and recycling up to 2 hours in the absence of continual re-stimulation. This resulted in diversion to a delayed caveolin-linked pathway rather than the rapid clathrin mediated endocytosis previously shown with human chemokines CCL3 or CCL4. U83A diverts human chemokines from signalling, but not

  6. CCR5 signalling, but not DARC or D6 regulatory, chemokine receptors are targeted by herpesvirus U83A chemokine which delays receptor internalisation via diversion to a caveolin-linked pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gompels Ursula A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpesviruses have evolved chemokines and chemokine receptors, which modulate the recruitment of human leukocytes during the inflammatory response to infection. Early post-infection, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A infected cells express the chemokine receptor U51A and chemokine U83A which have complementary effects in subverting the CC-chemokine family thereby controlling anti-viral leukocyte recruitment. Here we show that, to potentiate this activity, the viral chemokine can also avoid clearance by scavenger chemokine receptors, DARC and D6, which normally regulate an inflammatory response. Conversely, U83A delays internalisation of its signalling target receptor CCR5 with diversion to caveolin rich membrane domains. This mechanism can redirect displaced human chemokines to DARC and D6 for clearance of the anti-viral inflammatory response, leaving the viral chemokine unchecked. Methods Cell models for competitive binding assays were established using radiolabeled human chemokines and cold U83A on CCR5, DARC or D6 expressing cells. Flow cytometry was used to assess specific chemotaxis of CCR5 bearing cells to U83A, and internalisation of CCR5 specific chemokine CCL4 after stimulation with U83A. Internalisation analyses were supported by confocal microscopy of internalisation and co-localisation of CCR5 with caveosome marker caveolin-1, after virus or human chemokine stimulation. Results U83A displaced efficiently human chemokines from CCR5, with a high affinity of 0.01nM, but not from DARC or D6. Signalling via CCR5 resulted in specific chemoattraction of primary human leukocytes bearing CCR5. However, U83A effective binding and signalling to CCR5 resulted in delayed internalisation and recycling up to 2 hours in the absence of continual re-stimulation. This resulted in diversion to a delayed caveolin-linked pathway rather than the rapid clathrin mediated endocytosis previously shown with human chemokines CCL3 or CCL4

  7. CCR6(+) Th cell populations distinguish ACPA positive from ACPA negative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulissen, Sandra M J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Davelaar, Nadine; Vroman, Heleen; Hazes, Johanna M W; de Jong, Pascal H P; Lubberts, Erik

    2015-11-30

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be separated into two major subpopulations based on the absence or presence of serum anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). The more severe disease course in ACPA(+) RA and differences in treatment outcome between these subpopulations suggest that ACPA(+) and ACPA(-) RA are different disease subsets. The identification of T-helper (Th) cells specifically recognizing citrullinated peptides, combined with the strong association between HLA-DRB1 and ACPA positivity, point toward a pathogenic role of Th cells in ACPA(+) RA. In this context we recently identified a potential pathogenic role for CCR6(+) Th cells in RA. Therefore, we examined whether Th cell population distributions differ by ACPA status. We performed a nested matched case-control study including 27 ACPA(+) and 27 ACPA(-) treatment-naive early RA patients matched for disease activity score in 44 joints, presence of rheumatoid factor, sex, age, duration of complaints and presence of erosions. CD4(+)CD45RO(+) (memory) Th cell distribution profiles from these patients were generated based on differential chemokine receptor expression and related with disease duration. ACPA status was not related to differences in total CD4(+) T cell or memory Th cell proportions. However, ACPA(+) patients had significantly higher proportions of Th cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR6 and CXCR3. Similar proportions of CCR4(+) and CCR10(+) Th cells were found. Within the CCR6(+) cell population, four Th subpopulations were distinguished based on differential chemokine receptor expression: Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR10(-)), Th17.1 (CXCR3(+)), Th22 (CCR4(+)CCR10(+)) and CCR4/CXCR3 double-positive (DP) cells. In particular, higher proportions of Th22 (p = 0.02), Th17.1 (p = 0.03) and CCR4/CXCR3 DP (p = 0.01) cells were present in ACPA(+) patients. In contrast, ACPA status was not associated with differences in Th1 (CCR6(-)CXCR3(+); p = 0.90), Th2 (CCR6(-)CCR4(+); p = 0.27) and T

  8. Evolutionary genomics of archaeal viruses: unique viral genomes in the third domain of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, D.; Garrett, R. A.; Koonin, E.

    2006-01-01

    In terms of virion morphology, the known viruses of archaea fall into two distinct classes: viruses of mesophilic and moderately thermophilic Eueryarchaeota closely resemble head-and-tail bacteriophages whereas viruses of hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota show a variety of unique morphotypes...... of bacteriophages. The proteins encoded by the genes belonging to this pool include predicted transcription regulators, ATPases implicated in viral DNA replication and packaging, enzymes of DNA precursor metabolism, RNA modification enzymes, and glycosylases. In addition, each of the crenarchaeal viruses encodes...

  9. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, Thomas Birk; Wittenhagen, P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta). METHODS: The CCR5 Delta32 allele and a CCR5 promoter polymorphism associated with cell surface expression of CCR5 were...

  10. Selective elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by Env-directed, HIV-1-based virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti, Silvia; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pugliese, Katherina; Federico, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    We recently showed that both replicating and resting cells cultivated with ganciclovir (GCV) were killed when challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped HIV-1-based virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the Nef7 (i.e., an HIV-1 Nef mutant incorporating in virions at high levels)/herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) fusion product. On this basis, a novel anti-HIV therapeutic approach based on Nef7/TK VLPs expressing X4 or R5 HIV cell receptor complexes has been attempted. We here report that (CD4-CXCR4) and (CD4-CCR5) Nef7-based VLPs efficiently enter cells infected by X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. Importantly, the delivery of the VLP-associated Nef7/TK led to cell death upon GCV treatment. Of interest, VLPs were effective also against non-replicating, HIV-1-infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. HIV-targeted VLPs represent a promising candidate for the treatment of persistently HIV-1-infected cells that are part of virus reservoirs resistant to HAART therapies

  11. Functional impact of HIV coreceptor-binding site mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscone, Mark J.; Miamidian, John L.; Muchiri, John M.; Baik, Sarah S.W.; Lee, Fang-Hua; Doms, Robert W.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.

    2006-01-01

    The bridging sheet region of the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein interacts with the major virus coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. We examined the impact of mutations in and adjacent to the bridging sheet region of an X4 tropic HIV-1 on membrane fusion and entry inhibitor susceptibility. When the V3-loop of this Env was changed so that CCR5 was used, the effects of these same mutations on CCR5 use were assayed as well. We found that coreceptor-binding site mutations had greater effects on CXCR4-mediated fusion and infection than when CCR5 was used as a coreceptor, perhaps related to differences in coreceptor affinity. The mutations also reduced use of the alternative coreceptors CCR3 and CCR8 to varying degrees, indicating that the bridging sheet region is important for the efficient utilization of both major and minor HIV coreceptors. As seen before with a primary R5 virus strain, bridging sheet mutations increased susceptibility to the CCR5 inhibitor TAK-779, which correlated with CCR5 binding efficiency. Bridging sheet mutations also conferred increased susceptibility to the CXCR4 ligand AMD-3100 in the context of the X4 tropic Env. However, these mutations had little effect on the rate of membrane fusion and little effect on susceptibility to enfuvirtide, a membrane fusion inhibitor whose activity is dependent in part on the rate of Env-mediated membrane fusion. Thus, mutations that reduce coreceptor binding and enhance susceptibility to coreceptor inhibitors can affect fusion and enfuvirtide susceptibility in an Env context-dependent manner

  12. Transmitted/founder and chronic subtype C HIV-1 use CD4 and CCR5 receptors with equal efficiency and are not inhibited by blocking the integrin α4β7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F Parrish

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 most often results from productive infection by a single transmitted/founder (T/F virus, indicating a stringent mucosal bottleneck. Understanding the viral traits that overcome this bottleneck could have important implications for HIV-1 vaccine design and other prevention strategies. Most T/F viruses use CCR5 to infect target cells and some encode envelope glycoproteins (Envs that contain fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites and shorter V1/V2 variable loops than Envs from chronic viruses. Moreover, it has been reported that the gp120 subunits of certain transmitted Envs bind to the gut-homing integrin α4β7, possibly enhancing virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. Here we sought to determine whether subtype C T/F viruses, which are responsible for the majority of new HIV-1 infections worldwide, share biological properties that increase their transmission fitness, including preferential α4β7 engagement. Using single genome amplification, we generated panels of both T/F (n = 20 and chronic (n = 20 Env constructs as well as full-length T/F (n = 6 and chronic (n = 4 infectious molecular clones (IMCs. We found that T/F and chronic control Envs were indistinguishable in the efficiency with which they used CD4 and CCR5. Both groups of Envs also exhibited the same CD4+ T cell subset tropism and showed similar sensitivity to neutralization by CD4 binding site (CD4bs antibodies. Finally, saturating concentrations of anti-α4β7 antibodies failed to inhibit infection and replication of T/F as well as chronic control viruses, although the growth of the tissue culture-adapted strain SF162 was modestly impaired. These results indicate that the population bottleneck associated with mucosal HIV-1 acquisition is not due to the selection of T/F viruses that use α4β7, CD4 or CCR5 more efficiently.

  13. In vivo emergence of vicriviroc resistance in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C-infected subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibris, Athe M N; Sagar, Manish; Gulick, Roy M; Su, Zhaohui; Hughes, Michael; Greaves, Wayne; Subramanian, Mani; Flexner, Charles; Giguel, Françoise; Leopold, Kay E; Coakley, Eoin; Kuritzkes, Daniel R

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about the in vivo development of resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CCR5 antagonists. We studied 29 subjects with virologic failure from a phase IIb study of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc (VCV) and identified one individual with HIV-1 subtype C who developed VCV resistance. Studies with chimeric envelopes demonstrated that changes within the V3 loop were sufficient to confer VCV resistance. Resistant virus showed VCV-enhanced replication, cross-resistance to another CCR5 antagonist, TAK779, and increased sensitivity to aminooxypentane-RANTES and the CCR5 monoclonal antibody HGS004. Pretreatment V3 loop sequences reemerged following VCV discontinuation, implying that VCV resistance has associated fitness costs.

  14. Antiviral propierties of 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid and bacitracin against T-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Padilla Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacitracin and the membrane-impermeant thiol reagent 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB are agents known to inhibit protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, a cell-surface protein critical in HIV-1 entry therefore they are fusion inhibitors (FI. Here we investigated the possibility that Bacitracin and or DTNB might have other antiviral activities besides FI. By means of residual activity assays, we found that both compounds showed antiviral activity only to viruses T-tropic HIV-1 strain. Cell-based fusion assays showed inhibition on HeLa-CD4-LTR-β-gal (CD4 and HL2/3 cells treated with Bacitracin, and DTNB with the latest compound we observed fusion inhibition on both cells but strikingly in HL2/3 cells (expressing Env indicating a possible activity on both, the cell membrane and the viral envelope. A time-of-addition experiment showed that both compounds act on HIV entry inhibition but DTNB also acts at late stages of the viral cycle. Lastly, we also found evidence of long-lasting host cell protection in vitro by DTNB, an important pharmacodynamic parameter for a topical microbicide against virus infection, hours after the extracellular drug was removed; this protection was not rendered by Bacitracin. These drugs proved to be leading compounds for further studies against HIV showing antiviral characteristics of interest.

  15. Unique competitive effects of lianas and trees in a tropical forest understory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexandra; Tobin, Mike; Mangan, Scott; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-02-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, contributing up to 25% of the woody stems and 35% of woody species diversity. Lianas invest less in structural support but more in leaves compared to trees of similar biomass. These physiological and morphological differences suggest that lianas may interact with neighboring plants in ways that are different from similarly sized trees. However, the vast majority of past liana competition studies have failed to identify the unique competitive effects of lianas by controlling for the amount of biomass removed. We assessed liana competition in the forest understory over the course of 3 years by removing liana biomass and an equal amount of tree biomass in 40 plots at 10 sites in a secondary tropical moist forest in central Panama. We found that growth of understory trees and lianas, as well as planted seedlings, was limited due to competitive effects from both lianas and trees, though the competitive impacts varied by species, season, and size of neighbors. The removal of trees resulted in greater survival of planted seedlings compared to the removal of lianas, apparently related to a greater release from competition for light. In contrast, lianas had a species-specific negative effect on drought-tolerant Dipteryx oleifera seedlings during the dry season, potentially due to competition for water. We conclude that, at local scales, lianas and trees have unique and differential effects on understory dynamics, with lianas potentially competing more strongly during the dry season, and trees competing more strongly for light.

  16. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad viruses, was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow phenotype (n = 20, but R5(broad and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3 or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that R5(broad viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  17. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  18. Reanalysis of Coreceptor Tropism in HIV-1–Infected Adults Using a Phenotypic Assay with Enhanced Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Mathew Bidwell; Leduc, Robert; Skowron, Gail; Su, Zhaohui; Chan, Ellen S.; Heera, Jayyant; Chapman, Doug; Spritzler, John; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Gulick, Roy M.; Coakley, Eoin

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay (TF-ES; Monogram Biosciences) was used to retest coreceptor tropism samples from 4 different cohorts of HIV-1–infected patients. Nine percent to 26% of patients with CCR5-tropic virus by the original Trofile assay had CXCR4-using virus by TF-ES. Lower CD4 cell counts were associated with CXCR4-using virus in all cohorts. PMID:21427401

  19. Comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tropism Profiles in Clinical Samples by the Trofile and MT-2 Assays▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the method that is the most widely used to define tropism in the clinic prior to the use of a CCR5 antagonist. By comparison, the MT-2 assay has been used since early in the HIV epidemic to define tropism in clinical specimens. Given that there are few data from direct comparisons of these two assays, we evaluated the performance of the plasma-based Trofile assay and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based MT-2 assay for the detection of CXCR4 use in defining the tropism of HIV isolates derived from clinical samples. The various samples used for this comparison were derived from participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection and AIDS who underwent consecutive MT-2 assay testing of their PBMCs at approximately 3-month intervals. This unique sample set was specifically selected because consecutive MT-2 assays had demonstrated a shift from negative to positive in PBMCs, reflecting the first emergence of CXCR4-using virus in PBMCs above the level of detection of the assay in these individuals. Trofile testing was performed with clonal HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants (n = 21), MT-2 cell culture-derived cells (n = 20) and supernatants (n = 42), and plasma samples (n = 76). Among the clonal HIV-1 variants and MT-2 cell culture-derived samples, the results of the Trofile and MT-2 assays demonstrated a high degree of concordance (95% to 98%). Among consecutive plasma samples, detection of CXCR4-using virus was at or before the time of first detection by the MT-2 assay in 5/10 patients by the original Trofile assay and in 9/10 patients by the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay. Differences in the time to the first detection of CXCR4 use between the MT-2 assay (PBMCs

  20. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tropism profiles in clinical samples by the Trofile and MT-2 assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B

    2009-11-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the method that is the most widely used to define tropism in the clinic prior to the use of a CCR5 antagonist. By comparison, the MT-2 assay has been used since early in the HIV epidemic to define tropism in clinical specimens. Given that there are few data from direct comparisons of these two assays, we evaluated the performance of the plasma-based Trofile assay and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based MT-2 assay for the detection of CXCR4 use in defining the tropism of HIV isolates derived from clinical samples. The various samples used for this comparison were derived from participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection and AIDS who underwent consecutive MT-2 assay testing of their PBMCs at approximately 3-month intervals. This unique sample set was specifically selected because consecutive MT-2 assays had demonstrated a shift from negative to positive in PBMCs, reflecting the first emergence of CXCR4-using virus in PBMCs above the level of detection of the assay in these individuals. Trofile testing was performed with clonal HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants (n = 21), MT-2 cell culture-derived cells (n = 20) and supernatants (n = 42), and plasma samples (n = 76). Among the clonal HIV-1 variants and MT-2 cell culture-derived samples, the results of the Trofile and MT-2 assays demonstrated a high degree of concordance (95% to 98%). Among consecutive plasma samples, detection of CXCR4-using virus was at or before the time of first detection by the MT-2 assay in 5/10 patients by the original Trofile assay and in 9/10 patients by the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay. Differences in the time to the first detection of CXCR4 use between the MT-2 assay (PBMCs

  1. Partial protective effect of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in a cohort of heterosexual Italian HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauda Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite multiple sexual exposure to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative (exposed seronegative, ESN. The mechanisms underlying this resistance remain still unclear, although a multifactorial pathogenesis can be hypothesised. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozigosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32 bp deletion, i.e. CCR5-Delta32 allele is presently considered the most relevant one. In the present study we analysed the genotype at CCR5 locus of 30 Italian ESN individuals (case group who referred multiple unprotected heterosexual intercourse with HIV-1 seropositive partner(s, for at least two years. One hundred and twenty HIV-1 infected patients and 120 individuals representative of the general population were included as control groups. Twenty percent of ESN individuals had heterozygous CCR5-Delta 32 genotype, compared to 7.5% of HIV-1 seropositive and 10% of individuals from the general population, respectively. None of the analysed individuals had CCR5-Delta 32 homozygous genotype. Sequence analysis of the entire open reading frame of CCR5 was performed in all ESN subjects and no polymorphisms or mutations were identified. Moreover, we determined the distribution of C77G variant in CD45 gene, which has been previously related to HIV-1 infection susceptibility. The frequency of the C77G variant showed no significant difference between ESN subjects and the two control groups. In conclusion, our data show a significantly higher frequency of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygous genotype (p = 0.04 among the Italian heterosexual ESN individuals compared to HIV-1 seropositive patients, suggesting a partial protective role of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in this cohort.

  2. Simultaneous detection of six stone fruit viruses by non-isotopic molecular hybridization using a unique riboprobe or 'polyprobe'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, M Carmen; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus A; Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente

    2005-03-01

    A new strategy for the simultaneous detection of plant viruses by molecular hybridization has been developed. Two, four or six viral sequences were fused in tandem and transcribed to render unique riboprobes and designated as 'polyprobes'. The 'polyprobe four' (poly 4) covered the four ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees including apple mosaic virus (ApMV), prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), prune dwarf virus (PDV), and American plum line pattern virus (APLPV) whereas the 'polyprobe two' (poly 2) was designed to detect simultaneously, plum pox virus (PPV) and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), the two more important viruses affecting these trees. Finally, a 'polyprobe six' (poly 6) was generated to detect any of the six viruses. The three polyprobes were comparable to the individual riboprobes in terms of end-point dilution limit and specificity. The validation of the new simultaneous detection strategy was confirmed by the analysis of 46 field samples from up to seven different hosts collected from 10 different geographical areas.

  3. Investigating the association of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 polymorphism with cervical cancer in human papillomavirus (HPV positive patients - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.944 Investigating association of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 polymorphism with cervical cancer in human papillomavirus (HPV suggestive patients - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Donizete Borelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available HPV is one of the most frequent causes for the development of cervical cancer. It is known that chemokines are important determinants of early inflammatory responses. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 gene is involved in the chemotaxis of leukocytes toward inflammation sites. In the present study, polymerase chain reactions (PCR in genomic DNA samples, using specific CCR5 oligonucleotide primers surrounding the breakpoint deletion, detected a 225 bp product from the normal CCR5 allele and a 193 bp product from the 32 bp deletion allele. The wild type genotype was prevalent in both group, but it was not statistically significant, with χ2 = 1.519 (2 degrees of freedom; p > 0.05. As there are a small number of 32 allele carriers, further studies are needed to clarify the role of CCR5 in the cervical cancer.HPV is the most responsible of cervical cancer. It is known that chemokines are important determinants of the early inflammatory response. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 gene is involved in the chemotaxis of leukocytes toward inflammation sites. In the present study, polymerase chain reactions (PCR in genomic DNA samples, using specific CCR5 oligonucleotide primers surrounding the breakpoint deletion, detected a 225bp product from the normal CCR5 allele and a 193bp product from the 32bp deletion allele. The wild type genotype was prevalent in both group, but it wasn’t statistically significant with χ² =1,519 (2 degrees of freedom; p>0.05. Once there is a small number of 32 allele carriers, further studies are needed to clarify the role of CCR5 in the cervical cancer.

  4. The pKR+ values of coordinated propargyl cations [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(μ-η2, η3-HC≡CCR1R2)]+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The pK R + values metal-stabilised carbocations [Cp 2 Mo 2 (CO) 4 (μ-η 2 , η 3 -HC≡CCR 1 R 2 )] + (R 1 = R 2 H, R 1 = H, R 2 = Me and R 1 = R 2 = Me) are measured in 50 % aqueous MeCN. Stability of the cations is increased on going from tertiary to primary carbocations [ru

  5. Exacerbation of Facial Motoneuron Loss after Facial Nerve Axotomy in CCR3-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A Wainwright

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3–/– mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2 –/– (recombination activating gene-2-deficient mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3–/– mice, but not in CCR3–/– mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

  6. In vivo evolution of HIV-1 co-receptor usage and sensitivity to chemokine-mediated suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, G; Tresoldi, E; Björndal, A; Fredriksson, R; Colognesi, C; Deng, H K; Malnati, M S; Plebani, A; Siccardi, A G; Littman, D R; Fenyö, E M; Lusso, P

    1997-11-01

    Following the identification of the C-C chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta as major human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells, several chemokine receptors were found to serve as membrane co-receptors for primate immunodeficiency lentiretroviruses. The two most widely used co-receptors thus far recognized, CCR5 and CXCR4, are expressed by both activated T lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. CCR5, a specific RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1 receptor, is used preferentially by non-MT2-tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains and by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), whereas CXCR4, a receptor for the C-X-C chemokine SDF-1, is used by MT2-tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2, but not by SIV. Other receptors with a more restricted cellular distribution, such as CCR2b, CCR3 and STRL33, can also function as co-receptors for selected viral isolates. The third variable region (V3) of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 has been fingered as a critical determinant of the co-receptor choice. Here, we document a consistent pattern of evolution of viral co-receptor usage and sensitivity to chemokine-mediated suppression in a longitudinal follow-up of children with progressive HIV-1 infection. Viral isolates obtained during the asymptomatic stages generally used only CCR5 as a co-receptor and were inhibited by RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, but not by SDF-1. By contrast, the majority of the isolates derived after the progression of the disease were resistant to C-C chemokines, having acquired the ability to use CXCR4 and, in some cases, CCR3, while gradually losing CCR5 usage. Surprisingly, most of these isolates were also insensitive to SDF-1, even when used in combination with RANTES. An early acquisition of CXCR4 usage predicted a poor prognosis. In children who progressed to AIDS without a shift to CXCR4 usage, all the sequential isolates were CCR5-dependent but showed a reduced sensitivity to C-C chemokines. Discrete changes in the V3 domain

  7. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Florida's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  8. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Arkansas' college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  9. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Minnesota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  10. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alaska's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  11. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  12. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Georgia's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  13. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Alabama's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  14. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Tennessee's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  15. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on California's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  16. [Maraviroc: clinical trials results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidiac, C; Katlama, C; Yeni, P

    2008-03-01

    Just over a decade after identification of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for HIV, maraviroc (Celsentri), the first CCR5 antagonist, has recently obtained its Marketing Authorization in the United States and Europe, for treatment of treatment-experienced adult patients infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 detectable. CCR5 antagonists, after fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide available since 2003, also belong to entry inhibitors. These molecules, unlike previous antiretrovirals, do not target the virus but its target cell by blocking viral penetration. Maraviroc has shown its clinical efficacy in patients failing other antiretroviral classes. Its safety profile was similar to placebo in two large phase III trials. However, careful assessment of both hepatic and immunologic safety of this new therapeutic class is needed. Viral tropism testing has to be investigated before using maraviroc in the clinic, because CCR5 antagonists are not active against CXCR4 viruses. For the moment indicated for the treatment-experienced patient population, maraviroc could in the future benefit to other types of patients, depending on ongoing trials results.

  17. Adverse effect of the CCR5 promoter -2459A allele on HIV-1 disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T B; Kristiansen, T B; Katzenstein, T L

    2001-01-01

    /G transition that has been discovered recently, have also been shown to influence HIV progression. Since genetic linkages make these polymorphisms interdependent variables, the aim of the present study was to isolate and evaluate the effect on HIV disease progression for each of these mutations independently......HIV positive individuals heterozygous for a 32 basepair deletion in the CCR5 encoding gene (CCR5 Delta32) have a reduced number of CCR5 receptors on the cell surface and a slower progression towards AIDS and death. Other human polymorphisms, such as the CCR2 64I and the CCR5 promoter -2459 A...

  18. CCR2-V64I polymorphism is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer but not with HPV infection or pre-cancerous lesions in African women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Dandara, Collet; Hoffman, Margaret; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer, caused by specific oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. A large number of young sexually active women get infected by HPV but only a small fraction of them have persistent infection and develop cervical cancer pointing to co- factors including host genetics that might play a role in outcome of the HPV infection. This study investigated the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer, pre-cancers and HPV infection in South African women resident in Western Cape. CCR2-V64I polymorphism has been previously reported to influence the progression to cervical cancer in some populations and has also been associated with decreased progression from HIV infection to AIDS. Genotyping for CCR2-V64I was done by PCR-SSP in a case-control study of 446 women (106 black African and 340 mixed-ancestry) with histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer and 1432 controls (322 black African and 1110 mixed-ancestry) group-matched (1:3) by age, ethnicity and domicile status. In the control women HPV was detected using the Digene Hybrid Capture II test and cervical disease was detected by cervical cytology. The CCR2-64I variant was significantly associated with cervical cancer when cases were compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Further analysis comparing selected groups within the controls showed that individuals with abnormal cytology and high grade squamous intraepitleial neoplasia (HSIL) did not have this association when compared to women with normal cytology. HPV infection also showed no association with CCR2-64I variant. Comparing SIL positive controls with the cases showed a significant association of CCR2-64I variant (P = 0.001) with cervical cancer. This is the first study of the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer in an African population. Our results show that CCR2-64I variant is associated with the risk of cervical cancer but does not affect the susceptibility to HPV

  19. The Effect of Post-Resistance Exercise Amino Acids on Plasma MCP-1 and CCR2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Wells

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment and infiltration of classical monocytes into damaged muscle is critical for optimal tissue remodeling. This study examined the effects of an amino acid supplement on classical monocyte recruitment following an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm ingested supplement (SUPP or placebo (PL immediately post-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL, immediately (IP, 30-min (30P, 1-h (1H, 2-h (2H, and 5-h (5H post-exercise to assess plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, myoglobin, cortisol and insulin concentrations; and expressions of C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2, and macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b on classical monocytes. Magnitude-based inferences were used to provide inferences on the true effects of SUPP compared to PL. Changes in myoglobin, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were similar between treatments. Compared to PL, plasma MCP-1 was “very likely greater” (98.1% likelihood effect in SUPP at 2H. CCR2 expression was “likely greater” at IP (84.9% likelihood effect, “likely greater” at 1H (87.7% likelihood effect, “very likely greater” at 2H (97.0% likelihood effect, and “likely greater” at 5H (90.1% likelihood effect in SUPP, compared to PL. Ingestion of SUPP did not influence CD11b expression. Ingestion of an amino acid supplement immediately post-exercise appears to help maintain plasma MCP-1 concentrations and augment CCR2 expression in resistance trained men.

  20. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Arcy, Allan, E-mail: allan.darcy@novartis.com; Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic [Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Protease Platform, Klybeckstrasse 144, CH 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Lim, Siew Pheng [Novartis Institutes of Tropical Diseases (Singapore); Lefeuvre, Peggy [Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Protease Platform, Klybeckstrasse 144, CH 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Erbel, Paul [Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Protease Platform, Klybeckstrasse 144, CH 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Novartis Institutes of Tropical Diseases (Singapore)

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained.

  1. Purification and crystallization of dengue and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Arcy, Allan; Chaillet, Maxime; Schiering, Nikolaus; Villard, Frederic; Lim, Siew Pheng; Lefeuvre, Peggy; Erbel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Crystals of dengue serotype 2 and West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 protease complexes have been obtained and the crystals of both diffract to useful resolution. Sample homogeneity was essential for obtaining X-ray-quality crystals of the dengue protease. Controlled proteolysis produced a crystallizable fragment of the apo West Nile virus NS2B–NS3 and crystals were also obtained in the presence of a peptidic inhibitor. Both dengue and West Nile virus infections are an increasing risk to humans, not only in tropical and subtropical areas, but also in North America and parts of Europe. These viral infections are generally transmitted by mosquitoes, but may also be tick-borne. Infection usually results in mild flu-like symptoms, but can also cause encephalitis and fatalities. Approximately 2799 severe West Nile virus cases were reported this year in the United States, resulting in 102 fatalities. With this alarming increase in the number of West Nile virus infections in western countries and the fact that dengue virus already affects millions of people per year in tropical and subtropical climates, there is a real need for effective medicines. A possible therapeutic target to combat these viruses is the protease, which is essential for virus replication. In order to provide structural information to help to guide a lead identification and optimization program, crystallizations of the NS2B–NS3 protease complexes from both dengue and West Nile viruses have been initiated. Crystals that diffract to high resolution, suitable for three-dimensional structure determinations, have been obtained

  2. Deficient Fas expression by CD4+ CCR5+ T cells in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julià, Eva; Montalban, Xavier; Al-Zayat, Hammad

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether T cells expressing CCR5 and CXCR3 from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are more resistant to apoptosis. METHODS: Expression of CD69, TNF-R1, Fas, FasL, bcl-2, and bax was investigated in 41 MS patients and 12 healthy controls by flow cytometry in CD4+ and CD8+ T...... cells expressing CCR5 and CXCR3. RESULTS: In MS patients, the percentage of CD69 was increased and Fas expression decreased in CD4+ CCR5+ T cells. INTERPRETATION: The lower Fas expression in activated CD4+ CCR5+ T cells might contribute to disease pathogenesis by prolonging cell survival and favoring...

