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Sample records for union baker malheur

  1. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  2. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  3. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.H.

    1977-11-01

    A reconnaissance study of middle and upper Tertiary volcaniclastic sedimentary and silicic volcanic rocks in Malheur County, Oregon, indicates that, based upon the data available: (1) it is unlikely that sandstone-type uranium deposits exist in sedimentary rocks of north-central Malheur County; and (2) favorable uranium environments are more likely to exist in and adjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers and plugs. Some rhyolites in the northern part of the county contain marginally anomalous uranium abundances (6 to 8 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 ), compared with similar rocks in southeastern Oregon. Available uranium from these rocks, as determined by nitric-acid leaching, approaches 50 to 75 percent of the total chemical U 3 O 8 present. One Pliocene rhyolite vitrophyre sample from Duck Butte in western Malheur County contains 9 +- 2 ppM U 3 O 8 . The uranium contents of these rhyolites approach those found in silicic plugs spatially related to uranium deposits in the Lakeview district, Oregon (Erikson and Curry, 1977). It is possible that undiscovered epithermal and (or) supergene uranium deposits may exist in favorable wall rocks subjacent to uraniferous silicic eruptive centers (Duck Butte), calderas (McDermitt caldera to the south and others identified in western Owyhee County, Idaho), and silicic plugs (as in the Lakeview district). With the exception of one small uranium anomaly found in unconsolidated sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation, the sedimentary rocks observed in the study area did not possess abnormal radioactivity or exhibit evidence of uranium mobility and enrichment. Carbonaceous trash is uncommon in these rocks. Gently dipping sandstone members of the Deer Butte Formation (upper Miocene) and local channel sands in the Grassy Mountain Formation (Pliocene) may have once been the most permeable rocks in the Tertiary section; but, there is no evidence to suggest that they were conduits for uranium-bearing solutions

  4. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project : 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesling, Jason; Abel, Chad; Schwabe, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT) submitted a proposal to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for the acquisition of the Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project). The proposed mitigation site was for the Denny Jones Ranch and included Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Oregon Division of State Lands (DSL) leases and grazing allotments. The Project approval process and acquisition negotiations continued for several years until the BPT and BPA entered into a Memorandum of Agreement, which allowed for purchase of the Project in November 2000. The 31,781 acre Project is located seven miles east of Juntura, Oregon and is adjacent to the Malheur River (Figure 1). Six thousand three hundred eighty-five acres are deeded to BPT, 4,154 acres are leased from DSL, and 21,242 acres are leased from BLM (Figure 2). In total 11 grazing allotments are leased between the two agencies. Deeded land stretches for seven miles along the Malheur River. It is the largest private landholding on the river between Riverside and Harper, Oregon. Approximately 938 acres of senior water rights are included with the Ranch. The Project is comprised of meadow, wetland, riparian and shrub-steppe habitats. The BLM grazing allotment, located south of the ranch, is largely shrub-steppe habitat punctuated by springs and seeps. Hunter Creek, a perennial stream, flows through both private and BLM lands. Similarly, the DSL grazing allotment, which lies north of the Ranch, is predominantly shrub/juniper steppe habitat with springs and seeps dispersed throughout the upper end of draws (Figure 2).

  5. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  6. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2011 Digital Orthophotos - Baker County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset is a collection of GeoTIFF natural color orthophotos covering Baker, Bradford, and Union counties within Florida. An orthophoto is remotely sensed image...

  7. Interview to Bobby Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bobby Baker es una mujer, y una artista londinense con una carrera que abarca casi cuatro décadas. Ha trabajado fundamentalmente en el ámbito de la performance haciendo frecuente uso de material personal. Entre sus obras encontramos una versión comestible de su familia a tamaño natural, una protesta callejera de guisantes humanos que reclaman los derechos de los pacientes en el ámbito de la salud mental o una serie de performances que de modo irónico representan su vida doméstica. Su exposición itinerante «Diary Drawings: Mental Illness and Me 1997 - 2008» se estrenó en la Wellcome Collection en 2009, y el libro que la acompaña fue galardonado con el Mind Book of the Year 2011. Sus obras más recientes Mad Gyms & Kitchens y Drawing On A (Grand Mother’s Experience han sido encargadas como parte de la Cultural Olympiad de Londres en 2012 y del Women of the World Festival en 2015 respectivamente. Bobby Baker recibió el Doctorado Honorífico en 2011 tras su participación en la AHRC Creative Fellowship de Queen Mary University de Londres y es la directora artística de la asociación Daily Life Ltd.http://dailylifeltd.co.uk Grabación y edición sonora: Andrea ZarzaTraducción y transcripción: Celia Terradillos, Zara Rodríguez 

  8. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  9. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 945 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0109; FV11-945-1] Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated... among eligible producers of Irish potatoes in certain designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur County... Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from March 5 to...

  10. 78 FR 41418 - Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County, OR; Record of Decision for Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... environmental education and interpretation. The Refuge engaged a diverse stakeholder base during the CCP process... opportunities for guided kayak and canoe tours on Malheur Lake. A stronger emphasis will be placed on modern... plants for traditional uses will expand. Monitoring and inventory of archaeological resources and...

  11. The Baker's cyst - a diagnostic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydam, K.

    1981-01-01

    Precise definition of Baker's cyst has been prevented by variety of synonyms. Following anatomical description, Baker's determination, and investigations of myself one should differentiate between the rupture of capsule, bursa semimembranos-gastrocnemia, and Baker's cyst because thea are clearly independent from the pathologic-anatomical point of view. Clinical importance of Baker's cyst in connection with further diseases of the knee joint and therapeutical possibilities are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-01-01

    proposals are subjected to a rigorous review process prior to receiving final approval. An eleven-member panel of scientists referred to as the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) examines project proposals. The ISRP recommends project approval based on scientific merit. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA), Council staff, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and subbasin groups also review project proposals to ensure each project meets regional and subbasin goals and objectives. The Program also includes a public involvement component that gives the public an opportunity to provide meaningful input on management proposals. After a thorough review, the Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT) acquired the Malheur River Mitigation Project (Project) with BPA funds to compensate, in part, for the loss of fish and wildlife resources in the Columbia and Snake River Basins and to address a portion of the mitigation goals identified in the Council's Program (NPPC 2000).

  13. Obituary: Dr. Richard Roland Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard Baker died at Easter 2007 after a very short illness. It is sad that he died so soon after his retirement from the British American Tobacco Company at the end of 2005, and just as he was beginning to enjoy his new life, even though tobacco science still had a part to play.

  14. Obituary: James Gilbert Baker, 1914-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Neal Kenton

    2005-12-01

    (1970), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1946), and the National Academy of Engineering (1979). He was a member of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union, and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He authored numerous professional papers and has over fifty US patents. He maintained his affiliation with the Harvard College Observatory and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory until he retired in 2003. Even after his retirement in 2003, he continued work at his home on a new telescope design that he told his family he should have discovered in 1940. Light was always his tool to the understanding of the Universe. An entry from his personal observation log, 7 January 1933, made after an evening of star gazing reveals the pure inspiration of his efforts: "After all, it is the satisfaction obtained which benefits humanity, more than any other thing. It is in the satisfaction of greater human knowledge about the cosmos that the scientist is spurred on to greater efforts." James Baker fulfilled the destiny he had foreseen in 1933, living to see professional and amateur astronomers use his instruments and designs to further the understanding of the cosmos. Whereas, he had not predicted that his cameras would protect this nation for over many years. He is survived by his wife, his four children and five grandchildren. 1Oscar Bryant, "Astronomical Designs," in "Accent", the University of Louisville College of Arts and Sciences Alumni Newsletter, Spring 1994. 2George W. Goddard,Brigadier General, "Overview", 273.

  15. Baker's asthma in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Ausín, A; Elices, A; Moreno-Escobosa, M; Ibáñez, M; Laso, M

    2001-01-01

    baker's asthma is a well-known occupational lung disease which usually develops in adults. We report the case of a two years old boy who suffered from asthma, urticaria and atopic dermatitis for twelve months, whose symptoms were associated to visits to his grandfather's bakery. skin prick tests (SPT) were made to dust mites, moulds, flours, alfa-amylase and egg. It was also determined total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to alfa-amylase and flours. Subsequently, a challenge test was carried out with wheat flour. The SPTs were positive to flours, alfa-amylase and egg. The determination of specific IgE antibodies showed 2.64 kU/L to wheat, 0.79 kU/L to glyadin and 2.98 kU/L to alfa-amylase. The patient developed asthma and rhinitis after manipulating wheat flour for 10 min. we demonstrated a type I hypersensitivity to wheat flour and alfa-amylase in a two years old child by SPT, specific IgE antibodies and challenge test. This case in the childhood equivalent of occupational baker's asthma.

  16. A field guide to predict delayed mortality of fire-damaged ponderosa pine: application and validation of the Malheur model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter G. Thies; Douglas J. Westlind; Mark Loewen; Greg. Brenner

    2008-01-01

    The Malheur model for fire-caused delayed mortality is presented as an easily interpreted graph (mortality-probability calculator) as part of a one-page field guide that allows the user to determine postfire probability of mortality for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). Following both prescribed burns and wildfires, managers need...

  17. 21 CFR 172.898 - Bakers yeast glycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast glycan. 172.898 Section 172.898 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.898 Bakers yeast glycan. Bakers yeast glycan may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast glycan is the comminuted, washed, pasteurized, and...

  18. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  19. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Baker Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Baker Island in the US...

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2011 Digital Orthophotos - Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset is a collection of GeoTIFF natural color orthophotos covering Baker, Bradford, and Union counties within Florida. An orthophoto is remotely sensed image...

  1. Effects of flood control alternatives on fish and wildlife resources of the Malheur-Harney lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Malheur Lake is the largest freshwater marsh in the western contiguous United States and is one of the main management units of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Oregon. The marsh provides excellent waterfowl production habitat as well as vital migration habitats for birds in the Pacific flyway. Water shortages have typically been a problem in this semiarid area; however, record snowfalls and cool summers have recently caused Malheur Lake to rise to its highest level in recorded history. This has resulted in the loss of approximately 57,000 acres of important wildlife habitat as well as extensive flooding of local ranches, roads, and railroad lines. Because of the importance of the Refuge, any water management plan for the Malheur-Harney Lakes Basin needs to consider the impact of management alternatives on the hydrology of Malheur Lake. The facilitated modeling workshop described in this report was conducted January 14-18, 1985, under the joint sponsorship of the Portland Ecological Services Field Office and the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Region 1, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The Portland Field Office is responsible for FWS reporting requirements on Federal water resource projects while the Refuge staff has management responsibility for much of the land affected by high water levels in the Malheur-Harney Lakes Basin. The primary objective of the workshop was to begin gathering and analyzing information concerning potential fish and wildlife impacts, needs, and opportunities associated with proposed U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) flood control alternatives for Malheur Lake. The workshop was structured around the formulation of a computer model that would simulate the hydrologic effects of the various alternatives and any concommitant changes in vegetation communities and wildlife use patterns. The simulation model is composed of three connected submodels. The Hydrology submodel calculates changes in lake volume, elevation

  2. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baker's yeast was produced from three selected baker's yeast strains using date syrup as a substrate at low and high flow rate compared to those produced using molasses substrates. Performance of the produced baker's yeasts on Arabic bread quality was investigated. Baking tests showed a positive relationship between ...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  4. Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (11), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper ... of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional ... The spectral analysis enabled us to identify 4 known .... evidence for participation of protein kinase C and protein kinase A ... Neoplasma 51(6): 407-414.

  5. Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Wilson, Reed T.; Foxworthy, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Increased volcanic activity on Mount Baker, which began in March 1975, represents the greatest known activity of a Cascade Range volcano since eruptions at Lassen Peak, Calif. during 1914-17. Emissions of dust and increased emanations of steam, other gases, and heat from the Sherman Crater area of the mountain focused attention on the possibility of hazardous events, including lava flows, pyroclastic eruptions, avalanches, and mudflows. However, the greatest undesirable natural results that have been observed after one year of the increased activity are an increase in local atmospheric pollution and a decrease in the quality of some local water resources, including Baker Lake. Baker Lake, a hydropower reservoir behind Upper Baker Dam, supports a valuable fishery resource and also is used for recreation. The lake's feedwater is from Baker River and many smaller streams, some of which, like Boulder Creek, drain parts of Mount Baker. Boulder Creek receives water from Sherman Crater, and its channel is a likely route for avalanches or mudflows that might originate in the crater area. Boulder Creek drains only about 5 percent of the total drainage area of Baker Lake, but during 1975 carried sizeable but variable loads of acid and dissolved minerals into the lake. Sulfurous gases and the fumarole dust from Sherman Crater are the main sources for these materials, which are brought into upper Boulder Creek by meltwater from the crater. In September 1973, before the increased volcanic activity, Boulder Creek near the lake had a pH of 6.0-6.6; after the increase the pH ranged as low as about 3.5. Most nearby streams had pH values near 7. On April 29, in Boulder Creek the dissolved sulfate concentration was 6 to 29 times greater than in nearby creeks or in Baker River; total iron was 18-53 times greater than in nearby creeks; and other major dissolved constituents generally 2 to 7 times greater than in the other streams. The short-term effects on Baker Lake of the acidic

  6. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The

  7. Performance of baker's yeast produced using date syrup substrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... evaluate the effect of using Baker's yeast produced using date syrup as .... Gas production power (ml/20g dough) for baker's yeasts (LSD Test*). Incubation ... Brain (2005) indicated that a falling number value of 350 s or longer ...

  8. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be...

  9. The western juniper resource of eastern Oregon, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; Bruce A. Hiserote; Paul A. Dunham

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes resource statistics for eastern Oregon's juniper forests, which are in Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties. We sampled all ownerships outside of the National Forest System; we report the statistics on juniper forest on...

  10. Timber resource statistics for all forest land, except national forests, in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1987 timber resource inventory of all forest land, except National Forests, in the 17 counties (Baker, Crook, Deschutes, Gilliam, Grant, Harney, Jefferson, Klamath, Lake, Malheur, Morrow, Sherman, Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Wasco, and Wheeler Counties) in eastern Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  11. Prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Welch, J; Turvey, J; Cannon, J; Clark, P; Szram, J; Cullinan, P

    2016-07-01

    Supermarket bakers are exposed not only to flour and alpha-amylase but also to other 'improver' enzymes, the nature of which is usually shrouded by commercial sensitivity. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes in UK supermarket bakers. We examined the prevalence of sensitization to enzymes in 300 bakers, employed by one of two large supermarket bakeries, who had declared work-related respiratory symptoms during routine health surveillance. Sensitization was determined using radioallergosorbent assay to eight individual enzymes contained in the specific 'improver' mix used by each supermarket. The prevalence of sensitization to 'improver' enzymes ranged from 5% to 15%. Sensitization was far more likely if the baker was sensitized also to either flour or alpha-amylase. The prevalence of sensitization to an 'improver' enzyme did not appear to be related to the concentration of that enzyme in the mix. We report substantial rates of sensitization to enzymes other than alpha-amylase in UK supermarket bakers; in only a small proportion of bakers was there evidence of sensitization to 'improver mix' enzymes without sensitization to either alpha-amylase or flour. The clinical significance of these findings needs further investigation, but our findings indicate that specific sensitization in symptomatic bakers may not be identified without consideration of a wide range of workplace antigens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Phenolics from Kalanchoe marmorata Baker, Family Crassulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser Badawy Singab

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In search of plants rich in phenolics in Egypt, Kalanchoe marmorata Baker was subjected to phytochemical study. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed its richness in phenolics. Fractionation of the lyophilized aqueous extract of the leaves of K. marmorata by different organic solvents successively resulted in the isolation and purification of five compounds from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction. These compounds namely; E1 isorhamnetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E2 quercitin; E3 4′-methoxy-myricetin-3-O-α-l-1C4-rhamnopyranoside; E4 Quercitin-3-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside and E5 protocatechuic-4′-O-β-d-4C1-glucopyranoside, were identified by analysis of their spectral data including 1H NMR and 13C NMR.

  13. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pösö, H; Sinervirta, R; Jänne, J

    1975-01-01

    1. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.50) was purified more than 1100-fold from extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by affinity chromatography on columns of Sepharose containing covalently bound methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (1,1'[(methylethanediylidene)dinitrilo]diguanidine) [Pegg, (1974) Biochem J. 141, 581-583]. The final preparation appeared to be homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis at pH 8.4. 2. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity was completely separated from spermidine synthase activity [5'-deoxyadenosyl-(5'),3-aminopropyl-(1),methylsulphonium-salt-putrescine 3-aminopropyltransferase, EC 2.5.1.16] during the purification procedure. 3. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity from crude extracts of baker's yeast was stimulated by putrescine, 1,3-diamino-propane, cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) and spermidine; however, the purified enzyme, although still stimulated by the diamines, was completely insensitive to spermidine. 4. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has an apparent Km value of 0.09 mM for adenosylmethionine in the presence of saturating concentrations of putrescine. The omission of putrescine resulted in a five-fold increase in the apparent Km value for adenosylmethionine. 5. The apparent Ka value for putrescine, as the activator of the reaction, was 0.012 mM. 6. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and S-methyladenosylhomocysteamine (decarboxylated adenosylmethionine) were powerful inhibitors of the enzyme. 7. Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from baker's yeast was inhibited by a number of conventional carbonyl reagents, but in no case could the inhibition be reversed with exogenous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. PMID:1108876

  14. 78 FR 27215 - Baker County Oregon; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...: Baker County, Oregon (Baker County). e. Name of Project: Mason Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...'s (Reclamation) Mason Dam, near Baker City, in Baker County, Oregon. The project would occupy 6.4... facilities. The proposed project's generation would not change the current day- to-day operation of Mason dam...

  15. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  16. Posterior tibial neuropathy by a Baker's cyst: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Jun, J B; Lee, H S; Yun, H R; Choi, C H; Park, S B; Hong, E K; Yoo, D H; Kim, S Y

    2000-01-01

    Baker's cysts are rare cause of peripheral nerve entrapment and only a few cases of tibial nerve entrapment resulting from the popliteal cyst in the calf muscle have been reported in the literature. We present a case of rheumatoid arthritis complicated by a Baker's cyst with a tibial nerve entrapment. It is important to diagnose a Baker's cyst early and to differentiate it from thrombophlebitis, a popliteal aneurysm, tumor or muscle tear to effect optimal therapy and to obviate a potential neuropathy. Prompt recognition of these cases may save the patients unnecessary procedures and delay in treatment.

  17. Disturbance and Celebration of Josephine Baker in Copenhagen 1928

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Spanger analyses reactions to the internationally recognised dancer and singer Josephine Baker (1906–1975), whose performances in Copenhagen gave rise to a heated emotional debate in Danish newspapers; these reactions mirror contemporary dominant religious, biological and colonial discour...

  18. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Baker, Phoenix Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Baker in the Phoenix...

  19. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Baker Island 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Baker Island in the US...

  20. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3......Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast......-hydroxybutanoate was afforded in >99% ee. Both enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxypentanoate, D-(R) in 96% ee and L-(S) in 93% ee, and of ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate, D-(S) in 98% ee and L-(R) in 94% ee, were obtained. The results demonstrate that the stereoselectivity of baker's yeast can be controlled...

  1. Intramuscular dissection of Baker's cysts: report on three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Christopher S.J.; McCarthy, Catherine L.; McNally, Eugene G.

    2004-01-01

    Baker's cysts are fluid distensions of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa and are the most common cystic lesion around the knee. Typically cysts enlarge along intermuscular planes around the knee. We report three cases in which the expanding cyst did not respect these planes and dissected along an intramuscular route as confirmed by MR imaging. Such behaviour by Baker's cysts is hitherto unreported in the literature. Possible mechanisms to account for this phenomenon are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Heuristic Sensitivity Analysis for Baker's Yeast Model Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Leão, Celina P.; Soares, Filomena O.

    2004-01-01

    The baker's yeast, essentially composed by living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used in the bread making and beer industries as a microorganism, has an important industrial role. The simulation procedure represents then a necessary tool to understand clearly the baker's yeast fermentation process. The use of mathematical models based on mass balance equations requires the knowledge of the reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport and physical properties. Models may be more or less...

  3. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  4. Optimization of the flux values in multichannel ceramic membrane microfiltration of Baker`s yeast suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milović Nemanja R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the effects of the operating parameters on the baker's yeast microfiltration through multichannel ceramic membrane. The selected parameters were transmembrane pressure, suspension feed flow, and initial suspension concentration. In order to investigate the influence and interaction effects of these parameters on the microfiltration operation, two responses have been chosen: average permeate flux and flux decline. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology was used for result processing and process optimization. According to the obtained results, the most important parameter influencing permeate flux during microfiltration is the initial suspension concentration. The maximum average flux value was achieved at an initial concentration of 0.1 g/L, pressure around 1.25 bars and a flow rate at 16 L/h. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  5. Shuffling cards, factoring numbers and the quantum baker's map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayan, Arul

    2005-01-01

    It is pointed out that an exactly solvable permutation operator, viewed as the quantization of cyclic shifts, is useful in constructing a basis in which to study the quantum baker's map, a paradigm system of quantum chaos. In the basis of this operator the eigenfunctions of the quantum baker's map are compressed by factors of around five or more. We show explicitly its connection to an operator that is closely related to the usual quantum baker's map. This permutation operator has interesting connections to the art of shuffling cards as well as to the quantum factoring algorithm of Shor via the quantum order finding one. Hence we point out that this well-known quantum algorithm makes crucial use of a quantum chaotic operator, or at least one that is close to the quantization of the left-shift, a closeness that we also explore quantitatively. (letter to the editor)

  6. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, V; Calisti, R; Carnovale-Scalzo, C; Nardi, F

    2001-10-01

    The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. We detected eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking, and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series (Rome and Orbassano/Turin, Italy; period 1990-1997; 222 cases). Field-investigations revealed asbestos-containing material (ACM) in ovens for baking bread, that were manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association of the risk of having worked as a baker or pastry cook and MPM. Presumptive source of exposure to asbestos was the use of asbestos-insulated ovens. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Quantum baker maps with controlled-not coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejos, Raul O; Santoro, Pedro R del; Almeida, Alfredo M Ozorio de

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic stretching and squeezing of chaotic motion is linearized within the finite number of phase space domains which subdivide a classical baker map. Tensor products of such maps are also chaotic, but a more interesting generalized baker map arises if the stacking orders for the factor maps are allowed to interact. These maps are readily quantized, in such a way that the stacking interaction is entirely attributed to primary qubits in each map, if each jth subsystem has Hilbert space dimension D j 2 n j . We here study the particular example of two baker maps that interact via a controlled-not interaction, which is a universal gate for quantum computation. Numerical evidence indicates that the control subspace becomes an ideal Markovian environment for the target map in the limit of large Hilbert space dimension

  8. USA sender Able og Baker en tur i rummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2014-01-01

    DETTE ER DEN TREDJE ARTIKEL I SERIEN OM DYRENES ROLLE I RUMFORSKNINGEN. VI SKAL MØDE DE TO PRIMATER ABLE OG BAKER, SOM NASA SUCCESFULDT SENDTE EN TUR I RUMMET I MAJ 1959 – HALVANDET ÅR EFTER, AT SOVJETUNIONEN HAVDE SENDT HUNDEN LAIKA DERUD.......DETTE ER DEN TREDJE ARTIKEL I SERIEN OM DYRENES ROLLE I RUMFORSKNINGEN. VI SKAL MØDE DE TO PRIMATER ABLE OG BAKER, SOM NASA SUCCESFULDT SENDTE EN TUR I RUMMET I MAJ 1959 – HALVANDET ÅR EFTER, AT SOVJETUNIONEN HAVDE SENDT HUNDEN LAIKA DERUD....

  9. 76 FR 72718 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Baker Resource Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... following methods: Web site: http://www.blm.gov/or/districts/vale/plans/bakerrmp/contact.php . Email: Baker... above address or may be viewed at: http://www.blm.gov/or/districts/vale/plans/bakerrmp/index.php . FOR... will revise the existing Baker RMP of 1989 and provide the Baker Field Office with an updated framework...

  10. Bakers yeast-mediated transformations of alpha-keto epoxides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meth-Cohn, O

    1994-06-07

    Full Text Available Alpha beta-Epoxy ketones on treatment with baker's yeast yield different types of products depending on their substitution. Small groups such as H or Me attached at the epoxy end protect that end from attack. Thus, 1-acyl epoxides with H, methyl...

  11. Quality evaluation of some commercial baker's yeasts in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    55.8 to161.6mlh g , respectively. Bread baked from different baker's yeasts were not significantly different (p>0.05) in their crumb structure and texture. However, significant differences were found in terms of crust color, loaf symmetry and overall acceptability. The staling rate of bread samples correlated positively with yeast's ...

  12. Framework for Sustaining Innovation at Baker Library, Harvard Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Meghan; Hemment, Michael; Oliver, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Baker Library at Harvard Business School is increasingly asked by the school's faculty to create custom digital information products to enhance course assignments and to find novel ways of electronically disseminating faculty research. In order to prioritize these requests, as well as facilitate, manage, and track the resulting projects, the…

  13. Isolation of a tyrosine-activating enzyme from baker's yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, A.M. van de; Koningsberger, V.V.; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    1958-01-01

    The extracts of ether-CO2-frozen baker's yeast contain enzymes that catalyze the ATP-linked amino acid activation by way of pyrophosphate elimination. From the extract a tyrosine-activating enzyme could be isolated, which, judging from ultracentrifugation and electrophoretic data, was about 70% pure

  14. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  15. A “pessoa” de Rudder Baker é realmente incorporada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gonçalves Coelho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Some philosophers materialists think, against the dualism of substance, that an embodied mind is only a mind that depends on a body to exist, that is, that the mind doesn’t exist independently of a body. I will take as representative of this very limited point of view about embodiment the ideas of Lynne Baker and her Constitution View. Baker says that she prefers to face the problem of the relationship between persons and bodies than the problem of the relationship between mind and body because this last formulation of the problem implies the idea of a mind distinct and separated of the body while the first is more according of her view of an embodied and situated mind. But the problem is that Baker forgets it when she defines persons in terms of first-person perspective or self-consciousness. Although, Baker says that the self-consciousness depends on structural – a body – and environmental – the situation – conditions, what becomes a self-conscious human person an entity ontologically distinct of the body that constitutes it and of other animals are their realizations like arts, philosophy, science, moral, etc. It looks like that for Baker the self-consciousness is not only a necessary condition but also a sufficient one for that human realizations, while the body fulfill only an indirect role. Against these ideas we can ask: the great realizations that distinguish the human persons of other animals would be possible independently of the biological constitution of our body and its needs?