  3. Determination of Coreceptor Usage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 from Patient Plasma Samples by Using a Recombinant Phenotypic Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouplin, Virginie; Salvatori, Francesca; Cappello, Fanny; Obry, Veronique; Brelot, Anne; Heveker, Nikolaus; Alizon, Marc; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Clavel, François; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2001-01-01

    We developed a recombinant virus technique to determine the coreceptor usage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from plasma samples, the source expected to represent the most actively replicating virus population in infected subjects. This method is not subject to selective bias associated with virus isolation in culture, a step required for conventional tropism determination procedures. The addition of a simple subcloning step allowed semiquantitative evaluation of virus populations with a different coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) usage specificity present in each plasma sample. This procedure detected mixtures of CCR5- and CXCR4-exclusive virus populations as well as dualtropic viral variants, in variable proportions. Sequence analysis of dualtropic clones indicated that changes in the V3 loop are necessary for the use of CXCR4 as a coreceptor, but the overall context of the V1-V3 region is important to preserve the capacity to use CCR5. This convenient technique can greatly assist the study of virus evolution and compartmentalization in infected individuals. PMID:11119595

  4. Elucidation of the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes of MIP-1α by application of an NMR spectra reconstruction method to the transferred cross-saturation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Chie; Ueda, Takumi; Kofuku, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Okude, Junya; Kondo, Keita; Shiraishi, Yutaro; Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    C–C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) and CCR5 are involved in various inflammation and immune responses, and regulate the progression of the autoimmune diseases differently. However, the number of residues identified at the binding interface was not sufficient to clarify the differences in the CCR1- and CCR5-binding modes to MIP-1α, because the NMR measurement time for CCR1 and CCR5 samples was limited to 24 h, due to their low stability. Here we applied a recently developed NMR spectra reconstruction method, Conservation of experimental data in ANAlysis of FOuRier, to the amide-directed transferred cross-saturation experiments of chemokine receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, embedded in lipid bilayers of the reconstituted high density lipoprotein, and MIP-1α. Our experiments revealed that the residues on the N-loop and β-sheets of MIP-1α are close to both CCR1 and CCR5, and those in the C-terminal helix region are close to CCR5. These results suggest that the genetic influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms of MIP-1α that accompany substitution of residues in the C-terminal helix region, E57 and V63, would provide clues toward elucidating how the CCR5–MIP-1α interaction affects the progress of autoimmune diseases.

  5. O'nyong nyong virus molecular determinants of unique vector specificity reside in non-structural protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali D Saxton-Shaw

    Full Text Available O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV are two closely related alphaviruses with very different infection patterns in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. ONNV is the only alphavirus transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, but specific molecular determinants of infection of this unique vector specificity remain unidentified. Fifteen distinct chimeric viruses were constructed to evaluate both structural and non-structural regions of the genome and infection patterns were determined through artificial infectious feeds in An. gambiae with each of these chimeras. Only one region, non-structural protein 3 (nsP3, was sufficient to up-regulate infection to rates similar to those seen with parental ONNV. When ONNV non-structural protein 3 (nsP3 replaced nsP3 from CHIKV virus in one of the chimeric viruses, infection rates in An. gambiae went from 0% to 63.5%. No other single gene or viral region addition was able to restore infection rates. Thus, we have shown that a non-structural genome element involved in viral replication is a major element involved in ONNV's unique vector specificity.

  6. Increased brain damage after ischaemic stroke in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, S; Bonnefont, J; Julien, S; Marq-Lin, N; Rodriguez, I; Dubois-Dauphin, M; Krause, KH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The chemokine receptor CCR5 is well known for its function in immune cells; however, it is also expressed in the brain, where its specific role remains to be elucidated. Because genetic factors may influence the risk of developing cerebral ischaemia or affect its clinical outcome, we have analysed the role of CCR5 in experimental stroke. Experimental approach: Permanent cerebral ischaemia was performed by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice. Locomotor behaviour, infarct size and histochemical alterations were analysed at different time points after occlusion. Key results: The cerebral vasculature was comparable in wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice. However, the size of the infarct and the motor deficits after occlusion were markedly increased in CCR5-deficient mice as compared with wild type. No differences between wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice were elicited by occlusion with respect to the morphology and abundance of astrocytes and microglia. Seven days after occlusion the majority of CCR5-deficient mice displayed neutrophil invasion in the infarct region, which was not observed in wild type. As compared with wild type, the infarct regions of CCR5-deficient mice were characterized by increased neuronal death. Conclusions and implications: Lack of CCR5 increased the severity of brain injury following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. This is of particular interest with respect to the relatively frequent occurrence of CCR5 deficiency in the human population (1–2% of the Caucasian population) and the advent of CCR5 inhibitors as novel drugs. PMID:20423342

  7. Engineering HIV-1-resistant T-cells from short-hairpin RNA-expressing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in humanized BLT mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Errol E Ringpis

    Full Text Available Down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 holds significant potential for long-term protection against HIV-1 in patients. Using the humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (hu-BLT mouse model which allows investigation of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC transplant and immune system reconstitution as well as HIV-1 infection, we previously demonstrated stable inhibition of CCR5 expression in systemic lymphoid tissues via transplantation of HSPCs genetically modified by lentiviral vector transduction to express short hairpin RNA (shRNA. However, CCR5 down-regulation will not be effective against existing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 and emergence of resistant viral strains. As such, combination approaches targeting additional steps in the virus lifecycle are required. We screened a panel of previously published shRNAs targeting highly conserved regions and identified a potent shRNA targeting the R-region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR. Here, we report that human CD4(+ T-cells derived from transplanted HSPC engineered to co-express shRNAs targeting CCR5 and HIV-1 LTR are resistant to CCR5- and CXCR4- tropic HIV-1-mediated depletion in vivo. Transduction with the combination vector suppressed CXCR4- and CCR5- tropic viral replication in cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. No obvious cytotoxicity or interferon response was observed. Transplantation of combination vector-transduced HSPC into hu-BLT mice resulted in efficient engraftment and subsequent stable gene marking and CCR5 down-regulation in human CD4(+ T-cells within peripheral blood and systemic lymphoid tissues, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue, a major site of robust viral replication, for over twelve weeks. CXCR4- and CCR5- tropic HIV-1 infection was effectively inhibited in hu-BLT mouse spleen-derived human CD4(+ T-cells ex vivo. Furthermore, levels of gene-marked CD4(+ T-cells in peripheral blood increased despite systemic infection with either

  8. A paternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18 includes eight breakpoints and five insertional translocations (ITs) through three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Kessler, Ketty; Gourdier, Dominique; Leporrier, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are uncommon and mainly occur de novo. We report here on a familial CCR involving chromosomes 2, 6, and 18. The propositus is a boy first referred because of growth delays, hypotonia, and facial anomalies, suggestive of deletion 18q syndrome. However, a cytogenetic family study disclosed a balanced CCR in three generations, which was detailed by FISH using BAC clones, and consisted of eight breakpoints with five insertional translocations (ITs). The propositus had a cryptic 18q deletion and a 6p duplication. Paternal transmission of this CCR was observed through three generations without meiotic recombination. Our investigation allowed us to provide porosities counseling and management of prenatal diagnosis for propositus cousin who carries this particular CCR.

  9. The discovery of tropane-derived CCR5 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Duncan R; de Groot, Marcel J; Price, David A; Stammen, Blanda L C; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos; Burt, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    The development of compound 1, a piperidine-based CCR5 receptor antagonist with Type I CYP2D6 inhibition, into the tropane-derived analogue 5, is described. This compound, which is devoid of CYP2D6 liabilities, is a highly potent ligand for the CCR5 receptor and has broad-spectrum activity against a range of clinically relevant HIV isolates. The identification of human ether a-go-go-related gene channel inhibition within this series is described and the potential for QTc interval prolongation discussed. Furthermore, structure activity relationship (SAR) around the piperidine moiety is also described.

  10. Tumor hypoxia modulates podoplanin/CCL21 interactions in CCR7+ NK cell recruitment and CCR7+ tumor cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejchman, Anna; Lamerant-Fayel, Nathalie; Jacquinet, Jean-Claude; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Mleczko-Sanecka, Katarzyna; Grillon, Catherine; Chouaib, Salem; Ugorski, Maciej; Kieda, Claudine

    2017-05-09

    Podoplanin (PDPN), an O-glycosylated, transmembrane, mucin-type glycoprotein, is expressed by cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). In malignant transformation, PDPN is subjected to changes and its role is yet to be established. Here we show that it is involved in modulating the activity of the CCL21/CCR7 chemokine/receptor axis in a hypoxia-dependent manner. In the present model, breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and NKL3 cells express the surface CCR7 receptor for CCL21 chemokine which is a potent chemoattractant able to bind to PDPN. The impact of the CCL21/CCR7 axis in the molecular mechanism of the adhesion of NKL3 cells and of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was reduced in a hypoxic tumor environment. In addition to its known effect on migration, CCL21/CCR7 interaction was shown to allow NK cell adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) and its reduction by hypoxia. A PDPN expressing model of CAFs made it possible to demonstrate the same CCL21/CCR7 axis involvement in the tumor cells to CAFs recognition mechanism through PDPN binding of CCL21. PDPN was induced by hypoxia and its overexpression undergoes a reduction of adhesion, making it an anti-adhesion molecule in the absence of CCL21, in the tumor. CCL21/CCR7 modulated NK cells/ECs and MDA-MB-231 cells/CAF PDPN-dependent interactions were further shown to be linked to hypoxia-dependent microRNAs as miRs: miR-210 and specifically miR-21, miR-29b which influence PDPN expression.

  11. Effectiveness and cost of treatment with maraviroc in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Sacchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, life expectancy and quality of life of HIV patients improved significantly due to the use of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART, consisting of different combinations of three classes of antiretroviral agents, nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors. Recently, new treatment options for individuals developing resistance to these drugs have become available, with the appearance of new drug classes like integrase inhibitors, fusion inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists. Maraviroc is the first antiretroviral agent belonging to the latter drug class approved for clinical use. CCR5 receptor antagonists act by blocking the interaction of the HIV virus with the CCR5 chemokine receptor, a co-receptor essential to the entry process of R5-tropic viruses. The drug is indicated, in combination with other antiretroviral products, for treatment-experienced adult patients infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 detectable virus strains. Results of main phase III clinical trials indicate that maraviroc, in combination with optimized background therapy (OBT, causes significantly greater reductions in viral load and increases in CD4+ cell count, as compared to OBT alone in this kind of patients. In Italy, the monthly cost of maraviroc therapy is about € 780. A number of economic evaluations, performed for different settings, demonstrate that the therapy including maraviroc is cost-effective if compared to OBT alone, determining an ICER generally below the threshold of three times the GDP per capita. In the Italian context, the ICER determined by OBT + maraviroc vs OBT alone is approximately 45,000 €/LYG.

  12. Common angiotensin receptor blockers may directly modulate the immune system via VDR, PPAR and CCR2b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been indications that common Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs may be exerting anti-inflammatory actions by directly modulating the immune system. We decided to use molecular modelling to rapidly assess which of the potential targets might justify the expense of detailed laboratory validation. We first studied the VDR nuclear receptor, which is activated by the secosteroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D. This receptor mediates the expression of regulators as ubiquitous as GnRH (Gonadatrophin hormone releasing hormone and the Parathyroid Hormone (PTH. Additionally we examined Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARgamma, which affects the function of phagocytic cells, and the C-CChemokine Receptor, type 2b, (CCR2b, which recruits monocytes to the site of inflammatory immune challenge. Results Telmisartan was predicted to strongly antagonize (Ki≈0.04nmol the VDR. The ARBs Olmesartan, Irbesartan and Valsartan (Ki≈10 nmol are likely to be useful VDR antagonists at typical in-vivo concentrations. Candesartan (Ki≈30 nmol and Losartan (Ki≈70 nmol may also usefully inhibit the VDR. Telmisartan is a strong modulator of PPARgamma (Ki≈0.3 nmol, while Losartan (Ki≈3 nmol, Irbesartan (Ki≈6 nmol, Olmesartan and Valsartan (Ki≈12 nmol also seem likely to have significant PPAR modulatory activity. Olmesartan andIrbesartan (Ki≈9 nmol additionally act as antagonists of a theoretical modelof CCR2b. Initial validation of this CCR2b model was performed, and a proposed model for the AngiotensinII Type1 receptor (AT2R1 has been presented. Conclusion Molecular modeling has proven valuable to generate testable hypotheses concerning receptor/ligand binding and is an important tool in drug design. ARBs were designed to act as antagonists for AT2R1, and it was not surprising to discover their affinity for the structurally similar CCR2b. However, this study also found evidence that ARBs modulate the

  13. De-novo Collateral Formation Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Dependence on CCR2+ Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E

    2015-01-01

    Wide variation exists in the extent (number and diameter) of native pre-existing collaterals in tissues of different strains of mice, with supportive indirect evidence recently appearing for humans. This variation is a major determinant of the wide variation in severity of tissue injury in occlusive vascular disease. Whether such genetic-dependent variation also exists in the heart is unknown because no model exists for study of mouse coronary collaterals. Also owing to methodological limitations, it is not known if ischemia can induce new coronary collaterals to form (“neo-collaterals”) versus remodeling of pre-existing ones. The present study sought to develop a model to study coronary collaterals in mice, determine whether neo-collateral formation occurs, and investigate the responsible mechanisms. Four strains with known rank-ordered differences in collateral extent in brain and skeletal muscle were studied: C57BLKS>C57BL/6>A/J>BALB/c. Unexpectedly, these and 5 additional strains lacked native coronary collaterals. However after ligation, neo-collaterals formed rapidly within 1-to-2 days, reaching their maximum extent in ≤ 7 days. Rank-order for neo-collateral formation differed from the above: C57BL/6>BALB/c>C57BLKS>A/J. Collateral network conductance, infarct volume−1, and contractile function followed this same rank-order. Neo-collateral formation and collateral conductance were reduced and infarct volume increased in MCP1−/− and CCR2−/− mice. Bone-marrow transplant rescued collateral formation in CCR2−/− mice. Involvement of fractalkine→CX3CR1 signaling and endothelial cell proliferation were also identified. This study introduces a model for investigating the coronary collateral circulation in mice, demonstrates that neocollaterals form rapidly after coronary occlusion, and finds that MCP→CCR2-mediated recruitment of myeloid cells is required for this process. PMID:26254180

  14. Structure-Activity Relationships and Identification of Optmized CC-Chemokine Receptor CCR1, 5, and 8 Metal-Ion Chelators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chalikiopoulos, Alexander; Thiele, Stefanie; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine receptors are involved in trafficking of leukocytes and represent targets for autoimmune conditions, inflammatory diseases, viral infections, and cancer. We recently published CCR1, CCR8, and CCR5 agonists and positive modulators based on a three metal-ion chelator series: 2,2'-bipyridi...

  15. Oral CCR5 inhibitors: will they make it through?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Priscilla; Nozza, Silvia; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe

    2006-05-01

    The therapeutic armamentarium against HIV has recently gained a drug belonging to a novel class of antiretrovirals, the entry inhibitors. The last decade has driven an in-depth knowledge of the HIV entry process, unravelling the multiple engagements of the HIV envelope proteins with the cellular receptorial complex that is composed of a primary receptor (CD4) and a co-receptor (CCR5 or CXCR4). The vast majority of HIV-infected subjects exhibit biological viral variants that use CCR5 as a co-receptor. Individuals with a mutated CCR5 gene, both homo- and heterozygotes, appear to be healthy. For these and other reasons, CCR5 represents an appealing target for treatment intervention, although certain challenges can not be ignored. Promising small-molecule, orally bioavailable CCR5 antagonists are under development for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  16. The CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype influences the development of AIDS, but not HIV susceptibility or the response to HAART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanton, Jennifer [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Kim, Eun - Young [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Kunstman, Kevin [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Phair, John [NORTHWESTERN UNIV; Jacobson, Lisa P [JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV; Wolinsky, Steven M [NORTHWESTERN UNIV

    2008-01-01

    A selective advantage against infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS is associated with differences in the genes relevant to immunity and virus replication. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the principal coreceptor for HIV, and its chemokine ligands, including CCL3L1, influences the CD4+ target cells susceptibility to infection. The CCL3L1 gene is in a region of segmental duplication on the q-arm of human chromosome 17. Increased numbers of CCL3L1 gene copies that affect the gene expression phenotype might have substantial protective effects. Here we show that the population-specific CCL3L1 gene copy number and the CCR5 {Delta}32 protein-inactivating deletion that categorizes the CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype do not influence HIV/AIDS susceptibility or the robustness of immune recovery after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  17. Molecular and antigenic characterization of reassortant H3N2 viruses from turkeys with a unique constellation of pandemic H1N1 internal genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Berhane

    Full Text Available Triple reassortant (TR H3N2 influenza viruses cause varying degrees of loss in egg production in breeder turkeys. In this study we characterized TR H3N2 viruses isolated from three breeder turkey farms diagnosed with a drop in egg production. The eight gene segments of the virus isolated from the first case submission (FAV-003 were all of TR H3N2 lineage. However, viruses from the two subsequent case submissions (FAV-009 and FAV-010 were unique reassortants with PB2, PA, nucleoprotein (NP and matrix (M gene segments from 2009 pandemic H1N1 and the remaining gene segments from TR H3N2. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes placed the 3 virus isolates in 2 separate clades within cluster IV of TR H3N2 viruses. Birds from the latter two affected farms had been vaccinated with a H3N4 oil emulsion vaccine prior to the outbreak. The HAl subunit of the H3N4 vaccine strain had only a predicted amino acid identity of 79% with the isolate from FAV-003 and 80% for the isolates from FAV-009 and FAV-0010. By comparison, the predicted amino acid sequence identity between a prototype TR H3N2 cluster IV virus A/Sw/ON/33853/2005 and the three turkey isolates from this study was 95% while the identity between FAV-003 and FAV-009/10 isolates was 91%. When the previously identified antigenic sites A, B, C, D and E of HA1 were examined, isolates from FAV-003 and FAV-009/10 had a total of 19 and 16 amino acid substitutions respectively when compared with the H3N4 vaccine strain. These changes corresponded with the failure of the sera collected from turkeys that received this vaccine to neutralize any of the above three isolates in vitro.

  18. Involvement of CCR-2 chemokine receptor activation in ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning of brain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet

    2012-10-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the potential role of CCR-2 chemokine receptor in ischemic preconditioning as well as postconditioning induced reversal of ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse brain. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 17 min followed by reperfusion for 24h was employed in present study to produce ischemia and reperfusion induced cerebral injury in mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was evaluated using elevated plus-maze test and Morris water maze test. Rota rod test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced cerebral infarction and impaired memory and motor co-ordination. Three preceding episodes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 1 min and reperfusion of 1 min were employed to elicit ischemic preconditioning of brain, while three episodes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10s and reperfusion of 10s immediately after the completion of were employed to elicit ischemic postconditioning of brain. Both prior ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic postconditioning immediately after global cerebral ischemia prevented markedly ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury as measured in terms of infarct size, loss of memory and motor coordination. RS 102895, a selective CCR-2 chemokine receptor antagonist, attenuated the neuroprotective effect of both the ischemic preconditioning as well as postconditioning. It is concluded that the neuroprotective effect of both ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic postconditioning may involve the activation of CCR-2 chemokine receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tropism profiles in clinical samples by the Trofile and MT-2 assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the

  20. Interaction between NANOS2 and the CCR4-NOT Deadenylation Complex Is Essential for Male Germ Cell Development in Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Saba, Rie; Miyoshi, Kei; Morita, Yoshinori; Saga, Yumiko

    2012-01-01

    Nanos is one of the evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in germ cell development and we have previously shown that it interacts with the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex leading to the suppression of specific RNAs. However, the molecular mechanism and physiological significance of this interaction have remained elusive. In our present study, we identify CNOT1, a component of the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complex, as a direct factor mediating the interaction with NANOS2. We find that the f...

  1. Narcolepsy susceptibility gene CCR3 modulates sleep-wake patterns in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Toyoda

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (Hcrt neurons and is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Although abnormalities in immunity are suggested to be involved in the etiology of narcolepsy, no decisive mechanism has been established. We previously reported chemokine (C-C motif receptor 3 (CCR3 as a novel susceptibility gene for narcolepsy. To understand the role of CCR3 in the development of narcolepsy, we investigated sleep-wake patterns of Ccr3 knockout (KO mice. Ccr3 KO mice exhibited fragmented sleep patterns in the light phase, whereas the overall sleep structure in the dark phase did not differ between Ccr3 KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS promoted wakefulness and suppressed both REM and NREM sleep in the light phase in both Ccr3 KO and WT mice. Conversely, LPS suppressed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep in the dark phase in both genotypes. After LPS administration, the proportion of time spent in wakefulness was higher, and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep was lower in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice only in the light phase. LPS-induced changes in sleep patterns were larger in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we quantified the number of Hcrt neurons and found that Ccr3 KO mice had fewer Hcrt neurons in the lateral hypothalamus compared to WT mice. We found abnormalities in sleep patterns in the resting phase and in the number of Hcrt neurons in Ccr3 KO mice. These observations suggest a role for CCR3 in sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients.

  2. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on South Carolina's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  3. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  4. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on New Mexico's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  5. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on West Virginia's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  6. Systematic CpT (ApG) Depletion and CpG Excess Are Unique Genomic Signatures of Large DNA Viruses Infecting Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Sharma, Neha; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the relative abundance of dinucleotides, if any may provide important clues on host-driven evolution of viruses. We studied dinucleotide frequencies of large DNA viruses infecting vertebrates (n = 105; viruses infecting mammals = 99; viruses infecting aves = 6; viruses infecting reptiles = 1) and invertebrates (n = 88; viruses infecting insects = 84; viruses infecting crustaceans = 4). We have identified systematic depletion of CpT(ApG) dinucleotides and over-representation of CpG dinucleotides as the unique genomic signature of large DNA viruses infecting invertebrates. Detailed investigation of this unique genomic signature suggests the existence of invertebrate host-induced pressures specifically targeting CpT(ApG) and CpG dinucleotides. The depletion of CpT dinucleotides among large DNA viruses infecting invertebrates is at least in part, explained by non-canonical DNA methylation by the infected host. Our findings highlight the role of invertebrate host-related factors in shaping virus evolution and they also provide the necessary framework for future studies on evolution, epigenetics and molecular biology of viruses infecting this group of hosts. PMID:25369195

  7. De novo design of peptide immunogens that mimic the coiled coil region of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 glycoprotein 21 transmembrane subunit for induction of native protein reactive neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Roshni; Lynch, Marcus P; Rawale, Sharad V; Sun, Yiping; Kazanji, Mirdad; Kaumaya, Pravin T P

    2004-06-04

    Peptide vaccines able to induce high affinity and protective neutralizing antibodies must rely in part on the design of antigenic epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of the corresponding region in the native protein. We describe the design, structural characterization, immunogenicity, and neutralizing potential of antibodies elicited by conformational peptides derived from the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gp21 envelope glycoprotein spanning residues 347-374. We used a novel template design and a unique synthetic approach to construct two peptides (WCCR2T and CCR2T) that would each assemble into a triple helical coiled coil conformation mimicking the gp21 crystal structure. The peptide B-cell epitopes were grafted onto the epsilon side chains of three lysyl residues on a template backbone construct consisting of the sequence acetyl-XGKGKGKGCONH2 (where X represents the tetanus toxoid promiscuous T cell epitope (TT) sequence 580-599). Leucine substitutions were introduced at the a and d positions of the CCR2T sequence to maximize helical character and stability as shown by circular dichroism and guanidinium hydrochloride studies. Serum from an HTLV-1-infected patient was able to recognize the selected epitopes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mice immunized with the wild-type sequence (WCCR2T) and the mutant sequence (CCR2T) elicited high antibody titers that were capable of recognizing the native protein as shown by flow cytometry and whole virus ELISA. Sera and purified antibodies from immunized mice were able to reduce the formation of syncytia induced by the envelope glycoprotein of HTLV-1, suggesting that antibodies directed against the coiled coil region of gp21 are capable of disrupting cell-cell fusion. Our results indicate that these peptides represent potential candidates for use in a peptide vaccine against HTLV-1.

  8. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ana C; Arias, Carlos F; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2009-10-27

    Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  9. Evolutionary Analysis of Dengue Serotype 2 Viruses Using Phylogenetic and Bayesian Methods from New Delhi, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Afreen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Delhi, the metropolitan capital state of India, has reported many dengue outbreaks, with the last outbreak occurring in 2013. We have recently reported predominance of dengue virus serotype 2 during 2011-2014 in Delhi. In the present study, we report molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of dengue serotype 2 viruses which were detected in 2011-2014 in Delhi. Envelope genes of 42 DENV-2 strains were sequenced in the study. All DENV-2 strains grouped within the Cosmopolitan genotype and further clustered into three lineages; Lineage I, II and III. Lineage III replaced lineage I during dengue fever outbreak of 2013. Further, a novel mutation Thr404Ile was detected in the stem region of the envelope protein of a single DENV-2 strain in 2014. Nucleotide substitution rate and time to the most recent common ancestor were determined by molecular clock analysis using Bayesian methods. A change in effective population size of Indian DENV-2 viruses was investigated through Bayesian skyline plot. The study will be a vital road map for investigation of epidemiology and evolutionary pattern of dengue viruses in India.

  10. In-silico guided discovery of novel CCR9 antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Cross, Jason B.; Romero, Jan; Heifetz, Alexander; Humphries, Eric; Hall, Katie; Wu, Yuchuan; Stucka, Sabrina; Zhang, Jing; Chandonnet, Haoqun; Lippa, Blaise; Ryan, M. Dominic; Baber, J. Christian

    2018-03-01

    Antagonism of CCR9 is a promising mechanism for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. There is limited experimental data on CCR9 and its ligands, complicating efforts to identify new small molecule antagonists. We present here results of a successful virtual screening and rational hit-to-lead campaign that led to the discovery and initial optimization of novel CCR9 antagonists. This work uses a novel data fusion strategy to integrate the output of multiple computational tools, such as 2D similarity search, shape similarity, pharmacophore searching, and molecular docking, as well as the identification and incorporation of privileged chemokine fragments. The application of various ranking strategies, which combined consensus and parallel selection methods to achieve a balance of enrichment and novelty, resulted in 198 virtual screening hits in total, with an overall hit rate of 18%. Several hits were developed into early leads through targeted synthesis and purchase of analogs.

  11. CCR presentations at AACR | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR presentations at AACR Several CCR scientists will present their research at the AACR Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C., between April 1-5, 2017. Selected oral presentations are listed below. A full list of abstracts can be found on the AACR website.

  12. Downregulation of mouse CCR3 by lentiviral shRNA inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of mouse eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Hua; Liao, Bing; Xu, Yi; Liu, Ke; Huang, Yun; Huang, Quan-Long; Liu, Yue-Hui

    2017-02-01

    RNA interference has been considered as an effective gene silencing method in basic and preclinical investigations. The aims of the present study were to construct a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the murine CC chemokine receptor 3 (mCCR3), and to investigate its effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse eosinophils. A recombinant lentiviral vector expressing four fragments of mouse CCR3 shRNA (pLVX‑mCCR3‑1+2+3+4‑shRNA) was constructed using subcloning techniques. This novel lentivirus was then packaged into 293T cells by co‑transduction with plasmids, including Baculo p35, pCMV R8.2 and VSV. The interference effects of the vector were verified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses. The effects of the interference on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse eosinophils were investigated using 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑5‑(3‑carboxymethoxyphenyl)‑2‑(4‑sulfophenyl)‑2H‑tetrazolium and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling methods, respectively. The results of the PCR and western blot analyses confirmed that the novel recombinant vector, pLVX‑mCCR3‑1+2+3+4‑shRNA, had high efficiency in inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression levels of mCCR3 in mouse eosinophils. The downregulation of mCCR3 significantly inhibited proliferation of the eosinophils. Furthermore, the present study found that the downregulation of mCCR3 significantly promoted apoptosis of the eosinophils. Therefore, the downregulation of mCCR3 led to the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in mouse eosinophils. The predominant characteristics of allergic rhinitis are eosinophil infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators, which appear in a variety of clinical manifestations. The results of the present study indicate that mCCR3 silencing may serve as a putative approach for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  13. CCR5 is a suppressor for cortical plasticity and hippocampal learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miou; Greenhill, Stuart; Huang, Shan; Silva, Tawnie K; Sano, Yoshitake; Wu, Shumin; Cai, Ying; Nagaoka, Yoshiko; Sehgal, Megha; Cai, Denise J; Lee, Yong-Seok; Fox, Kevin; Silva, Alcino J

    2016-12-20

    Although the role of CCR5 in immunity and in HIV infection has been studied widely, its role in neuronal plasticity, learning and memory is not understood. Here, we report that decreasing the function of CCR5 increases MAPK/CREB signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP), and hippocampus-dependent memory in mice, while neuronal CCR5 overexpression caused memory deficits. Decreasing CCR5 function in mouse barrel cortex also resulted in enhanced spike timing dependent plasticity and consequently, dramatically accelerated experience-dependent plasticity. These results suggest that CCR5 is a powerful suppressor for plasticity and memory, and CCR5 over-activation by viral proteins may contribute to HIV-associated cognitive deficits. Consistent with this hypothesis, the HIV V3 peptide caused LTP, signaling and memory deficits that were prevented by Ccr5 knockout or knockdown. Overall, our results demonstrate that CCR5 plays an important role in neuroplasticity, learning and memory, and indicate that CCR5 has a role in the cognitive deficits caused by HIV.

  14. Harnessing Big Data for Communicable Tropical and Sub-Tropical Disorders: Implications From a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Gianfredi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AimAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO, communicable tropical and sub-tropical diseases occur solely, or mainly in the tropics, thriving in hot, and humid conditions. Some of these disorders termed as neglected tropical diseases are particularly overlooked. Communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases represent a diverse group of communicable disorders occurring in 149 countries, favored by tropical and sub-tropical conditions, affecting more than one billion people and imposing a dramatic societal and economic burden.MethodsA systematic review of the extant scholarly literature was carried out, searching in PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. The search string used included proper keywords, like big data, nontraditional data sources, social media, social networks, infodemiology, infoveillance, novel data streams (NDS, digital epidemiology, digital behavior, Google Trends, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, Ebola, Zika, dengue, Chikungunya, Chagas, and the other neglected tropical diseases.Results47 original, observational studies were included in the current systematic review: 1 focused on Chikungunya, 6 on dengue, 19 on Ebola, 2 on Malaria, 1 on Mayaro virus, 2 on West Nile virus, and 16 on Zika. Fifteen were dedicated on developing and validating forecasting techniques for real-time monitoring of neglected tropical diseases, while the remaining studies investigated public reaction to infectious outbreaks. Most studies explored a single nontraditional data source, with Twitter being the most exploited tool (25 studies.ConclusionEven though some studies have shown the feasibility of utilizing NDS as an effective tool for predicting epidemic outbreaks and disseminating accurate, high-quality information concerning neglected tropical diseases, some gaps should be properly underlined. Out of the 47 articles included, only 7 were focusing on neglected tropical diseases, while all the other covered communicable tropical/sub-tropical

  15. Harnessing Big Data for Communicable Tropical and Sub-Tropical Disorders: Implications From a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfredi, Vincenza; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nucci, Daniele; Martini, Mariano; Rosselli, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Moretti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), communicable tropical and sub-tropical diseases occur solely, or mainly in the tropics, thriving in hot, and humid conditions. Some of these disorders termed as neglected tropical diseases are particularly overlooked. Communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases represent a diverse group of communicable disorders occurring in 149 countries, favored by tropical and sub-tropical conditions, affecting more than one billion people and imposing a dramatic societal and economic burden. A systematic review of the extant scholarly literature was carried out, searching in PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. The search string used included proper keywords, like big data, nontraditional data sources, social media, social networks, infodemiology, infoveillance, novel data streams (NDS), digital epidemiology, digital behavior, Google Trends, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, Ebola, Zika, dengue, Chikungunya, Chagas, and the other neglected tropical diseases. 47 original, observational studies were included in the current systematic review: 1 focused on Chikungunya, 6 on dengue, 19 on Ebola, 2 on Malaria, 1 on Mayaro virus, 2 on West Nile virus, and 16 on Zika. Fifteen were dedicated on developing and validating forecasting techniques for real-time monitoring of neglected tropical diseases, while the remaining studies investigated public reaction to infectious outbreaks. Most studies explored a single nontraditional data source, with Twitter being the most exploited tool (25 studies). Even though some studies have shown the feasibility of utilizing NDS as an effective tool for predicting epidemic outbreaks and disseminating accurate, high-quality information concerning neglected tropical diseases, some gaps should be properly underlined. Out of the 47 articles included, only 7 were focusing on neglected tropical diseases, while all the other covered communicable tropical/sub-tropical diseases, and the main determinant of

  16. Analysis of proteins of mouse sarcoma pseudotype viruses: type-specific radioimmunoassays for ecotropic virus p30's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Tennant, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Murine sarcoma virus pseudotypes were prepared by infection of nonproducer cells (A1-2), which were transformed by the Gazdar strain of mouse sarcoma virus, with Gross (N-tropic), WN1802B (B-tropic), or Moloney (NB-tropic) viruses. The respective host range pseudotype sarcoma viruses were defined by the tritration characteristics on cells with the appropriate Fv-1 genotype. Proteins from virus progeny were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Bands present in both the 65,000- and the 10,000- to 20,000-molecular-weight regions of the gel distinguished the pseudotype viruses from their respective helpers. Furthermore, two protein bands were noted in the p30 region of murine sarcoma virus (Gross), one corresponding to Gross virus p30, and another of slightly slower mobility. However, since the mobility of the putative sarcoma p30 is nearly indentical to that of WN1802B, its presence could not be established by sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Type-specific radioimmunossays for Gross virus p30 and for WN1802B p30 were applied for analysis of pseudotype preparations, and among several ecotropic viruses tested, only the homologous virus scored in the respective assay. By use of these assays, pseudotype viruses were found to contain only 8 to 48% helper-specific p30's; the remainder is presumably derived from the sarcoma virus

  17. CCR7 signaling pathway and retinal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hui Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neovascularization diseases are the major causes of blindness. C-C chemokine receptor type 7(CCR7can promote the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFthrough the extracellular signal regulated kinase(ERKpathway, leading to vascular leakage, proliferation of vascular endothelial cell, neovascularization and etc. The detection of CCR7 can guide the diagnosis and treatments of retinal neovascularization diseases.

  18. High signal in the spinal cord on T2-weighted images in rapidly progressive tropical spastic paraparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Hara, A.; Murakami, T.; Ando, Y.; Uyama, E.; Mita, S.; Uchino, M. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamashita, T. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Dept. of Neurology, Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    We report a 59-year-old woman with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis who showed high signal in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord on T2-weighted and contrast enhancement on T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  19. Molecular interaction of a potent nonpeptide agonist with the chemokine receptor CCR8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Nygaard, Rie; Thiele, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    Most nonpeptide antagonists for CC-chemokine receptors share a common pharmacophore with a centrally located, positively charged amine that interacts with the highly conserved glutamic acid (Glu) located in position 6 of transmembrane helix VII (VII:06). We present a novel CCR8 nonpeptide agonist......, 8-[3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)benzyl]-1-phenethyl-1,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5]decan-4-one (LMD-009), that also contains a centrally located, positively charged amine. LMD-009 selectively stimulated CCR8 among the 20 identified human chemokine receptors. It mediated chemotaxis, inositol phosphate accumulation......-binding pockets of CCR8 uncovered that the binding of LMD-009 and of four analogs [2-(1-(3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)benzyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-4-yl)benzoic acid (LMD-584), N-ethyl-2-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide (LMD-902), N-(1-(3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)-2-phenyl-4-(pyrrolidin-1yl)butanamide (LMD-268...

  20. MCP/CCR2 signaling is essential for recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early phase of fracture healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ishikawa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate chemokine profiles and their functional roles in the early phase of fracture healing in mouse models. METHODS: The expression profiles of chemokines were examined during fracture healing in wild-type (WT mice using a polymerase chain reaction array and histological staining. The functional effect of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 on primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs was evaluated using an in vitro migration assay. MCP-1-/- and C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2-/- mice were fractured and evaluated by histological staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. RS102895, an antagonist of CCR2, was continuously administered in WT mice before or after rib fracture and evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. Bone graft exchange models were created in WT and MCP-1-/- mice and were evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. RESULTS: MCP-1 and MCP-3 expression in the early phase of fracture healing were up-regulated, and high levels of MCP-1 and MCP-3 protein expression observed in the periosteum and endosteum in the same period. MCP-1, but not MCP-3, increased migration of mBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Fracture healing in MCP-1-/- and CCR2-/- mice was delayed compared with WT mice on day 21. Administration of RS102895 in the early, but not in the late phase, caused delayed fracture healing. Transplantation of WT-derived graft into host MCP-1-/- mice significantly increased new bone formation in the bone graft exchange models. Furthermore, marked induction of MCP-1 expression in the periosteum and endosteum was observed around the WT-derived graft in the host MCP-1-/- mouse. Conversely, transplantation of MCP-1-/- mouse-derived grafts into host WT mice markedly decreased new bone formation. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in the periosteum and endosteum is essential for the recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells in the early phase of fracture healing.

  1. CCR5 receptor antagonists: discovery and SAR study of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Robert G; Arnaiz, Damian O; Chou, Yuo-Ling; Davey, Dave; Dunning, Laura; Lee, Wheeseong; Lu, Shou-Fu; Onuffer, James; Ye, Bin; Phillips, Gary

    2007-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) led to the identification of the guanylhydrazone of 2-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)-5-bromobenzaldehyde as a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Initial modifications of the guanylhydrazone series indicated that substitution of the benzyl group at the para-position was well tolerated. Substitution at the 5-position of the central phenyl ring was critical for potency. Replacement of the guanylhydrazone group led to the discovery of a novel series of CCR5 antagonists.

  2. Potential impacts of global warming on Australia's unique tropical biodiversity and implications for tropical biodiversity in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, David W

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Globally, forest clearing is often thought to be the greatest threat to biodiversity in the tropics, and rates of clearing are certainly highest there, particularly in tropical South-East Asia. Climate change in the tropics has been less studied in tropical regions than in temperate, boreal or arctic ecosystems. However, modelling studies in Australian rainforests indicate that climate change may be a particularly significant threat to the long-term preservation of the biodiversity of tropical, rainforest biodiversity. Our research has shown that global warming can have a particularly strong impact on the biodiversity of mountainous tropical regions, including the Wet Tropics of north-east Queensland. Here, the mountain tops and higher tablelands are relatively cool islands in a sea of warmer climates. These species-rich islands, mostly limited in their biodiversity by warm interglacial periods, are separated from each other by the warmer valleys and form a scattered archipelago of habitat for organisms that are unable to survive and reproduce in warmer climates. Many of the endemic Australian Wet Tropics species live only in these cooler regions. Similar situations occur throughout south-east Asia and in the highlands of the Neotropics. Unfortunately, these upland and highland areas represent the majority of biodiversity conservation areas because they are less suitable for clearing for agriculture. This presentation will summarise research about the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity in Australia's rainforests, the potential implications for tropical biodiversity in general and discuss the limitations of these projections and the need for further research that could reduce uncertainties and inform effective adaptation strategies

  3. Screening of chemokine receptor CCR4 antagonists by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4 is a kind of G-protein-coupled receptor, which plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammation. The interaction between 2-(2-(4-chloro-phenyl-5-{[(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl-carbamoyl]-methyl}-4-oxo-thiazolidin-3-yl-N-(3-morpholin-4-yl-propyl-acetamide (S009 and the N-terminal extracellular tail (ML40 of CCR4 has been validated to be high affinity by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. The S009 is a known CCR4 antagonist. Now, a series of new thiourea derivatives have been synthesized. Compared with positive control S009, they were screened using ML40 as target by CZE to find some new drugs for allergic inflammation diseases. The synthesized compounds XJH-5, XJH-4, XJH-17 and XJH-1 displayed the interaction with ML40, but XJH-9, XJH-10, XJH-11, XJH-12, XJH-13, XJH-14, XJH-3, XJH-8, XJH-6, XJH-7, XJH-15, XJH-16 and XJH-2 did not bind to ML40. Both qualification and quantification characterizations of the binding were determined. The affinity of the four compounds was valued by the binding constant, which was similar with the results of chemotactic experiments. The established CEZ method is capable of sensitive and fast screening for a series of lactam analogs in the drug discovery for allergic inflammation diseases. Keywords: Capillary zone electrophoresis, CCR4 antagonist, 2-(2-(4-chloro-phenyl-5-{[(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl-carbamoyl]-methyl}-4-oxo-thiazolidin-3-yl-N-(3-morpholin-4-yl-propyl-acetamide, Interactions, Structural modification

  4. Antiviral Activity of Novel Quinoline Derivatives against Dengue Virus Serotype 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de la Guardia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus causes dengue fever, a debilitating disease with an increasing incidence in many tropical and subtropical territories. So far, there are no effective antivirals licensed to treat this virus. Here we describe the synthesis and antiviral activity evaluation of two compounds based on the quinoline scaffold, which has shown potential for the development of molecules with various biological activities. Two of the tested compounds showed dose-dependent inhibition of dengue virus serotype 2 in the low and sub micromolar range. The compounds 1 and 2 were also able to impair the accumulation of the viral envelope glycoprotein in infected cells, while showing no sign of direct virucidal activity and acting possibly through a mechanism involving the early stages of the infection. The results are congruent with previously reported data showing the potential of quinoline derivatives as a promising scaffold for the development of new antivirals against this important virus.

  5. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus neutralizing antibodies using fusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipeto, Donato; Matucci, Andrea; Ripamonti, Chiara; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Rossolillo, Paola; Turci, Marco; Sartoris, Silvia; Tridente, Giuseppe; Bertazzoni, Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infects cells by membrane fusion that is mediated by the envelope proteins gp120/gp41 and the cellular receptors CD4 and CCR5. During this process, some conserved viral epitopes are temporarily exposed and may induce a neutralizing antibody response when fixed in the fusogenic conformation. These transient structures are conserved and may be effective antigens for use in an anti-HIV-1 vaccine. In this study we tested different conditions of preparation of fusion complexes inducing neutralizing antibodies against both R5 and X4 tropic HIV-1 strains. Cell lines expressing HIV-1 gp120/gp41 and CD4-CCR5 were prepared and conditions for producing fusion complexes were tested. Complexes produced at different temperature and fixative combinations were used to immunize mice. Results indicated that (a) fusion complexes prepared at either 21 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C were immunogenic and induced neutralizing antibodies against both R5 and X4 HIV-1 heterologous isolates; (b) after extensive purification of antibodies there was no cytotoxic effect; (c) complexes prepared at 37 degrees C were more immunogenic and induced higher titers of neutralizing antibodies than complexes prepared at either 21 degrees C or 30 degrees C; (d) the fixative used did not affect the titer of neutralizing antibodies except for glutaraldehyde which was ineffective; (e) the neutralizing activity was retained after CD4-CCR5 antibody removal. The production of higher titers of neutralizing antibody with fusion complexes prepared at 37 degrees C, as compared to lower temperatures, may be related to the induction of antibodies against many different conformation intermediates that subsequently act synergistically at different steps in the fusion process.

  6. Lack of CCR5 modifies glial phenotypes and population of the nigral dopaminergic neurons, but not MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Myung Koo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive expression of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 has been detected in astrocytes, microglia and neurons, but its physiological roles in the central nervous system are obscure. The bidirectional interactions between neuron and glial cells through CCR5 and its ligands were thought to be crucial for maintaining normal neuronal activities. No study has described function of CCR5 in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In order to examine effects of CCR5 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we employed CCR5 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Immunostainings for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) exhibited that CCR5 KO mice had lower number of TH-positive neurons even in the absence of MPTP. Difference in MPTP (15mg/kg×4 times, 2hr interval)-mediated loss of TH-positive neurons was subtle between CCR5 WT and KO mice, but there was larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments and microglial activation in CCR5 deficient mice. Intriguingly, CCR5 KO brains contained higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B which was mainly localized within astrocytes. In agreement with upregulation of MAO B, concentration of MPP+ was higher in the substantia nigra and striatum of CCR5 KO mice after MPTP injection. We found remarkable activation of p38 MAPK in CCR5 deficient mice, which positively regulates MAO B expression. These results indicate that CCR5 deficiency modifies the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal system and bidirectional interaction between neurons and glial cells via CCR5 might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A rhodanine derivative CCR-11 inhibits bacterial proliferation by inhibiting the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parminder; Jindal, Bhavya; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2012-07-10

    A perturbation of FtsZ assembly dynamics has been shown to inhibit bacterial cytokinesis. In this study, the antibacterial activity of 151 rhodanine compounds was assayed using Bacillus subtilis cells. Of 151 compounds, eight strongly inhibited bacterial proliferation at 2 μM. Subsequently, we used the elongation of B. subtilis cells as a secondary screen to identify potential FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents. We found that three compounds significantly increased bacterial cell length. One of the three compounds, namely, CCR-11 [(E)-2-thioxo-5-({[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]furan-2-yl}methylene)thiazolidin-4-one], inhibited the assembly and GTPase activity of FtsZ in vitro. CCR-11 bound to FtsZ with a dissociation constant of 1.5 ± 0.3 μM. A docking analysis indicated that CCR-11 may bind to FtsZ in a cavity adjacent to the T7 loop and that short halogen-oxygen, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions might be important for the binding of CCR-11 with FtsZ. CCR-11 inhibited the proliferation of B. subtilis cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 1.2 ± 0.2 μM and a minimal inhibitory concentration of 3 μM. It also potently inhibited proliferation of Mycobacterium smegmatis cells. Further, CCR-11 perturbed Z-ring formation in B. subtilis cells; however, it neither visibly affected nucleoid segregation nor altered the membrane integrity of the cells. CCR-11 inhibited HeLa cell proliferation with an IC(50) value of 18.1 ± 0.2 μM (∼15 × IC(50) of B. subtilis cell proliferation). The results suggested that CCR-11 inhibits bacterial cytokinesis by inhibiting FtsZ assembly, and it can be used as a lead molecule to develop FtsZ-targeted antibacterial agents.

  8. Could FIV zoonosis responsible of the breakdown of the pathocenosis which has reduced the European CCR5-Delta32 allele frequencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background In Europe, the north-south downhill cline frequency of the chemokine receptor CCR5 allele with a 32-bp deletion (CCR5-Δ32) raises interesting questions for evolutionary biologists. We had suggested first that, in the past, the European colonizers, principally Romans, might have been instrumental of a progressively decrease of the frequencies southwards. Indeed, statistical analyses suggested strong negative correlations between the allele frequency and historical parameters including the colonization dates by Mediterranean civilisations. The gene flows from colonizers to native populations were extremely low but colonizers are responsible of the spread of several diseases suggesting that the dissemination of parasites in naive populations could have induced a breakdown rupture of the fragile pathocenosis changing the balance among diseases. The new equilibrium state has been reached through a negative selection of the null allele. Results Most of the human diseases are zoonoses and cat might have been instrumental in the decrease of the allele frequency, because its diffusion through Europe was a gradual process, due principally to Romans; and that several cat zoonoses could be transmitted to man. The possible implication of a feline lentivirus (FIV) which does not use CCR5 as co-receptor is discussed. This virus can infect primate cells in vitro and induces clinical signs in macaque. Moreover, most of the historical regions with null or low frequency of CCR5-Δ32 allele coincide with historical range of the wild felid species which harbor species-specific FIVs. Conclusion We proposed the hypothesis that the actual European CCR5 allelic frequencies are the result of a negative selection due to a disease spreading. A cat zoonosis, could be the most plausible hypothesis. Future studies could provide if CCR5 can play an antimicrobial role in FIV pathogenesis. Moreover, studies of ancient DNA could provide more evidences regarding the implications of

  9. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazari-Hiriart Marisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  10. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to provide an open door for students looking for an initial training opportunity. The goal is to enhance diversity within the CCR (Center for Cancer Research) training program and we have placed 338 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the division.  The CCR and the Center for Cancer Training’s Office of Training and Education provide stipend support, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (

  11. Role of Conserved Disulfide Bridges and Aromatic Residues in Extracellular Loop 2 of Chemokine Receptor CCR8 for Chemokine and Small Molecule Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Line; Rummel, Pia C; Lückmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and aromatic residues in extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) for ligand binding and activation in the chemokine receptor CCR8. We used IP3 accumulation and radioligand binding experiments to determine the impact of receptor mutagenesis on both chemokine and small molecule agonist and antagonist binding and action...... in CCR8. We find that the 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor conserved disulfide bridge (7TM bridge) linking transmembrane helix (TM)III and ECL2 is crucial for chemokine and small molecule action, whereas the chemokine receptor conserved disulfide bridge between the N terminus and TMVII is needed only...

  12. 92R Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits Human CCR9+ Leukemia Cells Growth in NSG Mice Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somovilla-Crespo, Beatriz; Martín Monzón, Maria Teresa; Vela, Maria; Corraliza-Gorjón, Isabel; Santamaria, Silvia; Garcia-Sanz, Jose A; Kremer, Leonor

    2018-01-01

    CCR9 is as an interesting target for the treatment of human CCR9 + -T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, since its expression is limited to immature cells in the thymus, infiltrating leukocytes in the small intestine and a small fraction of mature circulating T lymphocytes. 92R, a new mouse mAb (IgG2a isotype), was raised using the A-isoform of hCCR9 as immunogen. Its initial characterization demonstrates that binds with high affinity to the CCR9 N-terminal domain, competing with the previously described 91R mAb for receptor binding. 92R inhibits human CCR9 + tumor growth in T and B-cell deficient Rag2 -/- mice. In vitro assays suggested complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity as possible in vivo mechanisms of action. Unexpectedly, 92R strongly inhibited tumor growth also in a model with compromised NK and complement activities, suggesting that other mechanisms, including phagocytosis or apoptosis, might also be playing a role on 92R-mediated tumor elimination. Taken together, these data contribute to strengthen the hypothesis of the immune system's opportunistic nature.

  13. De-novo collateral formation following acute myocardial infarction: Dependence on CCR2⁺ bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E

    2015-10-01

    Wide variation exists in the extent (number and diameter) of native pre-existing collaterals in tissues of different strains of mice, with supportive indirect evidence recently appearing for humans. This variation is a major determinant of the wide variation in severity of tissue injury in occlusive vascular disease. Whether such genetic-dependent variation also exists in the heart is unknown because no model exists for study of mouse coronary collaterals. Also owing to methodological limitations, it is not known if ischemia can induce new coronary collaterals to form ("neo-collaterals") versus remodeling of pre-existing ones. The present study sought to develop a model to study coronary collaterals in mice, determine whether neo-collateral formation occurs, and investigate the responsible mechanisms. Four strains with known rank-ordered differences in collateral extent in brain and skeletal muscle were studied: C57BLKS>C57BL/6>A/J>BALB/c. Unexpectedly, these and 5 additional strains lacked native coronary collaterals. However after ligation, neo-collaterals formed rapidly within 1-to-2 days, reaching their maximum extent in ≤7 days. Rank-order for neo-collateral formation differed from the above: C57BL/6>BALB/c>C57BLKS>A/J. Collateral network conductance, infarct volume(-1), and contractile function followed this same rank-order. Neo-collateral formation and collateral conductance were reduced and infarct volume increased in MCP1(-/-) and CCR2(-/-) mice. Bone-marrow transplant rescued collateral formation in CCR2(-/-) mice. Involvement of fractalkine➔CX3CR1 signaling and endothelial cell proliferation were also identified. This study introduces a model for investigating the coronary collateral circulation in mice, demonstrates that neo-collaterals form rapidly after coronary occlusion, and finds that MCP➔CCR2-mediated recruitment of myeloid cells is required for this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Nelson, Martha I; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C; Bausch, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source-sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010-2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains.

  15. CCR presentations at AACR - 2018 | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR presentations at AACR Several CCR scientists will present their research at the AACR Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL, between April 14-18, 2018. Selected oral presentations are listed below. A full list of abstracts can be found on the AACR website.

  16. The chemokine receptor CCR5 in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Silvia; Myburgh, Renier; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2011-02-01

    The expression and the role of the chemokine receptor CCR5 have been mainly studied in the context of HIV infection. However, this protein is also expressed in the brain, where it can be crucial in determining the outcome in response to different insults. CCR5 expression can be deleterious or protective in controlling the progression of certain infections in the CNS, but it is also emerging that it could play a role in non-infectious diseases. In particular, it appears that, in addition to modulating immune responses, CCR5 can influence neuronal survival. Here, we summarize the present knowledge about the expression of CCR5 in the brain and highlight recent findings suggesting its possible involvement in neuroprotective mechanisms. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Reanalysis of coreceptor tropism in HIV-1-infected adults using a phenotypic assay with enhanced sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Timothy J; Goetz, Mathew Bidwell; Leduc, Robert; Skowron, Gail; Su, Zhaohui; Chan, Ellen S; Heera, Jayyant; Chapman, Doug; Spritzler, John; Reeves, Jacqueline D; Gulick, Roy M; Coakley, Eoin

    2011-04-01

    The enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay (TF-ES; Monogram Biosciences) was used to retest coreceptor tropism samples from 4 different cohorts of HIV-1-infected patients. Nine percent to 26% of patients with CCR5-tropic virus by the original Trofile assay had CXCR4-using virus by TF-ES. Lower CD4 cell counts were associated with CXCR4-using virus in all cohorts. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. CCR8 signaling influences Toll-like receptor 4 responses in human macrophages in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Martina Kvist; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients.

  19. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  20. Frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in healthy Bosniak population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has demonstrated the role of CCR5Δ32 in a variety of human diseases: from infectious and inflammatory diseases to cancer. Several studies have confirmed that genetic variants in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to HIV infection. A 32-nucleotide deletion within the CCR5 reading frame is associated with decreased susceptibility to HIV acquisition and a slower progression to AIDS. Mean frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in Europe is approximately 10%. The highest allele frequency is observed among Nordic populations (about 12% and lower in the regions of Southeast Mediterranean (about 5%. Although the frequency of CCR5Δ32 was determined in numerous European populations, there is a lack of studies on this variant in the Bosnia and Hercegovina population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the frequency of CCR5Δ32 allele in the cohort of Bosniaks and compare the results with European reports. CCR5Δ32 was detected by sequence-specific PCR in a sample of 100 healthy subjects from Bosnia and Herzegovina (DNA collected 2011-2013.  Mean age of the cohort being 58.8 (±10.7 years, with 82% of women. We identified 17 heterozygotes and one mutant homozygote in study group, with mean ∆32 allele frequency of 9.5%. CCR5∆32 allele frequency among Bosniaks is comparable to that found in Caucasian populations and follows the pattern of the north-southern gradient observed for Europe. Further studies on larger cohorts with adequate female-to-male ratio are necessary. 

  1. The effect of the CCR5-delta32 deletion on global gene expression considering immune response and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hütter Gero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural function of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5 is poorly understood. A 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32 located on chromosome 3 results in a non-functional protein. It is supposed that this deletion causes an alteration in T-cell response to inflammation. For example, the presence of the CCR5-delta32 allele in recipients of allografts constitutes as an independent and protective factor associated with a decreased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD and graft rejection. However, the mechanism of this beneficial effect of the deletion regarding GVHD is unknown. In this survey we searched for a CCR5-delta32 associated regulation of critical genes involved in the immune response and the development of GVHD. Methods We examined CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from bone marrow samples from 19 healthy volunteers for the CCR5-delta32 deletion with a genomic PCR using primers flanking the site of the deletion. Results 12 individuals were found to be homozygous for CCR5 WT and 7 carried the CCR5-delta32 deletion heterozygously. Global gene expression analysis led to the identification of 11 differentially regulated genes. Six of them are connected with mechanisms of immune response and control: LRG1, CXCR2, CCRL2, CD6, CD7, WD repeat domain, and CD30L. Conclusions Our data indicate that the CCR5-delta32 mutation may be associated with differential gene expression. Some of these genes are critical for immune response, in the case of CD30L probably protective in terms of GVHD.

  2. HIV restriction by APOBEC3 in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Krisko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune restriction factors represent important specialized barriers to zoonotic transmission of viruses. Significant consideration has been given to their possible use for therapeutic benefit. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases are potent immune defense molecules capable of efficiently restricting endogenous retroelements as well as a broad range of viruses including Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV, Human Papilloma virus (HPV, and Human T Cell Leukemia virus (HTLV. The best characterized members of this family are APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F and their restriction of HIV. HIV has evolved to counteract these powerful restriction factors by encoding an accessory gene designated viral infectivity factor (vif. Here we demonstrate that APOBEC3 efficiently restricts CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif. However, our results also show that CXCR4-tropic HIV can escape from APOBEC3 restriction and replicate in vivo independent of Vif. Molecular analysis identified thymocytes as cells with reduced A3G and A3F expression. Direct injection of vif-defective HIV into the thymus resulted in viral replication and dissemination detected by plasma viral load analysis; however, vif-defective viruses remained sensitive to APOBEC3 restriction as extensive G to A mutation was observed in proviral DNA recovered from other organs. Remarkably, HIV replication persisted despite the inability of HIV to develop resistance to APOBEC3 in the absence of Vif. Our results provide novel insight into a highly specific subset of cells that potentially circumvent the action of APOBEC3; however our results also demonstrate the massive inactivation of CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif.

  3. The puzzling role of CXCR4 in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzi, Elisa; Liò, Pietro; Poli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease highly lethal in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV infects CD4(+) cells of the immune system (T cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells) via interaction with a universal primary receptor, the CD4 molecule, followed by a mandatory interaction with a second receptor (co-receptor) belonging to the chemokine receptor family. Apart from some rare cases, two chemokine receptors have been evolutionarily selected to accomplish this need for HIV-1: CCR5 and CXCR4. Yet, usage of these two receptors appears to be neither casual nor simply explained by their levels of cell surface expression. While CCR5 use is the universal rule at the start of every infection regardless of the transmission route (blood-related, sexual or mother to child), CXCR4 utilization emerges later in disease coinciding with the immunological deficient phase of infection. Moreover, in most instances CXCR4 use as viral entry co-receptor is associated with maintenance of CCR5 use. Since antiviral agents preventing CCR5 utilization by the virus are already in use, while others targeting either CCR5 or CXCR4 (or both) are under investigation, understanding the biological correlates of this "asymmetrical" utilization of HIV entry co-receptors bears relevance for the clinical choice of which therapeutics should be administered to infected individuals. We will here summarize the basic knowledge and the hypotheses underlying the puzzling and yet unequivocal role of CXCR4 in HIV-1 infection.

  4. Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B.W. Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%, which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%. This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%, rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4% and absent in the Kaingang Amerindians and the Oriental-Brazilians. R223Q is common in the Oriental-Brazilians (7.7% and R60S in the Afro-Brazilians (5.0%. A29S and L55Q present an impaired response to b-chemokines and occurred in Afro- and Euro-Brazilians with cumulative frequencies of 4.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two new non-synonymous alleles were found in Amerindians: C323F (g.3729G > T in Guarani (1.4% and Y68C (g.2964A > G in Kaingang (10.3%. The functional characteristics of these alleles should be defined and considered in epidemiological investigations about HIV-1 infection and AIDS incidence in Amerindian populations.

  5. CCR6 is expressed on an IL-10-producing, autoreactive memory T cell population with context-dependent regulatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivino, Laura; Gruarin, Paola; Häringer, Barbara; Steinfelder, Svenja; Lozza, Laura; Steckel, Bodo; Weick, Anja; Sugliano, Elisa; Jarrossay, David; Kühl, Anja A; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Abrignani, Sergio; Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Geginat, Jens

    2010-03-15

    Interleukin (IL)-10 produced by regulatory T cell subsets is important for the prevention of autoimmunity and immunopathology, but little is known about the phenotype and function of IL-10-producing memory T cells. Human CD4(+)CCR6(+) memory T cells contained comparable numbers of IL-17- and IL-10-producing cells, and CCR6 was induced under both Th17-promoting conditions and upon tolerogenic T cell priming with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. In normal human spleens, the majority of CCR6(+) memory T cells were in the close vicinity of CCR6(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and strikingly, some of them were secreting IL-10 in situ. Furthermore, CCR6(+) memory T cells produced suppressive IL-10 but not IL-2 upon stimulation with autologous immature mDCs ex vivo, and secreted IL-10 efficiently in response to suboptimal T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with anti-CD3 antibodies. However, optimal TCR stimulation of CCR6(+) T cells induced expression of IL-2, interferon-gamma, CCL20, and CD40L, and autoreactive CCR6(+) T cell lines responded to various recall antigens. Notably, we isolated autoreactive CCR6(+) T cell clones with context-dependent behavior that produced IL-10 with autologous mDCs alone, but that secreted IL-2 and proliferated upon stimulation with tetanus toxoid. We propose the novel concept that a population of memory T cells, which is fully equipped to participate in secondary immune responses upon recognition of a relevant recall antigen, contributes to the maintenance of tolerance under steady-state conditions.

  6. Chemokine receptor CCR5 in interferon-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, F; Kristiansen, T B; Wittenhagen, P

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta).......To study the relationship between CC chemokine receptor CCR5 expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with beta-interferon (IFN-beta)....

  7. CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype improves the assessment of AIDS Risk in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Agan, Brian K; Marconi, Vincent C; O'Connell, Robert J; Camargo, Jose F; He, Weijing; Delmar, Judith; Phelps, Kenneth R; Crawford, George; Clark, Robert A; Dolan, Matthew J; Ahuja, Sunil K

    2008-09-08

    Whether vexing clinical decision-making dilemmas can be partly addressed by recent advances in genomics is unclear. For example, when to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during HIV-1 infection remains a clinical dilemma. This decision relies heavily on assessing AIDS risk based on the CD4+ T cell count and plasma viral load. However, the trajectories of these two laboratory markers are influenced, in part, by polymorphisms in CCR5, the major HIV coreceptor, and the gene copy number of CCL3L1, a potent CCR5 ligand and HIV-suppressive chemokine. Therefore, we determined whether accounting for both genetic and laboratory markers provided an improved means of assessing AIDS risk. In a prospective, single-site, ethnically-mixed cohort of 1,132 HIV-positive subjects, we determined the AIDS risk conveyed by the laboratory and genetic markers separately and in combination. Subjects were assigned to a low, moderate or high genetic risk group (GRG) based on variations in CCL3L1 and CCR5. The predictive value of the CCL3L1-CCR5 GRGs, as estimated by likelihood ratios, was equivalent to that of the laboratory markers. GRG status also predicted AIDS development when the laboratory markers conveyed a contrary risk. Additionally, in two separate and large groups of HIV+ subjects from a natural history cohort, the results from additive risk-scoring systems and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis revealed that the laboratory and CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic markers together provided more prognostic information than either marker alone. Furthermore, GRGs independently predicted the time interval from seroconversion to CD4+ cell count thresholds used to guide HAART initiation. The combination of the laboratory and genetic markers captures a broader spectrum of AIDS risk than either marker alone. By tracking a unique aspect of AIDS risk distinct from that captured by the laboratory parameters, CCL3L1-CCR5 genotypes may have utility in HIV clinical management

  8. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source–sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010–2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains. PMID:26196599

  9. CCR8 Signaling Influences Toll-Like Receptor 4 Responses in Human Macrophages in Inflammatory Diseases ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist Reimer, Martina; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients. PMID:21976223

  10. Continuing evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) has caused great economic losses in Korean poultry industry since the first outbreak in 1996. Although the hemagglutinin gene of early H9N2 viruses were closely related to Chinese Y439-like lineage virus, it evolved into a unique Korean lineage after ...