  16. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Baker Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, M.L.; Robins, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The Baker Quadrangle, Oregon, and Idaho, was evaluated to identify areas containing geologic environments favorable for uranium deposits. The criteria used was developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Stream-sediment reconnaissance and detailed surface studies were augmented by subsurface-data interpretion and an aerial radiometric survey. Results indicate that lower Pliocene sedimentary rocks in the Lower Powder River Valley-Virtue Flat basin are favorable characteristics, they remain unevaluated because of lack of subsurface data. Tertiary sandstones, possibly present at depth in the Long and Cascade Valleys, also remain unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data. All remaining environments in the Baker Quadrangle are unfavorable for all classes of uranium deposits

  18. Ross E. Baker, DC: A Canadian chiropractic survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas M

    2014-03-01

    This paper is an historical biography of a fortunate man. It begins with a glimpse of Ross E. Baker's origins in south-western Ontario, watches him going to school and working in Hamilton before joining the Canadian Army and shipping off to Europe to fight in the Second World War. At War's end, the article picks up Dr. Baker as he comes home, starts a family, becomes a chiropractor and sustains a viable practice. Now in the twilight of life, the good doctor is last seen content with his retirement, spending days at his cottage property, reviewing his memoirs and reflecting on the tumult, terror and eventual triumph of the D-Day landing at Normandy.

  19. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Molinari, S

    1994-08-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick test response to common allergens (atopy), storage mites, and occupational allergens among 226 bakers and pastry makers from 105 small businesses in northern Italy. Atopy was present in 54 workers (23.4%); 40 workers (17.7%) were skin positive to at least one storage mite, 27 (11.9%) to wheat flour and 17 (7.5%) to alpha-amylase. Work related asthma was reported by 11 (4.9%) workers and rhinoconjunctivitis by 31 (17.7%); 22 workers (10.2%) complained of chronic bronchitis. The distribution of skin prick test results among bakers and among 119 white collar workers did not indicate (by logistic analysis) an increased risk for bakers to skin sensitisation to common allergens, storage mite, or to a group of five flours. Sensitisation to wheat flour, on the other hand, was present only among exposed workers. Skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was significantly associated with atopy (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.015), and work seniority (p = 0.027). The risk of work related symptoms was associated with sensitisation to wheat or alpha-amylase, and with atopy, but not with sensitisation to storage mites, work seniority, or smoking habit. The results of the study indicate that there is still a significant risk of allergic respiratory disease among Italian bakers. Not only wheat allergens, but also alpha-amylase must be considered as causative agents, although sensitisation to storage mites is not important in the occupational allergic response. Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens and for the onset of symptoms at work. The data confirm that for effective prevention, greater care should be taken not only in limiting environmental exposure, but also in identifying susceptible people.

  20. Maximal reductions in the Baker-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsrud, M.

    1992-05-01

    A preliminary expression for the Baker-Hausdorff formula is found up to ninth order, i.e. a series expansion of z in terms of multiple commutators, where e x =e x e y with x and y non-commuting, up to ninth degree in x,y. By means of complete sets of linear relations between multiple commutators, maximal reduction of the number of different multiple commutators in the series is obtained. 4 refs

  1. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Matos, Cláudia; Møller, Birger L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has...... recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results: Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis...

  2. Respiratory symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Smith, P W

    1998-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to wheat flour, soya flour and fungal amylase and the development of work-related symptoms and sensitization in bread and cake bakery employees who have regular exposure to these substances. The study populations consisted of 394 bread bakery workers and 77 cake bakery workers whose normal jobs involved the sieving, weighing and mixing of ingredients. The groups were interviewed with the aim of identifying the prevalence, nature and pattern of any work-related respiratory symptoms. They were also skin-prick tested against the common bakery sensitizing agents, i.e., wheat flour, soya flour, rice flour and fungal amylase. The results of personal sampling for sieving, weighing and mixing operations at the bakeries from which the study groups were taken were collated in order to determine typical exposures to total inhalable dust from the ingredients, expressed as 8 hour time-weighted average exposures. Data from the health surveillance and collated dust measurements were compared with the aim of establishing an exposure-response relationship for sensitization. The prevalence of work-related symptoms in bread bakery and cake bakery ingredient handlers was 20.4% and 10.4% respectively. However, in a large proportion of those reporting symptoms in connection with work, the symptoms were intermittent and of short duration. It is considered that the aetiology of such symptoms is likely to be due to a non-specific irritant effect of high total dust levels, rather than allergy. None of the cake bakers and only 3.1% of the bread bakers had symptoms which were thought to be due to allergy to baking ingredients. Using skin-prick testing as a marker of sensitization, the prevalence of positive tests to wheat flour was 6% for the bread bakers and 3% for the cake bakers. Comparable prevalences for soya flour were 7% and 1% respectively. However, the prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to fungal amylase

  3. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  4. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  5. Novel baker's yeast catalysed hydride reduction of an epoxide moiety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, RM

    1995-02-27

    Full Text Available 8. This was successfully prepared by the coupling 4 of valeric acid chloride to Meldrum' s acid to yield the C-acyl derivative 6. Compound 6 was treated with SO2Ci 2 yielding the chloro acyl derivative of Meldrum...) O D (8) (v) + O2 N/~/CHO Reagents: (i) SOCI2, 70%, (ii) Meldrum's acid, pyridine, 80%, (iii) SO2C12, 65%, (iv) D20, Ac20, 20%, (v) K-t-butoxide, 20%, (vi) Baker's yeast, 12%. Scheme 3 The deuterium labelled...

  6. Mount Baker lahars and debris flows, ancient, modern, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, David S; Scott, Kevin M.; Grossman, Eric E.; Linneman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Fork Nooksack River drains the southwestern slopes of the active Mount Baker stratovolcano in northwest Washington State. The river enters Bellingham Bay at a growing delta 98 km to the west. Various types of debris flows have descended the river, generated by volcano collapse or eruption (lahars), glacial outburst floods, and moraine landslides. Initial deposition of sediment during debris flows occurs on the order of minutes to a few hours. Long-lasting, down-valley transport of sediment, all the way to the delta, occurs over a period of decades, and affects fish habitat, flood risk, gravel mining, and drinking water.

  7. Breaking an encryption scheme based on chaotic baker map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Li, Shujun

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, a growing number of cryptosystems based on chaos have been proposed, many of them fundamentally flawed by a lack of robustness and security. This Letter describes the security weaknesses of a recently proposed cryptographic algorithm with chaos at the physical level based on the baker map. It is shown that the security is trivially compromised for practical implementations of the cryptosystem with finite computing precision and for the use of the iteration number n as the secret key. Some possible countermeasures to enhance the security of the chaos-based cryptographic algorithm are also discussed

  8. Accumulation of gold using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Kamalika; Lahiri, Susanta; Sinha, P.

    2006-01-01

    Authors have reported preconcentration of 152 Eu, a long-lived fission product, by yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gold being a precious metal is used in electroplating, hydrogenation catalyst, etc. Heterogeneous composition of samples and low concentration offers renewed interest in its selective extraction of gold using various extractants. Gold can be recovered from different solutions using various chemical reagents like amines, organophosphorus compounds, and extractants containing sulphur as donor atom, etc. In the present work, two different strains of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used to study the preconcentration of gold at various experimental conditions

  9. Building Abelian Functions with Generalised Baker-Hirota Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new systematic method to construct Abelian functions on Jacobian varieties of plane, algebraic curves. The main tool used is a symmetric generalisation of the bilinear operator defined in the work of Baker and Hirota. We give explicit formulae for the multiple applications of the operators, use them to define infinite sequences of Abelian functions of a prescribed pole structure and deduce the key properties of these functions. We apply the theory on the two canonical curves of genus three, presenting new explicit examples of vector space bases of Abelian functions. These reveal previously unseen similarities between the theories of functions associated to curves of the same genus.

  10. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  11. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  12. Users and Union Catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  13. Ultrasound guided percutaneous treatment and follow-up of Baker's cyst in knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köroğlu, Mert; Çallıoğlu, Mehmet; Eriş, Hüseyin Naim; Kayan, Mustafa; Çetin, Meltem; Yener, Mahmut; Gürses, Cemil; Erol, Bekir; Türkbey, Barış; Parlak, Ayşe Eda; Akhan, Okan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of this study is to assess sonographic changes and clinical response in different subgroups of Baker's cyst patients with knee osteoarthritis after a single session of ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration and corticosteroid injection. Materials and methods: Thirty-two knee osteoarthritis patients (46–85 years, mean 58.97 ± 9.88) with symptomatic Baker's cyst diagnosed at ultrasonography were included in the study. To determine the grade of the symptoms, Visual Analogue Scale was applied. The patients were grouped in two, as simple (n = 24) and complex (n = 8) Baker's cyst. Thirty-two ultrasound-guided cyst aspirations concomitant 1 ml betamethasone injection (24 simple, 8 complex subgroups) were performed. Patients were followed clinically as well as via ultrasonography for 6 months after procedures. Results: A significant decrease in volume of the Baker's cysts after percutaneous treatment was accompanied by a significant clinical improvement. Moreover, the volume reduction of Baker's cyst after the treatment was significantly correlated with the clinical improvement (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.542, p = 0.001). All 6 Baker's cysts relapsed at ultrasonography were complex type. Furthermore, a comparison of patients with simple Baker's cysts and those with complex Baker's cysts demonstrated no significant change in Visual Analogue Scale scores between two groups (p = 0.061, Mann–Whitney U). No complications (minor or major) occurred secondary to percutaneous treatment. Conclusion: Baker's cysts can be grouped as simple and complex groups via ultrasonography prior to the treatment. Cyst aspiration with ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection yields clinical improvement and cyst volume reduction in all subgroups of patients with Baker's cyst secondary to knee osteoarthritis.

  14. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  15. In search of a more perfect heteroarchy:Vermont, civil unions and the harm of "separate-but-equal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan L

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the Vermont civil union solution to the state Supreme Court's mandate in Baker v. State (1999). Using non-subordination theory, the author argues that rather than being a legal victory for lesbians and gay men, the Vermont law integrally contributes to the maintenance of an imbalance of power between heterosexuals and lesbians and gays. The article analyzes the rhetorical strategy employed by lawmakers to respond to what they perceived and portrayed as a menace posed by same-sex marriage and demonstrates that lawmakers reinforced apprehensions surrounding lesbian and gay identity and asserted the familiar heterosexist narrative in an effort to quell the threat posed by Baker. The article concludes that the legislature's genuine motivation behind civil unions was validating their own and their constituents' misplaced fears regarding gay and lesbian identity, and pacifying those fears by denying equal marriage rights to gays and lesbians in an attempt to appear responsive to a perceived threat to heterosexual primacy.

  16. Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randez-Gil, Francisca; Córcoles-Sáez, Isaac; Prieto, José A

    2013-01-01

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement.

  17. The vertebrate fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.L.; Steen, D.A.; Stober, J.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Golladay, S.W.; Conner, L.M.; Cochrane, J.

    2006-01-01

    Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of lchauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of lchauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern U S.

  18. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  19. Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Maria Lobo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant’s rheophytic habitat. The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes. While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment.

  20. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Matos, Claudia; Møller, Birger L; Hansen, Jørgen; Mortensen, Uffe H; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2010-11-08

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories.

  1. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1) were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA) as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories. PMID:21059201

  2. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jørgen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1 were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories.

  3. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  4. Marketing research among small and medium-sized business enterprises - a VDEW field investigation with baker`s shops; Marktforschung bei Gewerbebetrieben - VDEW-Baeckereibefragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, A. [Isar-Amperwerke AG, Muenchen (Germany); Nickel, M. [VDEW-Hauptgeschaeftsstelle, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Gruppe ``Energiewirtschaft und Statistik``

    1998-12-14

    The baker`s trade is a business of interest to electric utilities, as bakers have a high demand for process heat and their supply requirements are characterized by simple load histories. Hence competing electric utilities in the competitive market target this customer group with increasing efforts. The authors summarize the information obtained from the field investigation and the conclusions drawn. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Baeckereien sind wegen ihres hohen Prozesswaermebedarfs und des guenstigen Lastverlaufs eine interessante Kundengruppe fuer die Stromversorger. Der Beratung und Betreuung dieser Kunden muss deshalb hohe Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet werden. Nicht zuletzt wegen des Wettbewerbs auf dem Energiemarkt muessen die Stromversorger die Kundenorientierung noch intensivieren. Auch dadurch entstehen neue Anforderungen an die Kundenberatung und -betreuung. Die Verfasser erlaeutern die wichtigsten Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen aus einer Befragung von Baeckereibetrieben. (orig.)

  5. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  6. A Survey of Hygiene Practices of Bakers in Amuwo Odofin Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey of Hygiene Practices of Bakers in Amuwo Odofin Local Government ... pest control, hygiene of personnel, storage and waste management. Important as this strategy is in the food industry, little has been reported on the practice of ...

  7. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 1 site at Baker in the Pacific...

  8. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  9. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  10. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R.

    2013-09-01

    The Kaplan-Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions.

  11. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan–Yorke conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    The Kaplan–Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions. (paper)

  12. Effect of inhibitors on acid production by baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, K; Knotková, A; Kotyk, A

    1978-01-01

    Glucose-induced acid extrusion, respiration and anaerobic fermentation in baker's yeast was studied with the aid of sixteen inhibitors. Uranyl(2+) nitrate affected the acid extrusion more anaerobically than aerobically; the complexing of Mg2+ and Ca2+ by EDTA at the membrane had no effect. Inhibitors of glycolysis (iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, fluoride) suppressed acid production markedly, and so did the phosphorylation-blocking arsenate. Fluoroacetate, inhibiting the citric-acid cycle, had no effect. Inhibition by uncouplers depended on their pKa values: 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (pKa 0.4) less than 2,4-dinitrophenol (4.1) less than azide (4.7) less than 3-chlorophenylhydrazonomalononitrile (6.0). Inhibition by trinitrophenol was only slightly increased by its acetylation. Cyanide and nonpermeant oligomycin showed practically no effect; inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was delayed but potent. The concentration profiles of inhibition of acid production differed from those of respiration and fermentation. Thus, though the acid production is a metabolically dependent process, it does not reflect the intensity of metabolism, except partly in the first half of glycolysis.

  13. Obituary: Norman Hodgson Baker, Jr., 1931-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, David J.

    2005-12-01

    Norman H. Baker, a key contributor to the foundation of modern stellar pulsation theory and former editor of the "Astronomical Journal", died on 11 October 2005 in Watertown, New York near his beloved summer home in Natural Bridge. He succumbed to complications of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a bone marrow lymphoma that he had successfully surmounted for twenty-two years. Norm, as he was known to all, was born 23 October 1931 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Norman Hodgson and Jeannette (née Lieber) Baker. He attended the University of Minnesota where he met the first of many lifelong astronomical friends, Bill Erickson. He received his BA in 1952. He went on to do his PhD, "Radiation from Particle Interactions which Create Current," at Cornell University under Phil Morrison. He then moved to a postdoctoral position at the Max Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik in München with the intent of pursuing his work in plasma physics with Ludwig Biermann and Arnulf Schlüter. However, Rudolf (Rudi) Kippenhan snatched him away to pursue what became his lifelong interest, stellar physics. This was the dawn of the era in which electronic computers were becoming practical for scientific calculations, and Norm immediately adopted this new tool. Indeed, he remained at the forefront of computing technology throughout his life: He was certainly the first member of the Astronomy Department at Columbia to buy a Mac, and was undoubtedly one of the few emeritus professors in the world known by all the administrative staff as the first person to turn to when stumped by a computer problem. Following his first paper with Kippenhan on stellar rotation, Norm turned his attention to stellar pulsations, a topic he would pursue throughout his career. His 1962 paper in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik" on pulsational models of Cepheids (Baker and Kippenhan 1962, 54, 155) is a classic in the field. The first figure displays the three dimensional model of the atmospheric absorption

  14. Treatment of the baker's yeast wastewater by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobya, M.; Delipinar, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the laboratory-scale experiments, treatment of baker's yeast production wastewater has been investigated by electrocoagulation (EC) using a batch reactor. Effects of the process variables such as pH, electrode material (Fe and Al), current density, and operating time are investigated in terms of removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, and operating cost, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TOC and turbidity under optimal operating conditions, i.e., pH 6.5 for Al electrode and pH 7 for Fe electrode, current density of 70 A/m 2 and operating time of 50 min were 71, 53 and 90% for Al electrode and 69, 52 and 56% for Fe electrode, respectively. Al electrode gave 4.4 times higher removal efficiency of turbidity than Fe electrode due to interference from color of dissolved iron. The operating costs for Al and Fe electrodes in terms of $/m 3 or $/kg COD were 1.54 and 0.82, 0.51 and 0.27, respectively

  15. Kenneth Frank Baker--pioneer leader in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R James

    2005-01-01

    Kenneth F. Baker (1908-1996) made major contributions to understanding diseases of ornamental plants, seed pathology, soil-borne plant pathogens, biological control, and history of plant pathology. His work set the stage for the success of today's ornamentals and nursery industries. His leadership and writings created the scientific framework for research and teaching on soil-borne plant pathogens and biological control. After B.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Washington State University in 1930 and 1934, respectively, and one year as a National Research Council Fellow with B.M. Dugger at Wisconsin, he took jobs in 1935 with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Nebraska on establishment of shelter belts and 1936-39 with the Pineapple Producers Cooperative Association in Hawaii. He worked on diseases of ornamental plants at the University of California, Los Angeles, starting in 1939, moving to Berkeley in 1961 when the UCLA program closed. He retired in 1975 and moved to Corvallis, OR, as Emeritus Professor, Oregon State University, and Collaborator, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. He spent four sabbatical leaves in Australia, and was elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1950, fellow of the American Phytopathological Society in 1969, and the Horticultural Hall of Fame in 1976.

  16. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  17. Trade Union Organisers in Trade Union Organising Strategies: building workplace unionism or reinforcing bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Looker, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis considers the role of union full time officers in union organising strategies. Two decades of promoting union organising influenced by models developed by the AFL-CIO, has failed to arrest the decline of UK trade unions let alone produce evidence of renewal. Focusing mainly on one region in the UKs largest public sector trade union, Unison, the research provides for a detailed account of how organising strategies affect union work, presenting thick and deep data from full time off...

  18. An algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo, 8-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-05-21

    A simple algorithm, which exploits the associativity of the BCH formula, and that can be generalized by iteration, extends the remarkable simplification of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, recently derived by Van-Brunt and Visser. We show that if [X,Y]=uX+vY+cI, [Y,Z]=wY+zZ+dI, and, consistently with the Jacobi identity, [X,Z]=mX+nY+pZ+eI, then exp (X)exp (Y)exp (Z)=exp (aX+bY+cZ+dI) where a, b, c and d are solutions of four equations. In particular, the Van-Brunt and Visser formula exp (X)exp (Z)=exp (aX+bZ+c[X,Z]+dI) extends to cases when [X,Z] contains also elements different from X and Z. Such a closed form of the BCH formula may have interesting applications both in mathematics and physics. As an application, we provide the closed form of the BCH formula in the case of the exponentiation of the Virasoro algebra, with SL{sub 2}(ℂ) following as a subcase. We also determine three-dimensional subalgebras of the Virasoro algebra satisfying the Van-Brunt and Visser condition. It turns out that the exponential form of SL{sub 2}(ℂ) has a nice representation in terms of its eigenvalues and of the fixed points of the corresponding Möbius transformation. This may have applications in Uniformization theory and Conformal Field Theories.

  19. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  20. A novel bread making process using salt-stressed Baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lien-Te; Charles, Albert Linton; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    By adjusting the mixing order of ingredients in traditional formula, an innovative bread making process was developed. The effect of salt-stressed Baker's yeast on bread dough of different sugar levels was investigated. Baker's yeast was stressed in 7% salt solution then mixed into dough, which was then evaluated for fermentation time, dough fermentation producing gas, dough expansion, bread specific volumes, and sensory and physical properties. The results of this study indicated that salt-stressed Baker's yeast shortened fermentation time in 16% and 24% sugar dough. Forty minutes of salt stress produced significant amount of gas and increased bread specific volumes. The bread was softer and significantly improved sensory properties for aroma, taste, and overall acceptability were obtained.

  1. A Double Perturbation Method for Reducing Dynamical Degradation of the Digital Baker Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingfeng; Lin, Jun; Miao, Suoxia; Liu, Bocheng

    2017-06-01

    The digital Baker map is widely used in different kinds of cryptosystems, especially for image encryption. However, any chaotic map which is realized on the finite precision device (e.g. computer) will suffer from dynamical degradation, which refers to short cycle lengths, low complexity and strong correlations. In this paper, a novel double perturbation method is proposed for reducing the dynamical degradation of the digital Baker map. Both state variables and system parameters are perturbed by the digital logistic map. Numerical experiments show that the perturbed Baker map can achieve good statistical and cryptographic properties. Furthermore, a new image encryption algorithm is provided as a simple application. With a rather simple algorithm, the encrypted image can achieve high security, which is competitive to the recently proposed image encryption algorithms.

  2. Are unions an anachronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, R

    1979-01-01

    The labor movement in the United States has its roots deep in the soil of worker discontent over grueling working conditions, low pay, and indifference of bosses, who profited from others' sweaty labor. As more and more grubby jobs are replaced by technological innovations, as work becomes more abstract and everyone wears a white shirt, and as managers schooled in motivation theory and humane ideals of participation replace the owner-bosses of yesterday, what role will the unions have left to play? The author of this article, who has been in both the labor force and management, explores what the changes in the labor market will be in the future and what these changes will mean for labor-management relations. He does not conclude that there is no role for unions-only that it will be very different and that to survive unions will have to tackle new issues in the workplace. That adaptation will affect management's stance as well.

  3. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  4. A generalization of Baker's quadratic formulae for hyperelliptic p-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athorne, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We present a generalization of a compact form, due to Baker, for quadratic identities satisfied by the three-index p-functions on curves of genus g=2, and a further generalization of a new result in genus g=3. The compact forms involve a bordered determinant containing 2(g-1)(g+1) free parameters. -- Highlights: → Properties of Weierstrass P-functions for hyperelliptic curves. → Generalization of result of H.F. Baker for genus two case. → Compact formulae with maximal number of parameters in genus two and three cases.

  5. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  6. Teaming Up with Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the concept, first encouraged by Irving Bluestone of the United Auto Workers, that union and management personnel should work together to achieve company goals. The history of this cooperative effort movement within the United Auto Workers is described. (CH)

  7. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  8. Ultrasound guided percutaneous treatment and follow-up of Baker's cyst in knee osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeroglu, Mert, E-mail: mertkoroglu@hotmail.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Call Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I oglu, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetcallioglu@hotmail.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Eris, Hueseyin Naim, E-mail: drhneris@hotmail.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Kayan, Mustafa, E-mail: drkayan32@hotmail.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Cetin, Meltem, E-mail: meltemcetin2011@yahoo.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Isparta (Turkey); Yener, Mahmut, E-mail: bahtiyaryener@yahoo.com [Sueleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Isparta (Turkey); Guerses, Cemil, E-mail: cemilgurses@gmail.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Erol, Bekir, E-mail: mertkoroglu@hotmail.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Tuerkbey, Bar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I s, E-mail: bturkbey@yahoo.com [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Parlak, Ayse Eda, E-mail: drteda@yahoo.com [Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey); Akhan, Okan, E-mail: akhano@tr.net [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: Purpose of this study is to assess sonographic changes and clinical response in different subgroups of Baker's cyst patients with knee osteoarthritis after a single session of ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration and corticosteroid injection. Materials and methods: Thirty-two knee osteoarthritis patients (46-85 years, mean 58.97 {+-} 9.88) with symptomatic Baker's cyst diagnosed at ultrasonography were included in the study. To determine the grade of the symptoms, Visual Analogue Scale was applied. The patients were grouped in two, as simple (n = 24) and complex (n = 8) Baker's cyst. Thirty-two ultrasound-guided cyst aspirations concomitant 1 ml betamethasone injection (24 simple, 8 complex subgroups) were performed. Patients were followed clinically as well as via ultrasonography for 6 months after procedures. Results: A significant decrease in volume of the Baker's cysts after percutaneous treatment was accompanied by a significant clinical improvement. Moreover, the volume reduction of Baker's cyst after the treatment was significantly correlated with the clinical improvement (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.542, p = 0.001). All 6 Baker's cysts relapsed at ultrasonography were complex type. Furthermore, a comparison of patients with simple Baker's cysts and those with complex Baker's cysts demonstrated no significant change in Visual Analogue Scale scores between two groups (p = 0.061, Mann-Whitney U). No complications (minor or major) occurred secondary to percutaneous treatment. Conclusion: Baker's cysts can be grouped as simple and complex groups via ultrasonography prior to the treatment. Cyst aspiration with ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection yields clinical improvement and cyst volume reduction in all subgroups of patients with Baker's cyst secondary to knee osteoarthritis.

  9. The Development of Trade Unionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ronald W.

    1979-01-01

    Traces the growth and evolution of the British labor union movement, troubles between the national officials and the local shop stewards, class differences and conflict between the artisans and laborers, violence between unions, and eventual transition to peaceful constitutionalism. (MF)

  10. Erisipelóide de Baker-Rosenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Guimarães de Macedo

    1970-10-01

    Full Text Available O erisipelóide de Baker-Rosenbach, embora assinalado no Brasil há 23, anos, por Sebastião Sampaio, seguido de nove casos estudados em 1951 por Lacaz e Ancona Lopes, não tem sido motivo de publicações posteriores. O A. teve ocasião de estudar seis casos, senão que três foram motivo de trabalho anterior e foram observados em 1953. Os três restantes, um de 1965 e dois de 1967, são aqui relatados. Assinala o A. a ubiquidade do germe, o Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae e a variedade de condições em que o homem pode infectar-se, especialmente no exercício de determinadas profissões, o que dá à doença, caráter típico de doença profissional. São os operários de fábricas de botões ou em geral os que lidam com ossos, especialmente de porco ou carneiro, os açougueiros, magarefes, salsicheiros etc. São particularmente vulneráveis os que tratam com produtos do mar, pescadores, mercadores de siris, camarões, crustáceos, peixes em geral, pela facilidade com que se podem ferir e adquirir a infecção por picada ocasional. A doença atinge numerosos animais domésticos ou não, com formas clínicas bem definidas no porco (erisipela dos porcos, no carneiro (poliartrite dos carneiros, em animais de corte e de tração, em aves domésticas ou de rapina, ratos e camundongos, além de outros numerosos roedores. Moscas hematófagas e outros insetos têm sido encontrados infectados. Nunca é demais frisar que os produtos do mar são grande fonte de infecção humana. No homem, tem a dcença em geral, caráter benigno e localizado (erisipelóide, podendo em certas circunstâncias assumir característica septicêmica como no porco, produzir endocardite, como no carneiro além de outras formas clínicas e complicações. São resumidos no texto os três casos anteriormente apresentados e bem descritos os três inéditos, que têm história clínica e evolução típicas de erisipelóide. Tratando-se de doença com características tipicamente

  11. Yang--Mills gauge theories and Baker--Johnson quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, J.; Mahanthappa, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    We show that the physical mass of a fermion in a symmetric asymptotically free non-Abelian vector gauge theory is dynamical in origin. We comment on the close analogy that exists between such a theory and the Baker--Johnson finite quantum electrodynamics. Comments are also made when there is spontaneous symmetry breaking

  12. Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus: Two alternative baker's yeasts in the modern bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nerve; Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Gamero, Amparo; Compagno, Concetta; Boekhout, Teun; Piškur, Jure; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2017-06-05

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conventional baker's yeast, remains the most domesticated yeast monopolizing the baking industry. Its rapid consumption of sugars and production of CO 2 are the most important attributes required to leaven the dough. New research attempts highlight that these attributes are not unique to S. cerevisiae, but also found in several non-conventional yeast species. A small number of these yeast species with similar properties have been described, but remain poorly studied. They present a vast untapped potential for the use as leavening agents and flavor producers due to their genetic and phylogenetic diversity. We assessed the potential of several non-conventional yeasts as leavening agents and flavor producers in dough-like conditions in the presence of high sugar concentrations and stressful environments mimicking conditions found in flour dough. We tested the capabilities of bread leavening and aroma formation in a microbread platform as well as in a bakery setup. Bread leavened with Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus had better overall results compared to control baker's yeast. In addition, both displayed higher stress tolerance and broader aroma profiles than the control baker's yeast. These attributes are important in bread and other farinaceous products, making K. gamospora and W. subpelliculosus highly applicable as alternative baker's yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kazachstania gamospora and Wickerhamomyces subpelliculosus : Two alternative baker's yeasts in the modern bakery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Nerve; Judith Schifferdecker, Anna; Gamero Lluna, Amparo; Compagno, Concetta; Boekhout, Teun; Piškur, Jure; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the conventional baker's yeast, remains the most domesticated yeast monopolizing the baking industry. Its rapid consumption of sugars and production of CO2 are the most important attributes required to leaven the dough. New research attempts highlight that these attributes

  14. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  15. On a parametrization of Baker-Campbell-Hausdorf formula for bosonic superfields in Lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabeskiria, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A compact form for the Baker-Cambell-Hausdorf formula has been obtained. Here the dependence of bosonic superfields, with their values on the Crassmann hull G(LAMBDA 2 ) of Lie algebra G, on the generators LAMBDA 2 has been factorized as a single exponent

  16. Electronically Transmitted Threats and Higher Education: Oppression, Free Speech, and Jake Baker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jared C.

    2013-01-01

    When Jake Baker wrote a violent, sexually themed story about one of his classmates and emailed it to a friend, the case that ensued highlighted how new technologies have created fresh ways for students to harass, oppress, or be oppressed by others. This article examines concepts of violence and cultural imperialism oppression, primarily as defined…

  17. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary to address the inadequacies identified by the court...

  18. Reconstructing streamflow variation of the Baker River from tree-rings in Northern Patagonia since 1765

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Antonio; Bahamondez, Alejandra; González-Reyes, Alvaro; Muñoz, Ariel A.; Cuq, Emilio; Ruiz-Gómez, Carolina

    2015-10-01

    The understanding of the long-term variation of large rivers streamflow with a high economic and social relevance is necessary in order to improve the planning and management of water resources in different regions of the world. The Baker River has the highest mean discharge of those draining both slopes of the Andes South of 20°S and it is among the six rivers with the highest mean streamflow in the Pacific domain of South America (1100 m3 s-1 at its outlet). It drains an international basin of 29,000 km2 shared by Chile and Argentina and has a high ecologic and economic value including conservation, tourism, recreational fishing, and projected hydropower. This study reconstructs the austral summer - early fall (January-April) streamflow for the Baker River from Nothofagus pumilio tree-rings for the period 1765-2004. Summer streamflow represents 45.2% of the annual discharge. The regression model for the period (1961-2004) explains 54% of the variance of the Baker River streamflow (R2adj = 0.54). The most significant temporal pattern in the record is the sustained decline since the 1980s (τ = -0.633, p = 1.0144 ∗ 10-5 for the 1985-2004 period), which is unprecedented since 1765. The Correlation of the Baker streamflow with the November-April observed Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is significant (1961-2004, r = -0.55, p < 0.001). The Baker record is also correlated with the available SAM tree-ring reconstruction based on other species when both series are filtered with a 25-year spline and detrended (1765-2004, r = -0.41, p < 0.01), emphasizing SAM as the main climatic forcing of the Baker streamflow. Three of the five summers with the highest streamflow in the entire reconstructed record occurred after the 1950s (1977, 1958 and 1959). The causes of this high streamflow events are not yet clear and cannot be associated with the reported recent increase in the frequency of glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The decreasing trend in the observed and reconstructed

  19. Some contrasting biostratigraphic links between the Baker and Olds Ferry Terranes, eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestell, Merlynd K.; Blome, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    New stratigraphic and paleontologic data indicate that ophiolitic melange windows in the Olds Ferry terrane of eastern Oregon contain limestone blocks and chert that are somewhat different in age than those present in the adjacent Baker terrane melange. The melange windows in the Olds Ferry terrane occur as inliers in the flyschoid Early and Middle Jurassic age Weatherby Formation, which depositionally overlies the contact between the melange-rich Devonian to Upper Triassic rocks of the Baker terrane on the north, and Upper Triassic and Early Jurassic volcanic arc rocks of the Huntington Formation on the south. The Baker terrane and Huntington Formation represent fragments of a subduction complex and related volcanic island arc, whereas the Weatherby Formation consists of forearc basin sedimentary deposits. The tectonic blocks in the melange windows of the Weatherby Formation (in the Olds Ferry terrane) are dated by scarce biostratigraphic evidence as Upper Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian and Upper Triassic. In contrast, tectonic blocks of limestone in theBaker terrane yield mostly fusulinids and small foraminifers of Middle Pennsylvanian Moscovian age at one locality.Middle Permian (Guadalupian) Tethyan fusulinids and smaller foraminifers (neoschwagerinids and other Middle Permian genera) are present at a few other localities. Late Triassic conodonts and bryozoans are also present in a few of the Baker terrane tectonic blocks. These limestone blocks are generally embedded in Permian and Triassic radiolarian bearing chert or argillite. Based on conodont, radiolarian and fusulinid data, the age limits of the meange blocks in the Weatherby Formation range from Pennsylvanian to Late Triassic.

  20. Union Directions - Army Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-06

    reflects the long-held belief in the Army that employee participation in decisions that affect their worklife is healthy and desirable. Although some...pluralistic society, checks and balances are as important for the economy as for the government. Business executives who salivate at the thought of vanishing...Unions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1976. 37. National Federation of Federal Employees. NFFE’s Guide to Quality of Worklife Programs. No. G-21

  1. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  2. Allergy in bakers' apprentices and factors associated to non-participation in a cohort study of allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Tina; Nielsen, Sven C; Adolf, Katja

    2006-01-01

    Objective  To describe the prevalence of atopy and respiratory symptoms among baker apprentices at the start of the education and factors associated with non-participation in the study. Methods  A total of 346 students, 22.1(0.6) years of age, mean (SD), from the food production programme...... of atopy in bakers' apprentices was of the same magnitude in the general Danish population. Significantly, more male bakers' apprentices had atopy. This finding has major impact on the diagnostic procedures of occupational allergy in bakery workers emphasizing the need for standardization of the clinical...

  3. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  4. An enquiry into the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors among Hamadan-based bakers in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motamedzade Torghabeh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders of the knees, the middle and lower back, shoulders and wrists are of a high prevalence among bakers of traditional bread. Therefore, both engineering and management interventions are recommended to eliminate musculoskeletal disorders.

  5. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Isand Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom coverage...

  6. Racial science in social context: John R. Baker on eugenics, race, and the public role of the scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Michael G

    2004-09-01

    In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole.

  7. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  9. Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Pérez, Ana G; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Rincón, Ana María

    2014-06-16

    2-Phenylethanol (PEA), an important alcohol derived from phenylalanine, is involved in aroma and flavour of bakers' products. Four spontaneous mutants of an industrial bakers' yeast, V1 strain, were isolated for their resistance to p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine (PFP), a toxic analogue of L-phenylalanine. Mutants overproduced this amino acid and showed variations in their internal pool for several other amino acids. Moreover, a rise in PEA production after growth in industrial medium (MAB) was observed in three of the mutants, although their growth and fermentative capacities were slightly impaired. However, concentration of PEA remained higher during dough fermentation and also after baking, thus improving taste and aroma in bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Topics in noncommutative algebra the theorem of Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff and Dynkin

    CERN Document Server

    Bonfiglioli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the importance of the Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff, Dynkin Theorem in many different branches of Mathematics and Physics (Lie group-Lie algebra theory, linear PDEs, Quantum and Statistical Mechanics, Numerical Analysis, Theoretical Physics, Control Theory, sub-Riemannian Geometry), this monograph is intended to: 1) fully enable readers (graduates or specialists, mathematicians, physicists or applied scientists, acquainted with Algebra or not) to understand and apply the statements and numerous corollaries of the main result; 2) provide a wide spectrum of proofs from the modern literature, comparing different techniques and furnishing a unifying point of view and notation; 3) provide a thorough historical background of the results, together with unknown facts about the effective early contributions by Schur, Poincaré, Pascal, Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff and Dynkin; 4) give an outlook on the applications, especially in Differential Geometry (Lie group theory) and Analysis (PDEs of subelliptic type); ...

  11. Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975-March 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Meier, Mark Frederick; Swanson, Donald A.; with contributions by Babcock, James W.; Fretwell, Marvin O.; Malone, Stephen D.; Rosenfeld, Charles L.; Shreve, Ronald L.; Wilcox, Ray E.

    1977-01-01

    In March 1975 Mount Baker showed a large increase in thermal emission, which has persisted for more than 1 year. Fumarole ejecta accompanied the thermal activity from March to September, but the ejecta had no constituents that suggest a magmatic source. Estimates of that part of the total heat flux that would account for the observed snow and ice loss show that the heat-flow increase was roughly one order of magnitude, from about 2 megawatts at 10 watts per square meter, averaged over Sherman Crater before 1975, to about 30 megawatts at 180 watts per square meter, during 1975. Almost half of the glacier that occupied the basin of Sherman Crater was melted in 1975. The new activity generated great concern among the public and the government agencies responsible for geological evaluation of potential hazards and for protection of life and property. The past geologic history, current topography, rock alteration, and location of major fumarolic activity indicate that large rock avalanches and mudflows on the east slope in Boulder Creek valley are the potential hazards of most significance related to present conditions. The most probable types of large mass movements would be mudflows, having speeds of as much as 50 kilometers per hour, that would originate from mixtures of snow, ice, and melt water and avalanches of structurally weak clay-rich rocks that make up the rim of Sherman Crater. Similar mudflows from the volcano have traveled at least 12 kilometers 8 times during the past 10,000 years. A possible worst case event, however, might be a larger, air-cushioned avalanche of as much as 20 to 30 million cubic meters that could hit Baker Lake at speeds of more than 300 kilometers per hour and generate a wave of water large enough to overtop Upper Baker Dam. At least 30 million cubic meters of potentially unstable material occurs as hydrothermally altered remnants of the rim of Sherman Crater and could provide the required volume for the estimated worst case event or

  12. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  13. Uranium uptake by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) - development of a biological ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, T.; Schoening, K.U.

    1991-01-01

    The use of micro-organisms for decontamination of, and heavy metal recovery from industrial waste water is a modern, low-cost, and environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional chemical and physical methods. The uptake of uranium by baker's yeast is investigated under the aspect of application in biotechnology. A novel, regenerable biological ion exchanger was produced by immobilisation of the yeast in agar gel. (orig.) [de

  14. Furoquinoline Alkaloids and Methoxyflavones from the Stem Bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent E. Rasamison

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melicope madagascariensis (Rutaceae is an endemic plant species of Madagascar that was first classified as a member of the genus Euodia J. R. & G. Forst (Rutaceae under the scientific name Euodia madagascariensis Baker. Based on morphological characteristics, Thomas Gordon Hartley taxonomically revised E. madagascariensis Baker to be M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley. Chemotaxonomical studies have long been used to help the identification and confirmation of taxonomical classification of plant species and botanicals. Aiming to find more evidences to support the taxonomical revision performed on E. madagascariensis, we carried out phytochemical investigation of two samples of the plant. Fractionation of the ethanol extracts prepared from two stem bark samples of M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley led to the isolation of seven known furoquinoline alkaloids 1–7 and two known methoxyflavones 8 and 9. The presence of furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones in the title species is in agreement with its taxonomic transfer from Euodia to Melicope. Antiprotozoal evaluation of the isolated compounds showed that 6-methoxy-7-hydroxydictamnine (heliparvifoline, 3 showed weak antimalarial activity (IC50 = 35 µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Skimmianine (4 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 1.5 µM against HT-29 colon cancer cell line whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (9 was weakly active in the same assay (IC50 = 13.9 µM. Graphical Abstract

  15. A new term in the recursive expansion of the inverse Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, A.

    1984-01-01

    A recursive algorithm is derived, allowing the expansion in lambda of z=exp(x+lambda y) for noncommuting x and y, written as ordered product of exponentials. Such an expansion is the inverse of the usual Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. The explicit form of the terms, up to third order in lambda is also given. The same method provides the explicit expansion to any order for the matrix elements of z

  16. Lung cancer risk among bakers, pastry cooks and confectionary makers: the SYNERGY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Thomas; Kendzia, Benjamin; Treppmann, Tabea; Olsson, Ann; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Gustavsson, Per; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Hans-Erich; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Tardón, Adonina; Field, John; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Elise; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Benhamou, Simone; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Consonni, Dario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Plato, Nils; Boffetta, Paolo; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Some studies have suggested increased lung cancer risks among bakers, however the results overall were inconsistent. The authors studied lung cancer risks among bakers and baking-related occupations in the SYNERGY pooled case-control database from 16 countries. Occupation in a baking-related job was identified from the subjects' job histories. ORs adjusted for log(age), study centre, smoking behaviour and ever employment in a job with known exposure to occupational lung carcinogens were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. Findings were stratified by sex, histological subtype of lung cancer and smoking status. 19 366 cases (15 606 men) and 23 670 control subjects (18 528 men) were included. 473 cases (415 men, 58 women) and 501 controls (437 men, 64 women) had ever worked in baking or a related job. We did not observe an increased risk for men in baking (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.18). No linear trends were observed for duration of employment. Some results suggested increased lung cancer risks for women, for example, for working as a baker for >30 years and in never-smokers, but after exclusion of one study these increased risks disappeared. The findings from this study do not suggest increased lung cancer risks in baking-related professions.

  17. Looking for immunotolerance: a case of allergy to baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, G B; Passalacqua, G; Salpietro, C; Vita, D; Caminiti, L; Barberio, G

    2005-09-01

    We describe one case of baker's yeast true allergy in a boy with previously diagnosed mite-allergy and atopic dermatitis. At the age of 6, being atopic dermatitis and rhinitis well controlled by drugs, he began to experience generalized urticaria and asthma after eating pizza and bread, but only fresh from the oven. The diagnostic workup revealed single sensitization to baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and a severe systemic reaction also occurred during the prick-by-prick procedure. After discussing with parents, no special dietary restriction was suggested but the use of autoinjectable adrenaline and on demand salbutamol. A diary of symptoms was recorded by means of a visual-analog scale. During the subsequent 2 years, the severity of symptoms was progressively reduced, and presently urticaria has disappeared. Only cough persists, invariantly after eating just-baked and yeast-containing foods. If bread, pizza and cakes are ate more than one hour after preparation, no symptom occur at all. Baker's yeast is a common component of everyday diet and it usually acts as an allergen only by the inhalatory route. We speculate that the continuous exposure to saccharomyces in foods may have lead to an immunotolerance with a progressive reduction of symptoms, whereas why the allergens is active only in ready-baked foods remains unexplained.

  18. Selection and Characterization of Potential Baker's Yeast from Indigenous Resources of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Tika B; Timilsina, Parash Mani; Yadav, Archana; Pandey, Gyanu Raj; Joshi, Yogesh; Bhujel, Sahansila; Adhikari, Rojina; Neupane, Katyayanee

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to isolate the yeast strains that could be used effectively as baker's yeast and compare them with the commercial baker's yeast available in the market of Nepal. A total of 10 samples including locally available sources like fruits, Murcha, and a local tree "Dar" were collected from different localities of Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Syangja districts of Nepal, respectively. Following enrichment and fermentation of the samples, 26 yeast strains were isolated using selective medium Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar. From the differential tests which included morphological and microscopic observation and physiological and biochemical characterization such as nitrate reduction and lactose utilization tests, 8 strains were selected as possible Saccharomyces strain. The selected strains were further assessed for their efficient leavening ability by tests such as ethanol tolerance, osmotolerance, invertase test, and stress exclusion test. The three most potent strains ENG, MUR3B, and SUG1 isolated from grape, Murcha, and sugarcane, respectively, were used in the fermentation and baking of dough. These strains also carried a possibility of being used as industrial baker's yeast.

  19. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  20. Development of intra-strain self-cloning procedure for breeding baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Youji; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Chisato; Yamamura, Hideki; Iimura, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Previously reported self-cloning procedures for breeding of industrial yeast strains require DNA from other strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis. Therefore, we aimed to construct a self-cloning baker's yeast strain that exhibits freeze tolerance via an improved self-cloning procedure. We first disrupted the URA3 gene of a prototrophic baker's yeast strain without the use of any marker gene, resulting in a Δura3 homozygous disruptant. Then, the URA3 gene of the parental baker's yeast strain was used as a selection marker to introduce the constitutive TDH3 promoter upstream of the PDE2 gene encoding high-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. This self-cloning procedure was performed without using DNA from other Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, plasmid DNA, or mutagenesis and was therefore designated an intra-strain self-cloning procedure. Using this self-cloning procedure, we succeeded in producing self-cloning baker's yeast strains that harbor the TDH3p-PDE2 gene heterozygously and homozygously, designated TDH3p-PDE2 hetero and TDH3p-PDE2 homo strains, respectively. These self-cloning strains expressed much higher levels of PDE2 mRNA than the parental strain and exhibited higher viability after freeze stress, as well as higher fermentation ability in frozen dough, when compared with the parental strain. The TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain was genetically more stable than the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain. These results indicate that both heterozygous and homozygous strains of self-cloning PDE2-overexpressing freeze-tolerant strains of industrial baker's yeast can be prepared using the intra-strain self-cloning procedure, and, from a practical viewpoint, the TDH3p-PDE2 homo strain constructed in this study is preferable to the TDH3p-PDE2 hetero strain for frozen dough baking. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  2. Is Union Job Dissatisfaction Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…

  3. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a ...

  4. Toward a More Perfect Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  5. The Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Beeeker, Etienne; Hossie, Gaelle; Bettzuege, Marc Oliver; Helm, Dieter; Roques, Fabien

    2015-08-01

    A synthesis of contributions is firstly proposed in this collective publication. In this synthesis, the authors describes the crisis faced by European energy (economic crisis, closure of some thermal power plants due to a lack of profitability, increase of electricity prices, low CO 2 quota prices resulting in a greater use of coal, an ageing refinery system, dependence on the Russian gas for some countries), identify four principles which could be used as guidelines for the European policy (responsibility, solidarity, economic rationality, resilience), define seven recommendations as objectives of a European energy policy. Then, the contributions address the following topics: security of electricity supply, security of European Union's gas supply called into question again, reforming the ETS market to strengthen the credibility of the European climate policy, a necessary evolution of the European energy and climate policy, the issue of a definition of a European energy policy as a dogma or a strategy, the challenge for building up a sustainable and consistent European energy and climate policy

  6. The State of the Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue of Angles marks the three hundredth anniversary of the Union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and England. The nature and development of the relations between the constituent parts of the United Kingdom is a fascinating topic also to outside observers, and some of the contributi...... of the contributions to this volume deal with the Union in a comparative European context. Both Scottish nationalism and Scottish unionism are analysed, and Anglo-Scottish relations are looked at from historical, sociological, linguistic and literary angles...

  7. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic surveys at Mounts Adams, Baker and Rainier, Washington: implications for debris flow hazards and volcano hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    High‐resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data flown over the rugged, ice‐covered Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Rainier volcanoes (Washington), reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water‐saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields. The EM data identified water‐saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100–200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<800 ohm‐m) ground for the main ice cap on Mt. Adams and over most of the summit of Mt. Baker. The modeled distribution of alteration, pore fluids and partial ice volumes on the volcanoes helps identify likely sources for future alteration‐related debris flows, including the Sunset Amphitheater region at Mt. Rainier, steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams and eastern flanks of Mt. Baker.

  8. Quantum Physics: A Revolution? On Jean-Pierre Pharabod and Gerard Klein's 'Heurs et malheurs de la physique quantique' ('Joys and Woes of Quantum Physics')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, Pierre; Forestier, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Pierre Papon provides an analysis here of Jean-Pierre Pharabod and Gerard Klein's book Heurs et malheurs de la physique quantique [Joys and Woes of Quantum Physics] while, at the same time, giving us a remarkably clear and informative text on developments in quantum physics, telling us what it is, how it overturns hitherto dominant conceptions in physics and our ideas about the universe, and how it may lead to important technological change in the future. Though his text may seem tough going to those of our readers with no scientific back ground, it provides a wealth of information, including for those concerned with forecasting and foresight studies. They will discover how, in the absence of absolute determinism, any simulation of the future of systems, including in the hard sciences, involves a degree of randomness and uncertainty, and they will find how far we really are from simple causal relations of the kind that econometric models often rely upon. Papon's review explains how quantum physics throws the laws of classical physics into question, while setting out the 'incredible truths' it reveals, which may be a source of major scientific and technical developments in years to come

  9. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.

    1991-01-01

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  10. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  11. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  12. Public Sector Unions and Privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...

  13. Active site - a site of binding of affinity inhibitors in baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyato, I.E.; Sklyankina, V.A.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of the enzyme-substrate complex with methyl phosphate, O-phosphoethanolamine, O-phosphopropanolamine, N-acetylphosphoserine, and phosphoglyolic acid, as well as pyrophosphatase, modified by monoesters of phosphoric acid, with pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate, was investigated. It was shown that the enzyme containing the substrate in the active site does not react with monophosphates, but modified pyrophosphatase entirely retains the ability to bind polyanions to the regulatory site. It is concluded that the inactivation of baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase by monoesters of phosphoric acid, which are affinity inhibitors of it, is the result of modification of the active site of the enzyme

  14. Brexit and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2018-01-01

    When on 23 June 2016 a majority voted in favour of the United Kingdom (UK) leaving the European Union (EU), it generated a host of unknowns. Prior to the referendum, scholars had already started to anticipate the implications of a potential Brexit from different perspectives, including considering...... lie and suggesting where Britain’s exit will leave the greatest strategic vacuums. The subsequent analysis centres on the actors that will likely win and lose from the UK’s exit from the Union....

  15. Coordination in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of current conflict within the EU and the EMU. The topics discussed include the recent ECB policy of bond buying (the OMT policy), the attempts to advance the "European Project" of stronger political union (the fiscal compact, the banking union, and the proposals for budget supervision). Contrary to the claims of the European leadership, the progress that has been made has been by individual countries and not by coordinated action. The special problems of Franc...

  16. Why do people join trade unions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    level on union recruitment, which is not done before. Workplace union density is taken to measure the strength of the workplace’s custom of being union member creating an instrumental incentive to join the union. Self-placement on a political left-right scale measures political attitude taken...

  17. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-09-13

    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. [Respiratory allergies among symptomatic bakers and pastry cooks: initial results of a prevalence study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, A; Anton, M; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey was carried out on respiratory symptoms and skin prick response to common allergens, storage mite and occupational allergens. Among 178 symptomatics bakers and pastry workers from small businesses in western France, only 65 people underwent skin prick and specific-IgE. 12 (18%) workers were skin positive to at least one common or occupational allergens. The more often skin positive were D. Ptero. mite 36 (57%); Alpha amylase 23 (35%); wheat flour 17 (26%); saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 (25%); Ephestia 15 (24%). The sensitivity of skin test was better than specific IgE for D. Ptero. Mite 36 (57%); and Alpha amylase 23 (35%). The sensitivity of specific IgE was better than skin test for wheat flour 26 (45%) and rye flour 23 (40%). Occurrence of skin positive to occupational allergen among symptomatics with rhinitis and asthma is much more frequent in workers with skin positive to common allergens (40/36) than in workers with skin negative (8/20). Atopy must be regarded as an important predisposing factor for skin sensitisation to occupational allergens. We conclude in the necessity of a standardised allergologic exploration to be done in symptomatics bakers.

  19. Quality parameters and RAPD-PCR differentiation of commercial baker's yeast and hybrid strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiky, Zaki A; Hassan, Gamal M; Emam, Ahmed M

    2012-06-01

    Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a key component in bread baking. Total of 12 commercial baker's yeast and 2 hybrid strains were compared using traditional quality parameters. Total of 5 strains with high leavening power and the 2 hybrid strains were selected and evaluated for their alpha-amylase, maltase, glucoamylase enzymes, and compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results revealed that all selected yeast strains have a low level of alpha-amylase and a high level of maltase and glucoamylase enzymes. Meanwhile, the Egyptian yeast strain (EY) had the highest content of alpha-amylase and maltase enzymes followed by the hybrid YH strain. The EY and YH strains have the highest content of glucoamylase enzyme almost with the same level. The RAPD banding patterns showed a wide variation among commercial yeast and hybrid strains. The closely related Egyptian yeast strains (EY and AL) demonstrated close similarity of their genotypes. The 2 hybrid strains were clustered to Turkish and European strains in 1 group. The authors conclude that the identification of strains and hybrids using RAPD technique was useful in determining their genetic relationship. These results can be useful not only for the basic research, but also for the quality control in baking factories. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. A novel image encryption scheme based on the ergodicity of baker map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ruisong; Chen, Yonghong

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the exceptionally good properties in chaotic systems, such as sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters, pseudo-randomness and ergodicity, chaos-based image encryption algorithms have been widely studied and developed in recent years. A novel digital image encryption scheme based on the chaotic ergodicity of Baker map is proposed in this paper. Different from traditional encryption schemes based on Baker map, we permute the pixel positions by their corresponding order numbers deriving from the approximating points in one chaotic orbit. To enhance the resistance to statistical and differential attacks, a diffusion process is suggested as well in the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme enlarges the key space significantly to resist brute-force attack. Additionally, the distribution of gray values in the cipher-image has a random-like behavior to resist statistical analysis. The proposed scheme is robust against cropping, tampering and noising attacks as well. It therefore suggests a high secure and efficient way for real-time image encryption and transmission in practice.