  11. CCR5 controls immune and metabolic functions during Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Bonfá

    Full Text Available CCR5, an important receptor related to cell recruitment and inflammation, is expressed during experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection. However, its role in the immunopathology of toxoplasmosis is not clearly defined yet. Thus, we inoculated WT and CCR5(-/- mice with a sub lethal dose of the parasite by oral route. CCR5(-/- mice were extremely susceptible to infection, presenting higher parasite load and lower tissue expression of IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, iNOS, Foxp3, T-bet, GATA-3 and PPARα. Although both groups presented inflammation in the liver with prominent neutrophil infiltration, CCR5(-/- mice had extensive tissue damage with hepatocyte vacuolization, steatosis, elevated serum triglycerides and transaminases. PPARα agonist Gemfibrozil improved the vacuolization but did not rescue CCR5(-/- infected mice from high serum triglycerides levels and enhanced mortality. We also found intense inflammation in the ileum of CCR5(-/- infected mice, with epithelial ulceration, augmented CD4 and decreased frequency of NK cells in the gut lamina propria. Most interestingly, these findings were accompanied by an outstanding accumulation of neutrophils in the ileum, which seemed to be involved in the gut immunopathology, once the depletion of these cells was accompanied by reduced local damage. Altogether, these data demonstrated that CCR5 is essential to the control of T. gondii infection and to maintain the metabolic, hepatic and intestinal integrity. These findings add novel information on the disease pathogenesis and may be relevant for directing future approaches to the treatment of multi-deregulated diseases.

  12. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 and Regulatory T Cells in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Yamano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a retrovirus that is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and associated with multiorgan inflammatory disorders, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and uveitis. HTLV-1-infected T cells have been hypothesized to contribute to the development of these disorders, although the precise mechanisms are not well understood. HTLV-1 primarily infects CD4+ T helper (Th cells that play a central role in adaptive immune responses. Based on their functions, patterns of cytokine secretion, and expression of specific transcription factors and chemokine receptors, Th cells that are differentiated from naïve CD4+ T cells are classified into four major lineages: Th1, Th2, Th17, and T regulatory (Treg cells. The CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cell population, which consists primarily of suppressive T cell subsets, such as the Treg and Th2 subsets in healthy individuals, is the predominant viral reservoir of HTLV-1 in both ATL and HAM/TSP patients. Interestingly, CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cells become Th1-like cells in HAM/TSP patients, as evidenced by their overproduction of IFN-γ, suggesting that HTLV-1 may intracellularly induce T cell plasticity from Treg to IFN-γ+ T cells. This review examines the recent research into the association between HTLV-1 and Treg cells that has greatly enhanced understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying immune dysregulation in HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

  13. Multiple viral infections in Agaricus bisporus - Characterisation of 18 unique RNA viruses and 8 ORFans identified by deep sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Gregory; Dobbs, Edward; Bennett, Julie M.; Jones, Ian M.; Grogan, Helen M.; Burton, Kerry S.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty unique non-host RNAs were sequenced in the cultivated fungus, Agaricus bisporus, comprising 18 viruses each encoding an RdRp domain with an additional 8 ORFans (non-host RNAs with no similarity to known sequences). Two viruses were multipartite with component RNAs showing correlative abundances and common 3′ motifs. The viruses, all positive sense single-stranded, were classified into diverse orders/families. Multiple infections of Agaricus may represent a diverse, dynamic and interact...

  14. Interleukin 4 increases CCR9 expression and homing of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2012-01-15

    The effects of in vitro and in vivo IL-4 supplementation on thymocyte and splenocyte CCR9 mRNA amount and migration were studied. Thymocytes, splenocytes, splenocytes+thymocytes (2:1), and splenocytes+bursocyte cells (2:1) were supplemented with either 0 or 5 ng/ml IL-4 for 5d. CCR9 mRNA was undetectable in all experimental groups supplemented with 0 ng/ml IL-4. IL-4 treatment (5 ng/ml) upregulated (P=0.01) CCR9 mRNA only in the splenocyte+thymocyte cell culture. IL-4-mediated CCR9 mRNA induction in the splenocyte+thymocyte cell culture was dependent on the in vitro dose of IL-4 supplementation. IL-4-treated splenocyte+thymocyte cells when injected in vivo preferentially migrated to cecal tonsils. In vivo supplementation of IL-4 was achieved through in ovo injection of recombinant chicken IL-4 plasmid. Cecal tonsils in chicks hatched from IL-4-plasmid-injected eggs weighed more, had a higher amount of CCR9 mRNA, and had a higher percentage of CD8(+) cells than cecal tonsils from chicks hatched from PBS-injected eggs. It could be concluded that IL-4 induces CCR9 mRNA in thymocytes and splenocytes and directs the migration of cells to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic characterization of canine influenza A virus (H3N2) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunpapong, Napawan; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Chaiwong, Supassama; Tangwangvivat, Ratanaporn; Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Jairak, Waleemas; Tuanudom, Ranida; Prakairungnamthip, Duangduean; Suradhat, Sanipa; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2014-02-01

    In January 2012, several clinical cases of dogs with flu-like symptoms, including coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and fever, were reported in a small-animal hospital located in Bangkok, Thailand. One influenza A virus was identified and characterized as an avian-like influenza virus H3N2. The virus was named A/canine/Thailand/CU-DC5299/12. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the canine virus belonged to an avian Eurasian lineage and was genetically related to the canine influenza viruses H3N2 from China and Korea. This canine virus displays a unique genetic signature with two amino acid insertions in the NA protein, which is similar to the canine influenza viruses from eastern China (Zhejiang and Jiangsu). This study constitutes the first report of H3N2 canine influenza virus infection in a small-animal hospital in Thailand.

  16. Eosinophils subvert host resistance to an intracellular pathogen by instigating non-protective IL-4 in CCR2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A H; Bueter, C L; Rothenberg, M E; Deepe, G S

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophils contribute to type II immune responses in helminth infections and allergic diseases; however, their influence on intracellular pathogens is less clear. We previously reported that CCR2 -/- mice exposed to the intracellular fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum exhibit dampened immunity caused by an early exaggerated interleukin (IL)-4 response. We sought to identify the cellular source promulgating IL-4 in infected mutant animals. Eosinophils were the principal instigators of non-protective IL-4 and depleting this granulocyte population improved fungal clearance in CCR2 -/- animals. The deleterious impact of eosinophilia on mycosis was also recapitulated in transgenic animals overexpressing eosinophils. Mechanistic examination of IL-4 induction revealed that phagocytosis of H. capsulatum via the pattern recognition receptor complement receptor (CR) 3 triggered the heightened IL-4 response in murine eosinophils. This phenomenon was conserved in human eosinophils; exposure of cells to the fungal pathogen elicited a robust IL-4 response. Thus, our findings elucidate a detrimental attribute of eosinophil biology in fungal infections that could potentially trigger a collapse in host defenses by instigating type II immunity.

  17. Study progress of CCR3 in wet age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Wei Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the study, chemokine receptor 3(CCR3in the eye is mainly distributed in retinal pigment epithelial cells, and also expressed in the choroidal vascular endothelial cells(CECs. The specificity of CCR3's high expression in wet age-related macular degeneration(AMDwas found, and it is proved that in wet-AMD patients, it plays an important role in the formation of choroidal neovascularization(CNV. In this paper, the structure, function, the problem of current research and the future direction of CCR3 were summarized. It is believed that with the further research on CCR3, it will not only help us to find a new method of wet-AMD diagnosis and treatment, but also may provide an important reference for other CNV disease research and new anti-CNV drugs.

  18. Tropical radioecology

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, M

    2012-01-01

    Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrate...

  19. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  20. OSCAR Is a Receptor for Surfactant Protein D That Activates TNF-α Release from Human CCR2+ Inflammatory Monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrow, Alexander D; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Bugatti, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    of recombinant SP-D and captured native SP-D from human bronchoalveolar lavage. OSCAR localized in an intracellular compartment of alveolar macrophages together with SP-D. Moreover, we found OSCAR on the surface of interstitial lung and blood CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes, which secreted TNF-α when exposed...

  1. The CCR4-NOT complex physically and functionally interacts with TRAMP and the nuclear exosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowel Azzouz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ccr4-Not is a highly conserved multi-protein complex consisting in yeast of 9 subunits, including Not5 and the major yeast deadenylase Ccr4. It has been connected functionally in the nucleus to transcription by RNA polymerase II and in the cytoplasm to mRNA degradation. However, there has been no evidence so far that this complex is important for RNA degradation in the nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we point to a new role for the Ccr4-Not complex in nuclear RNA metabolism. We determine the importance of the Ccr4-Not complex for the levels of non-coding nuclear RNAs, such as mis-processed and polyadenylated snoRNAs, whose turnover depends upon the nuclear exosome and TRAMP. Consistently, mutation of both the Ccr4-Not complex and the nuclear exosome results in synthetic slow growth phenotypes. We demonstrate physical interactions between the Ccr4-Not complex and the exosome. First, Not5 co-purifies with the exosome. Second, several exosome subunits co-purify with the Ccr4-Not complex. Third, the Ccr4-Not complex is important for the integrity of large exosome-containing complexes. Finally, we reveal a connection between the Ccr4-Not complex and TRAMP through the association of the Mtr4 helicase with the Ccr4-Not complex and the importance of specific subunits of Ccr4-Not for the association of Mtr4 with the nuclear exosome subunit Rrp6. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a model in which the Ccr4-Not complex may provide a platform contributing to dynamic interactions between the nuclear exosome and its co-factor TRAMP. Our findings connect for the first time the different players involved in nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA degradation.

  2. Chemokine receptor Ccr1 drives neutrophil-mediated kidney immunopathology and mortality in invasive candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail S Lionakis

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is the 4(th leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1(lo to Ccr1(high at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1(+/+ and Ccr1(-/- donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1(+/+ recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1(+/+ cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ.

  3. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of Cloud-Cleared Radiances (CCRs) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the NOAA/NESDIS...

  4. Dengue virus in sub-tropical northern and central Viet Nam: population immunity and climate shape patterns of viral invasion and maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia A Rabaa

    Full Text Available Dengue virus transmission occurs in both epidemic and endemic cycles across tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence is particularly high in much of Southeast Asia, where hyperendemic transmission plagues both urban and rural populations. However, endemicity has not been established in some areas with climates that may not support year-round viral transmission. An understanding of how dengue viruses (DENV enter these environments and whether the viruses persist in inapparent local transmission cycles is central to understanding how dengue emerges in areas at the margins of endemic transmission. Dengue is highly endemic in tropical southern Vietnam, while increasingly large seasonal epidemics have occurred in northern Viet Nam over the last decade. We have investigated the spread of DENV-1 throughout Vietnam to determine the routes by which the virus enters northern and central regions of the country. Phylogeographic analysis of 1,765 envelope (E gene sequences from Southeast Asia revealed frequent movement of DENV between neighboring human populations and strong local clustering of viral lineages. Long-distance migration of DENV between human population centers also occurred regularly and on short time-scales, indicating human-mediated viral invasion into northern Vietnam. Human populations in southern Vietnam were found to be the primary source of DENV circulating throughout the country, while central and northern Vietnam acted as sink populations, likely due to reduced connectedness to other populations in the case of the central regions and to the influence of temperature variability on DENV replication and vector survival and competence in the north. Finally, phylogeographic analyses suggested that viral movement follows a gravity model and indicates that population immunity and physical and economic connections between populations may play important roles in shaping patterns of DENV transmission.

  5. CCR6+ Th cell distribution differentiates systemic lupus erythematosus patients based on anti-dsDNA antibody status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Jiang, Zhenyu; Wu, Jiang; Jiang, Yanfang; Zhao, Ling

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease has been shown to be associated with the generation of multiple auto-antibodies. Among these, anti-dsDNA antibodies (anti-DNAs) are specific and play a pathogenic role in SLE. Indeed, anti-DNA + SLE patients display a worse disease course. The generation of these pathogenic anti-DNAs has been attributed to the interaction between aberrant T helper (Th) cells and autoimmune B cells. Thus, in this study we have investigated whether CCR6 + Th cells have the ability to differentiate SLE patients based on anti-DNA status, and if their distribution has any correlation with disease activity. We recruited 25 anti-DNA + and 25 anti-DNA - treatment-naive onset SLE patients, matched for various clinical characteristics in our nested matched case-control study. CCR6 + Th cells and their additional subsets were analyzed in each patient by flow cytometry. Anti-DNA + SLE patients specifically had a higher percentage of Th cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3. Further analysis of CCR6 + Th cell subsets showed that anti-DNA + SLE patients had elevated proportions of Th9, Th17, Th17.1 and CCR4/CXCR3 double-negative (DN) cells. However, the proportions of CCR6 - Th subsets, including Th1 and Th2 cells, did not show any association with anti-DNA status. Finally, we identified a correlation between CCR6 + Th subsets and clinical indicators, specifically in anti-DNA + SLE patients. Our data indicated that CCR6 + Th cells and their subsets were elevated and correlated with disease activity in anti-DNA + SLE patients. We speculated that CCR6 + Th cells may contribute to distinct disease severity in anti-DNA + SLE patients.

  6. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, Stefan; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-03-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea. Here, we describe a filamentous hyperthermophilic archaeal virus, Pyrobaculum filamentous virus 1 (PFV1), with a type of virion organization not previously observed in DNA viruses. The PFV1 virion, 400 ± 20 × 32 ± 3 nm, contains an envelope and an inner core consisting of two structural units: a rod-shaped helical nucleocapsid formed of two 14-kDa major virion proteins and a nucleocapsid-encompassing protein sheath composed of a single major virion protein of 18 kDa. The virion organization of PFV1 is superficially similar to that of negative-sense RNA viruses of the family Filoviridae, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus. The linear dsDNA of PFV1 carries 17,714 bp, including 60-bp-long terminal inverted repeats, and contains 39 predicted ORFs, most of which do not show similarities to sequences in public databases. PFV1 is a lytic virus that completely disrupts the host cell membrane at the end of the infection cycle.

  7. CXCR4-using HIV variants in a cohort of Black men who have sex with men: HIV Prevention Trials Network 061.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Iris; Huang, Wei; Connor, Matthew B; Frantzell, Arne; Cummings, Vanessa; Beauchamp, Geetha G; Griffith, Sam; Fields, Sheldon D; Scott, Hyman M; Shoptaw, Steven; Del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Tieu, Hong-Van; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Koblin, Beryl A; Eshleman, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate factors associated with HIV tropism among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States enrolled in a clinical study (HIV Prevention Trials Network 061). HIV tropism was analyzed using a phenotypic assay (Trofile assay, Monogram Biosciences). Samples were analyzed from 43 men who were HIV infected at enrollment and reported either exclusive insertive intercourse or exclusive receptive intercourse; samples were also analyzed from 20 men who were HIV uninfected at enrollment and seroconverted during the study. Clonal analysis of individual viral variants was performed for seroconverters who had dual/mixed (DM) viruses. DM viruses were detected in samples from 11 (26%) of the 43 HIV-infected men analyzed at the enrollment visit; HIV tropism did not differ between those reporting exclusive insertive vs receptive intercourse. DM viruses were also detected in five (25%) of the 20 seroconverters. DM viruses were associated with lower CD4 cell counts. Seroconverters with DM viruses had dual-tropic viruses only or mixed populations of CCR5- and dual-tropic viruses. DM viruses were frequently detected among Black MSM in this study, including seroconverters. Further studies are needed to understand factors driving transmission and selection of CXCR4- and dual-tropic viruses among Black MSM.

  8. [Novel echogenic needle for ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block "Hakko type CCR"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Wataru; Yasumura, Rie; Kaneko, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Yoshiro; Kamada, Takaaki; Yoshikawa, Tamotsu; Aoyama, Yasuhiko

    2009-04-01

    A novel echogenic insulated nerve block needle (CCR-needle: Echogenic Needle Type CCR; Hakko, Japan) is commercially available since 2006 in Japan. This needle has three echogenic dimples, namely corner cube reflectors (CCR) on its tip. The CCR-needle will potentially provide a significant advantage for detecting the needle tip. In this report, we firstly evaluated this new disposable echogenic needle in simulation phantom, and demonstrated improved visibility of the needle tip. Afterwards, an interscalene brachial plexus block was performed on a male patient undergoing shoulder surgery. The needle insertion procedure was the "out of plane" ultrasound-guided technique using simultaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The surgery was successfully conducted without any complications.

  9. Phenotypic expressions of CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, GT; Carrington, M; Beeler, JA; Dean, M; Aledort, LM; Blatt, PM; Cohen, AR; DiMichele, D; Eyster, ME; Kessler, CM; Konkle, B; Leissinger, C; Luban, N; O'Brien, SJ; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, TR

    1999-01-01

    Objective: As blockade of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has been proposed as therapy for HIV-1, we examined whether the CCR5-Delta 32/Delta 32 homozygous genotype has phenotypic expressions other than those related to HIV-1. Design: Study subjects were white homosexual men or men with hemophilia

  10. Neutralization of X4- and R5-tropic HIV-1 NL4-3 variants by HOCl-modified serum albumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwalbe Birco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myeloperoxidase (MPO, an important element of the microbicidal activity of neutrophils, generates hypochlorous acid (HOCl from H2O2 and chloride, which is released into body fluids. Besides its direct microbicidal activity, HOCl can react with amino acid residues and HOCl-modified proteins can be detected in vivo. Findings This report is based on binding studies of HOCl-modified serum albumins to HIV-1 gp120 and three different neutralization assays using infectious virus. The binding studies were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and by standard ELISA techniques. Virus neutralization assays were carried out using HIV-1 NL4-3 virus and recombinant strains with CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptor usage. Viral infection was monitored by a standard p24 or X-gal staining assay. Our data demonstrate that HOCl-modified mouse-, bovine- and human serum albumins all bind to the HIV-1 NL4-3 gp120 (LAV glycoprotein in contrast to non-modified albumin. Binding of HOCl-modified albumin to gp120 correlated to the blockade of CD4 as well as that of V3 loop specific monoclonal antibody binding. In neutralization experiments, HOCl-modified serum albumins inhibited replication and syncytium formation of the X4- and R5-tropic NL4-3 isolates in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions Our data indicate that HOCl-modified serum albumin veils the binding site for CD4 and the V3 loop on gp120. Such masking of the viral gp120/gp41 envelope complex might be a simple but promising strategy to inactivate HIV-1 and therefore prevent infection when HOCl-modified serum albumin is applied, for example, as a topical microbicide.

  11. Expression analysis of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) gene in developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sameer; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Arha, Manish; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Rawal, Shuban K; Kavi Kishor, P B; Khan, Bashir M

    2011-02-01

    Removal of lignin is a major hurdle for obtaining good quality pulp. Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) is extensively used in paper industry in India; therefore, as a first step to generate transgenic plants with low lignin content, cDNA and genomic clones of CCR gene were isolated and characterized. The cDNA encoding CCR (EC 1.2.1.44) was designated as Ll-CCR; the sequence analysis revealed an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 1005 bp. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Ll-CCR sequence is highly homologous to CCRs from other dicot plants. The 2992 bp genomic clone of Leucaena CCR consists of 5 exons and 4 introns. The haploid genome of L. leucocephala contains two copies as revealed by DNA blot hybridization. Ll-CCR gene was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, which showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa. Protein blot analysis revealed that Ll-CCR protein is expressed at higher levels in root and in stem, but undetectable in leaf tissues. Expression of CCR gene in Leucaena increased up to 15 d in case of roots and stem as revealed by QRT-PCR studies in 0-15 d old seedlings. ELISA based studies of extractable CCR protein corroborated with QRT-PCR data. CCR protein was immuno-cytolocalized around xylem tissue. Lignin estimation and expression studies of 5, 10 and 15 d old stem and root suggest that CCR expression correlates with quantity of lignin produced, which makes it a good target for antisense down regulation for producing designer species for paper industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemokine Receptor Ccr1 Drives Neutrophil-Mediated Kidney Immunopathology and Mortality in Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Wan, Wuzhou; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Scheinberg, Phillip; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is the 4th leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating neutrophil recruitment have not been previously defined. Here we show that mice lacking chemokine receptor Ccr1, which is widely expressed on leukocytes, had selectively impaired accumulation of neutrophils in the kidney limited to the late phase of the time course of the model; surprisingly, this was associated with improved renal function and survival without affecting tissue fungal burden. Consistent with this, neutrophils from wild-type mice in blood and kidney switched from Ccr1lo to Ccr1high at late time-points post-infection, when Ccr1 ligands were produced at high levels in the kidney and were chemotactic for kidney neutrophils ex vivo. Further, when a 1∶1 mixture of Ccr1+/+ and Ccr1−/− donor neutrophils was adoptively transferred intravenously into Candida-infected Ccr1+/+ recipient mice, neutrophil trafficking into the kidney was significantly skewed toward Ccr1+/+ cells. Thus, neutrophil Ccr1 amplifies late renal immunopathology and increases mortality in invasive candidiasis by mediating excessive recruitment of neutrophils from the blood to the target organ. PMID:22916017

  13. Molecular requirements for inhibition of the chemokine receptor CCR8--probe-dependent allosteric interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummel, Pia Cwarzko; Arfelt, K N; Baumann, L

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a novel series of CCR8 antagonists based on a naphthalene-sulfonamide structure. This structure differs from the predominant pharmacophore for most small-molecule CC-chemokine receptor antagonists, which in fact activate CCR8, suggesting that CCR8 inhibition requires alternative...

  14. CCR Magazines | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) has two magazines, MILESTONES and LANDMARKS, that highlight our annual advances and top contributions to the understanding, detection, treatment and prevention of cancer over the years.

  15. Ultra-violet radiation is responsible for the differences in global epidemiology of chickenpox and the evolution of varicella-zoster virus as man migrated out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Philip S

    2011-04-23

    Of the eight human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox and zoster, has a unique epidemiology. Primary infection is much less common in children in the tropics compared with temperate areas. This results in increased adult susceptibility causing outbreaks, for example in health-care workers migrating from tropical to temperate countries. The recent demonstration that there are different genotypes of varicella-zoster virus and their geographic segregation into tropical and temperate areas suggests a distinct, yet previously unconsidered climatic factor may be responsible for both the clinical and molecular epidemiological features of this virus infection. Unlike other human herpes viruses, varicella-zoster virus does not require intimate contact for infection to occur indicating that transmission may be interrupted by a geographically restricted climatic factor. The factor with the largest difference between tropical and temperate zones is ultra-violet radiation. This could reduce the infectiousness of chickenpox cases by inactivating virus in vesicles, before or after rupture. This would explain decreased transmissibility in the tropics and why the peak chickenpox incidence in temperate zones occurs during winter and spring, when ultra-violet radiation is at its lowest. The evolution of geographically restricted genotypes is also explained by ultra-violet radiation driving natural selection of different virus genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to inactivation, tropical genotypes being the most resistant. Consequently, temperate viruses should be more sensitive to its effects. This is supported by the observation that temperate genotypes are found in the tropics only in specific circumstances, namely where ultra-violet radiation has either been excluded or significantly reduced in intensity. The hypothesis is testable by exposing different virus genotypes to ultra-violet radiation and quantifying virus survival by plaque forming

  16. Inflammatory monocytes promote progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and can be therapeutically targeted via CCR2

    OpenAIRE

    Mojumdar, Kamalika; Liang, Feng; Giordano, Christian; Lemaire, Christian; Danialou, Gawiyou; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Bourdon, Johanne; Rafei, Moutih; Galipeau, Jacques; Divangahi, Maziar; Petrof, Basil J

    2014-01-01

    Myofiber necrosis and fibrosis are hallmarks of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), leading to lethal weakness of the diaphragm. Macrophages (MPs) are required for successful muscle regeneration, but the role of inflammatory monocyte (MO)-derived MPs in either promoting or mitigating DMD is unclear. We show that DMD (mdx) mouse diaphragms exhibit greatly increased expression of CCR2 and its chemokine ligands, along with inflammatory (Ly6Chigh) MO recruitment and accumulation of CD11bhigh MO-de...

  17. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, Anton; Benfield, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV...... of AIDS, in AIDS-free survival as well as survival with AIDS, between 64I allele carriers and wild-type individuals. Among 9 long-term nonprogressors, 2 carried the 64I allele, while none of 9 fast progressors carried the 64I allele. However, this was not significantly different (p=.47). Long......-term nonprogression could not be explained by CXCR4 polymorphism or other polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene than the CCR5delta32 allele. Furthermore, we were not able to detect any significant independent effect of the 64I allele on development to AIDS, overall survival, and annual CD4 T-cell decline in this cohort....

  18. Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells transplantation and genetic modification of CCR5 m303/m303 mutant patient for HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Abdolreza; Farshbaf, Alieh; Erfanmanesh, Maryam

    2015-03-01

    HIV and AIDS is one of the biggest challenges all over the world. There are an approximately 34 million people living with the virus, and a large number of them become infected each year. Although there are some antiviral drugs for HIV viral load reduction, they are not sufficient. There is no cure for AIDS. Nowadays natural resistance or immunity has absorbed attentions. Because in some HIV positive patients progression trend is slow or even they indicate resistance to AIDS. One of the most interesting approaches in this category is CCR5 gene. CCR5 is a main cc-chemokine co-receptor that facilitates HIV-1 entry to macrophage and CD4(+) T cells. To now, many polymorphisms have been known by CCR5 gene that produces a truncated protein with no function. So, HIV-1 could not entry to immune-cells and the body resistant to HIV/AIDS. Δ32/Δ32 and m303/m303 homozygotes are example of mutations that could create this resistance mechanism. There is a new treatment, such as Hematopoietic Stem Cell transplantation (HSCT) in Berlin and Boston patients for Δ32/Δ32 mutation. It could eliminate co-receptor antagonist and highly-active-anti retroviral therapy (HAART) drugs problems such as toxicity, low safety and side-effects. Now there, the aim of this hypothesis will be evaluation of a new mutation CCR5 m303/m303 as autologous HSCT. This novel hypothesis indicates that autologous HSCT for m303/m303 could be effective treatment for anyone HIV/AIDS affected patient worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between CCR and NT-proBNP in Chinese HF patients, and their correlations with severity of HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhigang; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yunliang; Qian, Xueqing; Zheng, Wei; Wei, Meng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between creatinine clearance rate (CCR) and the level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in heart failure (HF) patients and their correlations with HF severity. Two hundred and one Chinese patients were grouped according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification as NYHA 1-2 and 3-4 groups and 135 cases out of heart failure patients as control group. The following variables were compared among these three groups: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, NT-proBNP, creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), and CCR. The biomarkers of NT-proBNP, Cr, UA, LVEDD, and CCR varied significantly in the three groups, and these variables were positively correlated with the NHYA classification. The levels of NT-proBNP and CCR were closely related to the occurrence of HF and were independent risk factors for HF. At the same time, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of NT-proBNP and CCR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve suggested that the NT-proBNP and CCR have high accuracy for diagnosis of HF and have clinical diagnostic value. NT-proBNP and CCR may be important biomarkers in evaluating the severity of HF.

  20. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: Detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Levine, G.; Lamki, L.M.; Murray, J.L.; Tauxe, W.N.; Shah, A.N.; Patt, Y.Z.; Doerr, R.J.; Klein, H.A.; Gona, J.

    1990-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer

  1. A Simplified Technique for Evaluating Human "CCR5" Genetic Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falteisek, Lukáš; Cerný, Jan; Janštová, Vanda

    2013-01-01

    To involve students in thinking about the problem of AIDS (which is important in the view of nondecreasing infection rates), we established a practical lab using a simplified adaptation of Thomas's (2004) method to determine the polymorphism of HIV co-receptor CCR5 from students' own epithelial cells. CCR5 is a receptor involved in inflammatory…

  2. Study of brain atrophy using X-ray computed tomography. Measurement of CSF space-cranial cavity ratio (CCR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Masayoshi

    1987-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid space-cranial cavity ratio (CCR) of 811 subjects with no brain damage were investigated using X-ray computed tomography. Brain volume of healthy adults aged 20 - 59 years was almost constant and decreased gradually after 60 years. CCR of men aged 20 - 49 years kept constant value and increased with aging after 50 years. CCR of women aged 20 - 59 years kept equal value and CCR increased with aging after 60 years. Brain atrophy with aging was investigated in this study also. In retrospective study, CCR of patients in any age diagnosed brain atrophy in daily CT reports were beyond the normal range of CCR of healthy subjects aged 20 - 49 years. In 48 patients with Parkinson's disease, almost of CCR of them were included within normal range of CCR in age-matched control.

  3. CCR5 delta32, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Madsen, Hans O; Jensen, Claus V

    2000-01-01

    Chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) appear to be crucial in leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis (MS). CCR5 delta32, a truncated allele of the CC chemokine receptor CCR5 gene encoding a non-functional receptor, did not confer protection from MS. CCR5...... delta32 was, however, associated with a lower risk of recurrent clinical disease activity. High CSF levels of MMP-9 activity were also associated with recurrent disease activity. These results directly link intrathecal inflammation to disease activity in patients with MS, suggesting that treatments...... targeting CCR5 or treatment with MMP inhibitors may attenuate disease activity in MS...