  1. Magma at depth: A retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Juliet G.; Frank, David; Malone, Stephen D.; Poland, Michael P.; Werner, Cynthia; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Mount Baker volcano displayed a short interval of seismically-quiescent thermal unrest in 1975, with high emissions of magmatic gas that slowly waned during the following three decades. The area of snow-free ground in the active crater has not returned to pre-unrest levels, and fumarole gas geochemistry shows a decreasing magmatic signature over that same interval. A relative microgravity survey revealed a substantial gravity increase in the ~30 years since the unrest, while deformation measurements suggest slight deflation of the edifice between 1981-83 and 2006-07. The volcano remains seismically quiet with regard to impulsive volcano-tectonic events, but experiences shallow (10 km) long-period earthquakes. Reviewing the observations from the 1975 unrest in combination with geophysical and geochemical data collected in the decades that followed, we infer that elevated gas and thermal emissions at Mount Baker in 1975 resulted from magmatic activity beneath the volcano: either the emplacement of magma at mid-crustal levels, or opening of a conduit to a deep existing source of magmatic volatiles. Decadal-timescale, multi-parameter observations were essential to this assessment of magmatic activity.

  2. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  3. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden......UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...

  4. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  5. 75 FR 65263 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...'' or ``Act'') as ``an inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, except for an establishment located... interpretive rule to interpret ``public accommodations facility'' in the VGB Act as ``an inn, hotel, motel, or... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

  6. ERGONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF THE EFFECT OF FLOUR DUST ON PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE OF BAKERS IN ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Ibrahim MUSA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flour dusts are one of the most harmful chemicals in the bakery industries which could lead to serious heart and lung diseases. This study investigated the effect of flour dust on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate of male bakers in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria with the relationship to the anthropometrical parameters. A total of One hundred Eighty (180 male participants were investigated, where ninety (90 participants were bakers and ninety (90 individuals as control group. The Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and anthropometrical parameters of the participant were measured using mini-Wright peak flow meter (PFM 20, OMRON and Detecto PD300MDHR (Cardinal Scale manufacturing company, USA column scale with digital height rod was used to measure body mass [kg] and height (cm respectively. The PEFR and anthropometrical parameters of the bakers and control groups were analysed using descriptive statistics and T-test with SPSS. The results showed that lower PEFR, 182.67 ± 16.34 L/min existed in bakers compared to 287.67 ± 17.02 L/min in the control study. The result also showed that a significant correlation exist between body mass, height and age (P < 0.01, PEFR, height (P < 0.05 and years of exposure (P < 0.01 of the bakers respectively. Furthermore, the results also showed that workers in the dusting and mixing of flour are at a risk of developing related pulmonary function impairment such as asthma. The study concluded that there is need to develop an effective intervention strategy, treatment seeking behaviour through awareness programs to prevent lung impairment diseases among the bakery workers.

  7. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-performance mesoporous LiFePO₄ from Baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Xueguang; He, Wen; Sun, Caiyun; Ma, Jingyun; Yuan, Junling; Du, Xiaoyong

    2013-03-01

    Based on the biomineralization assembly concept, a simple and inexpensive biomimetic sol-gel method is found to synthesize high-performance mesoporous LiFePO(4) (HPM-LFP). The key step of this approach is to apply Baker's yeast cells as both a structural template and a biocarbon source. The formation mechanism of ordered hierarchical mesoporous network structure is revealed by characterizing its morphology and microstructure. The HPM-LFP exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances. The HPM-LFP has a high discharge capacity (about 153 mAh g(-1) at a 0.1 C rate), only 2% capacity loss from the initial value after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 C. This simple and potentially universal design strategy is currently being pursued in the synthesis of an ideal cathode-active material for high power applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The interaction of uranyl ions with inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienwald, B.; Heitmann, P.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of uranyl ions with inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast was investigated by measurement of their effect on the protein fluorescence. Fluorescence titrations of the native enzyme with uranyl nitrate show that there is a specific binding of uranyl ions to the enzyme. It was deduced that each subunit of the enzyme binds one uranyl ion. The binding constant was estimated to be in the order of 10 7 M -1 . The enzyme which contains a small number of chemically modified carboxyl groups was not able to bind uranyl ions specifically. The modification of carboxyl groups was carried out by use of a water soluble carbodiimide and the nucleophilic reagent N-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl)-hexamethylenediamine. The substrate analogue calcium pyrophosphate displaced the uranyl ions from their binding sites at the enzyme From the results it is concluded that carboxyl groups of the active site are the ligands for the binding of uranyl ions. (author)

  10. I Teoremi di Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff e Dynkin. Storia, Prove, Problemi Aperti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonfiglioli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this lecture is to provide an overview of facts and references about past and recent results on the Theorem of Campbell, Baker, Hausdorff and Dynkin (shortcut as the CBHD Theorem, following the recent preprint monograph [13]. In particular, we shall give sketches of the following facts: A historical précis of the early proofs (see also [1]; the statement of the CBHD Theorem as usually given in Algebra and that employed in the Analysis of linear PDE's; a review of proofs of the CBHD Theorem (as given by: Bourbaki; Hausdorff; Dynkin; Varadarajan together with a unifying demonstrational approach; an application to the Third Theorem of Lie (in local form. Some new results will be also commented: The intertwinement of the CBHD Theorem with the Theorem of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt and with the free Lie algebras (see [12]; recent results on optimal domains of convergence.

  11. Gordon Baker, Wittgensteinian Philosophical Conceptions and Perspicuous Representation: the Possibility of Multidimensional Logical Descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskari Kuusela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Gordon Baker’s interpretation of the later Wittgenstein, in particular his interpretation of the notion of Wittgensteinian philosophical conceptions (Auffassungen and the notions of non-exclusivity, local incompatibility, non-additivity and global pluralism which Baker uses to characterize Wittgensteinian conceptions. On the basis of this discussion, and a critique of certain features of Baker’s interpretation of Wittgensteinian conceptions, I introduce the notion of a multidimensional logical description of language use, explaining how this notion, which Baker’s interpretation excludes, constitutes and important element of the later Wittgenstein’s philosophical method of clarification and perspicuous representation. I conclude by explaining how Baker’s problematic notions of local incompatibility and non-additivity, if they are seen in the light of Wittgenstein’s criticisms of certain views of the completeness of philosophical or logical accounts, nevertheless point in the right direction.

  12. Painful swollen leg – think beyond deep vein thrombosis or Baker's cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Vinayagam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis of leg is very common in clinical practice. Not infrequently a range of pathologies are diagnosed after excluding a thrombosis, often after a period of anticoagulation. Case presentation This is a report of three patients who presented with a painful swollen leg and were initially treated as a deep vein thrombosis or a baker's cyst, but later diagnosed as a pleomorphic sarcoma, a malignant giant cell tumor of the muscle and a myxoid liposarcoma. A brief review of such similar reports and the relevant literature is presented. Conclusion A painful swollen leg is a common clinical scenario and though rare, tumors must be thought of without any delay, in a duplex negative, low risk deep vein thrombosis situation.

  13. TOWARDS THE CAPITAL MARKET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian PANAIT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main characteristics of the proposed Capital Markets Union in Europe, as they are introduced by the European Commission and various authors, and emphasises some important advantages and disadvantages of this project for the developing and frontier markets in UE, especially for Romania.

  14. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The ambition of this paper is to analyze the discursive practices of three Danish trade unions for professional and managerial staff (The Danish Society of Engineers, The Association of Lawyers and Economists, and The Danish Association of Masters and PhD’s) as found in their strategy and positio...

  15. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  16. On Union-Based Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Linda

    1982-01-01

    A course combining English in the workplace, information seeking and job application skills, occupational safety, and other workplace skills conducted by a community college and a major industrial union is described. The very successful program will be continued and developed based on the initial experience. (MSE)

  17. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  18. Post-fermentative production of glutathione by baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) in compressed and dried forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatti, Alida; Manzoni, Matilde; Rollini, Manuela

    2013-01-25

    The study was aimed at investigating the best biotransformation conditions to increase intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in samples of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) employing either the commercially available compressed and dried forms. Glucose, GSH precursors amino acids, as well as other cofactors, were dissolved in a biotransformation solution and yeast cells were added (5%dcw). Two response surface central composite designs (RSCCDs) were performed in sequence: in the first step the influence of amino acid composition (cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and serine) on GSH accumulation was investigated; once their formulation was set up, the influence of other components was studied. Initial GSH content was found 0.53 and 0.47%dcw for compressed and dried forms. GSH accumulation ability of baker's yeast in compressed form was higher at the beginning of shelf life, that is, in the first week, and a maximum of 2.04%dcw was obtained. Performance of yeast in dried form was not found satisfactory, as the maximum GSH level was 1.18%dcw. When cysteine lacks from the reaction solution, yeast cells do not accumulate GSH. With dried yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine was set at 3 g/L, glycine and glutamic acid at least at 4 g/L, without serine. Employing compressed yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine and glutamic acid were set at 2-3 g/L, while glycine and serine higher than 2 g/L. Results allowed to set up an optimal and feasible procedure to obtain GSH-enriched yeast biomass, with up to threefold increase with respect to initial content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Uranium geology of the eastern Baker Lake basin, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Proterozoic sequences associated with major unconformities are potential uranium metallogenic provinces. Late Aphebian to Paleohelikian Dubawnt Group contintental clastic sedimentary and subaerial alkaline volcanic rocks and underlying Archean gneisses, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories, represent one such uraniferous metallogenic province. Three types of uranium mineralization are present in the eastern Baker Lake basin, which extends from Christopher Island at the eastern end of Baker Lake southwestwards to the western limit of Thirty Mile Lake. The three uranium associations are: 1) fracture controlled mineralization in the Dubawnt Group and basement gneisses (U-Cu-Ag-Au-Se or U-Cu-Pb-Mo-Zn), 2)diatreme breccia mineralization in basement gneisses (U-Cu-Zn), and 3) impregnation and microfracture mineralization in altered arkose peripheral to lamprophyre dykes(U-Cu-Ag). Hydrothermal fracture related mineralization is controlled by northwest- and east-northeast-trending fault-fracture zones. Diatreme breccia mineralization results from the channelling of groundwaters through highly permeable brecciated gneiss. Mineralization within the altered Kazan arkose peripheral to alkaline dyke complexes formed by a two stage process. Iron and copper sulphides and silver were deposited within the outer portions of the thermal aureole in response to a temperature and Eh gradient across a convective cell created by the thermal anomaly of the dyke complex. The epigenetic sulphide mineralization subsequently provided the reducing environment for precipitation of uranium from groundwater. All three uranium associations show a close spatial distribution to the basal Dubawnt unconformity. The lithological and structural relationships of the Dubawnt Group rocks, types of mineralization and associated alteration assemblages are strikingly similar to the Beaverlodge district, Saskatchewan. (author)

  20. Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Group Credit Unions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) to diversify, credit unions now have the opportunity to market their services to specific employee groups or industries which can reduce the overall risk to the credit unions' health or solvency...

  1. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Lisa A.; Kruse, Douglas L.

    1992-01-01

    A 1984 survey of 250 union members (86 women and 164 men) showed that most women, especially those in private sector white collar jobs, were interested in joining unions but face barriers such as family responsibilities. (SK)

  2. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  3. Students Union, University Administration and Political Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students Union, University Administration and Political Development of Nations. ... African Research Review ... resting on the reciprocal determinism of the social learning theory, that students union makes university administration smooth.

  4. Unions and the Economic Basis of Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Michael; Bryson, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Unions make differences to employee satisfaction that correspond to their effects on individual economic advantage. Panel data reveal how changes in economic circumstance and changes in job satisfaction are linked to changes in union coverage. When individuals move into a union covered job they receive a wage mark-up and express enhanced pay satisfaction. Conversely, those moving from a union covered job on average lose any mark-up and have significantly reduced satisfaction. Similar findings...

  5. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  6. The African Union and Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AFRICAN UNION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen Royal Danish Army Colonel Patrick...AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel Flemming Mathiasen TITLE: The African Union and Conflict Management FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 2 March 2006...WORD COUNT: 5850 PAGES: 28 KEY TERMS: African Union, Africa, Conflict Management , Capabilities CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Africa is a continent with a

  7. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  8. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  9. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms......' returns and the riskiness of corporate ownership. To remunerate this higher volatility and stronger risk, firms' equities have to grant high return. This mechanism is able to offer an explanation of for the "equity puzzle", that is it can explain the difference between equity returns and the risk free...... rate. It is a welcome result that the simulated excess return is about the empirical estimate and this result is obtained with a logarithmic specification of the shareholders preferences....

  10. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  11. union publique HR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assur...

  12. Revitalizing the Malaysian Trade Union Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article takes an historic perspective on contemporary issues of trade union revival in Malaysia, focusing on the challenge of raising union density and analysing the process of organizing employees in the strategically important electronics industry. It concludes that the political support...... for transnational corporations in the electronics industry is declining. This strategic shift enables union activists to bypass enterprise and state-based unions and to establish larger, regionally based unions. However, newly organized unions have not yet overcome resistance from global corporations, nor have...... organizations prefer non-partisan engagement. In order to revitalize themselves, the unions must demonstrate to the Malaysian public that they are both relevant and important for increased productivity and that they can play a significant role in enabling Malaysia to move beyond the middle-income ‘trap’ towards...

  13. Social Customs and Trade Union Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Daniel Sparwath

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of social customs on one of the most important instances of collective action, namely, workers uniting in trade unions. Although many studies have used social custom theory to explain unionization, existing studies have not adequately analysed social...... customs at the workplace. Using workplace union density as a proxy for social custom, this analysis improves existing studies in a number of ways. First, multi-level analyses of a large panel data set from Denmark reveal that there is a significant positive effect of workplace union density...... in unionization are required to create self-sustaining social customs for union membership. Thirdly, we test the acceleration using segmented regression analysis and find a significant acceleration around 45–65 per cent workplace union density. In the conclusion, we discuss the implications of our study...

  14. Understanding the Effects of Genotype, Growing Year, and Breeding on Tunisian Durum Wheat Allergenicity. 1. The Baker's Asthma Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Sforza, Stefano; Sayar, Rhouma; Seo, Yong Weon; Mejri, Mondher; Yacoubi, Ines

    2017-07-19

    Baker's asthma is a serious airway disease triggered by wheat protein CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of genotype and crop year on allergen CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor associated with baker's asthma. A historical series of Tunisian durum wheat (100 accessions), derived from three crop years, was used to compare the amount of CM3 from landraces to advanced cultivars. CM3 protein quantification was assessed after an enzymatic cleavage of the soluble protein extracts on a UPLC/ESI-MS system, using a marker peptide for its quantification. Combined data analysis of variance revealed an important effect of genotype, crop year, and their interaction. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to significantly vary among studied genotypes, as confirmed by genetic variability, coefficient of variance, heritability, and genetic advance.

  15. Prevalence of IgE against neuromuscular blocking agents in hairdressers and bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S; Acouetey, D S; Guéant-Rodriguez, R-M; Zmirou-Navier, D; Rémen, T; Blanca, M; Mertes, P M; Guéant, J-L

    2013-11-01

    Allergic IgE-mediated reactions to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the main cause of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in anaesthesia; their predominant occurrence in the absence of previous exposure to NMBAs suggests a risk related to environmental exposure. To investigate the prevalence of specific IgE to quaternary ammonium ions in two populations professionally exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds, in the north-eastern France. The study had a retrospective follow-up design whereby apprentices were assessed after their 2-year training period as apprentices. The professionally exposed hairdresser populations (n = 128) were compared with baker/pastry makers (n = 108) and 'non-exposed' matched control subjects (n = 379). We observed a 4.6-fold higher frequency of positive IgE against quaternary ammonium ions in hairdressers (HD), compared with baker/pastry makers (BP) and control (C) groups. The competitive inhibition of quaternary ammonium Sepharose radioimmunoassay (QAS-IgE RIA) with succinylcholine was significantly higher in HD, compared with BP and C groups, with inhibition percentage of 66.2 ± 7.4, 39.7 ± 6.0 and 43.8 ± 9.9, respectively (P  100 kU/L were the two significant predictors of IgE-sensitization against quaternary ammonium ions in the multivariate analysis of a model that included age, sex, professional exposure, increased concentration of total IgE (IgE > 100 kU/L) and positive IgE against prevalent allergens (Phadiatop(®) ; P = 0.019 and P = 0.001, respectively). The exposure to hairdressing professional occupational factors increases IgE-sensitization to NMBAs and quaternary ammonium ion compounds used in hairdressing. Besides the pholcodine hypothesis, our study suggests that repetitive exposure to quaternary ammonium compounds used in hairdressing is a risk factor for NMBAs sensitization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Geochemical results of a hydrothermally altered area at Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Moye, Falma J.; Theobald, Paul K.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Larsen, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    The area immediately east of Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, is underlain by a thick section of mafic to intermediate lava flows of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. Widespread propylitic alteration surrounds a zone of argillic alteration and an inner core of phyllic alteration. Silicified breccia is present along an east-trending fault within the zone of phyllic alteration. As part of a reconnaissance geochemical survey, soils and plants were sampled. Several species of plants (Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii ], mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana ], and elk sedge [ Carex geyerii ]) were collected from 10 upland localities and stream sediments, panned concentrates, and aquatic mosses were collected from 16 drainage basin localities all of which were generally within the area of alteration. Geochemical results yielded anomalous concentrations of molybenum, zinc, silver, and lead in at least half of the seven different sample media and of gold, thallium, arsenic, antimony, manganese, boron, cadmium, bismuth, copper, and beryllium in from one to four of the various media. Part of this suite of elements? silver, gold, arsenic, antimony, thallium, and manganese? suggests that the mineralization in the area is epithermal. Barite and pyrite (commonly botryoidal-framboidal) are widespread throughout the area sampled. Visible gold and pyromorphite (a secondary lead mineral) were identified in only one small drainage basin, but high levels of gold were detected in aquatic mosses over a larger area. Data from the upland and stream sampling indicate two possible mineralized areas. The first mineralized area was identified by a grab sample from an outcrop of quartz stockwork that contained 50 ppb Au, 1.5 ppm Ag, and 50 ppm Mo. Although the soil and plant species that were sampled in the area indicated mineralized bedrock, the Douglas-fir samples were the best indicators of the silver anomaly. The second possible mineralized area centers on the

  17. Simplifying the Reinsch algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2016-02-01

    The Goldberg version of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series computes the quantity Z ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y ) = ∑ w g ( w ) w ( X , Y ) , where X and Y are not necessarily commuting in terms of "words" constructed from the {X, Y} "alphabet." The so-called Goldberg coefficients g(w) are the central topic of this article. This Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series is a general purpose tool of very wide applicability in mathematical physics, quantum physics, and many other fields. The Reinsch algorithm for the truncated series permits one to calculate the Goldberg coefficients up to some fixed word length |w| by using nilpotent (|w| + 1) × (|w| + 1) matrices. We shall show how to further simplify the Reinsch algorithm, making its implementation (in principle) utterly straightforward using "off the shelf" symbolic manipulation software. Specific computations provide examples which help to provide a deeper understanding of the Goldberg coefficients and their properties. For instance, we shall establish some strict bounds (and some equalities) on the number of non-zero Goldberg coefficients. Unfortunately, we shall see that the number of nonzero Goldberg coefficients often grows very rapidly (in fact exponentially) with the word length |w|. Furthermore, the simplified Reinsch algorithm readily generalizes to many closely related but still quite distinct problems—we shall also present closely related results for the symmetric product S ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X / 2 e Y e X / 2 ) = ∑ w g S ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . Variations on such themes are straightforward. For instance, one can just as easily consider the "loop" product L ( X , Y ) = ln (" separators=" e X e Y e - X e - Y ) = ∑ w g L ( w ) w ( X , Y ) . This "loop" type of series is of interest, for instance, when considering either differential geometric parallel transport around a closed curve, non-Abelian versions of Stokes' theorem, or even Wigner rotation/Thomas precession in special

  18. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unions and the Sword of Justice: Unions and Pay Systems, Pay Inequality, Pay Discrimination and Low Pay

    OpenAIRE

    A Charlwood; K Hansen; David Metcalf

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion in pay is lower among union members than among non-unionists. This reflects two factors. First, union members and jobs are more homogeneous than their non-union counterparts. Second, union wage policies within and across firms lower pay dispersion. Unions'' minimum wage targets also truncate the lower tail of the union distribution. There are two major consequences of these egalitarian union wage policies. First, the return to human capital is lower in firms which recognise unions ...

  20. De novo biosynthesis of vanillin in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Esben H; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R; Bünner, Camilla M; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R; Okkels, Finn T; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-05-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin beta-D-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity.

  1. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2016-10-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical constituents of the essential oil, antioxidant and antibacterial activities from Elettariopsis curtisii Baker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanida Chairgulprasert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Elettariopsis curtisii Baker, the culinary and medicinal herb, was investigated to elucidate its chemical constituents and determine antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The essential oil of E. curtisii was obtained by steam distillation of fresh rhizomes in a maximum yield of 0.63%. GC-MS data indicated the presence of six compounds, of which trans-2-decenal (78.03% was the principal constituent. The essential oils and also the hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the rhizomes and leaves were assessed for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In an evaluation of antioxidant activity, the crude dichloromethane extract of the leaves exhibited the highest scavenging effect on the DPPH radicalwith an EC50 of 0.28+0.01 mg/mL. The leaf dichloromethane extract also had the highest total phenol concentration, (73.4+2.80 mg GA/g of extract whereas the crude methanol extract from the rhizomes had the highest reducing power with an EC50 of 2.07+0.06 mg/mL. In terms of antibacterial activity, the essential oil (distilled from either the leaves or the rhizomesdisplayed the highest inhibitory activity, with the same MID value of 1 mg/disc against 5 strains of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. Treatment of the baker's yeast wastewater by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobya, M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)], E-mail: kobya@gyte.edu.tr; Delipinar, S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In the laboratory-scale experiments, treatment of baker's yeast production wastewater has been investigated by electrocoagulation (EC) using a batch reactor. Effects of the process variables such as pH, electrode material (Fe and Al), current density, and operating time are investigated in terms of removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, and operating cost, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TOC and turbidity under optimal operating conditions, i.e., pH 6.5 for Al electrode and pH 7 for Fe electrode, current density of 70 A/m{sup 2} and operating time of 50 min were 71, 53 and 90% for Al electrode and 69, 52 and 56% for Fe electrode, respectively. Al electrode gave 4.4 times higher removal efficiency of turbidity than Fe electrode due to interference from color of dissolved iron. The operating costs for Al and Fe electrodes in terms of $/m{sup 3} or $/kg COD were 1.54 and 0.82, 0.51 and 0.27, respectively.

  4. An improved, bias-reduced probabilistic functional gene network of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuk Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic functional gene networks are powerful theoretical frameworks for integrating heterogeneous functional genomics and proteomics data into objective models of cellular systems. Such networks provide syntheses of millions of discrete experimental observations, spanning DNA microarray experiments, physical protein interactions, genetic interactions, and comparative genomics; the resulting networks can then be easily applied to generate testable hypotheses regarding specific gene functions and associations.We report a significantly improved version (v. 2 of a probabilistic functional gene network of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe our optimization methods and illustrate their effects in three major areas: the reduction of functional bias in network training reference sets, the application of a probabilistic model for calculating confidences in pair-wise protein physical or genetic interactions, and the introduction of simple thresholds that eliminate many false positive mRNA co-expression relationships. Using the network, we predict and experimentally verify the function of the yeast RNA binding protein Puf6 in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis.YeastNet v. 2, constructed using these optimizations together with additional data, shows significant reduction in bias and improvements in precision and recall, in total covering 102,803 linkages among 5,483 yeast proteins (95% of the validated proteome. YeastNet is available from http://www.yeastnet.org.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

    2010-05-17

    Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sugar utilization patterns and respiro-fermentative metabolism in the baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Araújo, C; Pacheco, A; Almeida, M J; Spencer-Martins, I; Leão, C; Sousa, M J

    2007-03-01

    The highly osmo- and cryotolerant yeast species Torulaspora delbrueckii is an important case study among the non-Saccharomyces yeast species. The strain T. delbrueckii PYCC 5321, isolated from traditional corn and rye bread dough in northern Portugal, is considered particularly interesting for the baking industry. This paper reports the sugar utilization patterns of this strain, using media with glucose, maltose and sucrose, alone or in mixtures. Kinetics of growth, biomass and ethanol yields, fermentation and respiration rates, hydrolase activities and sugar uptake rates were used to infer the potential applied relevance of this yeast in comparison to a conventional baker's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that both maltase and maltose transport in T. delbrueckii were subject to glucose repression and maltose induction, whereas invertase was subject to glucose control but not dependent on sucrose induction. A comparative analysis of specific sugar consumption rates and transport capacities suggests that the transport step limits both glucose and maltose metabolism. Specific rates of CO(2) production and O(2) consumption showed a significantly higher contribution of respiration to the overall metabolism in T. delbrueckii than in S. cerevisiae. This was reflected in the biomass yields from batch cultures and could represent an asset for the large-scale production of the former species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the physiology of a non-conventional yeast species, with a view to the full exploitation of T. delbrueckii by the baking industry.

  7. Women, Working Families, and Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Janelle Jones; John Schmitt; Nicole Woo

    2014-01-01

    One of every nine women in the United States (11.8 percent in 2013) is represented by a union at her place of work. The annual number of hours of paid work performed by women has increased dramatically over the last four decades. In 1979, the typical woman was on the job 925 hours per year; by 2012, the typical woman did 1,664 hours of paid work per year. Meanwhile, women's share of unpaid care work and housework has remained high. Various time-use studies conclude that women continue to do a...

  8. Trade unions and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (the review of energy policy by the Trades Union Congress); energy objectives and the energy crisis; energy planning (a planning framework for supply and demand; energy demand management; public planning inquiries; a plan for Britain; beyond Britain); a low energy growth strategy (UK primary energy demand); choice of supplies (coal; oil and gas; nuclear energy); new sources of energy (e.g.solar, geothermal, biofuels, wave, wind, tidal); conservation; health and safety - employers in the energy industries; conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  10. Job satisfaction and employee’s unionization decision: the mediating effect of perceived union instrumentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, H.; Hu, E.; Zhi, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Given the current lack of literature in the background of China labor force, this study aims to investigate the relationships among job satisfaction, perceived union instrumentality, and unionization from a reference-frame-based perspective and explore the referred relationships in the context of Chinese labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The study introduces perceived union instrumentality as a mediator to the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. The applicability of western theories was tested in the Chinese context by a questionnaire survey on 390 employees who were working in private sectors of Jiangsu Province in China. Four hypothesis were proposed and tested by data analysis to verify the model. Findings: The study found that most aspects of job satisfaction were negatively correlated with unionization and perceived union instrumentality, while perceived union instrumentality had a positive relationship with unionization. Perceived union instrumentality was also found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between job satisfaction and unionization. Originality/value: The paper adapted and tested a number of western industrial relation theories in the backdrop of China, contributing to the gap in Chinese-context research by examining the relationships between job satisfaction, unionization and union instrumentality of Chinese employees. It pays a regular contribution to labor union studies both inside and outside China. (Author)

  11. The European Union: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    If to all these we add the protectionist measures that the new president of the United States wishes to implement, as well as some deterioration in the European Union credibility generated by Brexit, the bureaucratic aspects that characterize the European institutions, etc., we can outline the context of the European Union, which requires a series of measures to ensure the progress of the European Union as a whole and, in particular, the effective integration of each Community country.

  12. Trade union policy and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, D.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; energy policy; the beginning of doubt; SERA's role [SERA = Socialist Environment and Resources Association]; the 1980 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the 1981 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the issues reviewed (supply and demand; safety and employment; security); review of policy trends; conclusions. Appendix: a review of union policy statements. (U.K.)

  13. Currency Unions, Trade Flows, and Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    James Yetman

    2003-01-01

    Trade within currency unions has been shown to be much larger than outside of currency unions, even after factoring in many relevant variables. The existing empirical evidence is based on reduced form models of trade, and therefore indicates that there exists a high correlation between currency union membership and trade, but does not indicate the causality, or the mechanism at work. This paper argues that the balance of evidence points to a large and statistically significant causal relation...

  14. Wage Setting in Democratic Labour Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...... is iso-elastic and unemployment benefits may have only a small effect on wages if the median member differs from the average. These findings are in accordance with empirical results....

  15. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  16. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  17. Unionism Comes to the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Richard B. Freeman

    1984-01-01

    This paper argues that public sector labor relations is best understood in a framework that focuses on unions' ability to shift demand curves rather than to raise wages, as is the case in the private sector. It reviews the public sector labor relations literature and finds that: (i) public sector unionism has flourished as a result of changes in laws; (2) the effects of public sector unions on wages are likely to have been underestimated; (3) public sector unions have a somewhat different eff...

  18. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  19. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémen Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of occupational asthma (OA is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. Methods A nested case–control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as ‘confirmed’ or ‘probable’ OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31. Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196. Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Results Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 – 36.65]. Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 – 1.48] and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 – 3.05] are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 – 36.75]. Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy; the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01. Conclusion This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings.

  20. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémen, Thomas; Acouetey, Dovi-Stéphanie; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2012-05-29

    The natural history of occupational asthma (OA) is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. A nested case-control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as 'confirmed' or 'probable' OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31). Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196). Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 - 36.65]). Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 - 1.48]) and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 - 3.05]) are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 - 36.75]). Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy); the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01). This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings.

  1. Intermolecular hydrogen transfer catalyzed by a flavodehydrogenase, bakers' yeast flavocytochrome b2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, P.; Lederer, F.

    1985-01-01

    Bakers yeast flavocytochrome b2 is a flavin-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase which also exhibits transhydrogenase activity. When a reaction takes place between [2- 3 H]lactate and a halogenopyruvate, tritium is found in water and at the halogenolactate C2 position. When the halogenopyruvate undergoes halide ion elimination, tritium is also found at the C3 position of the resulting pyruvate. The amount tau of this intermolecular tritium transfer depends on the initial keto acid-acceptor concentration. At infinite acceptor concentration, extrapolation yields a maximal transfer of 97 +/- 11%. This indicates that the hydroxy acid-derived hydrogen resides transiently on enzyme monoprotic heteroatoms and that exchange with bulk solvent occurs only at the level of free reduced enzyme. Using a minimal kinetic scheme, the rate constant for hydrogen exchange between Ered and solvent is calculated to be on the order of 10(2) M-1 S-1, which leads to an estimated pK approximately equal to 15 for the ionization of the substrate-derived proton while on the enzyme. It is suggested that this hydrogen could be shared between the active site base and Flred N5 anion. It is furthermore shown that some tritium is incorporated into the products when the transhydrogenation is carried out in tritiated water. Finally, with [2-2H]lactate-reduced enzyme, a deuterium isotope effect is observed on the rate of bromopyruvate disappearance. Extrapolation to infinite bromopyruvate concentration yields DV = 4.4. An apparent inverse isotope effect is determined for bromide ion elimination. These results strengthen the idea that oxidoreduction and elimination pathways involve a common carbanionic intermediate

  2. Climate change impacts on the Lehman-Baker Creek drainage in the Great Basin National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) forced by increased CO2 emissions forecast anomalously dry and warm trends over the southwestern U.S. for the 21st century. The effect of warmer conditions may result in decreased surface water resources within the Great Basin physiographic region critical for ecology, irrigation and municipal water supply. Here we use downscaled GCM output from the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios to force a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed model developed for the Lehman and Baker Creeks Drainage (LBCD) in the Great Basin National Park, NV for a century long time period. The goal is to quantify the effects of rising temperature to the water budget in the LBCD at monthly and annual timescales. Dynamically downscaled GCM projections are attained from the NSF EPSCoR Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach project and statistically downscaled output is retrieved from the "U.S. Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3 Climate Projections". Historical daily climate and streamflow data have been collected simultaneously for periods extending 20 years or longer. Mann-Kendal trend test results showed a statistically significant (α= 0.05) long-term rising trend from 1895 to 2012 in annual and monthly average temperatures for the study area. A grid-based, PRMS watershed model of the LBCD has been created within ArcGIS 10, and physical parameters have been estimated at a spatial resolution of 100m. Simulation results will be available soon. Snow cover is expected to decrease and peak runoff to occur earlier in the spring, resulting in increased runoff, decreased infiltration/recharge, decreased baseflows, and decreased evapo-transpiration.

  3. De Novo Biosynthesis of Vanillin in Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Esben H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Kock, Gertrud R.; Bünner, Camilla M.; Kristensen, Charlotte; Jensen, Ole R.; Okkels, Finn T.; Olsen, Carl E.; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Hansen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor compounds, with a global market of 180 million dollars. Natural vanillin is derived from the cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), but most of the world's vanillin is synthesized from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. We have established a true de novo biosynthetic pathway for vanillin production from glucose in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also known as fission yeast or African beer yeast, as well as in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Productivities were 65 and 45 mg/liter, after introduction of three and four heterologous genes, respectively. The engineered pathways involve incorporation of 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase from the dung mold Podospora pauciseta, an aromatic carboxylic acid reductase (ACAR) from a bacterium of the Nocardia genus, and an O-methyltransferase from Homo sapiens. In S. cerevisiae, the ACAR enzyme required activation by phosphopantetheinylation, and this was achieved by coexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphopantetheinyl transferase. Prevention of reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol was achieved by knockout of the host alcohol dehydrogenase ADH6. In S. pombe, the biosynthesis was further improved by introduction of an Arabidopsis thaliana family 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase, converting vanillin into vanillin β-d-glucoside, which is not toxic to the yeast cells and thus may be accumulated in larger amounts. These de novo pathways represent the first examples of one-cell microbial generation of these valuable compounds from glucose. S. pombe yeast has not previously been metabolically engineered to produce any valuable, industrially scalable, white biotech commodity. PMID:19286778

  4. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  5. Exploration of potential baker's yeast from sugarcane juice: optimization and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun-Or-rashid, A N M; Dash, Biplab Kumar; Chowdhury, Md Nurul Abadin; Waheed, Momtaz Fatima; Pramanik, Md Kamruzzaman

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to explore baker's yeasts strains from sugarcane juice to assess its potential in laboratory scale production of breads. Collected juice samples were processed for isolation and identification of yeast strains based on standard cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the six isolated strains, four (designated as S1, S2, S5 and S6) were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the rests (designated S3 and S4) were as S. rouxii. When assessing their CO2 production rates as a measure of their baking potential, S6 was found to produce maximum amount of gas (226.67 mm3 mL(-1)) in sucrose broth, whereas gas produced by S2, S1 and S5 were relatively insignificant (170, 136.67 and 86.67 mm3 mL(-1), respectively). No strain was found to produce undesirable H2S gas responsible for off-flavor. Besides, effects of different physicochemical parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, substrate concentration, incubation period, agitation etc.) on the production of yeast cell-mass were studied. Yield of cell mass was indirectly measured by spectrophotometric method at 550 nm. All the test isolates were found to produce maximum cell mass at a pH range of 4.0 to 5.0 in 2 to 4% molasses broth at 30 degrees C after 4 days of incubation. In the laboratory scale production of bread using composite flour, Isolate-S6 formed significant characteristic texture. Considering overall characteristics, Isolate- S6 was found to be satisfactorily potent for baking purpose.

  6. Baker 10 x 20 NTMS area, Oregon and Idaho: data report (abbreviated)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected at 1426 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 460 sites. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surface water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Data from ground water and surface water sites include: (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements, where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Helium analyses are given for ground water. Data from sediment sites include: (1) stream water chemistry measurements from sites where water was available, and (2) elemental analyses for sediment samples (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Sc, Sm, Na, Ti, V, and Yb). Sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) are also tabulated. Areal distribution maps, histograms, and cumulative frequency plots for these elements; U/Th, U/Hf, U/(Th + Hf), and U/La ratios; and scintillometer readings at sediment sample sites are included on the microfiche. The maximum uranium concentration found in sediments in the Baker quadrangle was 21.1 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.77. Concentrations of uranium and the rare-earth elements were high along the eastern edge of the quadrangle

  7. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling.

  8. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  9. IDENTITY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to throw some light on the question of identity in the European Union. The challenge is to understand how identity formation takes place in the contemporary world. The European integration has to be understood both as a process of socio-economic convergence among European states but also as a process of co-operation on different other levels, too. It seems that cultures, traditions and interests are more and more interconnected as societies become increasingly multicultural. This is the reason why people are concerned with the concept of identity and the recognition of their uniqueness in terms of traditions, values and ways of lives.

  10. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR-CODRIN IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  11. INNOVATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir-Codrin IONESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary knowledge-based society, innovation, as a vector used for the application and promotion of inventions and innovations, is one of the main sources used for obtaining a sustainable competitive advantage. The present paper points out the main directions which the European Commission aims to develop in the sphere of innovation, within the context of the Initiative: “A Union of Innovation”, which is part of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The paper analyses the performances accomplished by the EU states in the area of innovation while developing an international perspective that may represent the starting point in identifying solutions whereby the EU could reduce the gaps that exist in relation to the main international competitors, i.e. South Korea, USA and Japan.

  12. International Union of Radioecologists' activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The International Union of Radioecologists (I.U.R.) has maintained a vigorous program of activities in accordance with the goals of its charter. To meet these goals, the I.U.R. has sponsored a number of workshops, meetings, and other related activities aimed at improving our ability to understand and predict the consequences of release of radionuclides to the environment. These include: intercomparison and harmonization of methodologies and a continuous feedback between scientists engaged in mathematical modeling and those carrying out field studies. Specialized workshops dealing with problems in understanding transfer coefficients in the terrestrial environment are being held. In the marine environment, long-distance transport in sediments plays an important role for the spread of radioisotopes released from reprocessing plants (e.g., in the Eastern Atlantic, the Northland Baltic Sea). Representatives of the countries concerned (including from Northern Countries) will define conditions of information exchange, sampling (time, character of sediments), and modelisation

  13. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS

  14. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO plays an important

  15. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed. Results We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO

  16. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  17. New Roles for the Trade Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Sø Rocha, Robson

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on lessons from Denmark and the Nordic area to offer a novel and comprehensive logic of action within the emerging political economy that may be used to assess the possible new roles that unions can take on. The authors argue that unions are capable of “civilizing” globalizati...

  18. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    -only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....

  19. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  20. Union innovation in Ontario's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, D.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade the Power Worker's Union (PWU) has embarked on a number of innovative approaches that have provided significant benefit to the nuclear industry. These include advanced labour relations approaches, equity participation and groundbreaking skills training initiatives. This presentation outlines these and other initiatives in the context of the union's view of the nuclear generation industry's future. (author)

  1. LIMITING ORGANISATIONAL RIGHTS OF MINORITY UNIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1996-02-19

    Feb 19, 1996 ... market in recent times can be attributed, in part, to inter-union rivalry.1 Minority unions ... March 2013 – resulting in a negative impact on South Africa's GDP and currency depreciation. In. 2013, the .... Organisational rights are regulated by Part A and B of Chapter 111 of the LRA, and the right to strike is ...

  2. Banking Union- Present Stage and its Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Prisecaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking Union is very important for financial stability of EU, for preventing any future crisis, for improving corporate governance in the banking sector, for completing the single market for financial services and for the strengthening of monetary union, for opening the way to fiscal union and to political union. There is not enough theoretical research in the field of banking union, but there are many recent contributions on behalf of foreign and Romanian experts and analysts, which refer mainly to the three components/pillars of EU banking union: a Single Supervision Mechanism (SSM, a Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM and an harmonized system of deposit guarantee schemes. Some micro studies and surveys carried out by prestigious institutions, like Deutsche Bank, Brookings Institution, CEPS have been run over and analyzed together with the positions and opinions of different European officials, and also with the content of EU secondary legislation. An empirical research was made with the aim to identify all essential aspects relating to EU banking union, which may concern the academics, researchers and business community. The paper is based on a previous research study coordinated by author and contains his own conclusions focused on the main arguments in favour of banking union.

  3. Should the 'Outs' Join the Banking Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hüttl (Pia); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe Single Market stimulates cross-border banking throughout the European Union. This paper documents the banking linkages between the 9 ‘outs’ and 19 ‘ins’ of the Banking Union. We find that some of the major banks, based in Sweden and Denmark, have substantial banking claims across the

  4. 76 FR 79531 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... exclude CLF stock subscriptions, based on the asset's negligible credit risk and to facilitate corporate... removing paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(4) and adding paragraph (h) to read as follows: Sec. 704.6 Credit risk... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD95 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY...

  5. The Defense of Teachers' Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Luce

    1990-01-01

    The author sees cause for concern in the number of complaints to the International Labour Organisation alleging violations of teachers' union rights. She examines the right of public employees to organize and strike and government interference, concluding that greater protection for teachers' unions may be needed. (SK)

  6. Immigration and the transformation of American unionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Fine, J.; Jacoby, W.; Tichenor, D.

    2010-01-01

    Does immigration hamper union organizing in the United States? The prevailing literature strongly suggests that it does and for two reasons: first, immigrants increase the labor pool and diminish union influence over the labor market. And second, immigrants may be harder to organize than native

  7. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The two union catalogues of Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hla, Win [Myanmar Scientific and Technological Research Dept., Yangon (Myanmar)

    1995-04-01

    The article mentions about the two union catalogues of Myanmar. The first one is the ``Consolidated Catalogue of journals and the periodicals contained in the libraries of Kasuali, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Coonoor, Rangoon and Shillong``. This was published by Indian Research Fund Association of Calcutta in 1933. This is the first union catalogue of medical periodicals for both Myanmar and India as well. The second one is ``the Regional Union Catalogue of Scientific Serials: Yangon``. This was published in 1977, its second printing in 1989. This union catalogue excludes medical serials. Twenty libraries took part in the compilation and publishing of the union catalogue with Technical Information Centre of Myanmar Scientific and Technological Research Department, (formerly Central Research Organization), No. 6, Kaba Aye Pagoda Road, Yankin P.O. Yangon, Myanmar, taking the leading role.

  9. Greece and the Missing Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, join...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution.......The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, joint...

  10. The two union catalogues of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hla, Win

    1995-01-01

    The article mentions about the two union catalogues of Myanmar. The first one is the ''Consolidated Catalogue of journals and the periodicals contained in the libraries of Kasuali, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Coonoor, Rangoon and Shillong''. This was published by Indian Research Fund Association of Calcutta in 1933. This is the first union catalogue of medical periodicals for both Myanmar and India as well. The second one is ''the Regional Union Catalogue of Scientific Serials: Yangon''. This was published in 1977, its second printing in 1989. This union catalogue excludes medical serials. Twenty libraries took part in the compilation and publishing of the union catalogue with Technical Information Centre of Myanmar Scientific and Technological Research Department, (formerly Central Research Organization), No. 6, Kaba Aye Pagoda Road, Yankin P.O. Yangon, Myanmar, taking the leading role

  11. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  12. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  13. Vocational Training in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BALCI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union requires some standards in all areas. Today, the importance of training qualified individuals which holds an important place in the development of countries increases and certain standards are adopted creating common European Union tools in the field of vocational and technical education. In this study, vocational education and training policies system and the standards adopted by the European Union are discussed. Furthermore, this study was accepted as a European Union project in 2010 and the results obtained from the Leonardo Da Vinci Life Learning European Union project called “Web Based Basic Vocational Training” between the years 2010-2012 were presented. Since the partners of these projects are Turkey, Spain and Germany, the structure of vocational education, institutions of public and private vocational education and the diplomas and certificates entitled after these educations are included. As Turkey is on its way to become a European Union member, a number of advices are presented for Turkey to reach its destination about vocational education standards that European Union has aimed. The purpose of the study is not only to be a guide for the young who want to get professional training in the countries that are European Union members or candidates about how and where to have education opportunities but also to give a chance for trainers and training managers, participating in vocational training, so as to glimpse different practices from different countries and compare these practices between the countries of European Union and their countries. The study is also very important as it has the opportunities for training managers to see if their countries' vocational education is close enough to vocational education in European Union.

  14. Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discerning The Motivational Basis For Trade Unionism In Public And Private ... private businesses are very clear to the actors of industrial relations; those of their ... selfish interests; unions in the public sector ought to function as uplift unions, ...

  15. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION; Irina-Elena Chirtoc

    2014-01-01

    European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial marke...

  16. Effect of the gamma radiation on the chemical, rheological, baker and microbiological properties in wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez A, Z.; Fernandez R, M.V.; Arce C, M.E.; Cruz Z, E.; Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M.

    2002-01-01

    The gamma radiation has been used in several places of the World as a sterilization method, preservation and pasteurization of foodstuffs, effect which is achieved due to diminishing or elimination of the microorganisms, reaching every time more acceptance, moreover eliminates the uses of toxic and carcinogenic substances, of general use, but at the present, being in the process of being totally prohibited, due to the higher risk in the human health. In this work the related results with the effects of the gamma radiation are presented, coming from a 60 Co source, in commercial wheat flour exposed to a dose of 1.0 KGy. The used dose is that allowed according to the NOM-033-SSA1-1993 standard. It was determined that the chemical characteristics of humidity, protein and ashes were not affected by radiation. The rheological properties neither suffer severe effects as consequence of radiation; the pharynographic and alveographic parameters were lightly affected by the treatment. Significant changes were detected in the percentage of water absorption and in the tolerance index to mixing. However a diminish of 10% in the development time and an increase of 13% in the stability was observed, for the irradiated samples respect to the those samples not irradiated. In relation to the alveograph parameters it was only detected a diminish of 7% in the force parameter (w) without changes in the tenacity/blowing up index ratio (P/L). The fall number diminish 11% indicating a small diminution in viscosity. The bakering properties do not turn out modified by the irradiation treatment finding a specific weight of 4.6 and 4.5 (cm 3 /g) for the control and irradiated samples, respectively. In the mesophyll analysis it was found a diminish of 96% from the original charge in control samples, observing a diminution of 74 and 25% in yeasts and mushrooms respectively. Microbiologically it was determined absence of total coliforms bacteria and faecal coliforms in the control samples and of

  17. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  18. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  19. Reduções enantiosseletivas de cetonas utilizando-se fermento de pão Enantioselective reductions of ketones using baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto R. Rodrigues

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast has been successful employed to reduce carbonyl compounds carrying appropriated substituents at distances under the electronic influence of the keto group. High yields and enantiomeric excess (ee were obtained with 1,2-alkanedione, 1,2-alkanedione (2-O-methyloxime and 1,3-alkanedione. Potential chiral building blocks were obtained and applied for stereoselective synthesis of valuable compounds. Evidence for a free radical chain process was obtained with baker's yeast reduction of a-iodoacetophenone using radical inhibitors.

  20. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  1. The European Union in International Financial Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Moloney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the role of the European Union in international financial governance after the institutional reforms it undertook in connection with the global financial crisis. It suggests that the new administrative actors that support the governance of the European Union's single financial market, notably the European Supervisory Authorities, have the potential to reshape how the European Union engages with international financial governance. It finds that the European Union’s effectiveness in influencing international financial governance—and the effectiveness of international financial governance more generally—is likely to strengthen as a result.

  2. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-05-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper 300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest ( 0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  4. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-01-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper ~300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest (~0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  5. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  6. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  7. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  8. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  9. The public control of credit unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García Müller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public control is the activity of investigation or review by the government takes over a company, to verify the conformity of its actions to law. This paper analyzes the control over credit unions.

  10. Radioactive waste management in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vico, E.

    2002-01-01

    Although the Euratom Treaty does not assign direct authorities to the European Union in the Field of radioactive waste, the Commission has developed a series of activities related to this type of waste. The article deals with these Community initiatives, and the problems of radioactive waste management in the different Member States, and future plans in the field in the light of forthcoming European Union enlargement in 2004. (Author)

  11. Does union membership really reduce job satisfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of union membership on job satisfaction. Whilst it is common to study the effects of union status on satisfaction treating individual membership as given, in this paper, we account for the endogenous selection induced by the sorting of workers into unionised jobs. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we address the question of how the membership decision is related to overall job satisfaction and to satisfacti...

  12. Taxation of credit unions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Георгіївна Волкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of income taxation of credit unions in Ukraine by the tax on profits of enterprises and tax of revenues of their members accrued on the interest of contributions (deposits on deposit accounts and mutual funds the tax to incomes of physical persons. The consequences of the influence of tax rules on capitalization of unions and the level of their financial support is defined

  13. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  14. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Female nuptiality: the importance of consensual unions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, N

    1988-01-01

    Mexico's National Demographic Survey of 1982 indicated that 58.4% of ever married women had been in marriages celebrated both civilly and religiously, 24.4% had been in civil marriages only, 3.0% had been in religious marriages only, and 14.2% had been in consensual unions. Transitions from 1 type of union to another by the same couple are very common, however. 53.6% of women began their conjugal lives in civil and religious marriages, 19.3% in civil marriages only, 2.3% in religious marriages only, and 24.6% in consensual unions. About 1/2 of consensual unions are eventually legalized, but the rate is lower in the less advantaged socioeconomic sectors which have a higher proportion of consensual unions. Corrected data show that only 7.5% of Mexican women remain single at the age of 45. The average age at 1st union is 21.4 years. Marriage patterns differ significantly in different social sectors. The proportion of women consensual unions varied from 16.1% for the new bourgeoisie, defined as administrators, technicians, high-level workers, and professional public officials, to over 30% for nonsalaried workers, peasants, and agricultural wage workers. Peasants, agricultural wage workers and nonagricultural nonsalaried workers had the lowest marriage ages and the highest proportion married by age 20. In the various proletarian groups, only 2.8-3.7% remained single at age 45, and 42.5%-51.3% were married or in union by age 20. Proletarian women had intermediate ages at 1st marriage. Women of the new bourgeoisie had the highest age at 1st union, 23 years, but the lowest proportion single at age 45, 1.8%. The traditional bourgeoisie and new bourgeoisie had the 2nd lowest age at 1st union, 21.9, and a proportion never married at age 45 that was similar to the national average. The proportion single at age 45 was highest among peasants and agricultural wage workers, reaching 11.3%.

  16. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  17. [Respiratory allergies among bakers and pastry cooks: epidemiologic survey done in 1991 by the occupational physicians of the Loire-Atlantique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, M; Bataille, A; Mollat, F; Bobe, M; Bonneau, C; Caramaniam, M N; Géraut, C; Dupas, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of respiratory allergy (rhinitis and asthma) in a population of bakers and pastrycooks. In 1991, 485 bakers and pastry cooks were examined by 27 work-physicians of Loire-Atlantic. The investigation was composed of a standardised questionnaire (signs of respiratory function, atopic history, smoking of tobacco ...), a clinical examination, and tests of respiratory function. An allergy assessment was made of all subjects with symptoms. 14.4% of subjects had rhinitis and 6.4% asthma. Development of these pathologies was clearly job-related for 2/3 of those with rhinitis and more than half of the asthmatics (55%). Occupational rhinitis and asthma were significantly more frequent in bakers than in pastrycooks and were linked to atopic history. Occupational asthma was associated with length of exposure to flour and with occupational rhinitis. In conclusion, these findings are comparable with or a little less than those that have been reported in occupational literature. They under-estimate the importance of the problem because of the occupational selection effect that is associated with these pathologies. Rhinitis and asthma are 1.5 to 3 time more common in bakers than in pastrycooks.

  18. In vivo evaluation of antipyretic effects of homoeopathic ultrahigh dilutions of Typhoidinum on baker's yeast-induced fever in comparison with Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Homoeopathy is a widely used, controversial alternative system of medicine. It is assumed that homoeopathic medicines are slower in action and does not work in acute conditions such as ‘fever’. The study aims to estimate the effectiveness of some homoeopathic remedies in fever and to compare their effects with Paracetamol. Materials and Methods: Baker's yeast fever model of rabbits was used in the study. Rabbits were divided into four different groups (n = 6. Rectal temperature was measured before and after fever induction hourly. After fever induction, medicines were administered orally. Paracetamol and Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies were given orally. ANOVA followed by post hoc test was used for statistical analysis of results. The results were considered statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Fever was induced in all the rabbits after 4 h of baker's yeast administration. The results of the study revealed the significant effectiveness of Typhoidinum in 200C and 1M potencies in baker's yeast-induced fever (P = 0.05. Typhoidinum in both potencies showed less significant results as compared to Paracetamol. However, all the medicines’ effects were significant compared to the negative control. Conclusion: Typhoidinum 200C and 1M worked against baker's yeast-induced fever. However, the results were slower and less significant than Paracetamol that might be due to lack of similarity of remedy picture and disease picture.

  19. A Reassessment of George Pierce Baker's "The Principles of Argumentation": Minimizing the Use of Formal Logic in Favor of Practical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author demonstrated how recent histories relied primarily on previous accounts and one textbook to characterize George Pierce Baker's work. This narrow assessment of "The Principles of Argumentation" limits one's understanding of his contribution to argumentation theory and pedagogy. Similarly, one has seen the need for care…

  20. The effects of union mergers and internal restructuring:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Larsen, Trine Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Trade union mergers and restructuring are often seen as strategy for union revitalisation and renewal and have been ongoing in the majority of European trade unions. This paper explores how recent union mergers and internal restructuring has affected unions service provision, union democracy...... and interest representation. This is analysed drawing on longitudinal data from two Danish shop steward surveys conducted in 1998 and 2010, comparing shop stewards in merged and non-merged unions respectively. The main results are that although it could be expected that union mergers and internal restructuring......, where union size and less so the union’s recent merger and restructuring history appears to affect shop stewards’ relations with their unions....

  1. Citizenship of the European Union under the Treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely MILITARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in two parts. The first part covers history, "Union citizenship, according to previous Treaties Lisbon Treaty, and the second refers to the privileges which they have as citizens of the Union Treaty as a result of reforming the European Union, referring to documents on which this Treaty adhere it recognizes as having the same legal force, treaties, (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

  2. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  3. The 1997 Protocol and the European Union (European Union and '2nd generation' responsibility conventions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub; Novotna, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The issue of accession of the Eastern European Member States to the 1997 Protocol is discussed with focus on the European Union's authority and enforcement powers. Following up the article published in the preceding issue of this journal, the present contribution analyses the relations of the '2nd generation' responsibility conventions to the law of the European Union. (orig.)