  4. Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum, possessing a unique genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S; Tsuneyoshi, T; Furutani, H

    1993-09-01

    Rod-shaped flexuous viruses were partially purified from garlic plants (Allium sativum) showing typical mosaic symptoms. The genome was shown to be composed of RNA with a poly(A) tail of an estimated size of 10 kb as shown by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. We constructed cDNA libraries and screened four independent clones, which were designated GV-A, GV-B, GV-C and GV-D, using Northern and Southern blot hybridization. Nucleotide sequence determination of the cDNAs, two of which correspond to nearly one-third of the virus genomic RNA, shows that all of these viruses possess an identical genomic structure and that also at least four proteins are encoded in the viral cDNA, their M(r)s being estimated to be 15K, 27K, 40K and 11K. The 15K open reading frame (ORF) encodes the core-like sequence of a zinc finger protein preceded by a cluster of basic amino acid residues. The 27K ORF probably encodes the viral coat protein (CP), based on both the existence of some conserved sequences observed in many other rod-shaped or flexuous virus CPs and an overall amino acid sequence similarity to potexvirus and carlavirus CPs. The 11K ORF shows significant amino acid sequence similarities to the corresponding 12K proteins of the potexviruses and carlaviruses. On the other hand, the 40K ORF product does not resemble any other plant virus gene products reported so far. The genomic organization in the 3' region of the garlic viruses resembles, but clearly differs from, that of carlaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis based upon the amino acid sequence of the viral capsid protein also indicates that the garlic viruses have a unique and distinct domain different from those of the potexvirus and carlavirus groups. The results suggest that the garlic viruses described here belong to an unclassified and new virus group closely related to the carlaviruses.

  5. Mapping of the Lassa virus LAMP1 binding site reveals unique determinants not shared by other old world arenaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadar Israeli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell entry of many enveloped viruses occurs by engagement with cellular receptors, followed by internalization into endocytic compartments and pH-induced membrane fusion. A previously unnoticed step of receptor switching was found to be critical during cell entry of two devastating human pathogens: Ebola and Lassa viruses. Our recent studies revealed the functional role of receptor switching to LAMP1 for triggering membrane fusion by Lassa virus and showed the involvement of conserved histidines in this switching, suggesting that other viruses from this family may also switch to LAMP1. However, when we investigated viruses that are genetically close to Lassa virus, we discovered that they cannot bind LAMP1. A crystal structure of the receptor-binding module from Morogoro virus revealed structural differences that allowed mapping of the LAMP1 binding site to a unique set of Lassa residues not shared by other viruses in its family, illustrating a key difference in the cell-entry mechanism of Lassa virus that may contribute to its pathogenicity.

  6. The prognostic significance and relationship with body composition of CCR7-positive cells in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Bernardo, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Knight, Stella C; Moorghen, Morgan; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Jenkins, John T

    2015-07-01

    The host local immune response (LIR) to cancer is a determinant of cancer outcome. Regulation of this local response is largely achieved through chemokine synthesis from the tumor microenvironment such as C-Chemokine-Receptor-7 (CCR7). We examined the LIR measured as CCR7 expression, in colorectal cancers (CRC) and explored relationships with body composition (BC) and survival. A study of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens was carried out in 116 patients with non-metastatic CRC. CCR7 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of computer tomography scans was used to calculate BC parameters. Survival analyses and multivariate regression models were used. High CCR7(+) cell density within the tumor stroma and at the margin was significantly associated with increased age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, higher tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, high Klintrup-Makinen immune score, and myosteatosis. High CCR7(+) cell density in the tumor margin was significantly associated with shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). This was also significantly associated with shorter survival in multivariate analysis (HR = 8.87; 95%CI [2.51-31.3]; P < 0.01 for OS and HR = 4.72; 95%CI (1.24-12.9); P = 0.02 for DFS). Our results suggest that a specific immune microenvironment may be associated with altered host's BC and tumor behavior, and that CCR7 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dengue Virus NS2B/NS3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting the Prime Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Hung; Ali, Akbar; Rusere, Linah; Soumana, Djade I; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2017-05-15

    The mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Maturation of DENV particles requires proper cleavage of the viral polyprotein, including processing of 8 of the 13 substrate cleavage sites by dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease. With no available direct-acting antiviral targeting DENV, NS2/NS3 protease is a promising target for inhibitor design. Current design efforts focus on the nonprime side of the DENV protease active site, resulting in highly hydrophilic and nonspecific scaffolds. However, the prime side also significantly modulates DENV protease binding affinity, as revealed by engineering the binding loop of aprotinin, a small protein with high affinity for DENV protease. In this study, we designed a series of cyclic peptides interacting with both sides of the active site as inhibitors of dengue virus protease. The design was based on two aprotinin loops and aimed to leverage both key specific interactions of substrate sequences and the entropic advantage driving aprotinin's high affinity. By optimizing the cyclization linker, length, and amino acid sequence, the tightest cyclic peptide achieved a K i value of 2.9 μM against DENV3 wild-type (WT) protease. These inhibitors provide proof of concept that both sides of DENV protease active site can be exploited to potentially achieve specificity and lower hydrophilicity in the design of inhibitors targeting DENV. IMPORTANCE Viruses of the flaviviral family, including DENV and Zika virus transmitted by Aedes aegypti , continue to be a threat to global health by causing major outbreaks in tropical and subtropical regions, with no available direct-acting antivirals for treatment. A better understanding of the molecular requirements for the design of potent and specific inhibitors against flaviviral proteins will contribute to the development of targeted therapies for infections by these viruses. The cyclic peptides reported here as DENV protease inhibitors

  8. A Linear Epitope in the N-Terminal Domain of CCR5 and Its Interaction with Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Chain

    Full Text Available The CCR5 receptor plays a role in several key physiological and pathological processes and is an important therapeutic target. Inhibition of the CCR5 axis by passive or active immunisation offers one very selective strategy for intervention. In this study we define a new linear epitope within the extracellular domain of CCR5 recognised by two independently produced monoclonal antibodies. A short peptide encoding the linear epitope can induce antibodies which recognise the intact receptor when administered colinear with a tetanus toxoid helper T cell epitope. The monoclonal antibody RoAb 13 is shown to bind to both cells and peptide with moderate to high affinity (6x10^8 and 1.2x107 M-1 respectively, and binding to the peptide is enhanced by sulfation of tyrosines at positions 10 and 14. RoAb13, which has previously been shown to block HIV infection, also blocks migration of monocytes in response to CCR5 binding chemokines and to inflammatory macrophage conditioned medium. A Fab fragment of RoAb13 has been crystallised and a structure of the antibody is reported to 2.1 angstrom resolution.

  9. CCL5 and CCR5 interaction promotes cell motility in human osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is characterized by a high malignant and metastatic potential. CCL5 (previously called RANTES was originally recognized as a product of activated T cells, and plays a crucial role in the migration and metastasis of human cancer cells. It has been reported that the effect of CCL5 is mediated via CCR receptors. However, the effect of CCL5 on migration activity and integrin expression in human osteosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that CCL5 increased the migration and expression of αvβ3 integrin in human osteosarcoma cells. Stimulation of cells with CCL5 increased CCR5 but not CCR1 and CCR3 expression. CCR5 mAb, inhibitor, and siRNA reduced the CCL5-enhanced the migration and integrin up-regulation of osteosarcoma cells. Activations of MEK, ERK, and NF-κB pathways after CCL5 treatment were demonstrated, and CCL5-induced expression of integrin and migration activity was inhibited by the specific inhibitor and mutant of MEK, ERK, and NF-κB cascades. In addition, over-expression of CCL5 shRNA inhibited the migratory ability and integrin expression in osteosarcoma cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CCL5 and CCR5 interaction acts through MEK, ERK, which in turn activates NF-κB, resulting in the activations of αvβ3 integrin and contributing the migration of human osteosarcoma cells.

  10. Control of Both Myeloid Cell Infiltration and Angiogenesis by CCR1 Promotes Liver Cancer Metastasis Development in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Paul Rodero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1 by tumor cells has been associated with protumoral activity; however, its role in nontumoral cells during tumor development remains elusive. Here, we investigated the role of CCR1 deletion on stromal and hematopoietic cells in a liver metastasis tumor model. Metastasis development was strongly impaired in CCR1-deficient mice compared to control mice and was associated with reduced liver monocyte infiltration. To decipher the role of myeloid cells, sublethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with CCR1-deficient bone marrow (BM and showed better survival rates than the control reconstituted mice. These results point toward the involvement of CCR1 myeloid cell infiltration in the promotion of tumor burden. In addition, survival rates were extended in CCR1-deficient mice receiving either control or CCR1-deficient BM, indicating that host CCR1 expression on nonhematopoietic cells also supports tumor growth. Finally, we found defective tumor-induced neoangiogenesis (in vitro and in vivo in CCR1-deficient mice. Overall, our results indicate that CCR1 expression by both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells favors tumor aggressiveness. We propose CCR1 as a potential therapeutical target for liver metastasis therapy.

  11. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  12. Swine Influenza Virus (H1N2) Characterization and Transmission in Ferrets, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Vasquez, Nicolás; Karlsson, Erik A; Jimenez-Bluhm, Pedro; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Kaplan, Bryan; Marvin, Shauna; Cortez, Valerie; Freiden, Pamela; Beck, Melinda A; Hamilton-West, Christopher; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo and transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. Antigenically, it was distinct from other swine viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition analysis suggested that antibody titers to the swine Chilean H1N2 virus were decreased in persons born after 1990. Further studies are needed to characterize the potential risk to humans, as well as the ecology of influenza in swine in South America.

  13. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the NS2A Protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Affects Virus Propagation In Vitro but Not In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Yuki; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2015-06-01

    We identified a unique amino acid of NS2A113, phenylalanine, that affects the efficient propagation of two Japanese encephalitis virus strains, JaTH160 and JaOArS982, in neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells but not in cell lines of extraneural origin. This amino acid did not affect viral loads in the brain or survival curves in mice. These findings suggest that virus propagation in vitro may not reflect the level of virus neuroinvasiveness in vivo. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Gating function of isoleucine-116 in TM-3 (position III:16/3.40) for the activity state of the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, A; Sparre-Ulrich, A H; Thiele, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    TM receptors - it is a leucine indicating an altered function. Here, we describe the significance of this position and its possible interaction with TM-3 for CCR5 activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of [L203F]-CCR5 in TM-5 (position V:13/5.47), [I116A]-CCR5 in TM-3 (III:16/3.40) and [L203F...... ) with a threefold increase in agonist potency. In silico, [I116A]-CCR5 switched χ1-angle in [L203F]-CCR5. Furthermore, [I116A]-CCR5 was constitutively active to a similar degree as [L203F]-CCR5. Tyr(244) in TM-6 (VI:09/6.44) moved towards TM-5 in silico, consistent with its previously shown function for CCR5...... in the active state, a mechanism proposed previously for the β2 -adrenoceptor. The results provide an understanding of chemokine receptor function and thereby information for the development of biased and non-biased antagonists and inverse agonists....

  15. Sequential immunization with V3 peptides from primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 produces cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates with a matching narrow-neutralization sequence motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Mari; Murakami, Toshio; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kimachi, Kazuhiko; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Satoshi; Shiosaki, Kouichi; Higuchi, Hirofumi; Makizumi, Keiichi; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Tokiyoshi, Sachio; Matsushita, Shuzo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2006-06-01

    An antibody response capable of neutralizing not only homologous but also heterologous forms of the CXCR4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) MNp and CCR5-tropic primary isolate HIV-1 JR-CSF was achieved through sequential immunization with a combination of synthetic peptides representing HIV-1 Env V3 sequences from field and laboratory HIV-1 clade B isolates. In contrast, repeated immunization with a single V3 peptide generated antibodies that neutralized only type-specific laboratory-adapted homologous viruses. To determine whether the cross-neutralization response could be attributed to a cross-reactive antibody in the immunized animals, we isolated a monoclonal antibody, C25, which neutralized the heterologous primary viruses of HIV-1 clade B. Furthermore, we generated a humanized monoclonal antibody, KD-247, by transferring the genes of the complementary determining region of C25 into genes of the human V region of the antibody. KD-247 bound with high affinity to the "PGR" motif within the HIV-1 Env V3 tip region, and, among the established reference antibodies, it most effectively neutralized primary HIV-1 field isolates possessing the matching neutralization sequence motif, suggesting its promise for clinical applications involving passive immunizations. These results demonstrate that sequential immunization with B-cell epitope peptides may contribute to a humoral immune-based HIV vaccine strategy. Indeed, they help lay the groundwork for the development of HIV-1 vaccine strategies that use sequential immunization with biologically relevant peptides to overcome difficulties associated with otherwise poorly immunogenic epitopes.

  16. Eosinophils Subvert Host Resistance to an Intracellular Pathogen by Instigating Non-Protective IL-4 in CCR2−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash H.; Bueter, Chelsea L.; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Deepe, George S.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils contribute to type II immune responses in helminth infections and allergic diseases, however, their influence on intracellular pathogens is less clear. We previously reported that CCR2−/− mice exposed to the intracellular fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum exhibit dampened immunity caused by an early exaggerated IL-4 response. We sought to identify the cellular source promulgating interleukin (IL)-4 in infected mutant animals. Eosinophils were the principal instigators of non-protective IL-4 and depleting this granulocyte population improved fungal clearance in CCR2−/− animals. The deleterious impact of eosinophilia on mycosis was also recapitulated in transgenic animals overexpressing eosinophils. Mechanistic examination of IL-4 induction revealed that phagocytosis of H. capsulatum via the pattern recognition receptor complement receptor (CR) 3 triggered the heightened IL-4 response in murine eosinophils. This phenomenon was conserved in human eosinophils; exposure of cells to the fungal pathogen elicited a robust IL-4 response. Thus, our findings elucidate a detrimental attribute of eosinophil biology in fungal infections that could potentially trigger a collapse in host defenses by instigating type II immunity. PMID:27049063

  17. Characterization and analysis of CCR and CAD gene families at the whole-genome level for lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Li, Manli; Li, Dahui; Zhang, Jinyun; Jin, Qing; Sheng, Lingling; Cai, Yongping; Lin, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The content of stone cells has significant effects on the flavour and quality of pear fruit. Previous research suggested that lignin deposition is closely related to stone cell formation. In the lignin biosynthetic pathway, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), dehydrogenase/reductase family members, catalyse the last two steps in monolignol synthesis. However, there is little knowledge of the characteristics of the CCR and CAD families in pear and their involvement in lignin synthesis of stone cells. In this study, 31 CCR s and 26 CAD s were identified in the pear genome. Phylogenetic trees for CCR s and CAD s were constructed; key amino acid residues were analysed, and three-dimensional structures were predicted. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), PbCAD2 , PbCCR1 , -2 and - 3 were identified as participating in lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear fruit. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the expressed proteins (PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and -3) are found in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane. These results reveal the evolutionary features of the CCR and CAD families in pear as well as the genes responsible for regulation of lignin synthesis and stone cell development in pear fruit. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1 IIIB infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent

  19. Proof of activity with AMD11070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCR4-tropic HIV type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Graeme; DeJesus, Edwin; Boffito, Marta; Wong, Rebecca S; Gibney, Colleen; Badel, Karin; MacFarland, Ron; Calandra, Gary; Bridger, Gary; Becker, Stephen

    2009-03-15

    The X4 Antagonist Concept Trial investigates the safety and antiviral activity of AMD11070, a potent inhibitor of X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro in HIV-infected patients harboring X4-tropic virus. Patients enrolled in the study had an X4 virus population 2000 relative luminescence units (rlu; by the Monogram Trofile Assay) and an HIV-1 RNA level 5000 copies/mL. Patients received AMD11070 monotherapy for 10 days. Coreceptor tropism, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, and CD4 cell count were measured at study entry, on day 5, and on day 10. Daily predose and serial samples on the last day of treatment were obtained for determination of plasma AMD11070 concentration. Ten patients were given AMD11070 monotherapy (200 mg to 8 patients and 100 mg to 2 patients) twice daily for 10 days. The median baseline CD4 cell count was 160 cells/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA level was 91,447 copies/mL. Four of 9 evaluable patients achieved a reduction in X4 virus population of >or= rlu. The median change in X4 virus population at the end of treatment was -0.22 log(10) rlu (range, -1.90 to 0.23 log(10) rlu). Three of 4 patients who responded to therapy showed a tropism shift from dual- or mixed-tropic viruses to exclusively R5 virus by day 10. There were no drug-related serious adverse events, adverse events of greater than grade 2, or laboratory abnormalities. These results demonstrate the activity of AMD11070, the first oral CXCR4 antagonist, against X4-tropic HIV-1. The drug was well tolerated, with no serious safety concerns. AMD11070 is on clinical hold because of histologic changes to the liver observed in long-term animal studies; additional preclinical safety assessments are pending.

  20. Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CCR1 increases cell viability, migration, engraftment, and capillary density in the injured myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Zhiping; Guo, Jian; Ni, Aiguo; Deb, Arjun; Zhang, Lunan; Mirotsou, Maria; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-06-11

    Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been shown to promote cardiac repair in acute myocardial injury in vivo, its overall restorative capacity appears to be restricted mainly because of poor cell viability and low engraftment in the ischemic myocardium. Specific chemokines are upregulated in the infarcted myocardium. However the expression levels of the corresponding chemokine receptors (eg, CCR1, CXCR2) in MSCs are very low. We hypothesized that this discordance may account for the poor MSC engraftment and survival. To determine whether overexpression of CCR1 or CXCR2 chemokine receptors in MSCs augments their cell survival, migration and engraftment after injection in the infarcted myocardium. Overexpression of CCR1, but not CXCR2, dramatically increased chemokine-induced murine MSC migration and protected MSC from apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, when MSCs were injected intramyocardially one hour after coronary artery ligation, CCR1-MSCs accumulated in the infarcted myocardium at significantly higher levels than control-MSCs or CXCR2-MSCs 3 days postmyocardial infarction (MI). CCR1-MSC-injected hearts exhibited a significant reduction in infarct size, reduced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and increased capillary density in injured myocardium 3 days after MI. Furthermore, intramyocardial injection of CCR1-MSCs prevented cardiac remodeling and restored cardiac function 4 weeks after MI. Our results demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo salutary effects of genetic modification of stem cells. Specifically, overexpression of chemokine receptor enhances the migration, survival and engraftment of MSCs, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy for the injured myocardium.

  1. [Autoimmune syndrome in the tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy associated with human T-lymphotropic virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Martha C; Torres, Miyerlandi; Tamayo, Oscar; Criollo, William; Quintana, Milton; Sánchez, Adalberto; García, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Previous reports have given evidence that in tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP)/human T-lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM), an autoimmune process occurs as part of its pathogenesis. The roles of autoimmunity and the molecular mimicry was evaluated in TSP/HAM patients. Plasma samples were characterized from patients in the Pacific coastal region of Colombia. Thirty-seven were identified as TSP/HAM, 10 were diagnosed with adult T-cell leukemia virus, 22 were asymptomatic carriers but seropositive for HTLV-I and 20 were seronegative and served as negative controls. Plasmatic levels of the following were determined: antinuclear antibody (ANA) levels, anticardiolipine-2 (ACL-2), interferon- (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Using Western blot, the crossreactivity of the seropositive and seronegative samples was evaluated against proteins extracted from several central nervous system components of non infected Wistar rats. The HTLV-I seropositive plasmas were crossreacted with a monoclonal tax (LT4 anti-taxp40) from spinal cord neurons of non infected Wistar rats. Of the TSP/HAM patients, 70.2% were reactive against ANA and 83.8% against ACL-2, in contrast with those ATL and asymptomatic seropositives subjects that were not reactive (P<0.001). Moreover, 70.3% had detectable levels of IFN and 43.2% had detectable IL-4. LT4 anti-taxp40 and plasma of TSP/HAM exhibited cross reactivity with a MW 33-35 kDa protein from the rat spinal cord nuclei. Support was provided for the existence of an autoimmune syndrome mediated by molecular mimicry; the syndrome was responsible for some of the axonal degeneration observed in TSP/HAM patients.

  2. On relativistic irreducible quantum fields fulfilling CCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1987-01-01

    Let phi be a relativistic scalar field fulfilling canonical commutation relations (CCR). Furthermore it is assumed that the time zero fields and momenta form an irreducible set. Based on estimates given by Herbst [I. W. Herbst, J. Math. Phys. 17, 1210 (1976)], and by methods developed by Powers [R. T. Powers, Commun. Math. Phys. 4, 145 (1967)], it is shown that phi has to be a free field in n>3 space dimensions. For n = 3 (resp. n = 2) restrictions that look similar to the restriction in a formal :phi 4 : 3 /sub +/ 1 (resp. :phi 6 : 2 /sub +/ 1 ) theory are obtained

  3. CCR Certification Form for Wyoming or EPA R8 Tribal Community Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CCR Certification Form can be used to certify that community water systems in Wyoming or on Tribal Lands in EPA Region 8 have completed and distributed their annual Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) or water quality report.

  4. The viral envelope is not sufficient to transfer the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to a related pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Reimann, Ilona; Schirrmeier, Horst; Kirkland, Peter D; Beer, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Bungowannah virus is the most divergent pestivirus, and both origin and reservoir host have not been identified so far. We therefore performed in vitro tropism studies, which showed that Bungowannah virus differs remarkably from other pestiviruses. Interestingly, cell lines of vervet monkey, mouse, human and even of bat origin were susceptible. This broad in vitro tropism was not observed for a chimeric bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) expressing all structural proteins of Bungowannah virus. The viral envelope was not sufficient to completely transfer the cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to another pestivirus, and viral RNA replication was either markedly reduced or not detectable in a number of different cell lines for the tested BVDV strain and the chimera. We therefore suggest that the replication machinery together with the viral envelope is responsible for the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus ensures B cell survival by uniquely modulating apoptosis at early and late times after infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander M; Dai, Joanne; Bazot, Quentin; Patel, Luv; Nikitin, Pavel A; Djavadian, Reza; Winter, Peter S; Salinas, Cristina A; Barry, Ashley Perkins; Wood, Kris C; Johannsen, Eric C; Letai, Anthony; Allday, Martin J; Luftig, Micah A

    2017-04-20

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFκB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFκB early after infection. We used BH3 profiling to query mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis and defined a transition from uninfected B cells (BCL-2) to early-infected (MCL-1/BCL-2) and immortalized cells (BFL-1). This dynamic change in B cell survival mechanisms is unique to virus-infected cells and relies on regulation of MCL-1 mitochondrial localization and BFL-1 transcription by the viral EBNA3A protein. This study defines a new role for EBNA3A in the suppression of apoptosis with implications for EBV lymphomagenesis.

  6. Functional characterization of CCR in birch (Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Wei, Rui; Chen, Su; Jiang, Jing; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Hairong; Liu, Guifeng

    2015-06-01

    We cloned a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase gene (BpCCR1) from an apical meristem and first internode of Betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. We generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. We found that BpCCR1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, and its underexpression decreased lignin content by 6.3%. Surprisingly, modification of BpCCR1 expression led to conspicuous changes in wood characteristics, including xylem vessel number and arrangement, and secondary wall thickness. The growth of transgenic trees in terms of height was also significantly influenced by the modification of BpCCR1 genes. We discuss the functions of BpCCR1 in the context of a phylogenetic tree built with CCR genes from multiple species. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. CCL3L1 copy number, CCR5 genotype and susceptibility to tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Danielle; Taype, Carmen; Goulding, Jon; Levin, Mike; Eley, Brian; Anderson, Suzanne; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Armour, John AL

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis is a major infectious disease and functional studies have provided evidence that both the chemokine MIP-1α and its receptor CCR5 play a role in susceptibility to TB. Thus by measuring copy number variation of CCL3L1, one of the genes that encode MIP-1α, and genotyping a functional promoter polymorphism -2459A > G in CCR5 (rs1799987) we investigate the influence of MIP-1α and CCR5, independently and combined, in susceptibility to clinically active TB in three populatio...

  8. 77 FR 5471 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review AGENCY... stakeholder input on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule as part of the agency's Retrospective Review of... Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, section 1414(c)). The Consumer Confidence Report, or CCR, is an annual...

  9. MC148 encoded by human molluscum contagiosum poxvirus is an antagonist for human but not murine CCR8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttichau, H R; Gerstoft, J; Schwartz, T W

    2001-01-01

    The viral CC chemokines MC148, encoded by the poxvirus molluscum contagiosum, and viral macrophage inflammatory protein (vMIP)-I and vMIP-II, encoded by human herpesvirus 8, were probed on the murine CC receptor (CCR) 8 in parallel with human CCR8. In calcium mobilization assays, vMIP-I acted...... as a high-affinity agonist, whereas vMIP-II acted as a low-affinity antagonist on the murine CCR8 as well as the human CCR8. MC148 was found to bind and block responses through the human CCR8 with high affinity, but surprisingly MC148 was unable to bind and block responses through the murine CCR8. Because...

  10. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  11. A virus of hyperthermophilic archaea with a unique architecture among DNA viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, Elena Ilka; Mochizuki, Tomohiro; Quemin, Emmanuelle; Schouten, S.; Krupovic, Mart; Prangishvili, David

    2016-01-01

    Viruses package their genetic material in diverse ways. Most known strategies include encapsulation of nucleic acids into spherical or filamentous virions with icosahedral or helical symmetry, respectively. Filamentous viruses with dsDNA genomes are currently associated exclusively with Archaea.

  12. CCL19/CCR7 contributes to the pathogenesis of endometriosis via PI3K/Akt pathway by regulating the proliferation and invasion of ESCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ruiying; Wei, Weixia; Zhao, Jinghui; Tian, Fuying; Cai, Xueyong; Duan, Yong-Gang

    2017-11-01

    The level of CCL19 increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, but the precise mechanism of CCL19/CCR7 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unknown. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze CCL19/CCR7 expressions in peritoneal fluid and endometrium from women with endometriosis (n = 38) and controls (n = 32). Cell proliferation and transwell invasion assays were applied to detect proliferation and invasion of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). Expressions of Bcl2, MMP2, MMP9, and p-AKT/AKT were analyzed by Western blot. Peritoneal fluid concentration of CCL19 in patients with endometriosis was higher than that in controls. Those patients with moderate/severe endometriosis had significantly higher peritoneal fluid concentrations of CCL19 compared to those with minimal/mild endometriosis. Higher CCL19 and CCR7 were found in the endometrium with endometriosis compared to control. CCL19 significantly enhanced ESC proliferation and invasion through CCR7 via activating PI3K/Akt signal pathways. CCL19/CCR7 interaction significantly enhanced phosphorylation of Akt, Bcl2, MMP2, and MMP9 in ESCs. These data indicate CCL19/CCR7 contributes to proliferation and invasion of ESCs, which are conducive to the pathogenesis of endometriosis through activating PI3K/Akt pathway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Priming B cell-mediated anti-HIV envelope responses by vaccination allows for the long-term control of infection in macaques exposed to a R5-tropic SHIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, Clarisa; Gines, Leoned G.; Saunders, Cheryl J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Srivastava, Indresh; Gettie, Agegnehu; Bohm, Rudolph; Blanchard, James; Barnett, Susan W.; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2004-01-01

    The potential of vaccine-elicited anti-HIV envelope antibodies to control HIV-infection was evaluated by immunizing macaques with the HIV envelope protein and transiently depleting them of their CD8+ cells before intravenous challenge with the pathogenic CCR5-tropic SIV/HIV chimeric virus, SHIV SF162P4 . Although sterilizing immunity was not achieved, all vaccinated animals effectively controlled infection and remained free of disease for the duration of observation (over 3 years). In contrast, during the same period, the control animals progressed to disease. Both the vaccinees and the controls developed robust cell-mediated antiviral and neutralizing antibody responses following infection. A comparative analysis of these responses suggests that the more effective long-term control of infection by the vaccinated animals is due to the more rapid development of anti-HIV envelope antibodies. These studies suggest that priming by vaccination of B cell anti-HIV envelope responses maybe crucial for the long-term control of HIV infection

  14. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  15. The chemokine receptor CCR5 Δ32 allele in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M; Søndergaard, Helle B; Koch-Henriksen, N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The chemokine receptor CCR5 may be important for the recruitment of pathogenic T cells to the CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that this chemokine receptor might still be important for T-cell migration during treatment with anti-very late antigen (VLA)-4 antibody. We...... impact on the frequency of relapses 1 year prior to natalizumab treatment or during the first 48 weeks of treatment. The multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) was significantly lower at baseline in patients carrying CCR5 Δ32 (P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: CCR5 Δ32 is not associated with lower disease...

  16. CXCR3 Directs Antigen-Specific Effector CD4+ T Cell Migration to the Lung During Parainfluenza Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Cookenham, Tres; Miller, Shannon C

    2009-01-01

    effector CD4(+) T cell migration to the lungs. To assess the role of CCR5 and CXCR3 in vivo, we directly compared the migration of Ag-specific wild-type and chemokine receptor-deficient effector T cells in mixed bone marrow chimeric mice during a parainfluenza virus infection. CXCR3-deficient effector CD4......(+) T cells were 5- to 10-fold less efficient at migrating to the lung compared with wild-type cells, whereas CCR5-deficient effector T cells were not impaired in their migration to the lung. In contrast to its role in trafficking, CXCR3 had no impact on effector CD4(+) T cell proliferation, phenotype......, or function in any of the tissues examined. These findings demonstrate that CXCR3 controls virus-specific effector CD4(+) T cell migration in vivo, and suggest that blocking CXCR3-mediated recruitment may limit T cell-induced immunopathology during respiratory virus infections....

  17. The simultaneous repression of CCR and CAD, two enzymes of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, results in sterility and dwarfism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Johanne; Pollet, Brigitte; Letarnec, Bruno; Saulnier, Luc; Gissot, Lionel; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the last steps of monolignol biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, one CCR gene (CCR1, At1g15950) and two CAD genes (CAD C At3g19450 and CAD D At4g34230) are involved in this pathway. A triple cad c cad d ccr1 mutant, named ccc, was obtained. This mutant displays a severe dwarf phenotype and male sterility. The lignin content in ccc mature stems is reduced to 50% of the wild-type level. In addition, stem lignin structure is severely affected, as shown by the dramatic enrichment in resistant inter-unit bonds and incorporation into the polymer of monolignol precursors such as coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, and ferulic acid. Male sterility is due to the lack of lignification in the anther endothecium, which causes the failure of anther dehiscence and of pollen release. The ccc hypolignified stems accumulate higher amounts of flavonol glycosides, sinapoyl malate and feruloyl malate, which suggests a redirection of the phenolic pathway. Therefore, the absence of CAD and CCR, key enzymes of the monolignol pathway, has more severe consequences on the phenotype than the individual absence of each of them. Induction of another CCR (CCR2, At1g80820) and another CAD (CAD1, At4g39330) does not compensate the absence of the main CCR and CAD activities. This lack of CCR and CAD activities not only impacts lignification, but also severely affects the development of the plants. These consequences must be carefully considered when trying to reduce the lignin content of plants in order to facilitate the lignocellulose-to-bioethanol conversion process.