  4. Virtual OPACs versus Union Database: Two Models of Union Catalogue Provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Considers some of the major technical and organizational issues involved in virtual-catalog production, contrasting them with the traditional union catalog approach exemplified by COPAC, an online public-access catalog composed of academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Suggest a method of integrating these two models of the union catalog.…

  5. a decade of african union and european union trans-regional

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    designed to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of trans- ... terrorism, drug and human trafficking and migration.5 The common value ..... have involved policing, rule of law, border assistance and monitoring and security .... Europe as exemplified by Russia and Ukraine (who provided helicopters and ...

  6. 75 FR 81378 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... NCUA's neutrality in the final rule and has made this change. A commenter also suggested including this..., where the net worth ratio of the merging credit union exceeds the net worth ratio of the continuing... are entitled to the net worth of a merging credit union. The NCUA Board disagrees. As discussed in the...

  7. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an optical image encryption scheme using a chaotic Baker map and double random phase encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun-Xin; Fu, Chong; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption. (paper)

  8. Cryptanalysis and improvement of an optical image encryption scheme using a chaotic Baker map and double random phase encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Xin; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Fu, Chong; Zhang, Li-Bo; Zhang, Yushu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the security of an enhanced double random phase encoding (DRPE) image encryption scheme (2013 J. Lightwave Technol. 31 2533). The original system employs a chaotic Baker map prior to DRPE to provide more protection to the plain image and hence promote the security level of DRPE, as claimed. However, cryptanalysis shows that this scheme is vulnerable to a chosen-plaintext attack, and the ciphertext can be precisely recovered. The corresponding improvement is subsequently reported upon the basic premise that no extra equipment or computational complexity is required. The simulation results and security analyses prove its effectiveness and security. The proposed achievements are suitable for all cryptosystems under permutation and, following that, the DRPE architecture, and we hope that our work can motivate the further research on optical image encryption.

  9. Heat recovery and energy saving using a Baker Perkins Simplex 2000 bread baking oven. A demonstration at Mothers Pride Bakery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    A report is given of a new bread oven, a Baker Perkins Simplex 2000, installed at British Bakeries' Watnall plant under the Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme. The energy saving features include 1) a new design of heating system, 2) combustion air pre-heated with burner flue gases, 3) heat recovery from oven chamber to heat hot water and 4) an in-line lidding system. Results are presented for an independent monitoring of both the new oven and one of a conventional design to compare energy consumption and performance. It is shown that the simplex 2000 reduced energy costs at the Watnall plant by Pound 45,900/year. Additional benefits of the new oven include reduced production labour requirements and an increase in productivity of 100% compared with previous models. (UK).

  10. Determinação de metais em água e folha de AECHMEA BLANCHETIANA (BAKER L.B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaline R. Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the concentrations of calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, potassium and sodium in the water and leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L.B species collected between the cities of Ilhéus and Itacaré, Bahia, Brazil and verify if the metals found in the water can be absorbed by the leaves. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS and flame photometry were used for the determination of metals. pH measurements, dissolved oxygen and water temperature were also made. The results obtained were used in an exploratory analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA showed clearly the distinct formation of two clusters and the correlation analysis indicated that the leaves of A. blanchetiana seem to absorb iron, calcium, manganese and zinc from the water tank.

  11. “Show Us Your God”: Marilla Baker Ingalls and the Power of Religious Objects in Nineteenth-Century Burma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kaloyanides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the unusual evangelical work of Marilla Baker Ingalls, an American Baptist missionary to Burma from 1851–1902. By the time of her death in Burma at the age of 75, Ingalls was known as one of the most successful Baptist evangelists among Burmese Buddhists. To understand the extraordinary dynamic of Ingalls’ expanding Christian community, this essay focuses on two prominent objects at the Baptist mission: A life-sized dog statue that Ingalls kept chained at the edge of her property and a massive banyan tree covered with biblical illustrations and revered by locals as an abode of divine beings. This essay argues that these objects transformed Ingalls’ American Baptist Christianity into a kind of Burmese religion that revolved around revered objects. Through an examination of the particular shrine practices that pulled people into the Baptist mission, this essay reflects on the larger context of religious encounter, conflict, and representation in modernizing Burma.

  12. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  13. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  14. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  15. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared by the bargained wage. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I demonstrate that, under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and countercyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus sheds new insights into two business cycle features...

  16. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker...... share is endogenous and counter-cyclical. Consequently, when the economy is hit by a shock, the dynamics of the worker share partially counteract the dynamics of the match surplus, and this mechanism delivers endogenous wage rigidity. The model thus offers new insights into two business cycle features...

  17. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  18. Frank Lloyd Wright in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Spencer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects was held in Moscow. The congress brought  architects from all areas of the  Soviet Union. Under the auspices of Vsesoiuvnoe Obshchestvo Kul'turnoi Sviazi s zagranitsei (VOKS it invited international architects from Europe and North and South America.  The Organizing Committee of the Union of Soviet Architects invited Frank Lloyd Wright from the United States. Frank Lloyd Wright presented his philosophy and exhibited his work, specifically his designs for the weekend home for E. J. Kaufmann "Fallingwater" and the drawings for the S.C. Johnson Administration. Frank Lloyd Wright's presentation did not focus heavily on the architecture but, rather the spirit of the Russian and Soviet vision.

  19. Some Considerations Regarding the European Banking Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Eugen Radu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Union Bank is a surveillance system and an EU bank resolution, which operates on the basis of EU wide rules. It aims to ensure that the banking sector in the euro area and the EU in general is safe and reliable and viable banks benefiting from resolution without recourse to taxpayer funds and with minimal impact on the real economy. Banking union members are all euro-zone countries and EU Member States that have chosen to participate. All countries will adopt the euro in the future will automatically become members of the banking union. Countries that are not part of the euro area can join by establishing a close cooperation agreement.

  20. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective....... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  1. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  2. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  3. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, Teodor; Bilegan, Constantin

    2001-01-01

    From 1991 through 1996 the European Union signed the Association Agreements with ten East European countries (EE10), namely: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria and Romania. In the period 1994-1996 European Union received membership applications from all ten countries. The paper analyzes the approach of complying the requirements and regulations for European Union accession in the field of the Romanian nuclear power based on the CANDU technology. In this process, the real challenge is represented by the preparation and implementation of new regulations aiming to improve the general business environment by introducing International Accounting Standards simplification of bankruptcy laws, reform of taxation procedures and secureness of financial instruments. A new stand-by agreement with the International Monetary Fund and World Bank was set out in late April 1999 for an one-year loan of 475 million dollars. (authors)

  4. 76 FR 18713 - Malheur National Forest; Oregon; Malheur National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plants Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... species that currently are not found on the Forest. Treatment could be anywhere on Forest Service system.... Electronic comments in acceptable plain text (.txt), rich text (.rtf), or Word (.doc) may be submitted to... wildlife habitat, out-compete native plants, impair water quality and watershed health, and adversely...

  5. The making of a European healthcare union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    that federalism offers the most fruitful way to do so because of its sensitivity to the EU’s institutional settings and to the territorial dimension of politics. The division of competences and national diversity of healthcare systems have been major obstacles for the formation of a healthcare union. However......, the EU obtained a role in healthcare through the impact of non-healthcare legislation, voluntary co-operation, court rulings, governments’ joint-decision traps, and fiscal stress of member states. The emerging European healthcare union is a system of cooperative federalism without much cost-sharing...

  6. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  7. The role of trade unions in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of matched employer–employee data from 2007 to 2009, this paper examines the union wage gap among small and medium non-state manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Controlling for both worker and firm characteristics, the results provide evidence that union members earn higher wages t...... than non-members, and are more likely to receive social benefits.Within unionised firms, a substantial wage premium is revealed for workers employed in Southern firms, a finding which among other factors may be attributed to historical differences between the North and South of Vietnam....

  8. From Single Market to Economic Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb.......Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb....

  9. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  10. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  11. 76 FR 10209 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ...(a)(4). Section III--Economic Advisability; Subsection B--Proposed Management's Character and Fitness... ``competence, experience, character, or integrity.'' The commenter suggested that these criteria should be the... any credit union depends on: (a) The character and fitness of management; (b) the depth of the members...

  12. A virtual capital for the European Union?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the websites of the key institutions of the European Union to consider whether these applications of the new information and communication technologies may become a functional equivalent of the national capital city in the emerging supranational political arena. Three functions

  13. Union Contracts and Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Bredeson

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I report the results of an investigation that examined the impact of teacher union contracts on the development of professional learning communities in schools. There are three primary sources of data used in the study: 1 100 written teacher union contract documents; 2 structured interview data from 21 educators (school superintendents, principals, directors of staff development, and teacher union representatives; and 3 focus group interview data from educational leaders in schools. The analysis and discussion focus on five areas related to teacher professional development with implications for policy and practice: explicit language covering opportunities for teaching learning in their work; governance and decision making structures, that is, specific provisions covering wages, hours, and conditions of employment; the description of legitimate and sponsored activities for the professional development of teachers; and the resources supporting the on-going professional growth of teachers. The findings indicate that rethinking, restructuring, and organizational re-culturing in schools are initial expressions of a new unionism that has the potential to lead to the development of more powerful professional learning communities in schools.

  14. Complexity in union-free regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, G.; Masopust, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 1639-1653 ISSN 0129-0541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Union-free regular language * one-cycle-free-path automaton * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijfcs/22/2207/S0129054111008933.html

  15. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-07

    in charge of policy on nationality, on the creation of a special department of the CPSU Central Committee, staffed by representatives of union...the situation on the level of the political behavior and attitudes of conflicting groups and, second, the academics’ own ethnocentric attitudes

  17. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) setting forth the requirements and process for chartering corporate federal credit unions. DATES: Comments... commitment (i.e., letters and/or contracts used to substantiate projections); and Services and marketing... assurance that the management team will have the requisite skills--particularly in leadership, accounting...

  18. 76 FR 54991 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... believes the credit risk of carrying this asset is negligible and warrants such treatment, as CLF stock is... credit union excludes the consolidated assets of such programs from risk-weighted assets pursuant to... paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(4) and adding new p(h) to read as follows: Sec. 704.6 Credit risk management...

  19. Union Listing via OCLC's Serials Control Subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Terrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes library use of Conversion of Serials Project's (CONSER) online national machine-readable database for serials to create online union lists of serials via OCLC's Serial Control Subsystem. Problems in selection of appropriate, accurate, and authenticated records and prospects for the future are discussed. Twenty sources and sample records…

  20. Biomass energy: progress in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [CPL Scientific Limited, Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    A brief overview of the progress in the use of biomass energy in the European Union is presented. Wood fuel, support for renewable energy research, liquid biofuel, wastes and residues, and non-food use of crops such as the production of fuels from lignocellulosic materials are examined. (UK)

  1. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to any... that, in either case, that 95 percent of the membership is composed of Federal employees, including former Federal employees who acquire membership while employed by the Federal Government and retained...

  2. 75 FR 73000 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... correcting adjustments necessary to conform with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) that were... report, signed by the chief executive officer and the chief accounting officer or chief financial officer... either the chief accounting officer or chief financial officer of the corporate credit union to sign the...

  3. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  4. Graft union formation in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1969-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) graft unions were examined between 2 and 84 days after grafting. Room temperature was maintained at 60-70 F throughout the growing season. In most respects grafts of Douglas-fir followed development patterns previously reported for spruce and pine grafts, but specific differences...

  5. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  6. Trade Union Participation in University Research Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    1984-01-01

    The recent development of Dutch research coordination agencies, the Science Shops, forms the context for a description of the relationship between university research and policy at Amsterdam University and the national trade union organization. Management tools such as project financing and other elements of this system are discussed. (MSE)

  7. Union Gas Ltd. : 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Consolidated annual financial information from Union Gas Ltd. was presented along with a review of their 1998 operations. On January 1, 1998, Union Gas Ltd. amalgamated with Centra Gas Ontario Inc. Both are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Westcoast Energy Inc., and had operated under a shared services arrangement since 1994. The assets, liabilities and shareholders equity of Union and Centra were combined and accounted for at their carrying amounts. In 1998, the customer base grew by 3.3 per cent. The distribution service area of Union Gas extends across northern Ontario from the Manitoba border to the North Bay/Muskoka area and through certain parts of southern Ontario. The company also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the United States. This report gives full account of the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed operations review as well as the company's consolidated financial statements. Revenue for 1998 was $1.6 billion, net income was 109 million, and assets were $4 billion. Total throughput for 1998 was 31.8 billion cubic metres of natural gas. tabs., figs

  8. The demographic situation in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.; Heering, E.L.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent demographic situation and related population trends in the 27 Member States of the European Union. Some attention will also be paid to its two Candidate Countries, Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as well as to the EFTA Countries (Iceland,

  9. Sustainability Begets Unsustainability?: The European Union's Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandatory target for the European Union (EU) for the use of renewable energy in transport by the year 2020 has created a situation where the African continent has witnessed a number of European agricultural firms gaining access to large tracts of land in order to grow crops for the production of agrofuels. This article ...

  10. Trade Unionism, Collective Bargaining and Nation Building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    This paper tends to examine the impact of trade unionism .... NLC waxed very strong despite the incessant harassments, detention and intimidation on the ..... effect the decisions of such agreements in a negative way as could be seen in many ...

  11. Road safety policy of the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is important for national road safety policies. The EU has several policymaking instruments, such as binding regulations and directives, and non-binding recommendations. An important element in the EU policy plans on road safety are the non-binding European road safety

  12. Multiple inequalities, intersectionality and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union (EU), a pioneer in gender equality policies, is moving from predominantly attending to gender inequality, towards policies that address multiple inequalities. This article argues that there are tendencies at EU level to assume an unquestioned similarity of inequalities, to fail to

  13. 75 FR 75648 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Board, National Credit Union Administration, 1775 Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314- 3428. Hand... library at 1775 Duke Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, by appointment weekdays between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m... Attorney, Office of General Counsel; and Lisa Henderson, Staff Attorney, Office of General Counsel, at the...

  14. Teachers Unions and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The media and observers across the ideological spectrum were surprised and, in some cases, disconcerted in July 2014, when at the annual American Federation of Teachers (AFT) convention in Los Angeles, the union's leadership team announced that its Innovation Fund grants of $20,000 to $30,000 were going to be made available to state and local…

  15. Teachers' Unions Take Own Path on Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions' different approaches to the 2008 U.S. election campaign. The National Education Association is ready to spend $40 million this election year, but it is not ready to endorse a candidate for president. The American Federation Teachers, by contrast, is working aggressively for U.S. Sen. Hillary…

  16. Complexity in union-free regular languages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, G.; Masopust, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2011), s. 1639-1653 ISSN 0129-0541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Union-free regular language * one-cycle-free- path automaton * descriptional complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2011 http://www.worldscinet.com/ijfcs/22/2207/S0129054111008933.html

  17. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    peoples. Kkhir Dzhokhari states that the recent success- ful visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad to the Soviet Union, which here...university. In his speeches during his stay in the USSR in July and August of this year, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- mad, emphasizing the "coincidence

  18. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  19. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  20. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  1. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over slavery...

  2. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  3. Training volume and injury incidence in a professional rugby union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multiplicity of factors that contribute to injury in rugby union makes it difficult to .... computed under the assumption that rugby union matches last on average 80 ..... for the physiological and musculoskeletal demands of competition. 20.

  4. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over...

  5. BUILDING A BANKING UNION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – A SOLUTION TO THE FINANCIAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica (ŞAGUNA FIGHIROAE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2008 highlighted the need for a deeper integration of the banking system, as a warranty to support long-term financial stability. It was argued that the grounds of the crisis lie also in an uncoordinated national response to the failure of banks, in a fragmentation of the Single Market in lending and funding and, therefore, a better regulation and supervision of the financial sector can ensure financial stability and growth in the European Union. In order to restore the proper functioning of the internal market and to avoid future crisis, the European Commission launched a set of initiatives, in order to assure a safer and sounder financial sector for the single market; are included here: stronger prudential requirements for banks, improved depositor protection and rules for managing failing banks and a single rulebook for all the 28 Member States of the European Union. The single rule book is the step towards the Banking Union sits. The banking union consists of three pillars: a Single Supervisory Mechanism, a Single Resolution Mechanism and a joint deposit-insurance scheme. As on 4 November 2014 the European Central Bank assumed responsibility for euro area banking supervision, the Banking Union is still under construction. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyse the process of building a Banking Union in Europe. Therefore, the objectives of my paper are to explore the steps to fulfilling a real integration of the European banking system, as a solution to the financial crisis.

  6. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Carpenter, Katie C; Davidson, Tiffany; McFarlin, Meredith A

    2013-09-01

    Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and reduced performance capacity (Allgrove JE, Geneen L, Latif S, Gleeson M. Influence of a fed or fasted state on the s-IgA response to prolonged cycling in active men and women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(3):209-221; Barrett B, Locken K, Maberry R, Schwamman J, Brown R, Bobula J, Stauffacher EA. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS): a new research instrument for assessing the common cold. J Fam Pract. 2002;51(3):265; Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Baker's yeast beta glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr. 2012;1-9). While many dietary interventions have been used to combat postexercise immune suppression, most have been ineffective. The key purpose of this study was to determine if baker's yeast β-glucan (BG) could positively affect the immune system of individuals undergoing intense exercise stress using two experiments. In the first (E1; N = 182 men and women), BG was compared to placebo supplementation for the incidence of URTI symptoms for 28 days postmarathon. In the second (E2; N = 60 men and women) changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) were evaluated after 50-min of strenuous cycling when participants had been supplemented for 10 days with either BG (250 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour). For E1, subjects reported URTI symptoms using a daily health log. For E2, saliva was collected prior to, immediately, and 2-hr postexercise using a salivette. Data for E1 and E2 were analyzed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures (p flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA (p = .048) at 2 hr after exercise compared to placebo. In summary

  7. Estudios sobre semilla de Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker: aceite seminal y harina residual de extracción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolasco, S. M.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker harvested at Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane and the raw oil obtained with a yield of 24,7% dry basis. The crude oil was examined in their physicochemical characteristics had refractive index of 1,4637 (at 25ºC, iodine value of 125,2, saponification index of 188,4, unsaponifiable matter of 8,5 % and free fatty acid content of 9,7 (mg KOH/g. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil revealed high levels of linoleic acid (66,2%, appreciable amount of linolenic and erucic acids. The residual seed meal contained 35,49% of crude protein and 35,1% of crude fiber. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polisaccharides (non presence of starch contents are reported.Semillas de Hypochaeris variegata L. (Baker cosechadas en Olavarría (prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina se extrajeron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo con un rendimiento del 24,7 % (b.s. y la harina residual de extracción. El aceite crudo se examinó en sus características fisicoquímicas (Indice de refracción: 1.4637 (a 25ºC, Indice de iodo: 125,2, Indice de saponificación: 188,4, insaponificable: 8,5%, Indice de acidez: 9,7 (mgKOH/g y composición acídica. El análisis por cromatografía gaseosa de los ésteres metílicos revela un alto porcentaje de ácido linoleico (66,2%, cantidades apreciables de ácido linolénico y erúcico. La harina residual de extracción presentó un 35,49% b.s. de proteína cruda y 35,1% b.s. de fibra cruda. Se informan valores de fósforo total y de ácido fítico, cenizas, calcio e hidratos de carbono.

  8. Utilization of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of yeast extract: effects of different enzymatic treatments on solid, protein and carbohydrate recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA VUKASINOVIC MILIC

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeast extract (YE was produced from commercial pressed baker's yeast (active and inactivated using two enzymes: papain and lyticase. The effects of enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time on the recovery of solid, protein and carbohydrate were investigated. Autolysis, as a basic method for cell lysis was also used and the results compared. The optimal extraction conditions were investigated. The optimal concentrations of papain and lyticase were found to be 2.5 % and 0.025 %, respectively.

  9. The Baker system for nuclear access authorization screening: a psychologically developed system for access screening of vendor and owner applicants at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Crouter, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive screening program for unescorted access which has proven to be highly effective in determining the intergrity, trustworthiness, socialibility, behaviors and tendencies of an employee applicant--past, present and future. This procedure, designed specifically for the nuclear industry, can be used with owner or vendor applicants, and meets or exceeds all of the NRC's requirements. The Baker system has been used for nuclear selection since 1979

  10. Union Free-Riding in Britain and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of workers who choose not to join the union available to them at their workplace has been rising in Britain and New Zealand. Social custom, union instrumentality, the fixed costs of joining, employee perceptions of management attitudes to unionization and employee problems at work all influence the propensity to free-ride. Ideological convictions regarding the role of unions also play some role, as do private excludable goods. There is little indication of employer-inspired pol...

  11. Education for the Rights and Responsibilities of Trade Union Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    It is vitally important for workers in all regions of the world to form unions and to exercise the rights and discharge the responsibilities which membership involves. The right to organize or join a union is essential not only for the welfare of the individual worker, or for all of those belonging to the union, but also for the welfare of society…

  12. European Union Legal Methods - Moving Away From Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.; Neergaard, U.; Nielsen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding the permanent state of crises of the European Union (EU or Union) in the past seven years, EU law continues to govern the legal relationships of individuals and Member States in ever more areas. Union law is self-reinforcing in the sense that it is constructed to increase in scope

  13. The Role of Unions in the American Economy. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ray; Rungeling, Brian

    Intended as a resource for secondary teachers, this book analyzes the role of unions in the American economy and examines the main forces influencing unions in the United States. This second edition includes important domestic and external events that have affected U.S. economic policy and unions since the first edition was published in 1976.…

  14. Unionization, Spill-Over Effects, and Corporate Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florysiak, David

    2017-01-01

    Labor unions influence firm decisions depending on how powerful they are. We develop a new measure of union power faced by individual firms. Our measure is based on annual 10-K filings and reflects the amount of union and labor related discourse in the narrative parts of the annual report. Thus, ...

  15. 76 FR 16235 - Corporate Credit Unions, Technical Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... inadvertently included particular investments that did not--when subject to the other credit risk and asset... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD58 Corporate Credit Unions, Technical Corrections AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In...

  16. New "Right to Work" Laws Could Hobble Faculty Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Faculty unions outside Michigan have reason to be concerned with its passage of legislation barring unions from collecting fees from workers who do not join them. But the experiences of faculty unions in states that adopted such laws years ago suggest that while the measures can be a major hindrance to their work, they are not a death blow.…

  17. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  18. Identificación de fructooligosacáridos e inulinas en residuos de hojas de fique - Furcraea macrophylla Baker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sofia Guevara Apraez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es un importante productor de cabuya, fibra natural extraída de fique (Furcraea macrophylla Baker. La explotación de esta planta se caracteriza por productos y procesos tradicionales, poco tecnificados, de bajo valor agregado y con un aprovechamiento limitado de la planta de fique, lo que se traduce en baja rentabilidad. No obstante, en los residuos de este proceso agroindustrial se encuentran muchas sustancias de interés, aun sin explorar, entre ellas los carbohidratos, específicamente los fructanos, como la inulina y los fructooligosacaridos (FOS que son polímeros de fructosa considerados fibra dietaría y que por sus características se clasifican como prebióticos. En esta investigación se evidenció la presencia de FOS e inulinas en los residuos obtenidos durante el proceso de desfibrado de las hojas de fique a través de técnicas enzimáticas y espectro-fotométricas. Debido a las amplias aplicaciones en el sector alimentario se recomienda su cuantificación, extracción y caracterización con el fin de proporcionar valor agregado a través de la explotación de estos compuestos.

  19. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Marco [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padua (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  1. Labour market asymmetries in a monetary union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seneca, Martin; Andersen, Torben M.

    This paper takes a first step in analysing how a monetary union performs in the presence of labour market asymmetries. Differences in wage flexibility, market power and country sizes are allowed for in a setting with both countryspecific and aggregate shocks. The implications of asymmetries...... is not strictly increasing in nominal rigidities but hump-shaped. Moreover, a disproportionate share of the consequences of wage inflexibility may fall on small countries. In the case of country-specific shocks, a country unambiguously benefits in terms of macroeconomic stability by becoming more flexible, while...... this is not necessarily the case for aggregate shocks. There may thus be a tension between the degree of flexibility considered optimal at the country level and at the aggregate level within the monetary union....

  2. SPECIALIZED COURTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, improved functioning judicial system European Union ( EU. Court of Justice of the EU has been reformed, said Treaty changing the EU courts so very name : Court of Justice of the EU, the Court referred to above, the Court of First Instance, and specialized courts, known previously, judicial panels. The paper shows the first part of his creation, composition and competence of the specialized courts, and as a manifestation of them in the second part examines the Civil Service Tribunal, the same point of view. EU specialized courts may be set up in specific areas, specializing in some technical disputes. These specialized courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the cases in the first instance with the possibility that their decision subject to appeal to the General Court . In this context, to resolve disputes between the Union and its officials was established Tribunal.

  3. Intersections and Unions of Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşku Acay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior work has extended the deep, logical connection between the linear sequent calculus and session-typed message-passing concurrent computation with equi-recursive types and a natural notion of subtyping. In this paper, we extend this further by intersection and union types in order to express multiple behavioral properties of processes in a single type. We prove session fidelity and absence of deadlock and illustrate the expressive power of our system with some simple examples. We observe that we can represent internal and external choice by intersection and union, respectively, which was previously suggested by Padovani for a different language of session types motivated by operational rather than logical concerns.

  4. Nuclear power and European Union enlargement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Bilegan, C.; Pall, S.; Sandru, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear power sector, the main concern for the candidate countries entering the European Union, remains the nuclear safety. New standards and regulation will be issued for improving the general quality of life in a sound environment. For the candidate countries entering the European Union, this situation represents a real challenge. Their national legislation must be improved to meet the European standards. The conditions are different from country to country, and more difficult for those, which operate ''non west European reactor type''. The paper also present the actual status of the Romanian legislation related to nuclear power and environment. There are presented the principles, terms and responsibilities contained in this legislation. The authors discuss some aspects related to the possibilities to improve the national legislation to meet the actual European Commission or EURATOM standards. (author)

  5. Fear and Leadership in Union Organizing Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts a mobilization framework to examine the crucial actions of workplace activists in overcoming fear of employer reprisal during union organizing campaigns in hostile environments. The article explores fear as part of the organizing process in two ways; first, we examine how fear can act as a stimulus for workplace activists to take action in an attempt to overcome the source of that fear. Second, we examine fear as an inhibiting factor in organizing, whereby the presence of fear hinders individuals from taking action. Using qualitative data from interviews conducted with workplace activists across a variety of campaigns in Ireland, this article examines the process through which workplace activists conquer their own sense of fear and undertake the task of mobilizing colleagues toward collective action in pursuit of union representation amid fear of employer reprisal.

  6. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  7. Union Gas Limited Year 2000 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoey, P.

    1999-04-01

    Union Gas Ltd., a subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Inc., serves approximately 1.1 million customers in more than 400 communities in Ontario. The company has $3.6 billion worth of assets including distribution, storage and transmission facilities. This report outlines the company's Year 2000 (Y2K) preparedness efforts. The company does not see any Year 2000 challenges which would impede the flow of natural gas. Union Gas has contingency plans in place to provide business continuity in the event of any internal system failures. Currently, the following systems are 100 per cent Y2K ready: (1) gas flow and control systems, (2) information technology, (3) telecommunications systems, and (4) the billing system. The remaining systems are expected to be Y2K ready by mid-1999

  8. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    that the person ordering music not only pays money, but also provides musicians with musical instruments. State orders are now backed by drums and...have become more frequent. Last year, the USSR Ministry of Light Industry organized the first Ail-Union Fashion Festival in Moscow, featuring a large...opportunities for tourism , including foreign tourism . And the influx of those who want to visit the republic is increasing sharply all the time. While foreign

  10. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  11. Kazakh Initiatives on Cooperation with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem S. Kurmanguzhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents initiatives of the Republic of Kazakhstan to develop cooperation with the European Union that was initiated through 2000 - 2009. In 2000 the Republic of Kazakhstan proposed to EU Comment cooperation doctrine in Central Asia. The purpose of the doctrine lied in expanding cooperation in the areas of trade, economy and investment; in granting access to commodities and services from European markets; in developing collaboration in the areas of energy, transport, communication, finance and banking. In 2006 Kazakhstan introduced a new set of prepossess to the new European Union Strategy for Central Asian 2007-2013 that was developed under the chairmanship of Germany of the EU in the first half of 2007. The Strategy covered areas of cooperation such as regional integration, economic development, democratization, energy and security. In 2008 under the instructions of the President of Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with other ministries developed a state programme "Path to Europe" for 2009 - 2011, which aided the priorities of cooperation between Kazakhstan and the European Union. "Path to Europe" has become a key initiative of the Kazakh foreign policy that was successfully implemented, as well as the most important document aimed at modernization of the national economy and the Kazakh society. In the beginning of2009 using the accumulated positive experience of cooperation with the EU and experience of a number of countries in Europe and Asia, Kazakhstan devised and submitted a concept of a new treaty which was supposed to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement of 1995. The Republic of Kazakhstan's influence eventually persuaded the European Union to agree on the necessity of devising the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement.

  12. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  13. Excises Harmonization Stage Within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Drăcea, Raluca; Buziernescu, Radu

    2007-01-01

    Tax policy in the European Union consists of two components: direct taxation, which remains the sole responsibility of Member States, and indirect taxation, which affects free movement of goods and the freedom to provide services. The most important efforts for the tax harmonization were made in the domain of the indirect taxation, the consumption taxes influence the price supported by the final consumer and prevent the fiscal neutrality necessary for a fair competition on the ...

  14. GOVERNING EUROPEAN UNION TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Lucian CATRINA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last four years, a significant part of the European Union members has recorded a real decline in the sustainability of their public debt. The failure of Greece, Italy, Belgium or Spain to easily find funding at previous interest rates has induced the fear that the European Monetary Union would disintegrate. Such as scenario is not realistic because does not take into account the economic interdependencies that have been created between the countries participating at the monetary zone. Nevertheless, we can say that the Stability and Growth Pact which aimed towards the coordination of national fiscal policies for ensuring the stability and prudence of the budgetary climate, has failed. This failure was primarily due to the lack of specific sanctions for those members that have not fought against the fiscal imbalances and secondly to the stopping the steps forward towards a common fiscal policy. Thus, we can say that the European Monetary Union is driven now by the wrong rule of “no taxation with representation”. For these reasons, this paper aims at showing that the European fiscal federalism is still far away from becoming reality and that the new instruments chosen for the new stability of the European Monetary Union will be the task of the Member States themselves. This paper will also review the main rules that are projected to be the source for the future European financial stability and growth: the balanced budgets and the deficits built only on the “Golden Rule” premises, for which other amendments on European Treaties are expected.

  15. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  16. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-05

    in the realization of a 36,000-hectare irrigation project in the Managua— Granada —Masaya region and the construction of two large workshops for the...coordinating country for the aforementioned irrigation plan in the Managua— Masaya— Granada region. Multilateral collaboration, like bilateral...international economic security corresponding to the needs of the people of the whole world is... a natural continuation of the unions’ basic demands

  18. Three proposals for revitalising the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread perception that convergence on the current set of rules is not capable of producing convergence on results, or anyway generally better results, has increased the socio-political fragmentation inside the European Union. The result has been an increasing demand for a partial re-nationalisation of sovereign powers, whose physiology comes from the necessity of higher national flexibility. Asking how feasible changes in the current set of rules could accommodate the increased demand of national flexibility, the paper focuses on the euro area and proposes to revise the monetary operations of the European Central Bank, current fiscal rules, and the financial regulatory approach. The proposed new design is based on the premise that no changes in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union are possible at the moment, even though a minimum political convergence is necessary. If successfully implemented, the proposal would contribute to give a viable perspective to the design of the Economic and Monetary Union, capable of attracting those EU non-euro area countries that consider the mismanagement of the recent crisis and of its after-effects reason enough for resisting further losses of sovereignty. JEL: E52, E62, F33, F36, F45, G28

  19. Union Gas Limited 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Financial information from Union Gas was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000. Union Gas is a major Canadian natural gas utility providing energy services to more than 1.1 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in more than 400 communities in Ontario. The company also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the United States. Revenue for 2000 was reported to be $1.6 billion, net income was $113 million and assets totaled $3.9 billion. Total throughput for 2000 was 35.8 billion cubic meters. Union Gas is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Inc. of Vancouver, British Columbia. In 2000, progress was made toward the introduction of performance-based regulation to replace the cost of service regulation currently in use. This initiative will enable the company to provide competitively priced services to customers, allowing them, along with shareholders to benefit from efficiency enhancements and new service offerings. tabs., figs

  20. Free riders: the rise of alternative unionism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Flemming; Høgedahl, Laust; Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyse some disturbing trends in the Danish labour market: while collective bargaining coverage is still relatively high, union density has been declining and—worse than that—there has been a substantial shift away from recognised and in favour of alternative unionism....... The alternative unions are not parties to collective agreements, and they offer membership much cheaper than the recognised unions, in effect taking a free ride on the institutional supports that used to be effective only for the recognised unions. The article explains this conundrum by pointing to the political...

  1. LEGAL PERSONALITY AND POWERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin FUEREA

    2010-01-01

    Based on legal personality, EU won through Treaty of Lisbon, in accordance with the system of division of competences between the Union and the Member States as provided for in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, competences not conferred upon the Union in the Treaties remain with the Member States. When the Treaties confer on the Union a competence shared with the Member States in a specific area, the Member States shall exercise their compet...

  2. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  3. Convergence: How Nursing Unions and Magnet are Advancing Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joyce E; Billingsley, Molley

    2014-01-01

    Historically, unions and professional associations such as the American Nurses Association have been adversaries in the fight to represent the best interests of the nursing profession. We reviewed the literature on the evolution of nursing unions, nursing's historical unease about unions, the Magnet designation in nursing, the tensions between the unions and Magnet, the core values and commonalities they share, and the obligations of nursing as a profession. Refocusing on the advancement of our profession provides a positive pathway in which the collective efforts of nursing unions and professional initiatives such as the Magnet designation converge during these turbulent times for our profession. The single, central organizing idea of nursing-where nursing unions and Magnet converge-is the pivotal role of nurses in delivering high-quality patient care. The often-maligned dialectic between unions and Magnet has advanced and not hindered the nursing profession. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Variações na morfoanatomia foliar de Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae sob distintas condições ambientais Leaf morphoanatomy variation in Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae under distinct environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Heinig Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae ocorre em restingas e Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica em Santa Catarina e Nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, BR. Pode ser encontrada total ou parcialmente exposta à irradiação solar e em distintas formas de vida - terrícola, rupícola e epifítica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar morfoanatomicamente às características de folhas de A. lindenii var. lindenii em distintas condições ambientais. Foram coletadas, na Ilha de Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, folhas de plantas terrícolas em restinga herbácea (alta irradiação solar, rupícolas de costões rochosos (alta irradiação solar, terrícolas e epifíticas de sub-bosques (baixa irradiação solar de restinga arbórea e rupícolas de sub-bosque (baixa irradiação solar de Floresta Pluvial de Encosta Atlântica. Foram mensurados comprimento, largura, área da lâmina e bainha foliar, densidade estomática, comprimento e largura das células-guarda, espessura total e das estruturas constituintes na lâmina foliar. As características anatômicas qualitativas são semelhantes nas distintas condições analisadas. A baixa irradiação solar determina maior expansão da área foliar, decorrente do alongamento da lâmina. Lâmina e bainha foliares têm maior largura sob alta irradiação. A densidade estomática foi maior em folhas de plantas sob alta irradiação solar. A espessura total da lâmina foliar foi menor em plantas terrícolas sob alta irradiação, porém não mostrou diferenças estatísticas significativas entre as outras condições.Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii (Bromeliaceae-Bromelioideae occurs in restingas and hillside Atlantic rain forest in Santa Catarina and northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is found totally or partially exposed to solar radiation and in different life forms - terricolous, rupicolous and epiphytes. The aim of this work was to compare

  5. Produção de frutanos em calos e plântulas clonadas in vitro de Viguiera discolor Baker (Asteraceae Fructan production in callus and in vitro cloned seedlings of Viguiera discolor Baker (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Massumi Itaya

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Viguiera discolor Baker é uma espécie nativa do cerrado, cuja sobrevivência está ameaçada pela invasão de espécies exóticas. Considerando sua elevada produção e a vasta aplicação de frutanos, o presente trabalho foi conduzido visando à obtenção in vitro dessa espécie e à prospecção desses carboidratos nessas condições. Sementes foram germinadas in vitro, em meio MS modificado, e após cinco semanas de incubação, nós caulinares foram isolados e incubados no mesmo meio adicionado de 0,5 mg L-1 de ANA, regenerando plantas uniformes, raízesnão espessadas, raízes tuberosas e estruturas semelhantes a calo (calo tipo1, formadas na região caulinar basal. Análise desse material evidenciou a presença de frutanos do tipo inulina nas raízes tuberosas e nos calos tipo 1. Na presença de 2,4-D obteve-se a formação de calos friáveis (calo tipo 2, nos quais também foram detectados frutanos e suas enzimas de síntese sacarose: sacarose 1-frutosiltransferase (SST e frutano: frutano 1-frutosiltransferase (FFT. Embora em concentrações menores às observadas nas plantas cultivadas sob condições naturais, o material produzido in vitro apresentou frutanos do mesmo tipo e razão SST/FFT menor do que um. Em meio de cultura sem hormônios, foi verificada a regeneração de 50% de plantas a partir dos nós caulinares. A propagação de V. discolor in vitro pode viabilizar a multiplicação e a preservação da espécie, bem como a produção de frutanos nessas condições.Viguiera discolor Baker is a herbaceous species, native to cerrado and its survival has been threatened by the invasion of exotic species. Considering its high production and the wide application of fructans, the present work has aimed to establish in vitro culture of this species and to investigate the presence of fructans under these conditions. Seeds were germinated in vitro on modified MS medium and after plant growth, stem nodes were isolated and incubated on

  6. Volcanic Risk Perception and Preparedness in Communities within the Mount Baker and Glacier Peak Lahar Hazard Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, K.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    A community's ability to effectively respond to and recover from natural hazards depends on both the physical characteristics of the hazard and the community's inherent resilience. Resilience is shaped by a number of factors including the residents' perception of and preparedness for a natural hazard as well as the level of institutional preparedness. This study examines perception of and preparedness for lahar hazards from Mount Baker and Glacier Peak in Washington's Skagit Valley. Through an online survey, this study isolates the influence of specific variables (e.g., knowledge, past experience, scientific background, trust in various information sources, occupation, self-efficacy, sense of community) on risk perception and explores reasons behind the frequent disconnect between perception and preparedness. We anticipate that individuals with more extensive education in the sciences, especially geology or earth science, foster greater trust in scientists and a more accurate knowledge, understanding, and perception of the volcanic hazards in their community. Additionally, little research exists examining the extent to which first responders and leaders in response-related institutions prepare on a personal level. Since these individuals work toward community preparedness professionally, we hypothesize that they will be more prepared at home than members of the general public. Finally, the Skagit Valley has a significant history of flooding. We expect that the need to respond to and recover from frequent flooding creates a community with an inherently higher level of preparedness for other hazards such as lahars. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of what controls risk perception and the interplay between perception and preparedness. At a broader level, this study provides local and state-level emergency managers information to evaluate and improve response capabilities and communication with the public and key institutions in order to

  7. mlh3 mutations in baker's yeast alter meiotic recombination outcomes by increasing noncrossover events genome-wide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Al-Sweel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR. To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32 specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover- and Mlh1-mlh3-45 (MMR-, crossover+ displayed wild-type endonuclease activities in vitro. Msh2-Msh3, an MSH complex that acts with Mlh1-Mlh3 in MMR, stimulated the endonuclease activity of Mlh1-mlh3-32 but not Mlh1-mlh3-45, suggesting that Mlh1-mlh3-45 is defective in MSH interactions. Whole genome recombination maps were constructed for wild-type and MMR+ crossover-, MMR- crossover+, endonuclease defective and null mlh3 mutants in an S288c/YJM789 hybrid background. Compared to wild-type, all of the mlh3 mutants showed increases in the number of noncrossover events, consistent with recombination intermediates being resolved through alternative recombination pathways. Our observations provide a structure-function map for Mlh3 that reveals the importance of protein-protein interactions in regulating Mlh1-Mlh3's enzymatic activity. They also illustrate how defective meiotic components can alter the fate of meiotic recombination intermediates, providing new insights for how meiotic recombination pathways are regulated.

  8. Preparing for Volcanic Hazards: An Examination of Lahar Knowledge, Risk Perception, and Preparedness around Mount Baker and Glacier Peak, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, K.; Brand, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number of people living at risk from volcanic hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest continues to rise, so does the need for improved hazard science, mitigation, and response planning. The effectiveness of these efforts relies not only on scientists and policymakers, but on individuals and their risk perception and preparedness levels. This study examines the individual knowledge, perception, and preparedness of over 500 survey respondents living or working within the lahar zones of Mount Baker and Glacier Peak volcanoes. We (1) explore the common disconnect between accurate risk perception and adequate preparedness; (2) determine how participation in hazard response planning influences knowledge, risk perception, and preparedness; and (3) assess the effectiveness of current lahar hazard maps for public risk communication. Results indicate that a disconnect exists between perception and preparedness for the majority of respondents. While 82% of respondents accurately anticipate that future volcanic hazards will impact the Skagit Valley, this knowledge fails to motivate increased preparedness. A majority of respondents also feel "very responsible" for their own protection and provision of resources during a hazardous event (83%) and believe they have the knowledge and skills necessary to respond effectively to such an event (56%); however, many of these individuals still do not adequately prepare. When asked what barriers prevent them from preparing, respondents primarily cite a lack of knowledge about relevant local hazards. Results show that participation in response-related activities—a commonly recommended solution to this disconnect—minimally influences preparedness. Additionally, although local hazard maps successfully communicate the primary hazard—97% of respondents recognize the lahar hazard—many individuals incorrectly interpret other important facets of the maps. Those who participate in response-related activities fail to understand these

  9. Diversity and genetic structure of the Mexican endemic epiphyte Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Astorga, Jorge; Cruz-Angón, Andrea; Flores-Palacios, Alejandro; Vovides, Andrew P

    2004-10-01

    The monoecious, bird-pollinated epiphytic Tillandsia achyrostachys E. Morr. ex Baker var. achyrostachys is an endemic bromeliad of the tropical dry forests of Mexico with clonal growth. In the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve this species shows a host preference for Bursera copallifera (Sessé & Moc ex. DC) Bullock. As a result of deforestation in the study area, B. copallifera has become a rare tree species in the remaining forest patches. This human-induced disturbance has directly affected the population densities of T. achyrostachys. In this study the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation were assessed by comparing the genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic differentiation in six populations of T. achyrostachys in the Sierra de Huautla Natural Reserve, Mexico. Allozyme electrophoresis of sixteen loci (eleven polymorphic and five monomorphic) were used. The data were analysed with standard statistical approximations for obtaining diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Genetic diversity and allelic richness were: HE = 0.21 +/- 0.02, A = 1.86 +/- 0.08, respectively. F-statistics revealed a deficiency of heterozygous plants in all populations (Fit = 0.65 +/- 0.02 and Fis = 0.43 +/- 0.06). Significant genetic differentiation between populations was detected (Fst = 0.39 +/- 0.07). Average gene flow between pairs of populations was relatively low and had high variation (Nm = 0.46 +/- 0.21), which denotes a pattern of isolation by distance. The genetic structure of populations of T. achyrostachys suggests that habitat fragmentation has reduced allelic richness and genetic diversity, and increased significant genetic differentiation (by approx. 40 %) between populations. The F-statistic values (>0) and the level of gene flow found suggest that habitat fragmentation has broken up the former population structure. In this context, it is proposed that the host trees of T. achyrostachys should be considered as a conservation priority, since they represent the

  10. The European Fiscal Union creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Sharov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evolution of the European Union fiscal system creation process as well as outlines problems in functioning thereof that have arisen during recent years and the main reforming (modification trends. The analysis is primarily focused on creation of the fiscal union within the EU. In this regard, the idea of two different groups of countries moving to the common goal at different paces is becoming ever increasingly much-talked-about in the EU. The first group comprises donor countries that adhere to all treaties and fiscal discipline, while demonstrating respective positive macroeconomic indicators. The second group implies countries of Euro-periphery, where the above processes take place along with significant complications or do not occur at all. In these countries Eurosceptic positions are also quite strong, which often leads to taking measures contrary to the jointly adopted decisions. Currently, there is no clear understanding within the EU as to which way out of the crisis should be taken. However, profound understanding of the crisis causes and active work on preparation and implementation of measures to overcome the negative effects of this crisis suggest availability of sufficiently favorable prospects for further development of the EU fiscal system (including formal creation of the Fiscal Union. Based on the conducted analysis conclusions have been made as to potential vectors of action aimed at improving EU fiscal system, while specific recommendations on actions to be taken by Ukraine have been developed (particularly, as regards budget forecasting and planning with the purpose of harmonizing Ukrainian financial institutions and mechanisms with the EU fiscal system.

  11. Towards Regional Monetary Unions through Blockchain Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hegadekatti, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    The concept of political and economic integration has not progressed beyond the concept of a Nation-state. The primary reason is the trust deficit among citizens in a supra-national entity. We can use Blockchain systems-which are trustless networks-to resolve this issue. We can float a Regional Cryptocurrency (RCC) which can bring about a successful Regional Monetary Unions (RMU) amongst a group of nations in a transparent manner. This paper deals with the idea of realizing a monetary uni...

  12. Strong trade unions meet EEC workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Kaj; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    2008-01-01

    (EEC) workers. The argument is that migrant and, in particular, posted workers' conditions of employment often are characterised by evasions of collective agreements, whether in the form of underpayment or other violations of terms and conditions specified in the agreements. However, the trade union...... response is not straightforward: they could pursue a strategy of surveillance and control, leading to closer cooperation with public authorities (e.g., tax and immigration authorities) in order to impose sanctions and fines on employers violating existing agreements and legislation - a strategy often met...

  13. The European Union stakes on biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union has just published the environmental side of its action in the fight against climatic change. Like the third 'energy batch', these new legislative proposals are the continuation of the January 2007 communication of the commission which aimed at fixing the trends of the energy policy of the European Communities. Some measures of these last legislative proposals, in particular those treating of biofuels, are sometimes considered as too ambitious and even unrealistic. The overall proposals are waiting for the final adoption during the French presidency. (J.S.)

  14. Food and Health Inequalities in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    Food and Inequalities in European Union Dr. Aileen Robertson, Public Health Nutritionist at the Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen. Dr. Robertson focused on food and inequality in light of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe. On average over 50% of Europeans...... public procurement; 3) more democratic sustainable food systems with fairer prices to producers; 4) realise that food and nutrition policies are at the heart of achieving all 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the COP21climate goals; 5) a ‘Health in All Policies’ approach applied to CAP reform...

  15. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  16. The Fiscal Framework in a Currency Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws out lessons from the euro area (EA) that are transferable to the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) and other Caribbean economies with fixed exchange rates. Based on observations from both the EA and the ECCU, we present a new policy framework which is capable of imposing...... fiscal discipline, with the aim of avoiding the risk of unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing and of preventing monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined national governments. In the ECCU case, we find that fiscal deficits are more a result of financial and trade imbalances than fiscal...

  17. Uniones de nitruro de silicio Superaleaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Barea, R.; Miranzo López, Pilar; Osendi, María Isabel

    2000-01-01

    [ES] El posible uso del nitruro de silicio en el ámbito industrial se ve limitado por la dificultad y el coste que supone mecanizar geometrías complicadas. En el presente trabajo se estudia la posibilidad del uso de superaleaciones como interlámina de unión entre piezas de este material. Se han seleccionado tres superaleaciones con base niquel-cromo debido a su interés tecnológico. Las uniones se han llevado a cabo por termocompresión en vacío, utilizando varias presiones y temperatu...

  18. Labour Force Migration Effects within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mihaela Tudorache

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the EU, there is no common policy on migration; there are common policies on certain aspects of migration. The Member States fear of migration, but their economies and societies will further need migrant workers. Labour force migration have positive, but also negative consequences for all parties involved: receiving countries, origin countries and migrant workers. Within this framework, a common approach of the migration management and the harmonization of the economic migration policies of the Member States represent already one of the most important challenges for the European Union and will be further emphasized.

  19. Phosphorus and Fluorine - The Union for Bioregulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko, V.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The review demonstrates the very high efficiency and usefulness of the fluorine-phosphorus combination in order to synthesize organic molecules for purposes of modern life science. For biochemistry, the "P-F-union" in" biomolecules enables investigation of the enzyme structure and mechanism of action more correctly, as well as creation of new anti-body enzymes. Enhancing or regulation of inhibitor properties of these compounds, their stability or selectivity allows creation of new drugs for treatment of numerous serious diseases, especially viral infections and cancer.

  20. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  1. 2009 energy prices in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the natural gas price fell down in the European Union (EU). This drop was of about -5% (excluding taxes) as an average for companies, and of about -3% for households (including taxes). On the other hand, the electricity prices raised by 3% for companies and by 5% for households. In France, only the gas price for companies has dropped between 2008 and 2009. The electricity prices remain significantly lower than the EU average: -29% for companies and -30% for households. The gas price in France remains close to the European average but is significantly lower than the average price in the euro area. (J.S.)

  2. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  3. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...

  4. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  5. Union Security Provisions, Academic Freedom and Tenure: The Implications of Chicago Teachers Union v. Hudson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Steven G.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between faculty union mandatory membership provisions in a collective bargaining agreement and the rights of faculty protected by tenure and academic freedom are examined, and college options and considerations in negotiating contracts under collective bargaining laws are discussed. (MSE)

  6. Where the European Union should Multiply its Money: Stimulating Measures in the Economic Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, A.N.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate in which sectors and countries the European Union should invest to diminish the economic gap between different member states. It answers the question at which sectors and regions the European regional policy should be directed. In an attempt to indicate

  7. 78 FR 4875 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Loan Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... credit union's marketing strategy to reach members and the community; and include financial projections... required to obtain matching funds. However, each Applicant should address in the Application its strategy...) Matching Funds: A narrative describing its strategy for raising matching funds from non-federal sources if...

  8. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... members to stimulate economic activities in their communities. Through the OSCUI Grant Program, NCUA... March, 15, 2013 OSCUI will accept applications from credit unions under the Collaboration Initiative..., scalable, replicable and cost-saving collaboration. Under this initiative a single LICU must collaborate...

  9. The last-chance Union: three questions for three observations on the union of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonneuve, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    As the status of the European policy on energy, and of Europe itself, and even the nature of the project of a Union of energy are either in bad shape or put into question again by numerous uncertainties, as Europe is exhausted by a financial crisis, an economic crisis, a debt crisis, the Greek crisis, the Ukrainian crisis, and the refugee crisis, the author examines whether the Union of energy raises the right questions and addresses in the right way the issue of energy, whether Europe possesses the adequate political ecosystem to succeed, whether Europe is mature enough to build up a union on energy. To shed some light on these issues, the author examine the three dimensions of the union of energy: the strategic, political and economic dimensions. She analyses evolutions introduced with respect to the previous period, and assesses the relevance, impact and feasibility of announced proposals. The strategic dimension concerns the connection of Europe to the World (how to face and cope with international energetic realities, and with the current geopolitical turmoils). The politic dimension is to be found in the way to create a common impetus again, and the economic dimension deals with giving back confidence

  10. A decade of African Union and European Union trans-national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and. Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that. European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed ...

  11. State of the Union Address, 1997. Remarks by the President in State of the Union Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the text of President Clinton's State of the Union Address, delivered on February 4, 1997. The President issues a call to action to work together to prepare America for the twenty-first century. The United States must attend to the unfinished business of balancing the budget, enacting bipartisan campaign-finance reform, and…

  12. 78 FR 33445 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... hardware and software necessary to convert to computerized operations. The maximum award amount for this...,000 per credit union for financial education projects that improve financial capability in the... found on D&B's Web site at http://fedgov.dnb.com/webform or by calling D&B, toll-free, at 1-866-705-5711...

  13. Where do we go with Union Catalogues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Chamberlain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom boasts union catalogues for its major research libraries, journal holdings, archives and, most recently, for its public library collections. For researchers wanting to locate material across the UK, such aggregations have long served as a first stop for researchers wanting to find the right material and also provided a showcase for our formidable research collections. In the global networked environment, search engines and social networks can fulfil much of the functionality of union catalogues and have become the natural places to which our users go for search and discovery, even in academic situations. Right now, there is a ‘disconnect’ between the data describing our collections and the places users first turn to start their searches. This can be fixed by exposing descriptive data to wider audiences beyond the silo of the local catalogue, but data publishing is a fast moving area with little obvious short-term institutional-level gain and some start-up barriers. Publishing library data to the open web at the level of a national aggregation would utilize existing skill sets and infrastructure, minimize risk and maximize impact.