  18. Tropical rainforest biome of Biosphere 2. Structure, composition and results of the first 2 years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Linda S. [Systems Ecology and Energy Analysis Program, Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Burgess, Tony; Marino, Bruno D.V.; Wei, Yong Dan [Biosphere 2 Center, Inc. P.O. Box 689, Oracle, AZ (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The tropical rainforest biome in the Biosphere 2 mesocosm was managed with rainfall and temperature conditions to simulate a natural rainforest typical of the new world tropics. The establishment of the biome was based on the introduction of excessive numbers of species allowing self-organization of an ecologically unique rainforest. Over 282 species of plants from rainforest areas were planted within the topographically diverse rainforest biome (area of 1900 m{sup 2}, volume of 35,000 m{sup 3}), just before the Biosphere 2 closure in 1991. Approximately 61% of these species survived when counted in 1993, representing a plant species richness reduction to 172 species in 0.19 hectare. Rank order graphs show that a high diversity community resulted not unlike insular rainforests. The plants of the rainforest mesocosm, however, grew under anomalous conditions of soil (amended desert grassland soil), atmospheric composition (CO{sub 2} up to 4500 ppm by volume (ppmv)) and rainwater composition (high salinity and nutrients). Stem growth rates of a dominant canopy tree, Cecropia, were up to four times higher but had reduced diameter at breast height compared to natural counterparts. Human intervention in plant succession was also an important factor in shaping the ecology of the rainforest biome of Biosphere 2

  19. Viral Diversity in Hot Springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and Characterization of a Unique Archaeal Virus, Acidianus Bottle-Shaped Virus, from a New Family, the Ampullaviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häring, M.; Rachel, R.; Peng, Xu

    2005-01-01

    not involved in adsorption. ABV virions contain six proteins in the size range 15 to 80 kDa and a 23.9-kb linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Virus replication does not cause lysis of host cells. On the basis of its unique morphotype and structure, we propose to assign ABV to a new viral family...

  20. Epidemiology, Virology, and Pathogenesis of the Zika Virus: From Neglected Tropical Disease to a Focal Point of International Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, David A; Kawwass, Jennifer Fay

    2016-09-01

    Over the past year, the Zika virus, an arthropod-borne Flavivirus , has transitioned from a relatively unknown tropical disease to the cause of a public health emergency. The Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquito as well as by sexual intercourse. Although the symptoms of acute Zika virus infection are usually mild and self-limited, it causes fetal microcephaly in pregnant women, and is associated with an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The risk of microcephaly from Zika virus infection is estimated to be highest in women who are infected during the first trimester of pregnancy. The Zika virus has been shown to have significant neurotrophism in vivo and in vitro , although further study is needed to characterize its mechanisms of pathogenesis. Zika virus has previously caused two known outbreaks in the Pacific region prior to the current epidemic in South and Central America, and the current epidemic has affected at least 440,000 to 1,300,000 people. The population of the vector for the current epidemic, Aedes aegypti , varies seasonally in the United States, however there have been few documented cases of local spread of the Zika infection in the United States and it is unclear whether epidemic spread of Zika will occur within the United States. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Almendravirus: A Proposed New Genus of Rhabdoviruses Isolated from Mosquitoes in Tropical Regions of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Maria Angelica; Eastwood, Gillian; Guzman, Hilda; Popov, Vsevolod; Savit, Chelsea; Uribe, Sandra; Kramer, Laura D; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Fish, Durland; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J

    2017-01-11

    The Rhabdoviridae is a diverse family of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, many of which infect vertebrate hosts and are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. Others appear to be arthropod specific, circulating only within arthropod populations. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of three novel viruses from mosquitoes collected from the Americas. Coot Bay virus was isolated from Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes collected in the Everglades National Park, Florida; Rio Chico virus was isolated from Anopheles triannulatus mosquitoes collected in Panama; and Balsa virus was isolated from two pools of Culex erraticus mosquitoes collected in Colombia. Sequence analysis indicated that the viruses share a similar genome organization to Arboretum virus and Puerto Almendras virus that had previously been isolated from mosquitoes collected in Peru. Each genome features the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes as well as a gene encoding a class 1A viroporin-like protein (U1) located between the G and L genes (3'-N-P-M-G-U1-L-5'). Phylogenetic analysis of complete L protein sequences indicated that all five viruses cluster in a unique clade that is relatively deeply rooted in the ancestry of animal rhabdoviruses. The failure of all viruses in this clade to grow in newborn mice or vertebrate cells in culture suggests that they may be poorly adapted to replication in vertebrates. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Transcriptomic responses in rainbow trout gills upon infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Carolina; Castro, Rosario; Fischer, Uwe; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that even though the fin bases constitute the main portal of entry of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an important number of chemokine genes are up-regulated in the gills upon bath exposure to the virus. Because chemokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes through the action of specific chemokine receptors, in the current study, we have studied the transcription of several immune genes in response to a VHSV bath infection in the gills, focusing both on chemokine receptor genes and on genes characteristic of distinct leukocyte populations such as IgM, IgD, IgT, CD4, CD8, perforin and MHC-II. We have studied the response to the virus in naïve fish as well as in fish that had been previously intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with a VHSV DNA vaccine. Additionally, we have sorted both IgM(+) and CD8(+) cells from the gills of naïve and infected animals to study some of these up-regulated genes in specific leukocyte populations. Our results indicate that despite the low replication level, VHSV provokes an up-regulation of IgM, IgT, CD3 and perforin transcription together with the up-regulation of CCR7, CCR9, CXCR3B and CXCR4 mRNA levels. Interestingly, MHC-II mRNA was up-regulated and CCR7 was down-modulated in IgM(+) cells from infected gills, whereas perforin, CCR7 and CXCR4 mRNA levels were higher in sorted CD8(+) cells from infected animals. Surprisingly, when fish had been previously injected with either the empty plasmid or the VHSV DNA vaccine, these up-regulations in immune gene transcription were no longer observed. Our results point to the gills as an important site for innate and acquired viral defense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus targets the lymphotactin receptor with both a broad spectrum antagonist vCCL2 and a highly selective and potent agonist vCCL3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttichau, Hans R; Johnsen, Anders H; Jurlander, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    virus (KSHV) encodes three chemokine-like proteins named vCCL1, vCCL2, and vCCL3. In this study vCCL3 was probed in parallel with vCCL1 and vCCL2 against a panel of the 18 classified human chemokine receptors. In calcium mobilization assays vCCL1 acted as a selective CCR8 agonist, whereas vCCL2......Large DNA viruses such as herpesvirus and poxvirus encode proteins that target and exploit the chemokine system of their host. These proteins have the potential to block or change the orchestrated recruitment of leukocytes to sites of viral infection. The genome of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes...... was found to act as a broad spectrum chemokine antagonist of human chemokine receptors, including the lymphotactin receptor. In contrast vCCL3 was found to be a highly selective agonist for the human lymphotactin receptor XCR1. The potency of vCCL3 was found to be 10-fold higher than the endogenous human...

  4. Lack of association between the chemokine receptor 5 polymorphism CCR5delta32 in rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvien Tore K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemokine receptor CCR5 has been detected at elevated levels on synovial T cells, and a 32 bp deletion in the CCR5 gene leads to a non-functional receptor. A negative association between the CCR5Δ32 and rheumatoid arthritis (RA has been reported, although with conflicting results. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, an association with CCR5 was recently reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism is associated with RA or JIA in Norwegian cohorts. Methods 853 RA patients, 524 JIA patients and 658 controls were genotyped for the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism. Results The CCR5Δ32 allele frequency was 11.5% in the controls vs. 10.4% in RA patients (OR = 0.90; P = 0.36 and 9.7% in JIA patients (OR = 0.85; P = 0.20. No decreased homozygosity was observed for CCR5Δ32, as previously suggested. Conclusion Our data do not support an association between the CCR5Δ32 allele and Norwegian RA or JIA patients. Combining our results with those from a recently published meta-analysis still provide evidence for a role for CCR5Δ32 in RA, albeit substantially weaker than the effect first reported.

  5. Nonproductive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human fetal astrocytes: independence from CD4 and major chemokine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, F; Tresoldi, E; Di Stefano, M; Polo, S; Monaco, M C; Verani, A; Fiore, J R; Lusso, P; Major, E; Chiodi, F; Scarlatti, G

    1999-11-25

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the brain is associated with neurological manifestations both in adults and in children. The primary target for HIV-1 infection in the brain is the microglia, but astrocytes can also be infected. We tested 26 primary HIV-1 isolates for their capacity to infect human fetal astrocytes in culture. Eight of these isolates, independent of their biological phenotype and chemokine receptor usage, were able to infect astrocytes. Although no sustained viral replication could be demonstrated, the virus was recovered by coculture with receptive cells such as macrophages or on stimulation with interleukin-1beta. To gain knowledge into the molecular events that regulate attachment and penetration of HIV-1 in astrocytes, we investigated the expression of several chemokine receptors. Fluorocytometry and calcium-mobilization assay did not provide evidence of expression of any of the major HIV-1 coreceptors, including CXCR4, CCR5, CCR3, and CCR2b, as well as the CD4 molecule on the cell surface of human fetal astrocytes. However, mRNA transcripts for CXCR4, CCR5, Bonzo/STRL33/TYMSTR, and APJ were detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, infection of astrocytes by HIV-1 isolates with different chemokine receptor usage was not inhibited by the chemokines SDF-1beta, RANTES, MIP-1beta, or MCP-1 or by antibodies directed against the third variable region or the CD4 binding site of gp120. These data show that astrocytes can be infected by primary HIV-1 isolates via a mechanism independent of CD4 or major chemokine receptors. Furthermore, astrocytes are potential carriers of latent HIV-1 and on activation may be implicated in spreading the infection to other neighbouring cells, such as microglia or macrophages. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Medicinal chemistry of small molecule CCR5 antagonists for blocking HIV-1 entry: a review of structural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Dujuan; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2014-01-01

    CCR5, a member of G protein-coupled receptors superfamily, plays an important role in the HIV-1 entry process. Antagonism of this receptor finally leads to the inhibition of R5 strains of HIV entry into the human cells. The identification of CCR5 antagonists as antiviral agents will provide more option for HAART. Now, more than a decade after the first small molecule CCR5 inhibitor was discovered, great achievements have been made. In this article, we will give a brief introduction of several series of small molecule CCR5 antagonists, focused on their appealing structure evolution, essential SAR information and thereof the enlightenment of strategies on CCR5 inhibitors design.

  7. CCR6-dependent positioning of memory B cells is essential for their ability to mount a recall response to antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; Marks, Ellen; Nowak, Elizabeth; Menezes, Shinelle; Benson, Micah; Raman, Vanitha S.; Ortiz, Carla; O’Connell, Samuel; Hess, Henry; Lord, Graham M.; Noelle, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Chemokine-dependent localization of specific B cell subsets within the immune microarchitecture is essential to insure successful cognate interactions. While cognate interactions between T cells and memory B cells (Bmem)5 are essential for the secondary humoral immune responses, the chemokine response patterns of Bmem cells are largely unknown. In contrast to naïve B cells, this study shows that antigen-specific Bmem cells have heightened expression of CCR6 and a selective chemotactic response to the CCR6 ligand, CCL20. While CCR6 appears be non-essential for the initial clonal expansion and maintenance of Bmem, CCR6 is essential for the ability of Bmem to respond to a recall response to their cognate antigen. This dependency was deemed intrinsic by studies in CCR6-deficient mice and in bone-marrow chimeric mice where CCR6 deficiency was limited to the B cell lineage. Finally, the mis-positioning of CCR6-deficient Bmem was revealed by immunohistological analysis with an altered distribution of CCR6-deficient Bmem from the marginal and perifollicular to the follicular/germinal center area. PMID:25505290

  8. Fish community structure on coral habitats with contrasting architecture in the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Palacios

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura del paisaje arrecifal, definida por la morfología de los corales dominantes, puede desempeñar un papel importante en la estructura y composición de las comunidades de peces al afectar la disponibilidad de nichos y recursos y modificar las interacciones interespecíficas. Hicimos un estudio comparativo entre la comunidad de peces asociada a una comunidad de corales masivos (CCM y a una de corales ramificados (CCR en la isla Gorgona, Pacífico Oriental Tropical. En cada formación coralina, el sustrato bentónico se evaluó a través de “transectos de cadena”, mientras que la comunidad de peces se valoró con el uso censos visuales en transectos de banda. Hubo diferencias en la abundancia, diversidad (H’ y equitatividad (J’ de las dos comunidades de peces. La CCR, a pesar de estar formada por colonias morfológicamente complejas de corales pocillóporidos, presentó una arquitectura simple y relativamente plana que atrajo principalmente peces territoriales y de talla pequeña. Abundancias significativamente altas de Chromis atrilobata y Thalassoma lucasanum en la CCR, aumentaron la abundancia total de peces, pero ocasionaron una baja diversidad y equitatividad de la comunidad. Por el contrario, la CCM constituida principalmente por especies de corales masivos con diversos tamaños y formas, presentó una arquitectura compleja y de alto relieve capaz de mantener una comunidad de peces mucho más diversa y equitativa, aunque con la misma riqueza de especies de peces que la CCR. Los peces de gran talla, con comportamiento errante y hábitos carnívoros fueron atraídos a la MCC. En general, nuestro estudio evidenció que aunque las especies de coral con crecimiento masivo son importantes en la formación de una arquitectura compleja, cada una de las morfologías de coral dominante (masivo y ramificado atrae y brinda recursos a distintos grupos de peces según su tamaño y grupo trófico. La pérdida de corales masivos o un

  9. Association between the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele and late onset of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Timm, Sally; Wang, August G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 32-bp deletion allele in chemokine receptor CCR5 has been associated with several immune-mediated diseases and might be implicated in schizophrenia as well. METHOD: The authors genotyped DNA samples from 268 schizophrenia patients and 323 healthy subjects. Age at first admission...... of the deletion allele in the latter subgroup of patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele is a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia with late onset. Alternatively, the CCR5 32-bp deletion allele may act as a modifier by delaying the onset of schizophrenia without...

  10. Design of a base station for MEMS CCR localization in an optical sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Gook; Jeon, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyoun Jin; Kim, Jae Yoon

    2014-05-08

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC). The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF) data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS) methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  11. Design of a Base Station for MEMS CCR Localization in an Optical Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Gook Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC. The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  12. Imprinting of CCR9 on CD4 T cells requires IL-4 signaling on mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; Sepulveda, Fernando E; Vilches, Felipe; Vargas, Leonardo; Mora, J Rodrigo; Bono, Maria Rosa; Rosemblatt, Mario

    2008-05-15

    It has recently been shown that IL-4 can educate dendritic cells (DC) to differentially affect T cell effector activity. In this study, we show that IL-4 can also act upon DC to instruct naive T cells to express the gut-associated homing receptor CCR9. Thus, effector T cells generated after coculture with mesenteric lymph node (MLN)-DC show a higher expression of CCR9 when activated in the presence of IL-4. In contrast, IL-4 had no effect on CCR9 expression when naive T cells were polyclonally activated in the absence of MLN-DC, suggesting that the effect of IL-4 on CCR9 expression passed through DC. Indeed, T cells activated by MLN-DC from IL-4Ralpha(-/-) mice showed a much lower CCR9 expression and a greatly reduced migration to the small intestine than T cells activated by wild-type MLN-DC even in the presence of IL-4. Consistent with the finding that the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) induces gut-homing molecules on T cells, we further demonstrate that IL-4 up-regulated retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 mRNA on MLN-DC, a critical enzyme involved in the synthesis of RA. Moreover, LE135, a RA receptor antagonist, blocked the increased expression of CCR9 driven by IL-4-treated MLN-DC. Thus, besides the direct effect of RA on T cell gut tropism, our results show that the induction of a gut-homing phenotype on CD4(+) T cells is also influenced by the effect of IL-4 on gut-associated DC.

  13. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...

  14. High Infection Rates in Adult Macaques Following Intravaginal or Intrarectal Zika Virus Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    Haddow AJ, Williams MC, Woodall JP, Simpson DI, Goma LK. Twelve isolations of 295 Zika virus from Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus (Theobald) taken in and...infection of mosquitoes with viruses ; 298 transmission of Zika virus . Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 299 1956 May;50(3... Zika virus . Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015 Feb;21(2):359-61. 342 26. Clements AN. Mosquito Biology Volume 3: Transmission of viruses and

  15. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mefford, Megan E.; Kunstman, Kevin; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120–CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues. - Highlights: • We analyze HIV Env sequences and identify amino acids in beta 3 of the gp120 bridging sheet that enhance macrophage tropism. • These amino acids at positions 197 and 200 are present in brain of some patients with HIV-associated dementia. • D197 results in loss of a glycan near the HIV Env trimer apex, which may increase exposure of V3. • These variants may promote infection of macrophages in the brain by enhancing gp120–CCR5 interactions

  16. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mefford, Megan E., E-mail: megan_mefford@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Kunstman, Kevin, E-mail: kunstman@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Wolinsky, Steven M., E-mail: s-wolinsky@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Gabuzda, Dana, E-mail: dana_gabuzda@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Neurology (Microbiology and Immunobiology), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120–CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues. - Highlights: • We analyze HIV Env sequences and identify amino acids in beta 3 of the gp120 bridging sheet that enhance macrophage tropism. • These amino acids at positions 197 and 200 are present in brain of some patients with HIV-associated dementia. • D197 results in loss of a glycan near the HIV Env trimer apex, which may increase exposure of V3. • These variants may promote infection of macrophages in the brain by enhancing gp120–CCR5 interactions.

  17. CCL3L1 copy number, CCR5 genotype and susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Danielle; Taype, Carmen; Goulding, Jon; Levin, Mike; Eley, Brian; Anderson, Suzanne; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Armour, John A L

    2014-01-09

    Tuberculosis is a major infectious disease and functional studies have provided evidence that both the chemokine MIP-1α and its receptor CCR5 play a role in susceptibility to TB. Thus by measuring copy number variation of CCL3L1, one of the genes that encode MIP-1α, and genotyping a functional promoter polymorphism -2459A > G in CCR5 (rs1799987) we investigate the influence of MIP-1α and CCR5, independently and combined, in susceptibility to clinically active TB in three populations, a Peruvian population (n = 1132), a !Xhosa population (n = 605) and a South African Coloured population (n = 221). The three populations include patients with clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB, as well as other, less prevalent forms of extrapulmonary TB. Copy number of CCL3L1 was measured using the paralogue ratio test and exhibited ranges between 0-6 copies per diploid genome (pdg) in Peru, between 0-12 pdg in !Xhosa samples and between 0-10 pdg in South African Coloured samples. The CCR5 promoter polymorphism was observed to differ significantly in allele frequency between populations (*A; Peru f = 0.67, !Xhosa f = 0.38, Coloured f = 0.48). The case-control association studies performed however find, surprisingly, no evidence for an influence of variation in genes coding for MIP-1α or CCR5 individually or together in susceptibility to clinically active TB in these populations.

  18. A Unique Evolution of the S2 Gene of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus in Hosts Correlated with Particular Infection Statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Du, Cheng; Tang, Yan-Dong; Na, Lei; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the Lentivirus genus in the Retroviridae family that exhibits a genomic structure similar to that of HIV-1. The S2 accessory proteins play important roles in viral replication in vivo and in viral pathogenicity; however, studies on S2 evolution in vivo are limited. This study analyzed the evolutionary characteristics of the S2 gene of a pathogenic EIAV strain, EIAVLN40, in four experimentally infected horses. The results demonstrated that 14.7% (10 of 68 residues) of the stable amino acid mutations occurred longitudinally in S2 during a 150-day infection period. Further analysis revealed that six of the ten mutated residues were positively selected during the infection. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that the S2 gene sequences of viruses isolated from the infected horses at the early stage of EIAVLN40 infection were highly homologous and similar to the vaccine-specific sequence. The S2 gene variants isolated from the febrile episodes and late phase of infection became homologous to the S2 gene sequence of the inoculating EIAVLN40 strain. Our results indicate that the S2 gene evolves in diversity and divergence in vivo in different stages of EIAV infection and that this evolution correlates with the pathogenicity of the virus. PMID:25390683

  19. CCR5 gene polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for radiographic severity of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S W; Sa, K H; Kim, S I; Lee, S I; Park, Y W; Lee, S S; Yoo, W H; Soe, J S; Nam, E J; Lee, J; Park, J Y; Kang, Y M

    2012-11-01

    The chemokine receptor [C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)] is expressed on diverse immune effecter cells and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study sought to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCR5 gene and their haplotypes were associated with susceptibility to and severity of RA. Three hundred fifty-seven patients with RA and 383 healthy unrelated controls were recruited. Using a pyrosequencing assay, we examined four polymorphisms -1118 CTAT(ins) (/del) (rs10577983), 303 A>G (rs1799987), 927 C>T (rs1800024), and 4838 G>T (rs1800874) of the CCR5 gene, which were distributed over the promoter region as well as the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. No significant difference in the genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of the four selected SNPs was observed between RA patients and controls. CCR5 polymorphisms of -1118 CTAT(del) (P = 0.012; corrected P = 0.048) and 303 A>G (P = 0.012; corrected P = 0.048) showed a significant association with radiographic severity in a recessive model, and, as a result of multivariate logistic regression analysis, were found to be an independent predictor of radiographic severity. When we separated the erosion score from the total Sharp score, the statistical significance of CCR5 polymorphisms showed an increase; -1118 CTAT(ins) (/del) (P = 0.007; corrected P = 0.028) and 303 A>G (P = 0.007; corrected P = 0.028). Neither SNPs nor haplotypes of the CCR5 gene showed a significant association with joint space narrowing score. These results indicate that genetic polymorphisms of CCR5 are an independent risk factor for radiographic severity denoted by modified Sharp score, particularly joint erosion in RA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Characterization and analysis of CCR and CAD gene families at the whole-genome level for lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The content of stone cells has significant effects on the flavour and quality of pear fruit. Previous research suggested that lignin deposition is closely related to stone cell formation. In the lignin biosynthetic pathway, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, dehydrogenase/reductase family members, catalyse the last two steps in monolignol synthesis. However, there is little knowledge of the characteristics of the CCR and CAD families in pear and their involvement in lignin synthesis of stone cells. In this study, 31 CCRs and 26 CADs were identified in the pear genome. Phylogenetic trees for CCRs and CADs were constructed; key amino acid residues were analysed, and three-dimensional structures were predicted. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and -3 were identified as participating in lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear fruit. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the expressed proteins (PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and -3 are found in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane. These results reveal the evolutionary features of the CCR and CAD families in pear as well as the genes responsible for regulation of lignin synthesis and stone cell development in pear fruit.

  1. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.S.F.T.; Hendriks, K.P.; Beentjes, K.K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Afendy, A.; Arumugam, N.; de Boer, H.; Biun, A.; Buang, M.M.; Chen, P.P.; Chung, A.Y.C.; Dow, R..; Feijen, F.A.A.; Feijen, H.; Feijen-van Soest, C.; Geml, J.; Geurts, R.; Gravendeel, B.; Hovenkamp, P.; Imbun, P.; Ipor, I.; Janssens, S.B.; Jocqué, M.; Kappes, H.; Khoo, E.; Koomen, P.; Lens, F.; Majapun, R.J.; Morgado, L.N.; Neupane, S.; Nieser, N.; Pereira, J.T.; Rahman, H.; Sabran, S.; Sawang, A.; Schwallier, R.M.; Shim, P.S.; Smit, H.; Sol, N.; Spait, M.; Stech, M.; Stokvis, F.; Sugau, J.B.; Suleiman, M.; Sumail, S.; Thomas, D.C.; van Tol, J.; Tuh, F.Y.Y.; Yahya, B.E.; Nais, J.; Repin, R.; Lakim, M.; Schilthuizen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of

  2. CCR6-dependent positioning of memory B cells is essential for their ability to mount a recall response to antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Raul; Marks, Ellen; Nowak, Elizabeth; Menezes, Shinelle; Benson, Micah; Raman, Vanitha S; Ortiz, Carla; O'Connell, Samuel; Hess, Henry; Lord, Graham M; Noelle, Randolph

    2015-01-15

    Chemokine-dependent localization of specific B cell subsets within the immune microarchitecture is essential to ensure successful cognate interactions. Although cognate interactions between T cells and memory B cells (B(mem)) are essential for the secondary humoral immune responses, the chemokine response patterns of B(mem) cells are largely unknown. In contrast to naive B cells, this study shows that Ag-specific B(mem) cells have heightened expression of CCR6 and a selective chemotactic response to the CCR6 ligand, CCL20. Although CCR6 appears be nonessential for the initial clonal expansion and maintenance of B(mem), CCR6 is essential for the ability of B(mem) to respond to a recall response to their cognate Ag. This dependency was deemed intrinsic by studies in CCR6-deficient mice and in bone marrow chimeric mice where CCR6 deficiency was limited to the B cell lineage. Finally, the mis-positioning of CCR6-deficient B(mem) was revealed by immunohistological analysis with an altered distribution of CCR6-deficient B(mem) from the marginal and perifollicular to the follicular/germinal center area. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. The impact of CCR5-Δ32 deletion on C-reactive protein levels and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinh, Khoa Manh; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The C-C chemokine receptor 5-Δ32 deletion (CCR5-Δ32) has been associated with lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), but the effect on cardiovascular diseases is uncertain. This study addresses the impact of CCR5-Δ32 on the risk of low-grade inflammation...... and hospitalization with cardiovascular diseases in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: Genotyping of 15,206 healthy participants from The Danish Blood Donor Study for CCR5-Δ32 was performed and combined with CRP measurements and questionnaire data. Cardiovascular disease diagnoses were identified by ICD-10......: In this cohort, carriers of the CCR5-Δ32 deletion had normal CRP levels but a borderline significant increased risk of cardiovascular diseases....

  4. Variations in CCR5, but not HFE, ELMO1, or SLC12A3, are associated with susceptibility to kidney disease in north Indian individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashok K; Kumar, Vinod; Dutta, Pinaki; Bhansali, Anil; Jha, Vivekanand

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, may have a genetic component. In the present study, we investigated variations in a set of genes with susceptibility to DN in a north Indian population. Four genes (HFE, ELMO1, SLC12A3, and CCR5) were selected on the basis of reported association with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. In all, 417 diabetic subjects (215 without kidney disease [DM] and 202 with DN) and 197 healthy controls (HC) were evaluated for variations in HFE (845 G>A and 187G>C), SLC12A3 (g.34372G>A), CCR5 (59029A>G), and ELMO1 (+9170 G>A). Polymorphism analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and Taqman allele discrimination assays. Significant differences were found in genotype and allelic frequency in SLC12A3 (g.34372G>A) between diabetic subjects and HC (P A (AA+GA) genotype between diabetic subjects with and without nephropathy. However, the CCR5 59029AA genotype and A allele were significantly more frequent in diabetics compared with the HC (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively) and subjects with DN versus DM (P = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively). For ELMO1 (+9170 G>A), the GG genotype frequency was higher in the diabetic versus HC group. There were no differences in the frequency of HFE-845 G>A and HFE-187G>C among the groups. This study shows that the CCR5 AA genotype is over-represented in subjects with kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes. The CCR5 59029G>A and ELMO1 (+9170 G>A) loci are more frequent, and the SLC12A3 34372 AA genotype is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of two key genes in the lignin branch pathway--CAD and CCR--is mediated through MYB- binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahantamalala, Anjanirina; Rech, Philippe; Martinez, Yves; Chaubet-Gigot, Nicole; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Pacquit, Valérie

    2010-06-28

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the final steps in the biosynthesis of monolignols, the monomeric units of the phenolic lignin polymers which confer rigidity, imperviousness and resistance to biodegradation to cell walls. We have previously shown that the Eucalyptus gunnii CCR and CAD2 promoters direct similar expression patterns in vascular tissues suggesting that monolignol production is controlled, at least in part, by the coordinated transcriptional regulation of these two genes. Although consensus motifs for MYB transcription factors occur in most gene promoters of the whole phenylpropanoid pathway, functional evidence for their contribution to promoter activity has only been demonstrated for a few of them. Here, in the lignin-specific branch, we studied the functional role of MYB elements as well as other cis-elements identified in the regulatory regions of EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters, in the transcriptional activity of these gene promoters. By using promoter deletion analysis and in vivo footprinting, we identified an 80 bp regulatory region in the Eucalyptus gunnii EgCAD2 promoter that contains two MYB elements, each arranged in a distinct module with newly identified cis-elements. A directed mutagenesis approach was used to introduce block mutations in all putative cis-elements of the EgCAD2 promoter and in those of the 50 bp regulatory region previously delineated in the EgCCR promoter. We showed that the conserved MYB elements in EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters are crucial both for the formation of DNA-protein complexes in EMSA experiments and for the transcriptional activation of EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters in vascular tissues in planta. In addition, a new regulatory cis-element that modulates the balance between two DNA-protein complexes in vitro was found to be important for EgCAD2 expression in the cambial zone. Our assignment of functional roles to the identified cis-elements clearly demonstrates the

  6. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  7. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  8. Clinical pathophysiology of human T-lymphotropic virus-type1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eYamano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a human retrovirus, is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HAM/TSP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is characterized by unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Approximately 0.25%–3.8% of HTLV-1-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP, which is more common in women than in men. Since the discovery of HAM/TSP, significant advances have been made with respect to elucidating the virological, molecular, and immunopathological mechanisms underlying this disease. These findings suggest that spinal cord invasion by HTLV-1-infected T cells triggers a strong virus-specific immune response and increases proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, leading to chronic lymphocytic inflammation and tissue damage in spinal cord lesions. However, little progress has been made in the development of an optimal treatment for HAM/TSP, more specifically in the identification of biomarkers for predicting disease progression and of molecular targets for novel therapeutic strategies targeting the underlying pathological mechanisms. This review summarizes current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease.

  9. The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a marker of, but not essential for the development of human Th1 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Bregenholt, S; Eriksen, K W

    1999-01-01

    The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has recently been described as a surface marker of human T cells producing type 1 (Th1) cytokines. Here we confirm that CCR5 is expressed on human Th1 but not on Th2 T-cell clones. Using intracellular cytokine staining, we show that alloantigen specific CD4+ T...

  10. Seroprevalence of HTLV1,2 Virus Among Injection Drug Addicts in Isfahan, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Farzaneh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV, is a member of the retroviridae family. Infection with this virus leads to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP. HTLV is endemic in Japan, parts of central Africa, Caribbean basin and Iran (Mashhad. Transmission routes of HTLV are believed to be from mother to child, especially during breastfeeding, sexual contact, and through blood transfusion or needle sharing. Considering the risk of HTLV infection among injection drug addicts, the authors evaluated the seroprevalence of HTLV1,2 infection among injection drug addicts in Isfahan Methods: This cross sectional study included a total of 150 injection drug users who were recruited at the drug abuse treatment clinic and the infectious diseases department of Alzahra university Hospital. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Epidemiologic data were recorded and their blood samples were tested for HBs Ag and antibodies against HTLV1,2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C (HCV by Elisa method . Results were analyzed by SPSS software version 13. Results: Seroprevalence of HTLV1,2, HBV(HBs Ag, HCV and HIV was 2.7%, 1.3% 23.3% and 2.7%, respectively. Some of the subjects were co infected with two viruses. One patient was infected with both HCV Ab and HBs Ag , while another was positive for HIV Ab plus HBs Ag . Three were co infected with HCV and HIV. Among those with HTLV1,2, only one was HCV Ab positive. Only in one person with HTLV1,2 Ab had a positive history of blood transfusion. Conclusion: This study shows that this virus is present in injection drug users community of Isfahan and can be a potential source for transmission. But proposal of screening of HTLV1,2 among injection drug users in Isfahan requires further investigations.

  11. The Isolation of Novel Phage Display-Derived Human Recombinant Antibodies Against CCR5, the Major Co-Receptor of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Moria; Herschhorn, Alon; Britan-Rosich, Yelena; Kotler, Moshe; Benhar, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Selecting for antibodies against specific cell-surface proteins is a difficult task due to many unrelated proteins that are expressed on the cell surface. Here, we describe a method to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against native cell-surface proteins. We applied this method to isolate antibodies that selectively recognize CCR5, which is the major co-receptor for HIV entry (consequently, playing a pivotal role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis). We employed a phage screening strategy by using cells that co-express GFP and CCR5, along with an excess of control cells that do not express these proteins (and are otherwise identical to the CCR5-expressing cells). These control cells are intended to remove most of the phages that bind the cells nonspecifically; thus leading to an enrichment of the phages presenting anti-CCR5-specific antibodies. Subsequently, the CCR5-presenting cells were quantitatively sorted by flow cytometry, and the bound phages were eluted, amplified, and used for further successive selection rounds. Several different clones of human single-chain Fv antibodies that interact with CCR5-expressing cells were identified. The most specific monoclonal antibody was converted to a full-length IgG and bound the second extracellular loop of CCR5. The experimental approach presented herein for screening for CCR5-specific antibodies can be applicable to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against any cell-surface expressed protein of interest. PMID:23941674

  12. African Ancestry Influences CCR5 –2459G>A Genotype-Associated Virologic Success of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvu, Vinay K.; Igo, Robert P.; Jurevic, Richard J.; Serre, David; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Mehlotra, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a North American, HIV-positive, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated, adherent cohort of self-identified white and black patients, we previously observed that chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) –2459G>A genotype had a strong association with time to achieve virologic success (TVLS) in black but not in white patients. Methods Using 128 genome-wide ancestry informative markers, we performed a quantitative assessment of ancestry in these patients (n = 310) to determine (1) whether CCR5 –2459G>A genotype is still associated with TVLS of HAART when ancestry, not self-identified race, is considered and (2) whether this association is influenced by varying African ancestry. Results We found that the interaction between CCR5 –2459G>A genotype and African ancestry (≤0.125 vs. ≥0.425 and A genotype and TVLS was stronger in patients with African ancestry ≥0.71 than in patients with African ancestry ≥0.452, in both Kaplan-Meier (log-rank P = 0.039 and 0.057, respectively, for AA, GA, and GG) and Cox proportional hazards regression (relative hazard for GG compared with AA 2.59 [95% CI, 1.27–5.22; P = 0.01] and 2.26 [95% CI, 1.18–4.32; P = 0.01], respectively) analyses. Conclusions We observed that the association between CCR5 –2459G>A genotype and TVLS of HAART increased with stronger African ancestry. Understanding the genomic mechanisms by which African ancestry influences this association is critical, and requires further studies. PMID:24714069

  13. Similarity transformed coupled cluster response (ST-CCR) theory--a time-dependent similarity transformed equation-of-motion coupled cluster (STEOM-CC) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Arie

    2013-07-07

    This paper presents a new method for calculating spectroscopic properties in the framework of response theory utilizing a sequence of similarity transformations (STs). The STs are preformed using the coupled cluster (CC) and Fock-space coupled cluster operators. The linear and quadratic response functions of the new similarity transformed CC response (ST-CCR) method are derived. The poles of the linear response yield excitation-energy (EE) expressions identical to the ones in the similarity transformed equation-of-motion coupled cluster (STEOM-CC) approach. ST-CCR and STEOM-CC complement each other, in analogy to the complementarity of CC response (CCR) and equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC). ST-CCR/STEOM-CC and CCR/EOM-CC yield size-extensive and size-intensive EEs, respectively. Other electronic-properties, e.g., transition dipole strengths, are also size-extensive within ST-CCR, in contrast to STEOM-CC. Moreover, analysis suggests that in comparison with CCR, the ST-CCR expressions may be confined to a smaller subspace, however, the precise scope of the truncation can only be determined numerically. In addition, reformulation of the time-independent STEOM-CC using the same parameterization as in ST-CCR, as well as an efficient truncation scheme, is presented. The shown convergence of the time-dependent and time-independent expressions displays the completeness of the presented formalism.

  14. Components of the CCR4-NOT complex function as nuclear hormone receptor coactivators via association with the NRC-interacting Factor NIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapaty, Shivani; Mahajan, Muktar A; Samuels, Herbert H

    2008-03-14

    CCR4-NOT is an evolutionarily conserved, multicomponent complex known to be involved in transcription as well as mRNA degradation. Various subunits (e.g. CNOT1 and CNOT7/CAF1) have been reported to be involved in influencing nuclear hormone receptor activities. Here, we show that CCR4/CNOT6 and RCD1/CNOT9, members of the CCR4-NOT complex, potentiate nuclear receptor activity. RCD1 interacts in vivo and in vitro with NIF-1 (NRC-interacting factor), a previously characterized nuclear receptor cotransducer that activates nuclear receptors via its interaction with NRC. As with NIF-1, RCD1 and CCR4 do not directly associate with nuclear receptors; however, they enhance ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear hormone receptors. CCR4 mediates its effect through the ligand binding domain of nuclear receptors and small interference RNA-mediated silencing of endogenous CCR4 results in a marked decrease in nuclear receptor activation. Furthermore, knockdown of CCR4 results in an attenuated stimulation of RARalpha target genes (e.g. Sox9 and HoxA1) as shown by quantitative PCR assays. The silencing of endogenous NIF-1 also resulted in a comparable decrease in the RAR-mediated induction of both Sox9 and HoxA1. Furthermore, CCR4 associates in vivo with NIF-1. In addition, the CCR4-enhanced transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors is dependent on NIF-1. The small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of NIF-1 blocks the ligand-dependent potentiating effect of CCR4. Our results suggest that CCR4 plays a role in the regulation of certain endogenous RARalpha target genes and that RCD1 and CCR4 might mediate their function through their interaction with NIF-1.

  15. Biased small-molecule ligands for selective inhibition of HIV-1 cell entry via CCR5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian; Spiess, Katja; von Lüttichau, Hans Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV's use of CCR5 as the primary coreceptor in fusion, the focus on developing small-molecule receptor antagonists for inhibition hereof has only resulted in one single drug, Maraviroc. We therefore investigated the possibility of using small-molecule CCR5 agonists as HIV-1...

  16. Implication of Ccr4-Not complex function in mRNA quality control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assenholt, Jannie; Mouaikel, John; Saguez, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    RNPs are exported to the cytoplasm. The Ccr4-Not complex, which constitutes the major S. cerevisiae cytoplasmic deadenylase, has recently been implied in nuclear exosome–related processes. Consistent with a possible nuclear function of the complex, the deletion or mutation of Ccr4-Not factors also elicits...

  17. HCMV spread and cell tropism are determined by distinct virus populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scrivano

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV can infect many different cell types in vivo. Two gH/gL complexes are used for entry into cells. gH/gL/pUL(128,130,131A shows no selectivity for its host cell, whereas formation of a gH/gL/gO complex only restricts the tropism mainly to fibroblasts. Here, we describe that depending on the cell type in which virus replication takes place, virus carrying the gH/gL/pUL(128,130,131A complex is either released or retained cell-associated. We observed that virus spread in fibroblast cultures was predominantly supernatant-driven, whereas spread in endothelial cell (EC cultures was predominantly focal. This was due to properties of virus released from fibroblasts and EC. Fibroblasts released virus which could infect both fibroblasts and EC. In contrast, EC released virus which readily infected fibroblasts, but was barely able to infect EC. The EC infection capacities of virus released from fibroblasts or EC correlated with respectively high or low amounts of gH/gL/pUL(128,130,131A in virus particles. Moreover, we found that focal spread in EC cultures could be attributed to EC-tropic virus tightly associated with EC and not released into the supernatant. Preincubation of fibroblast-derived virus progeny with EC or beads coated with pUL131A-specific antibodies depleted the fraction that could infect EC, and left a fraction that could predominantly infect fibroblasts. These data strongly suggest that HCMV progeny is composed of distinct virus populations. EC specifically retain the EC-tropic population, whereas fibroblasts release EC-tropic and non EC-tropic virus. Our findings offer completely new views on how HCMV spread may be controlled by its host cells.

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Action for Allosteric Modulators and Agonists in CC-chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Stefanie; Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Larsen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule metal ion chelators bipyridine and terpyridine complexed with Zn(2+) (ZnBip and ZnTerp) act as CCR5 agonists and strong positive allosteric modulators of CCL3 binding to CCR5, weak modulators of CCL4 binding, and competitors for CCL5 binding. Here we describe their binding site......Terp binds deeply in the major binding pocket and, in contrast to ZnBip, interacts directly with the Trp-248(VI:13/6.48) microswitch, contributing to its 8-fold higher potency. The impact of Trp-248 was further confirmed by ZnClTerp, a chloro-substituted version of ZnTerp that showed no inherent agonism...

  19. Differential CCR7 Targeting in Dendritic Cells by Three Naturally Occurring CC-Chemokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorto, Gertrud M.; Larsen, Olav; Steen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 are increasingly recognized as functionally different (biased). Using mature human dendritic cells (DCs), we show that CCL19 is more potent than CCL21 in inducing 3D chemotaxis. Intriguingly, CCL21 induces prolonged and more efficient ERK1/2 activation compared...

  20. Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, Paban Kumar, E-mail: pabandash@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a

  1. Complete genome sequencing and evolutionary analysis of Indian isolates of Dengue virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Paban Kumar; Sharma, Shashi; Soni, Manisha; Agarwal, Ankita; Parida, Manmohan; Rao, P.V.Lakshmana

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Complete genome of Indian DENV-2 was deciphered for the first time in this study. •The recent Indian DENV-2 revealed presence of many unique amino acid residues. •Genotype shift (American to Cosmopolitan) characterizes evolution of DENV-2 in India. •Circulation of a unique clade of DENV-2 in South Asia was identified. -- Abstract: Dengue is the most important arboviral infection of global public health significance. It is now endemic in most parts of the South East Asia including India. Though Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) is predominantly associated with major outbreaks in India, complete genome information of Indian DENV-2 is not available. In this study, the full-length genome of five DENV-2 isolates (four from 2001 to 2011 and one from 1960), from different parts of India was determined. The complete genome of the Indian DENV-2 was found to be 10,670 bases long with an open reading frame coding for 3391 amino acids. The recent Indian DENV-2 (2001–2011) revealed a nucleotide sequence identity of around 90% and 97% with an older Indian DENV-2 (1960) and closely related Sri Lankan and Chinese DENV-2 respectively. Presence of unique amino acid residues and non-conservative substitutions in critical amino acid residues of major structural and non-structural proteins was observed in recent Indian DENV-2. Selection pressure analysis revealed positive selection in few amino acid sites of the genes encoding for structural and non-structural proteins. The molecular phylogenetic analysis based on comparison of both complete coding region and envelope protein gene with globally diverse DENV-2 viruses classified the recent Indian isolates into a unique South Asian clade within Cosmopolitan genotype. A shift of genotype from American to Cosmopolitan in 1970s characterized the evolution of DENV-2 in India. Present study is the first report on complete genome characterization of emerging DENV-2 isolates from India and highlights the circulation of a

  2. DMPD: Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960231 Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited sign...82. Epub 2003 Jul 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-media...on through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. Authors Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi

  3. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Anti-HIV scFv Efficiently Protects CD4 T Cells from HIV-1 Infection and Deletion in hu-PBL Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chaobaihui; Wang, Weiming; Cheng, Liang; Li, Guangming; Wen, Michael; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite success in viral inhibition and CD4 T cell recovery by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), HIV-1 is still not curable due to the persistence of the HIV-1 reservoir during treatment. One patient with acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a homozygous CCR5 Δ32 donor has had no detectable viremia for 9 years after HAART cessation. This case has inspired a field of HIV-1 cure research focusing on engineering HIV-1 resistance in permissive cells. Here, we employed a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-scFv X5 approach to confer resistance of human primary CD4 T cells to HIV-1. We showed that primary CD4 T cells expressing GPI-scFv X5 were resistant to CCR5 (R5)-, CXCR4 (X4)-, and dual-tropic HIV-1 and had a survival advantage compared to control cells ex vivo. In a hu-PBL mouse study, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells were selected in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues upon HIV-1 infection. Finally, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells, after being cotransfused with HIV-infected cells, showed significantly reduced viral loads and viral RNA copy numbers relative to CD4 cells in hu-PBL mice compared to mice with GPI-scFv AB65-transduced CD4 T cells. We conclude that GPI-scFv X5-modified CD4 T cells could potentially be used as a genetic intervention against both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 infections. IMPORTANCE Blocking of HIV-1 entry is one of most promising approaches for therapy. Genetic disruption of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 by nucleases in T cells is under 2 clinical trials and leads to reduced viremia in patients. However, the emergence of viruses using the CXCR4 coreceptor is a concern for therapies applying single-coreceptor disruption. Here, we report that HIV-1-permissive CD4 T cells engineered with GPI-scFv X5 are resistant to R5-, X4-, or dual-tropic virus infection ex vivo. In a preclinical study using hu-PBL mice, we show that CD4 T cells were protected and that GPI-scFv X5

  4. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulsiani, Suhella; Graham, G C; Moore, P R

    2011-01-01

    gene of the virus and the discovery that the virus had an exceptionally large genome subsequently led to HeV being assigned to a new genus, Henipavirus, along with Nipah virus (a newly emergent virus in pigs). The regular outbreaks of HeV-related disease that have occurred in Australia since 1994 have...

  6. 77 FR 57566 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0035; FRL-9730-7] Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review and Request for Public Comment on Potential Approaches to Electronic Delivery of the CCR; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  7. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  8. Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates the Production of the Unique Volatile Sodorifen of Serratia plymuthica 4Rx13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Magnus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are capable of synthesizing a plethora of secondary metabolites including the long-overlooked volatile organic compounds. Little knowledge has been accumulated regarding the regulation of the biosynthesis of such mVOCs. The emission of the unique compound sodorifen of Serratia plymuthica isolates was significantly reduced in minimal medium with glucose, while succinate elevated sodorifen release. The hypothesis of carbon catabolite repression (CCR acting as a major control entity on the synthesis of mVOCs was proven by genetic evidence. Central components of the typical CCR of Gram-negative bacteria such as the adenylate cyclase (CYA, the cAMP binding receptor protein (CRP, and the catabolite responsive element (CRE were removed by insertional mutagenesis. CYA, CRP, CRE1 mutants revealed a lower sodorifen release. Moreover, the emission potential of other S. plymuthica isolates was also evaluated.

  9. Distinct T and NK cell populations may serve as immune correlates of protection against symptomatic pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloje Savic

    Full Text Available Maternal influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. However, the link between the anti-influenza immune responses and health-related risks during infection is not well understood. We have analyzed memory T and NK cell mediated immunity (CMI responses in pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 (pdm09 virus infected non-vaccinated pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Influenza Pregnancy Cohort (NorFlu. The cohort includes information on immunization, self-reported health and disease status, and biological samples (plasma and PBMC. Infected cases (N = 75 were defined by having a serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI titer > = 20 to influenza pdm09 virus at the time of delivery, while controls (N = 75 were randomly selected among non-infected pregnant women (HI titer <10. In ELISpot assays cases had higher frequencies of IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells responding to pdm09 virus or conserved CD8 T cell-restricted influenza A virus epitopes, compared to controls. Within this T cell population, frequencies of CD95+ late effector (CD45RA+CCR7- and naive (CD45RA+CCR7+ CD8+ memory T cells correlated inversely with self-reported influenza illness (ILI symptoms. ILI symptoms in infected women were also associated with lower numbers of poly-functional (IFNγ+TNFα+, IL2+IFNγ+, IL2+IFNγ+TNFα+ CD4+ T cells and increased frequencies of IFNγ+CD3-CD7+ NK cells compared to asymptomatic cases, or controls, after stimulation with the pdm09 virus. Taken together, virus specific and functionally distinct T and NK cell populations may serve as cellular immune correlates of clinical outcomes of pandemic influenza disease in pregnant women. Our results may provide information important for future universal influenza vaccine design.

  10. Distinct T and NK cell populations may serve as immune correlates of protection against symptomatic pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Miloje; Dembinski, Jennifer L; Laake, Ida; Hungnes, Olav; Cox, Rebecca; Oftung, Fredrik; Trogstad, Lill; Mjaaland, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Maternal influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. However, the link between the anti-influenza immune responses and health-related risks during infection is not well understood. We have analyzed memory T and NK cell mediated immunity (CMI) responses in pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pdm09) virus infected non-vaccinated pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Influenza Pregnancy Cohort (NorFlu). The cohort includes information on immunization, self-reported health and disease status, and biological samples (plasma and PBMC). Infected cases (N = 75) were defined by having a serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer > = 20 to influenza pdm09 virus at the time of delivery, while controls (N = 75) were randomly selected among non-infected pregnant women (HI titer <10). In ELISpot assays cases had higher frequencies of IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells responding to pdm09 virus or conserved CD8 T cell-restricted influenza A virus epitopes, compared to controls. Within this T cell population, frequencies of CD95+ late effector (CD45RA+CCR7-) and naive (CD45RA+CCR7+) CD8+ memory T cells correlated inversely with self-reported influenza illness (ILI) symptoms. ILI symptoms in infected women were also associated with lower numbers of poly-functional (IFNγ+TNFα+, IL2+IFNγ+, IL2+IFNγ+TNFα+) CD4+ T cells and increased frequencies of IFNγ+CD3-CD7+ NK cells compared to asymptomatic cases, or controls, after stimulation with the pdm09 virus. Taken together, virus specific and functionally distinct T and NK cell populations may serve as cellular immune correlates of clinical outcomes of pandemic influenza disease in pregnant women. Our results may provide information important for future universal influenza vaccine design.

  11. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol trigger a sequence of events leading to migration of CCR5-expressing Th1 lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Mi, E-mail: lala1647@hanmail.net [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Young, E-mail: kimboyoung@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sae-A, E-mail: saeah486@nate.com [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Seong-Kug, E-mail: vetvirus@chonbuk.ac.kr [Laboratory of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yungdae, E-mail: yunyung@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chi-Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Koanhoi, E-mail: koanhoi@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Th1 lymphocyte recruitment in a cholesterol-rich milieu. We propose a model via which 27OHChol and 7αOHChol contribute to the predominance of Th1 cells in atherosclerotic lesions on the basis of our results and previous findings. Cholesterol deposited in the artery undergoes oxidative modification to oxysterols. Exposure of monocytic cells to 27OHChol or 7αOHChol results in increased transcription and secretion of CCR5 ligands, like CCL3 and CCL4, which leads to a concentration gradient of the chemokines. Among the lymphocytes attached to cell adhesion molecules expressed on endothelial cells, Th1 cells that express CCR5 recognize the gradient and follow the signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokines, whereas other subtypes of T cells that do not express CCR5 (Tregs and Th2 cells) do not respond. The preferential infiltration of Th1 cells leads to predominance of Th1 cells. Since oxidized LDL (oxLDL) enhances the expression of cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, existence of oxLDL will accelerate the recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions in response to the oxysterols. - Highlights: • High-cholesterol diet induces CCR5L expression, like CCL3 and CCL4, in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. • 27OHChol and 7αOHChol enhance secretion of CCL3 and CCL4 by monocytic cells. • The secreted CCR5 ligands promote migration of CCR5-expressing Th1 cells. • We report a mechanism underlying Th1 cell recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions.

  12. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol trigger a sequence of events leading to migration of CCR5-expressing Th1 lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Bo-Young; Lee, Sae-A; Eo, Seong-Kug; Yun, Yungdae; Kim, Chi-Dae; Kim, Koanhoi

    2014-01-01

    lymphocyte recruitment in a cholesterol-rich milieu. We propose a model via which 27OHChol and 7αOHChol contribute to the predominance of Th1 cells in atherosclerotic lesions on the basis of our results and previous findings. Cholesterol deposited in the artery undergoes oxidative modification to oxysterols. Exposure of monocytic cells to 27OHChol or 7αOHChol results in increased transcription and secretion of CCR5 ligands, like CCL3 and CCL4, which leads to a concentration gradient of the chemokines. Among the lymphocytes attached to cell adhesion molecules expressed on endothelial cells, Th1 cells that express CCR5 recognize the gradient and follow the signal of increasing chemokine concentration towards the source of the chemokines, whereas other subtypes of T cells that do not express CCR5 (Tregs and Th2 cells) do not respond. The preferential infiltration of Th1 cells leads to predominance of Th1 cells. Since oxidized LDL (oxLDL) enhances the expression of cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, existence of oxLDL will accelerate the recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions in response to the oxysterols. - Highlights: • High-cholesterol diet induces CCR5L expression, like CCL3 and CCL4, in ApoE −/− mice. • 27OHChol and 7αOHChol enhance secretion of CCL3 and CCL4 by monocytic cells. • The secreted CCR5 ligands promote migration of CCR5-expressing Th1 cells. • We report a mechanism underlying Th1 cell recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions

  13. In vitro selection of high-infectious, leukemogenic virus from low-infectious, non-leukemogenic type C virus from a malignant ST/a mouse cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M

    1979-01-01

    ; however, virus was detected in supernatant fluids only after two to four subcultures of the infected cells. The virus thus produced was XC(+) and a large plaque former. The virus released from infected SC-1 cells was N-tropic, whereas the viruses from infected NIH/3T3 and BALB/3T3 cells were NB...... nanogram of p30, was 30- to 60-fold lower for the virus released from the ST-L1 cell line than that of the viruses after passage in SC-1, NIH/3T3, and BALB/3T3 cells. None of the viruses could infect rabbit or mink cells. Inoculation of the viruses into newborn mice showed that the ST-L1 virus was non......-leukemogenic, whereas the NB-tropic virus selected from this after passage in BALB/3T3 or NIH/3T3 cells was highly leukemogenic. Viruses isolated from leukemic animals were indistinguishable with respect to host range and protein mobilities in SDS gels from the ones with which the mice were inoculated. Although the SC...

  14. 77 FR 55833 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review and Request for Public Comment on... potential approaches for providing Consumer Confidence Reports (CCR) via electronic delivery. EPA plans to... meeting to give EPA time to process your request. Background Consumer Confidence Reports are a key part of...

  15. Biological characterization of HIV type 1 envelope V3 regions from mothers and infants associated with perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matala, E; Hahn, T; Yedavalli, V R; Ahmad, N

    2001-12-10

    Our previous study has shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope V3 region minor genotypes of infected mothers were transmitted to their infants and predominated initially as a homogeneous virus population in the infants (Ahmad N, Baroudy BM, Baker RC, et al.: J Virol 1995;69:1001-1012). Here we have characterized the biological properties, including cellular tropism, replication efficiency, cytopathic effects, and coreceptor utilization, of these V3 region isolates from mothers and infants. Nineteen V3 region sequences from three mother-infant pairs, including the minor variants of mothers and the major variants of infants as characterized in our previous study, were reciprocally inserted into an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, pNL4-3, and chimeric viruses were generated by DNA transfections into HeLa cells. Equal amounts of chimeric viruses were then used to infect T lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2), primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs), primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and coreceptor cell lines. We found that the V3 region chimeras failed to replicate in T lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in MDMs and PBLs, albeit at reduced levels compared with R5 laboratory HIV-1 strains. In addition, the V3 region chimeras were able to infect the HOS-CD4(+)CCR5(+) cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization. Moreover, the V3 region chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotypes. In conclusion, the HIV-1 minor genotypes of infected mothers with macrophage-tropic and NSI or R5 phenotypes are transmitted to their infants and are initially maintained with the same properties.

  16. A chimeric measles virus with a lentiviral envelope replicates exclusively in CD4+/CCR5+ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourez, Thomas; Mesel-Lemoine, Mariana; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Cayet, Nadege; Tangy, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    We generated a replicating chimeric measles virus in which the hemagglutinin and fusion surface glycoproteins were replaced with the gp160 envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239). Based on a previously cloned live-attenuated Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus (MV), this chimera was rescued at high titers using reverse genetics in CD4+ target cells. Cytopathic effect consisted in the presence of large cell aggregates evolving to form syncytia, as observed during SIV infection. The morphology of the chimeric virus was identical to that of the parent MV particles. The presence of SIV gp160 as the only envelope protein on chimeric particles surface altered the cell tropism of the new virus from CD46+ to CD4+ cells. Used as an HIV candidate vaccine, this MV/SIVenv chimeric virus would mimic transient HIV-like infection, benefiting both from HIV-like tropism and the capacity of MV to replicate in dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging for Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Zemorshidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a chronic progressive neurologic disease which might be associated by brain and spinal cord atrophy and lesions. Here we systematically reviewed the brain and spinal cord abnormalities reported by using magnetic resonance imaging modality on HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients. Methods: PubMed was searched for all the relevant articles which used magnetic resonance imaging for patients with human HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis disease. Included criteria were all the cohort and case series on with at least 10 patients. We had no time limitation for searched articles, but only English language articles were included in our systematic review. Exclusion criteria were none-English articles, case reports, articles with less than 10 patients, spastic paraparesis patients with unknown etiology, and patients with HTLVII. Results: Total of 14 relevant articles were extracted after studying title, abstracts, and full text of the irrelevant articles. Only 2/14 articles, reported brain atrophy incidence. 5/14 articles studied the brain lesions prevalence. Spinal cord atrophy and lesions, each were studied in 6/14 articles.Discussion: According to the extracted data, brain atrophy does not seem to happen frequently in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. None-specific brain lesions identified in articles are indicative of low specificity of magnetic resonance imaging technique despite its high sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of spinal cord lesions and atrophy in these patients might be due to the degenerative processes associated with aging phenomenon. Further larger studies in endemic areas can more accurately reveal the specificity of magnetic resonance imaging for these patients.

  18. Mucosal CCR1 gene expression as a marker of molecular activity in Crohn's disease: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Maria; Mănuc, Teodora Ecaterina; Milanesi, Elena; Pleşea, Iancu Emil; Ţieranu, Eugen Nicolae; Popa, Caterina; Mănuc, Mircea; Preda, Carmen Monica; Ţieranu, Ioana; Diculescu, Mihai Mircea; Ionescu, Elena Mirela; Becheanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    A series of mechanisms of immune response, inflammation and apoptosis have been demonstrated to contribute to the appearance and evolution of Crohn's disease (CD) through the overexpression of several cytokines and chemokines in a susceptible host. The aim of this study was to identify the differences in gene expression profiles analyzing a panel of candidate genes in the mucosa from patients with active CD (CD-A), patients in remission (CD-R), and normal controls. Nine individuals were enrolled in the study: six CD patients (three with active lesions, three with mucosal healing) and three controls without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) seen on endoscopy. All the individuals underwent mucosal biopsy during colonoscopy. Gene expression levels of 84 genes previously associated with CD were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Ten genes out of 84 were found significantly differentially expressed in CD-A (CCL11, CCL25, DEFA5, GCG, IL17A, LCN2, REG1A, STAT3, MUC1, CCR1) and eight genes in CD-R (CASP1, IL23A, STAT1, STAT3, TNF, CCR1, CCL5, and HSP90B1) when compared to controls. A quantitative gene expression analysis revealed that CCR1 gene was more expressed in CD-A than in CD-R. Our data suggest that CCR1 gene may be a putative marker of molecular activity of Crohn's disease. Following these preliminary data, a confirmation in larger cohort studies could represent a useful method in order to identify new therapeutic targets.

  19. Nanoparticles containing siRNA to silence CD4 and CCR5 reduce expression of these receptors and inhibit HIV-1 infection in human female reproductive tract tissue explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Eszterhas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV- 1 binds to CD4 and CCR5 receptors on target cells in the human female reproductive tract. We sought to determine whether reducing levels of messenger RNA (mRNA transcripts that encode these receptors in female reproductive tract cells could protect mucosal tissue explants from HIV- 1 infection. Explants prepared from the endometrium, endocervix, and ectocervix of hysterectomy tissues from HIV-1 sero-negative women were exposed to nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA sequences. Explants were then exposed two days later to HIV-1, and HIV-1 reverse transcripts were measured five days post-infection. Explants treated with nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific siRNA showed reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5 transcripts, and significantly lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcripts compared to those treated with an irrelevant siRNA. In female reproductive tract explants and in peripheral blood cell cultures, siRNA transfection induced the secretion of IFN-alpha (IFN-α, a potent antiviral cytokine. In female mice, murine-specific Cd4-siRNA nanoparticles instilled within the uterus significantly reduced murine Cd4 transcripts by day 3. Our findings demonstrate that siRNA nanoparticles reduce expression of HIV-1 infectivity receptors in human female reproductive tract tissues and also inhibit HIV-1 infection. Murine studies demonstrate that nanoparticles can penetrate the reproductive tract tissues in vivo and silence gene expression. The induction of IFN-α after siRNA transfection can potentially contribute to the antiviral effect. These findings support the therapeutic development of nanoparticles to deliver siRNA molecules to silence host cell receptors in the female reproductive tract as a novel microbicide to inhibit mucosal HIV-1 transmission.

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Action for Allosteric Modulators and Agonists in CC-chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlshøj, Stefanie; Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Larsen, Olav; Daugvilaite, Viktorija; Steen, Anne; Brvar, Matjaž; Pui, Aurel; Frimurer, Thomas Michael; Ulven, Trond; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-12-23

    The small molecule metal ion chelators bipyridine and terpyridine complexed with Zn 2+ (ZnBip and ZnTerp) act as CCR5 agonists and strong positive allosteric modulators of CCL3 binding to CCR5, weak modulators of CCL4 binding, and competitors for CCL5 binding. Here we describe their binding site using computational modeling, binding, and functional studies on WT and mutated CCR5. The metal ion Zn 2+ is anchored to the chemokine receptor-conserved Glu-283 VII:06/7.39 Both chelators interact with aromatic residues in the transmembrane receptor domain. The additional pyridine ring of ZnTerp binds deeply in the major binding pocket and, in contrast to ZnBip, interacts directly with the Trp-248 VI:13/6.48 microswitch, contributing to its 8-fold higher potency. The impact of Trp-248 was further confirmed by ZnClTerp, a chloro-substituted version of ZnTerp that showed no inherent agonism but maintained positive allosteric modulation of CCL3 binding. Despite a similar overall binding mode of all three metal ion chelator complexes, the pyridine ring of ZnClTerp blocks the conformational switch of Trp-248 required for receptor activation, thereby explaining its lack of activity. Importantly, ZnClTerp becomes agonist to the same extent as ZnTerp upon Ala mutation of Ile-116 III:16/3.40 , a residue that constrains the Trp-248 microswitch in its inactive conformation. Binding studies with 125 I-CCL3 revealed an allosteric interface between the chemokine and the small molecule binding site, including residues Tyr-37 I:07/1.39 , Trp-86 II:20/2.60 , and Phe-109 III:09/3.33 The small molecules and CCL3 approach this interface from opposite directions, with some residues being mutually exploited. This study provides new insight into the molecular mechanism of CCR5 activation and paves the way for future allosteric drugs for chemokine receptors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Relation of circulating concentrations of chemokine receptor CCR5 ligands to C-peptide, proinsulin and HbA1c and disease progression in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfleger, C.; Kaas, A.; Hansen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Th1 related chemokines CCL3 and CCL5 and Th2 related CCL4 as ligands of the receptor CCR5 contribute to disease development in animal models of type 1 diabetes. In humans, no data are available addressing the role of these chemokines regarding disease progression and remission. We investigated...... longitudinally circulating concentrations of CCR5 ligands of 256 newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes. CCR5 ligands were differentially associated with beta-cell function and clinical remission. CCL5 was decreased in remitters and positively associated with HbA1c suggestive of a Th1 associated...... of CCR5 by therapeutic agents such as maraviroc may provide a new therapeutic target to ameliorate disease progression in type 1 diabetes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  2. Epstein-Barr virus latent gene sequences as geographical markers of viral origin: unique EBNA3 gene signatures identify Japanese viruses as distinct members of the Asian virus family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihisa; Croom-Carter, Deborah; Kondo, Osamu; Yasui, Masahiro; Koyama-Sato, Maho; Inoue, Masami; Kawa, Keisei; Rickinson, Alan B; Tierney, Rosemary J

    2011-05-01

    Polymorphisms in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent genes can identify virus strains from different human populations and individual strains within a population. An Asian EBV signature has been defined almost exclusively from Chinese viruses, with little information from other Asian countries. Here we sequenced polymorphic regions of the EBNA1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and LMP1 genes of 31 Japanese strains from control donors and EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (T/NK-LPD) patients. Though identical to Chinese strains in their dominant EBNA1 and LMP1 alleles, Japanese viruses were subtly different at other loci. Thus, while Chinese viruses mainly fall into two families with strongly linked 'Wu' or 'Li' alleles at EBNA2 and EBNA3A/B/C, Japanese viruses all have the consensus Wu EBNA2 allele but fall into two families at EBNA3A/B/C. One family has variant Li-like sequences at EBNA3A and 3B and the consensus Li sequence at EBNA3C; the other family has variant Wu-like sequences at EBNA3A, variants of a low frequency Chinese allele 'Sp' at EBNA3B and a consensus Sp sequence at EBNA3C. Thus, EBNA3A/B/C allelotypes clearly distinguish Japanese from Chinese strains. Interestingly, most Japanese viruses also lack those immune-escape mutations in the HLA-A11 epitope-encoding region of EBNA3B that are so characteristic of viruses from the highly A11-positive Chinese population. Control donor-derived and T/NK-LPD-derived strains were similarly distributed across allelotypes and, by using allelic polymorphisms to track virus strains in patients pre- and post-haematopoietic stem-cell transplant, we show that a single strain can induce both T/NK-LPD and B-cell-lymphoproliferative disease in the same patient.

  3. Orphan chemokine receptors in neuroimmunology : functional and pharmacological analysis of L-CCR and HCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurman, Michael Wilhelmer

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we have investigated the expression and biological activity of the orphan chemokine receptors L-CCR/HCR in astrocytes and microglia. Several lines of evidence indicate that the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CCL7 and CCL8 are agonists for these receptors. Although a variety of biological

  4. Immune Activation in the Pathogenesis of Dengue Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. van de Weg (Cornelia A.M.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dengue virus (DENV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus and belongs to the Flaviviridae family. The virus is transmitted by the bite of an infected Aedes-mosquito and circulates in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The incidence of dengue has risen

  5. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  6. 3D-QSAR studies on CCR2B receptor antagonists: Insight into the structural requirements of (R-3-aminopyrrolidine series of molecules based on CoMFA/CoMSIA models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Gade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1 is a member of the CC-chemokine family and it selectively recruits leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation through binding with the chemotactic cytokine receptor 2B (CCR2B. The recruitment and activation of selected populations of leukocytes is a key feature in a variety of inflammatory conditions. Thus MCP-1 receptor antagonist represents an attractive target for drug discovery. To understand the structural requirements that will lead to enhanced inhibitory potencies, we have carried out 3D-QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on (R-3-aminopyrrolidine series of molecules as CCR2B receptor antagonists. Materials and Methods: Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA were performed on a series of (R-3-aminopyrrolidine derivatives as antagonists of CCR2B receptor with Sybyl 6.7v. Results: We have derived statistically significant model from 37 molecules and validated it against an external test set of 13 compounds. The CoMFA model yielded a leave one out r 2 (r 2 loo of 0.847, non-cross-validated r 2 (r 2 ncv of 0.977, F value of 267.930, and bootstrapped r 2 (r 2 bs of 0.988. We have derived the standard error of prediction value of 0.367, standard error of estimate 0.141, and a reliable external predictivity, with a predictive r 2 (r 2 pred of 0.673. While the CoMSIA model yielded an r 2 loo of 0.719, r 2 ncv of 0.964,F value of 135.666, r 2 bs of 0.975, standard error of prediction of 0.512, standard error of estimate of 0.180, and an external predictivity with an r 2 pred of 0.611. These validation tests not only revealed the robustness of the models but also demonstrated that for our models r 2 pred, based on the mean activity of test set compounds can accurately estimate external predictivity. Conclusion: The QSAR model gave satisfactory statistical results in terms of q 2 and r 2

  7. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms in MCP-1, CCR-2, and non-small-cell lung cancer in the Han nationality of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wang, J; Li, F-G; Han, M; Chang, X-J; Wang, Z-T

    2015-04-22

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor worldwide and is now the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 2 (CCR-2) are important chemokines. We examined the polymorphisms of 338 unrelated patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and 200 unrelated healthy controls of Han nationality in Northern China using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found a significant increase in the frequency of the MCP-1 AA genotype [0.293 vs 0.195, odds ratio (OR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.60] and a significant decrease in the frequency of the GG genotype (0.290 vs 0.41, OR = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.47-0.87) in NSCLC patients compared to controls. The frequencies of AA-ww (0.151 vs 0.090, P = 0.041, OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.33-2.43) and AA-wm (0.136 vs 0.080, P = 0.049, OR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.01-3.27) were higher in lung cancer patients than in healthy controls; the frequency of GG-wm (0.121 vs 0.190, P = 0.030, OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.38-0.95) was lower in lung cancer patients than in healthy controls. Based on these results, the polymorphism in MCP-1 may be correlated with the development of NSCLC in the Han nationality of Northern China. However, the polymorphism in CCR-2 is not involved in NSCLC.

  8. No evidence that elevated CO2 gives tropical lianas an advantage over tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, David C; Winter, Klaus; Burnham, Robyn J; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that lianas are increasing in size and abundance relative to trees in neotropical forests. As a result, forest dynamics and carbon balance may be altered through liana-induced suppression of tree growth and increases in tree mortality. Increasing atmospheric CO2 is hypothesized to be responsible for the increase in neotropical lianas, yet no study has directly compared the relative response of tropical lianas and trees to elevated CO2 . We explicitly tested whether tropical lianas had a larger response to elevated CO2 than co-occurring tropical trees and whether seasonal drought alters the response of either growth form. In two experiments conducted in central Panama, one spanning both wet and dry seasons and one restricted to the dry season, we grew liana (n = 12) and tree (n = 10) species in open-top growth chambers maintained at ambient or twice-ambient CO2 levels. Seedlings of eight individuals (four lianas, four trees) were grown in the ground in each chamber for at least 3 months during each season. We found that both liana and tree seedlings had a significant and positive response to elevated CO2 (in biomass, leaf area, leaf mass per area, and photosynthesis), but that the relative response to elevated CO2 for all variables was not significantly greater for lianas than trees regardless of the season. The lack of differences in the relative response between growth forms does not support the hypothesis that elevated CO2 is responsible for increasing liana size and abundance across the neotropics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Possible etiologies for tropical spastic paraparesis and human T lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zaninovic'

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is frequently inconsistent and suggests environmental factors in the etiology of these syndromes. The neuropathology corresponds to a toxometabolic or autoimmune process and possibly not to a viral disease. Some logical hypotheses about the etiology and physiopathology of TSP and HAM are proposed. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, central distal axonopathies, cassava, lathyrism and cycad toxicity may explain most cases of TSP. The damage caused to astrocytes and to the blood-brain barrier by HTLV-I plus xenobiotics may explain most cases of HAM. Analysis of the HTLV-I/xenobiotic ratio clarifies most of the paradoxical epidemiology of TSP and HAM. Modern neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology and molecular biology may explain the neuropathology of TSP and HAM. It is quite possible that there are other xenobiotics implicated in the etiology of some TSP/HAMs. The prevention of these syndromes appears to be possible today.

  10. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  11. Central extensions for the Weyl CCR in Curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    For non-necessarily flat homogeneous configuration spaces, we illustrate how the cohomological choices made in the definition a Weyl group of the CCR are reflected in the momentum map for the action of this group on its co-adjoint orbit of maximal dimension. (Author) 8 refs

  12. The chemokine receptor CCR1 is identified in mast cell-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuting; Qiao, Longwei; Peng, Xia; Cui, Zelin; Yin, Yue; Liao, Huanjin; Jiang, Min; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells of the immune system, and mast cell-derived exosomes carrying RNAs play a role in immune regulation. However, the molecular function of mast cell-derived exosomes is currently unknown, and here, we identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in mast cells and exosomes. We isolated mast cells derived exosomes through differential centrifugation and screened the DEGs from mast cell-derived exosomes, using the GSE25330 array dataset downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Biochemical pathways were analyzed by Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway on the online tool DAVID. DEGs-associated protein-protein interaction networks (PPIs) were constructed using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. The genes identified from these bioinformatics analyses were verified by qRT-PCR and Western blot in mast cells and exosomes. We identified 2121 DEGs (843 up and 1278 down-regulated genes) in HMC-1 cell-derived exosomes and HMC-1 cells. The up-regulated DEGs were classified into two significant modules. The chemokine receptor CCR1 was screened as a hub gene and enriched in cytokine-mediated signaling pathway in module one. Seven genes, including CCR1, CD9, KIT, TGFBR1, TLR9, TPSAB1 and TPSB2 were screened and validated through qRT-PCR analysis. We have achieved a comprehensive view of the pivotal genes and pathways in mast cells and exosomes and identified CCR1 as a hub gene in mast cell-derived exosomes. Our results provide novel clues with respect to the biological processes through which mast cell-derived exosomes modulate immune responses.

  13. Enriquecimento com calda do CCR para face de barragens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Wendler

    Full Text Available A construção de barragens de CCR prioriza a minimização de interferências, como a execução da face de montante, para garantia da produtividade. O estudo procurou avaliar as propriedades físicas do CCR enriquecido com calda, em substituição ao concreto convencional usualmente empregado na face, utilizando os mesmos materiais, central de concreto, mão de obra e equipamentos, empregados na construção da Usina Hidrelétrica Mauá. Para tanto foram feitos prismas experimentais de campo (com diferentes relações água/cimento e quantidades de calda e posterior extração de testemunhos, os quais foram submetidos a ensaios mecânicos e de permeabilidade. Os resultados mostraram que para relações água/cimento 0,74, o material resultante atendeu às especificações de projeto, para consumos de cimento notadamente menores (entre 70 e 85% do CCV.

  14. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampar, B. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD); Hatanaka, M.; Aulakh, G.; Derge, J.G.; Lee, L.; Showalter, S.

    1977-02-01

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing.

  15. Type C virus activation in nontransformed mouse cells by uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampar, B.; Hatanaka, M.; Aulakh, G.; Derge, J.G.; Lee, L.; Showalter, S.

    1977-01-01

    Infection of nontransformed mouse cells with uv-irradiated herpes simplex virus (uv-HSV) resulted in the activation of an endogenous xenotropic (x-tropic) type C virus. Synthesis of type C virus persisted for only a few days, with most of the virus remaining cell associated. The levels of type C virus activated by uv-HSV varied depending on the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) and the uv dose. At low uv doses, where cell killing occurred, little or no type C virus synthesis was observed. Maximum levels of type C virus synthesis were observed with the minimum uv dose which eliminated cell killing by HSV. Synthesis of type C virus, albeit at lower levels, was still observed at uv doses beyond those required to prevent cell killing

  16. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The microbial detection array for detection of emerging viruses in clinical samples--a useful panmicrobial diagnostic tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken W; McLoughlin, Kevin S; Olesen, Majken Lindholm

    2014-01-01

    Emerging viruses are usually endemic to tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, but increased global travel, climate change and changes in lifestyle are believed to contribute to the spread of these viruses into new regions. Many of these viruses cause similar disease symptoms as other...... emerging viruses or common infections, making these unexpected pathogens difficult to diagnose. Broad-spectrum pathogen detection microarrays containing probes for all sequenced viruses and bacteria can provide rapid identification of viruses, guiding decisions about treatment and appropriate case...... of emerging viruses present in both non-clinical and clinical samples using two different microarray data analysis methods....

  18. Bushmeat Hunting and Zoonotic Transmission of Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 in Tropical West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoun, Arsène; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Anoh, Augustin E; Pauly, Maude S; Driscoll, Daniel A; Michel, Adam O; Nazaire, Lavry Grah; Pfister, Stefan; Sabwe, Pascale; Thiesen, Ulla; Vogler, Barbara R; Wiersma, Lidewij; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Fruth, Barbara; Wittig, Roman M; Leendertz, Fabian H; Schubert, Grit

    2017-05-15

    Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 (STLV-1) enters human populations through contact with nonhuman primate (NHP) bushmeat. We tested whether differences in the extent of contact with STLV-1-infected NHP bushmeat foster regional differences in prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). Using serological and PCR assays, we screened humans and NHPs at two Sub-Saharan African sites where subsistence hunting was expected to be less (Taï region, Côte d'Ivoire [CIV]) or more (Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]) developed. Only 0.7% of human participants were infected with HTLV-1 in CIV ( n = 574), and 1.3% of humans were infected in DRC ( n = 302). Two of the Ivorian human virus sequences were closely related to simian counterparts, indicating ongoing zoonotic transmission. Multivariate analysis of human demographic parameters and behavior confirmed that participants from CIV were less often exposed to NHPs than participants from DRC through direct contact, e.g., butchering. At the same time, numbers of STLV-1-infected NHPs were higher in CIV (39%; n = 111) than in DRC (23%; n = 39). We conclude that similar ultimate risks of zoonotic STLV-1 transmission-defined as the product of prevalence in local NHP and human rates of contact to fresh NHP carcasses-contribute to the observed comparable rates of HTLV-1 infection in humans in CIV and DRC. We found that young adult men and mature women are most likely exposed to NHPs at both sites. In view of the continued difficulties in controlling zoonotic disease outbreaks, the identification of such groups at high risk of NHP exposure may guide future prevention efforts. IMPORTANCE Multiple studies report a high risk for zoonotic transmission of blood-borne pathogens like retroviruses through contact with NHPs, and this risk seems to be particularly high in tropical Africa. Here, we reveal high levels of exposure to NHP bushmeat in two regions of Western and Central tropical Africa. We provide evidence

  19. Coupled nutrient cycling determines tropical forest trajectory under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskill, N.; Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests have a disproportionate capacity to affect Earth's climate relative to their areal extent. Despite covering just 12 % of land surface, tropical forests account for 35 % of global net primary productivity and are among the most significant of terrestrial carbon stores. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase over the next century, the capacity of tropical forests to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic CO2 depends on limitation by multiple factors, including the availability of soil nutrients. Phosphorus availability has been considered to be the primary factor limiting metabolic processes within tropical forests. However, recent evidence points towards strong spatial and temporal co-limitation of tropical forests by both nitrogen and phosphorus. Here, we use the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALMv1-ECA-CNP) to examine how nutrient cycles interact and affect the trajectory of the tropical forest carbon sink under, (i) external nutrient input, (ii) climate (iii) elevated CO2, and (iv) a combination of 1-3. ALMv1 includes recent theoretical advances in representing belowground competition between roots, microbes and minerals for N and P uptake, explicit interactions between the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles (e.g., phosphatase production and nitrogen fixation), the dynamic internal allocation of plant N and P resources, and the integration of global datasets of plant physiological traits. We report nutrient fertilization (N, P, N+P) predictions for four sites in the tropics (El Verde, Puerto Rico, Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Manaus, Brazil and the Osa Peninsula, Coast Rica) to short-term nutrient fertilization (N, P, N+P), and benchmarking of the model against a meta-analysis of forest fertilization experiments. Subsequent simulations focus on the interaction of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles across the tropics with a focus on the implications of coupled nutrient cycling and the fate of the tropical

  20. Blood expression levels of chemokine receptor CCR3 and chemokine CCL11 in age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Mads Krüger; Singh, Amardeep; Faber, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of the CCR3/CCL11 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularisation, a common feature of late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CCR3 and its ligand CCL11 in peripheral blood in patients...

  1. Direct weakening of tropical circulations from masked CO2 radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlis, Timothy M

    2015-10-27

    Climate models robustly simulate weakened mean circulations of the tropical atmosphere in direct response to increased carbon dioxide (CO2). The direct response to CO2, defined by the response to radiative forcing in the absence of changes in sea surface temperature, affects tropical precipitation and tropical cyclone genesis, and these changes have been tied to the weakening of the mean tropical circulation. The mechanism underlying this direct CO2-forced circulation change has not been elucidated. Here, I demonstrate that this circulation weakening results from spatial structure in CO2's radiative forcing. In regions of ascending circulation, such as the intertropical convergence zone, the CO2 radiative forcing is reduced, or "masked," by deep-convective clouds and high humidity; in subsiding regions, such as the subtropics, the CO2 radiative forcing is larger because the atmosphere is drier and deep-convective clouds are infrequent. The spatial structure of the radiative forcing reduces the need for the atmosphere to transport energy. This, in turn, weakens the mass overturning of the tropical circulation. The previously unidentified mechanism is demonstrated in a hierarchy of atmospheric general circulation model simulations with altered radiative transfer to suppress the cloud masking of the radiative forcing. The mechanism depends on the climatological distribution of clouds and humidity, rather than uncertain changes in these quantities. Masked radiative forcing thereby offers an explanation for the robustness of the direct circulation weakening under increased CO2.

  2. CCR1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory protein II; Bioinformatics; Protease digestion; HEK293 cells; Radioligand binding. Tropical .... Cell membranes ... binding was counted using a scintillation counter. ... any remaining red blood cells. .... *Denotes the most stable peptide, C18P; amount presents .... korthalsii methanol extract on human peripheral.

  3. Protection against bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is associated with allograft CCR7+ CD45RA- T regulatory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric L Gregson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS is the major obstacle to long-term survival after lung transplantation, yet markers for early detection and intervention are currently lacking. Given the role of regulatory T cells (Treg in modulation of immunity, we hypothesized that frequencies of Treg in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF after lung transplantation would predict subsequent development of BOS. Seventy BALF specimens obtained from 47 lung transplant recipients were analyzed for Treg lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry, in parallel with ELISA measurements of chemokines. Allograft biopsy tissue was stained for chemokines of interest. Treg were essentially all CD45RA(-, and total Treg frequency did not correlate to BOS outcome. The majority of Treg were CCR4(+ and CD103(- and neither of these subsets correlated to risk for BOS. In contrast, higher percentages of CCR7(+ Treg correlated to reduced risk of BOS. Additionally, the CCR7 ligand CCL21 correlated with CCR7(+ Treg frequency and inversely with BOS. Higher frequencies of CCR7(+ CD3(+CD4(+CD25(hiFoxp3(+CD45RA(- lymphocytes in lung allografts is associated with protection against subsequent development of BOS, suggesting that this subset of putative Treg may down-modulate alloimmunity. CCL21 may be pivotal for the recruitment of this distinct subset to the lung allograft and thereby decrease the risk for chronic rejection.

  4. Genetic and biological characterization of a Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 2 (PRRSV-2)causing significant clinical disease in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    pathogenic or vaccine evading PRRSV strain had emerged in Denmark. The overall aim of the present study was to perform a genetic and biological characterization of the virus isolated from the diseased herd. Complete genome sequencing of isolates from this herd revealed that although the case strain had some...... in the Northern part of Denmark experienced an infection with PRRSV-2 with clinical signs that were much more severe than normally reported from current Danish PRRSV-2 affected herds. Due to the clinical observations of reproductive failure in sows and high mortality in piglets, it was speculated that a new, more...... unique genetic features including a deduced 3 amino acid deletion, it was in overall very similar to the other PRRS-2 viruses circulating in Denmark. In an experimental trial in growing pigs, no overt clinical signs or pathology were observed following intranasal inoculation with the new virus isolate...

  5. Preparation of MS2 phage-like particles and their use as potential process control viruses for detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses in different matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mikel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses is based on isolation of viral RNA from the sample followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. To control the whole process of analysis and in order to guarantee the validity and reliability of results, process control viruses (PCV are used. The present article describes the process of preparation and use of such PCV– MS2 phage-like particles (MS2 PLP – in RT-qPCR detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses. The MS2 PLP were derived from bacteriophage MS2 carrying a unique and specific de novo-constructed RNA target sequence originating from the DNA of two extinct species. The amount of prepared MS2 particles was quantified using four independent methods - UV spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and a specifically developed duplex RT-qPCR. To evaluate the usefulness of MS2 PLP in routine diagnostics different matrices known to harbor enteric RNA viruses (swab samples, liver tissue, serum, feces, and vegetables were artificially contaminated with specific amounts of MS2 PLP. The extraction efficiencies were calculated for each individual matrix. The prepared particles fulfill all requirements for PCV – they are very stable, non-infectious, and are genetically distinct from the target RNA viruses. Due to these properties they represent a good morphological and physiochemical model. The use of MS2 PLP as a PCV in detection and quantification of enteric RNA viruses was evaluated in different types of matrices.

  6. Distinct modes of recruitment of the CCR4-NOT complex by Drosophila and vertebrate Nanos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, Tobias; Bhandari, Dipankar; Sabath, Kevin; Helms, Sigrun; Valkov, Eugene; Weichenrieder, Oliver; Izaurralde, Elisa

    2016-05-02

    Nanos proteins repress the expression of target mRNAs by recruiting effector complexes through non-conserved N-terminal regions. In vertebrates, Nanos proteins interact with the NOT1 subunit of the CCR4-NOT effector complex through a NOT1 interacting motif (NIM), which is absent in Nanos orthologs from several invertebrate species. Therefore, it has remained unclear whether the Nanos repressive mechanism is conserved and whether it also involves direct interactions with the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex in invertebrates. Here, we identify an effector domain (NED) that is necessary for the Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) Nanos to repress mRNA targets. The NED recruits the CCR4-NOT complex through multiple and redundant binding sites, including a central region that interacts with the NOT module, which comprises the C-terminal domains of NOT1-3. The crystal structure of the NED central region bound to the NOT module reveals an unanticipated bipartite binding interface that contacts NOT1 and NOT3 and is distinct from the NIM of vertebrate Nanos. Thus, despite the absence of sequence conservation, the N-terminal regions of Nanos proteins recruit CCR4-NOT to assemble analogous repressive complexes. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  7. A rare subset of skin-tropic regulatory T cells expressing Il10/Gzmb inhibits the cutaneous immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Vandenbon, Alexis; Honda, Tetsuya; Shand, Francis H W; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tomura, Michio

    2016-10-19

    Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node (dLN) have a strong immunosuppressive effect on the cutaneous immune response. However, the subpopulations responsible for their inhibitory function remain unclear. We investigated single-cell gene expression heterogeneity in Tregs from the dLN of inflamed skin in a contact hypersensitivity model. The immunosuppressive genes Ctla4 and Tgfb1 were expressed in the majority of Tregs. Although Il10-expressing Tregs were rare, unexpectedly, the majority of Il10-expressing Tregs co-expressed Gzmb and displayed Th1-skewing. Single-cell profiling revealed that CD43 + CCR5 + Tregs represented the main subset within the Il10/Gzmb-expressing cell population in the dLN. Moreover, CD43 + CCR5 + CXCR3 - Tregs expressed skin-tropic chemokine receptors, were preferentially retained in inflamed skin and downregulated the cutaneous immune response. The identification of a rare Treg subset co-expressing multiple immunosuppressive molecules and having tissue-remaining capacity offers a novel strategy for the control of skin inflammatory responses.

  8. HIV coreceptor phenotyping in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; Swenson, Luke C; Harrigan, P Richard

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of CCR5 antagonists increases the options available for constructing antiretroviral regimens. However, this option is coupled with the caveat that patients should be tested for HIV coreceptor tropism prior to initiating CCR5 antagonist-based therapy. Failure to screen for CXCR4 usage increases the risk of using an ineffective drug, thus reducing the likelihood of viral suppression and increasing their risk for developing antiretroviral resistance. This review discusses current and future methods of determining HIV tropism, with a focus on their utility in the clinical setting for screening purposes. Some of these methods include recombinant phenotypic tests, such as the Monogram Trofile assay, as well as genotype-based predictors, heteroduplex tracking assays, and flow cytometry based methods. Currently, the best evidence supports the use of phenotypic methods, although other methods of screening for HIV coreceptor usage prior to the administration of CCR5 antagonists may reduce costs and increase turnaround time over phenotypic methods. The presence of low levels of X4 virus is a challenge to all assay methods, resulting in reduced sensitivity in clinical, patient-derived samples when compared to clonally derived samples. Gaining a better understanding of the output of these assays and correlating them with clinical progression and therapy response will provide some indication on how both genotype-based, and phenotypic assays for determining HIV coreceptor usage can be improved. In addition, leveraging new technologies capable of detecting low-level minority species may provide the most significant advances in ensuring that individuals with low levels of dual/mixed tropic virus are not inadvertently prescribed CCR5 antagonists.

  9. Genetic Susceptibility to Cardiac and Digestive Clinical Forms of Chronic Chagas Disease: Involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Ronchi, Luiz Sérgio; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Castiglioni, Lílian; Netinho, João Gomes; Cavasini, Carlos Eugênio; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease include the cardiac form of the disease and the digestive form. Not all the factors that act in the variable clinical course of this disease are known. This study investigated whether the CCR5Δ32 (rs333) and CCR5 59029 A/G (promoter region--rs1799987) polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene are associated with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD). The antibodies anti-T. cruzi were identified by ELISA. PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to identify the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms. The chi-square test was used to compare variables between groups. There was a higher frequency of the AA genotype in patients with CCHD compared with patients with the digestive form of the disease and the control group. The results also showed a high frequency of the AG genotype in patients with the digestive form of the disease compared to the other groups. The results of this study show that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism does not seem to influence the different clinical manifestations of Chagas disease but there is involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphism in susceptibility to the different forms of chronic Chagas disease. Besides, these polymorphisms do not influence left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with CCHD.

  10. Genetic Susceptibility to Cardiac and Digestive Clinical Forms of Chronic Chagas Disease: Involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G Polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Priscila de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of chronic Chagas disease include the cardiac form of the disease and the digestive form. Not all the factors that act in the variable clinical course of this disease are known. This study investigated whether the CCR5Δ32 (rs333 and CCR5 59029 A/G (promoter region--rs1799987 polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene are associated with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease and with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD. The antibodies anti-T. cruzi were identified by ELISA. PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to identify the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms. The chi-square test was used to compare variables between groups. There was a higher frequency of the AA genotype in patients with CCHD compared with patients with the digestive form of the disease and the control group. The results also showed a high frequency of the AG genotype in patients with the digestive form of the disease compared to the other groups. The results of this study show that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism does not seem to influence the different clinical manifestations of Chagas disease but there is involvement of the CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphism in susceptibility to the different forms of chronic Chagas disease. Besides, these polymorphisms do not influence left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with CCHD.

  11. Evidence favoring the involvement of CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 in T-lymphocyte accumulation in optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Ransohoff, R M; Jensen, J

    2003-01-01

    To define the relationships between levels of chemokine receptor (CCR)5+ T-cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of optic neuritis (ON) and control patients (CON).......To define the relationships between levels of chemokine receptor (CCR)5+ T-cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of optic neuritis (ON) and control patients (CON)....

  12. CCR6 and NK1.1 distinguish between IL-17A and IFN-gamma-producing gammadelta effector T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jan D; González, Frano H Malinarich; Schmitz, Susanne; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Föhse, Lisa; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Förster, Reinhold; Prinz, Immo

    2009-12-01

    Gammadelta T cells are a potent source of innate IL-17A and IFN-gamma, and they acquire the capacity to produce these cytokines within the thymus. However, the precise stages and required signals that guide this differentiation are unclear. Here we show that the CD24(low) CD44(high) effector gammadelta T cells of the adult thymus are segregated into two lineages by the mutually exclusive expression of CCR6 and NK1.1. Only CCR6+ gammadelta T cells produced IL-17A, while NK1.1+ gammadelta T cells were efficient producers of IFN-gamma but not of IL-17A. Their effector phenotype correlated with loss of CCR9 expression, particularly among the NK1.1+ gammadelta T cells. Accordingly, both gammadelta T-cell subsets were rare in gut-associated lymphoid tissues, but abundant in peripheral lymphoid tissues. There, they provided IL-17A and IFN-gamma in response to TCR-specific and TCR-independent stimuli. IL-12 and IL-18 induced IFN-gamma and IL-23 induced IL-17A production by NK1.1+ or CCR6+ gammadelta T cells, respectively. Importantly, we show that CCR6+ gammadelta T cells are more responsive to TCR stimulation than their NK1.1+ counterparts. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that CCR6+ IL-17A-producing gammadelta T cells derive from less TCR-dependent selection events than IFN-gamma-producing NK1.1+ gammadelta T cells.

  13. Effects of sequence changes in the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide on CCR5 inhibitor resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassopoulou, Cleo G.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Johan Klasse, Per; Moore, John P.

    2012-01-01

    A rare pathway of HIV-1 resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as Vicriviroc (VCV) involves changes solely in the gp41 fusion peptide (FP). Here, we show that the G516V change is critical to VCV resistance in PBMC and TZM-bl cells, although it must be accompanied by either M518V or F519I to have a substantial impact. Modeling VCV inhibition data from the two cell types indicated that G516V allows both double mutants to use VCV-CCR5 complexes for entry. The model further identified F519I as an independent determinant of preference for the unoccupied, high-VCV affinity form of CCR5. From inhibitor-free reversion cultures, we also identified a substitution in the inner domain of gp120, T244A, which appears to counter the resistance phenotype created by the FP substitutions. Examining the interplay of these changes will enhance our understanding of Env complex interactions that influence both HIV-1 entry and resistance to CCR5 inhibitors.