  14. Energy policies of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    This report takes stock of what has been achieved and where the European Community is going in terms of energy policy and also looks at the full extent of the Union's energy sector competances. The chapters deal with the European Commission's programme to create an internal energy market through implementing new Directives and by means of an approach through competition. A further two chapters concentrate on environmental policy with respect to emissions control and the greenhouse effect. Two broad policy areas - Community Initiative and trans-European networks - are examined in a consideration of the connections between energy and economic and social cohesion. Security of supply is the fourth and traditional pillar of energy policy to be considered. Three policy areas which do not fit into these first four categories are dealt with in individual chapters. These are: nuclear issues, research and development, and a wider Europe. A concluding chapter suggests that there is an urgent need for a new way of dealing with energy in the European Union which has a myriad of policies affecting energy but no energy policy. The appendices include a document summary for each of the main chapters and a glossary. (UK)

  15. Energy Union: a global road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourneur, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and comments the strategy defined by the European Commission in its document entitled 'Energy Union: secure, sustainable, competitive, affordable energy for every European' which defines a framework and a road-map for the emergence and progress of a Europe of energy. Such an Energy Union means solidarity between members, a free circulation of energy across borders, a priority for energy efficiency, a transition towards a low carbon society, and competitive and affordable prices for the European citizen. The author outlines the present weaknesses of the Europe of energy: first world energy importer, twelve countries being under the required interconnection level (10 per cent of the installed production should be able to cross the borders), some countries depending on a unique provider for their energy imports, low energy performance for buildings and high oil-dependence for transports. On the other hand, good results have already been reached regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. To be successful, this new strategy thus requires high investments and the development of new standards

  16. Emerging Administrations under European Union Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of emergence is generally used to indicate the appearance of patterns, structures, orproperties that cannot be adequately explained by referring only to the system’s pre-existing componentsand their interactions. The term “emergence” has an interdisciplinary approach specific to administrativesciences, too. In this article, the concept of “emergence” signifies lato sensu a kind of change and it will beused to refer to countries that have a high volatility and that are in transition and to define the changes thatsuffer the public administrations of the countries which are part of the European construction. EuropeanUnion through its policies and legislation has a great impact on economic and social conditions in MemberStates. The aim of the paper is to present a theoretical approach on the dimension of emergingadministrations understood as changes and reforms that suffer the institutions from the EU member statesunder the pressure of the European Union rules. The study is using the concept of emergence to researchand to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of thesystems theory.

  17. European union standards for tuberculosis care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G B; Zellweger, J P; Abubakar, I; Ibraim, E; Caminero, J A; De Vries, G; D'Ambrosio, L; Centis, R; Sotgiu, G; Menegale, O; Kliiman, K; Aksamit, T; Cirillo, D M; Danilovits, M; Dara, M; Dheda, K; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Kluge, H; Lange, C; Leimane, V; Loddenkemper, R; Nicod, L P; Raviglione, M C; Spanevello, A; Thomsen, V Ø; Villar, M; Wanlin, M; Wedzicha, J A; Zumla, A; Blasi, F; Huitric, E; Sandgren, A; Manissero, D

    2012-04-01

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) jointly developed European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) aimed at providing European Union (EU)-tailored standards for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB). The International Standards for TB Care (ISTC) were developed in the global context and are not always adapted to the EU setting and practices. The majority of EU countries have the resources and capacity to implement higher standards to further secure quality TB diagnosis, treatment and prevention. On this basis, the ESTC were developed as standards specifically tailored to the EU setting. A panel of 30 international experts, led by a writing group and the ERS and ECDC, identified and developed the 21 ESTC in the areas of diagnosis, treatment, HIV and comorbid conditions, and public health and prevention. The ISTCs formed the basis for the 21 standards, upon which additional EU adaptations and supplements were developed. These patient-centred standards are targeted to clinicians and public health workers, providing an easy-to-use resource, guiding through all required activities to ensure optimal diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB. These will support EU health programmes to identify and develop optimal procedures for TB care, control and elimination.

  18. The European Union and Iranian Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    On 14 July 2015, after 12 years of repeated crises around the nuclear issue and the ambitions of Iran in that regard, an agreement was finally signed between Tehran and the members of the UN Security Council plus Germany. Restriction on the enrichment of uranium and the production of plutonium, a strengthening of the inspection regime, the lifting of sanctions against Iran from 2016 onwards, maintaining the arms embargo - these are, broadly speaking, the outlines of this agreement. It will become clear over time how it is to be applied. Above and beyond these aspects, it is probably in the negotiation process that led to the agreement that the greatest lessons are to be learned, at least for the European Union. After reminding us of the context and the role played by economic and financial sanctions, Jean-Francois Drevet goes more precisely into the analysis of the new role the Union has assumed in this diplomatic territory, showing the extent to which 'soft power', as seen in this negotiation, could apply to other conflicts, beginning with those in the Middle East. (author)

  19. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail CARADAICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between globalization and the process of European integration? Does the European integration have its own way, or is it deeply dependent on globalization? Those are the main questions I will try to answer in this paper by using an alternative critical approach: neo-gramscianism. Neo-gramscianism is a historical materialist view on the European integration process and international political economy which offers a better understanding of the social changes in terms of social forces agency and super structural influence (the neoliberal ideology of globalization and European integration. My aim is to analyze the globalization process through a neo-gramscian theoretical framework and to observe how its main components affect European Integration. I will do this by assuming the definition of globalization provided by Andreas Bieler, who understands this process through three main pillars: transnationalization of finance, transnationalization of production and ideological shift from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. Finally I will try to formulate some conclusions regarding the emergence of European Round Table of Industrialists – the first lobby group of big capital at the European Union level – and Economic and Monetary Union – the internal market program that symbolizes the shift to neo-liberalism.

  20. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - INTERNATIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nely Militaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU performs according to its competence, the position of International Justice in solving disputes between two or more subjects of international law. International jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the EU is - mandatory that each Member State has the opportunity to seize this court if it considers that another state violated an obligation incumbent upon it under Union Treaties; - optional in disputes between Member States in connection with the subject Union Treaties.

  2. The Effects of Corruption in a Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Fortuny, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Many countries around the world suffer from corruption. In a monetary union, corruption varies from one country to another. It is possible corruption in one country may affect another country in a monetary union. We demonstrate that this feature has important implications in a monetary union with two asymmetric countries. Country 1 has a corrupted government while country 2 does not. Within this framework, we determine under which conditions corruption damages or benefits both countr...

  3. Employment, Family Union, and Childbearing Decisions in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arnstein Aassve; Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson; Carol Propper

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between work and family life in Britain. Using appropriate statistical techniques we estimate a five-equation model, which includes birth events, union formation, union dissolution, employment and non-employment events. The model allows for unobserved heterogeneity that is correlated across all five equations. We use information from the British Household Panel Survey, including the retrospective histories concerning work, union, and child bearing, to e...

  4. Organising methods and member recruitment in Irish Trade Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Michelle; D'Art, Daryl

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Purpose This paper explores the recruiting and organising methods used by Irish full-time union officials to recruit new members in the private sector of the economy. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is based on a survey of full-time union officials in eight Irish trade unions. Findings Results indicate that the use of organising techniques by officials had no significant impact on changes in membership numbers but did have a significant and po...

  5. Union decline in Britain: Is chauvinism also to blame?

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Getinet Astatike

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines if workplace gender diversity offers some explanation for the decline of unions in Britain. Using the WERS2004 linked employer-employee data and alternative econometric estimators it reports an inverse relationship between workplace union density and gender diversity. Gender and ownership status based sub-group analyses suggest the inverse relationship to be stronger for male union members and those in the private sector. Gender group size based analysis reveals a positive ...

  6. Direct Tax Applications in Relationship Between European Union and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YAZARKAN, Hakan; MEZARARKALI, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    European Union (EU) is an economic union that exstipulates common tax policy within the union without interfering the taxes which collected by the members. On the other hand union doesn’t put tax systems of member states to harmonization but has a positive look on efforts convergence. The reason of this is the difference between international tax ratio causes limiting even hindering the capital activities. Turkey which made an application at 31st of July 1959 still can’t become member of EU. ...

  7. The Euratom supply agency. A small ENERGY UNION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute [European Commission, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Unit - Nuclear Fuel Market Operations

    2015-11-15

    In the 1950s, when the European Communities were founded the ECSC (Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community), concluded for 50 years and the EURATOM Treaty (Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community), with unlimited validity, were signed. On the present political agenda of the European Union, energy supply security has a high priority. The Juncker Commission therefore focusses on the concept of an Energy Union. The Euratom Treaty provides one successful example of a ''small sectorial Energy Union'' and may serve as stimulation for reflections for the Energy Union in other sectors.

  8. The principle of empowerment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nelly MILITARU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation of competences in the EU is governed by the principle of conferral. Based on the content of these provisions work in the first three parts of it, defining and classifying skills appropriate attribution Treaties underlying the European Union (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and the Court of Justice. The next three parts of the paper detailing each classification in hand, highlighting, clear delineation of the Union competences of the Member States carried out by the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments made by this treaty.

  9. Official Union Time Tracking System Operational Data Store

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  10. The role of union support in coping with job insecurity: A study among union members from three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sjoerd Goslinga; Johnny Hellgren; Antonio Chirumbolo; Hans De Witte; Katharina Näswall; Magnus Sverke

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the potential moderating role of union support in the relationship between job insecurity and work-related attitudes and well-being of unionised employees. Survey data collected among union members from three European countries (The Netherlands, Italy and Sweden) indicate that job insecurity is associated with reduced levels of job satisfaction, well-being and organisational commitment. Contrary to expectations, union support moderated neither the effect of job inse...

  11. Opting Out of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    controversial cases of differentiated integration: the British and Danish opt-outs from Economic and Monetary Union and European policies on borders, asylum, migration, internal security and justice. Drawing on over one hundred interviews with national representatives and EU officials, the author demonstrates......European integration continues to deepen despite major crises and attempts to take back sovereignty. A growing number of member states are reacting to a more constraining EU by negotiating opt-outs. This book provides the first in-depth account of how opt-outs work in practice. It examines the most...... how representatives manage the stigma of opting out, allowing them to influence even politically sensitive areas covered by their opt-outs. Developing a practice approach to European integration, the book shows how everyday negotiations transform national interests into European ideals. It is usually...

  12. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation

  13. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  14. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  15. International Astronomical Union Sympoisum No.50

    CERN Document Server

    Westerlund, B

    1973-01-01

    Dr J. Landi Dessy, Director of the Astronomical Observatory, Cordoba, Argentina, invited the International Astronomical Union to hold a Symposium in Cordoba in connection with the celebration of the Centennial of the Cordoba Observatory; the date of foundation is October 24, 1871. He proposed that the Symposium should deal with Spectral Classification and Multicolour Photometry as seven years had elapsed since the Symposium No. 24 in Saltsj6baden, and much development had occurred in the field. The invitation and the proposal were accepted by the IAU, and the Symposium was held in Villa Carlos Paz, near Cordoba, between October 18 and October 24, 1971. It was attended by about 50 scientists representing Argentina, Canada, Chile, Den­ mark, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K., U.S.A., Vatican City State and Venezuela. The Symposium was divided into four sessions: 1. Classification of slit spectra, 2. Classification of objective-prism spectra, 3. Photometric classification, 4. Catalogues ...

  16. Knowledge based economy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Stănculescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we assist at a fundamental change from the economy based mainly on resources to the one based mostly on knowledge. The concept has been launched in the last decade of the past century. The knowledge became a production agent and a value creation instrument for whatever country and of course for an entire community like European Union which is constantly concerned by its development and competitiveness. This paper presents the principal characteristics of the present EU preoccupations with the expansion of a knowledge based economy through the 2020 European Development Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive economy, and especially for the Framework Programs (Framework Programme 7 and Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

  17. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  18. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  19. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Andrejew, S.V.

    1991-08-01

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG) [de

  20. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  1. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  2. European Union's environmental strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102

  3. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  4. The Rise of a European Healthcare Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare has only slowly appeared on the European Union’s (EU) policy agenda. EU involvement in policies concerning the organization, financing and the provision of diagnosis, care and cures to ill people developed along three fragmented tracks: (a) EU public health policies concerning the well......-being of all people; (b) the application of the free movement principle to national healthcare systems in particular by the EU’s Court of Justice (CJEU); and (c) the austerity packages and the stricter EU surveillance of national budgets since the debt crises. The key questions of this special issue...... are whether this fragmented EU involvement has now developed into a distinct European healthcare union, and if so what its driving forces have been. Thus, it explores how European integration in healthcare has moved forward despite widespread reluctance. It also examines the underexplored political dynamics...

  5. Laboratory medicine in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Zerah, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The profession of laboratory medicine differs between countries within the European Union (EU) in many respects. The objective of professional organizations of the promotion of mutual recognition of specialists within the EU is closely related to the free movement of people. This policy translates to equivalence of standards and harmonization of the training curriculum. The aim of the present study is the description of the organization and practice of laboratory medicine within the countries that constitute the EU. A questionnaire covering many aspects of the profession was sent to delegates of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and Union Européenne de Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) of the 28 EU countries. Results were sent to the delegates for confirmation. Many differences between countries were identified: predominantly medical or scientific professionals; a broad or limited professional field of interest; inclusion of patient treatment; formal or absent recognition; a regulated or absent formal training program; general or minor application of a quality system based on ISO Norms. The harmonization of the postgraduate training of both clinical chemists and of laboratory physicians has been a goal for many years. Differences in the organization of the laboratory professions still exist in the respective countries which all have a long historical development with their own rationality. It is an important challenge to harmonize our profession, and difficult choices will need to be made. Recent developments with respect to the directive on Recognition of Professional Qualifications call for new initiatives to harmonize laboratory medicine both across national borders, and across the borders of scientific and medical professions.

  6. Tackle injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2008-09-01

    The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries. To estimate the injury risk associated with various characteristics of tackles in professional rugby union matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. All 140 249 tackles in 434 professional matches were coded from video recordings for height and direction of tackle on the ball carrier, speed of tackler, and speed of ball carrier; injuries were coded for various characteristics, including whether the tackler or ball carrier required replacement or only on-field assessment. There were 1348 injury assessments requiring only on-field treatment and 211 requiring player replacement. The inciting event and medical outcomes were matched to video records for 281 injuries. Injuries were most frequently the result of high or middle tackles from the front or side, but rate of injury per tackle was higher for tackles from behind than from the front or side. Ball carriers were at highest risk from tackles to the head-neck region, whereas tacklers were most at risk when making low tackles. The impact of the tackle was the most common cause of injury, and the head was the most common site, but an important mechanism of lower limb injuries was loading with the weight of another player. Rates of replacement increased with increasing player speed. Strategies for reducing tackle injuries without radically changing the contact nature of the sport include further education of players about safe tackling and minor changes to laws for the height of the tackle.

  7. Monetary Union is the future of EAEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav S. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The president of Russian Federation V. Putin's Order from the 10th of March 2015 to the Government and Central Bank of Russia to work on the plan of creating Monetary Union of EAEU by the 1st of September cannot be ignored by scientific community's attention of Russia and other Eurasian countries. Strategic goal of this document is pretty clear - to create an island of currency stability in the surrounding of Jamaica's Monetary nonsystem and existing monopolar and assimetric world's dollar order, to minimize the dependency of Eurasian countries on US dollar, to hold its world expansion, to freeze the process of financing of USA imbalances by all countries, to turn back the process of dollarization of Eurasian countries and world's dollarization and relieve the world's community from future financial crises. The world's financial and economic crisis of 2008-2010 has clearly shown that US monetary, credit and banking system has become a permanent source of future turmoil of world's scale. It creates a necessity to activate the process of monetary integration of countries on the regional level and transformation of the modern Jamaica's world's dollar standard into the world's multipolar monetary standard. In this article the author analyses he stages of setting up the Eurasian regional monetary order from the creation of multilateral settlement system using common regional currency unit to the introduction of Eurasian currency system with Eurasian currency unit, which can be transformed in the future into the Eurasian Economic and monetary union with common regional currency (euras, which can restrict the world's monopoly position of the dollar.

  8. In vivo antihypertensive and antidyslipidemic effects of the crude extracts and fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. leaves in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekesho eGeleta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hypertensive rats.Rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n=6. Treatment groups were given daily extracts (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg orally with fructose. Whereas, positive, negative and normal control groups were received captopril (20 mg/kg/day with fructose, only fructose (66% w/v ad libitum and distilled water ad libitum for 15 days, respectively. The blood pressure was measured every 5th day using tail cuff blood pressure analyzer, and on the 16th day the blood was sampled to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect using clinical chemistry analyzer. The study showed that aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts significantly prevented blood pressure increment in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of the standard drug. Similarly, the extracts suppressed increment in lipid profile (cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides compared with negative control. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control.These findings revealed that both crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f. Cufod. possess antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect.

  9. Customs unions, currency crises, and monetary policy coordination: The case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vinokurov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After achieving substantial progress in establishing a common customs territory and regulations, customs unions face potential disruptions due to a lack of monetary policy coordination. These disruptions might appear in the form of currency shocks and the ensuing trade conflicts. We approach this issue by looking at the case of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. The volatility of national currencies in 2014–2015 resulted in sizable shifts in competitiveness, culminating in a currency crisis in some member states. This raises the questions of how to gradually achieve a more coordinated monetary policy, what monetary policy options are available, and what would be their relative impact on macroeconomic stability. Using a set of modeling tools and econometric models, we review three monetary regimes, which represent moves from fully independent exchange rate policy through increased policy coordination to joint exchange rate setting.

  10. The Labour Relations Act, majoritarianism and union structure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 INTRODUCTION. The new Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 (LRA) has been viewed by many ... economic and political changes being experienced in South Africa since ... unions perpetuates fragmentation of a union movement and weakens workers ... particular geographic areas. A good ... international labour standards.

  11. Limiting organisational rights of minority unions: POPCRU v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... current socioeconomic and political landscape. Strike violence, loss of confidence in existing bargaining structures, and the alienation of vulnerable employees from majority unions has resulted in minority unions taking up the cudgels of frustrated and disempowered employees, as witnessed in the Marikana experience.

  12. Work reorganisation and technological change: limits of trade union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article suggests that this unidimensional strategy meant that building the union's capacity was neglected, reducing its ability to respond proactively to technological innovation and work reorganisation. While it does not present union capacity as a panacea, the article presents international examples that indicate that ...

  13. Trade Unions as Organisations: Key Issues and Problems of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper critically examines and evaluates inter alia Trade Unions as. Organisations and the key issues and problems of Internal Democracy within them. It transcends this analysis to assert that these core issues apply equally well to Political Organisations. Thus, from an ideological standpoint, Trade Unions play a great ...

  14. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  15. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of...)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting... and Culture, European Commission for funding under a separate but parallel EU competition. Within this...

  16. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  17. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  18. Information Guide: regionalism and separatism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    EDC, Cardiff

    2013-01-01

    A brief bibliography of information sources about current issues of regionalism and separatism in the European Union with a particular focus on Catalonia, Flanders and Scotland. This guide was compiled in connection with the event Regionalism and Separatism in the European Union held in the Cardiff EDC on 21 February 2013.

  19. The causal texture of trade union environments | Iyayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  20. The Banking Union: An Overview and Open Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe move to European Banking Union involving the supervision and resolution of banks at euro-area level was stimulated by the sovereign debt crisis in the euro area in 2012. However, the long-term objective of Banking Union is dealing with intensified cross-border banking. The

  1. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  2. 32 CFR 231.8 - Procedures-overseas credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... geographic franchise. (2) The extension of credit union service overseas is encouraged consistent with the... geographic franchise with a specific field of membership, the Secretary of the Military Department (or... geographic franchises assigned to credit unions serving DoD overseas installations. (ii) Where there is no Do...

  3. Students' Unions, Consumerism and the Neo-Liberal University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rachel; Byford, Kate; Sela, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the economic relationships between individual students' unions and their wider institutions, and the ways in which they articulate with a pervasive consumerist agenda across the higher education sector. We draw on data from a UK-wide study to argue that students' unions have an ambivalent relationship with consumerist…

  4. Worker-Centered Learning: A Union Guide to Workplace Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Anthony R.; Kay, Ann

    This guide examines organized labor's views on adult literacy. It also describes several union-sponsored workplace education programs and suggests how a union can plan and operate a worker-centered literacy program. The book is organized in three parts. The first part examines workplace literacy in four chapters that cover the following: the…

  5. Faculty Unions, Business Models, and the Academy's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author addresses questions about the future of faculty unions, business models, and the academy by providing some current and historical context regarding the causes of and conflicts about faculty unions. He also reviews trends in college and university management over the past three decades, using California, Ohio, and…

  6. 75 FR 80678 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: NCUA is issuing final amendments to revise the definition... Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF) share insurance to nonfederal share insurance in 12 CFR part...-credit union mergers and terminations of NCUSIF share insurance and conversions from NCUSIF share...

  7. A brief overview of the Civil Union Act* | Ntlama | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... same-sex couples as envisaged in the Act, and not to an analysis of the nature of the institution of marriage itself or the theological and social dimensions of same-sex marriages. Keywords: same-sex marriages; civil union; equality; constitutional rights; constitutional protection of homosexual relationships; Civil Union Act ...

  8. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-07-01

    New typological features of social movements are formed on the basis of a new type of social and communication links. Social hierarchy and class antagonisms, which provided the basis for the existence and development of trade unions in the past, expired. Therefore, the organizational forms of trade unions as social movements have become more available and acceptable for contemporary citizens.

  9. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  10. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum level of required capital and NEV ratios after the funds are called. (4) Liquidation. In the event...) Capital ratio. A corporate credit union will maintain a minimum capital ratio of 4 percent, except as otherwise provided in this part. A corporate credit union must calculate its capital ratio at least monthly...

  11. Monetary union without fiscal coordination may discipline policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    We show that, with benevolent policymakers and fiscal leadership, monetary unification reduces inflation, taxes and public spending. These disciplining effects of a monetary union, which rise with the number of fiscal players in the union, are likely to raise welfare. Joining an optimally designed

  12. IMPORTANCE OF THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION NEW DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Banking Union has set new rules on monetary market especially for credit institutions and for financial banking groups in general. Economic and monetary union requires accomplishment of political and monetary union and democratic control of the European institutions on a single financial market. In this respect through its management organisms, EU has designed a series of unique mechanisms of financial union and called for a fiscal union. Union of European financial market is possible through a new regulation of the markets. In this project, monetary union of the EU member countries is possible by implementing single mechanism of supervision (Single Supervisory Mechanism and single mechanism of resolution (Single Resolution Mechanism. European Banking Union may be made by monitoring of a single banking supervisor based on a common system for managing and resolving banking crises and a uniform system of protecting people's savings. Romania opted for these unique mechanisms of macro-prudential supervision of the financial system. And by performing the real convergence criteria of integration, Romania will have all conditions of integration in the ,,euro area,,.

  13. MILITARY TRADE UNIONS: A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sacrificed at the altar of soldiers' constitutional rights to form and join trade unions .... includes a rights-based culture, a rise in individualism, a change in the acceptance of ... military leadership with the military unions that poses the greatest threat to civil– ... 10 European Organisation of Military Associations, available at ...

  14. Expert advice and political choice in constructing European banking union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    International actors promoted the transfer of regulatory authority and financial resources from national governments to the European Union (EU) in the context of establishing the prerequisites for financial stability in Europe through banking union. It was supplied, however, by a political process

  15. Matemaatiline juhtimine / Stephen Baker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baker, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Autori raamat "Numeraadid" tutvustab matemaatikavõlureid, kes tuhnivad meie andmetes. Numeraatide üks paljutõotavamaid laboreid on töökohad, kus saab uurida iga klahvivajutust, hiireklõpsu ja meilisõnumit. Peatükis "Töötajad" vaatleb autor IBMi, kus matemaatikud loovad omaenda kolleegide käitumist prognoosivaid mudeleid. Lisa: Juhtimise teadus. Stopperist matemaatiliste mudeliteni; Viited

  16. Analysis of Abdi Kerta Rahardja Union Health Assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indo Yama Nasarudin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyse the health assessment union of Abdi Kerta Raharja. Health assessment used measurement and calculation in Rule Deputy Control of Ministry of Union and SMEs of the Republic of Indonesia Number 6 Year 2016. Aspects for health assessment consists the capital aspect, productive asset quality aspects, management aspects, aspects of efficiency, liquidity aspect, the aspect of self-reliance and growth and aspects of the identity of union. Based on the results obtained value for all aspects of health assessment union of Abdi Raharja Kerta is 81.00. It can be concluded that the union of Abdi Kerta Raharja have a healthy category for health assessmentDOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3865

  17. UNION-K 2.0 User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Woon; Jang, Jin Wook; Kim, Yeong Il

    2008-12-01

    The unified Input/Output processor UNION-K(UNified Input/Output Processor for Neutronics Analysis by K-CORE) has been developed to provide the automatic input file generation and output processing for the fast reactor core analysis. UNION-K includes the material database for reactor analysis and produces the input files for effective cross section generation, core analysis, and reactivity coefficient calculations. UNION-K can execute corresponding core analysis module and edit core performance parameters from the outputs. UNION-K also provides the graphical interface to check the geometrical arrangement of core and fuel sub-assembly and produces the picture files that can be used for reporting. This report has been prepared for instruction of using UNION-K Ver. 2.0 with examples

  18. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...

  19. French electricity union, 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    The Union Francaise de l'Electricite (UFE - French Electricity Union), an association governed by the law of 1901, created in May 2000, is the professional association for the electricity sector. It represents the sector's employers within the electricity and gas industries branch and promotes the interests of its members, producers, system operators or electricity suppliers, in both economic and industrial areas. Directly or indirectly, the UFE includes more than 500 companies that employ more than 150, 000 people in France, with a sales figure of more than euro 40 billion. This report summarises the 2009 key events and figures and the activities of the different committees and working groups: the Sustainable Electricity Club, the General Economy Committee, the Social Committee of Employers' Groups, the Generation Committee, the Hydroelectricity Working Group, the Markets Committee, the Systems and Public Service Committee, and the European Affairs Committee. The year 2009 was marked by the effects of the international crisis that affected all of the economic workings of all of the world's countries. In an attempt to deal with its consequences, each state prepared a recovery plan and implemented austerity measures. For its part, France is relying on its Great Loan in order to re-invigorate the sectors that are likely to be the drivers of the recovery and of a new rapid expansion of industry. The electricity sector has essential strengths, notably one of the least carbon-producing production stocks in Europe, and it also ensures that France has energy security and independence. In 2009, the UFE devoted itself to demonstrating the central role that electricity can play in the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases. However, France must now concentrate its efforts on setting up a true energy policy that consolidates its carbon competitive advantage. This clearly means a framework that encourages crucial investments in industrial infrastructures: basic and

  20. Photovoltaic remuneration policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasa-Maestro, Carlos J.; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems in some countries of the European Union (EU). We establish the stage of development of each country, their short- and long-term degree of compliance and the trends of international investors favouring one market or another. EU countries employ four major types of programs to encourage PV use: (1) feed in tariffs (FIT), (2) green certificates with a quota system, (3) investment and tax incentives, and (4) bids on the quota system. The FIT is the most widely used program to create incentives for the use of PV systems. During the past two years, PV tariffs have been reduced in many European countries. Investments in PV are still attractive, in some cases even overly generous with respect to the financial landscape in the world. This paper shows, for each country, the type of incentive and the trends in and forecast for installed capacity and calculates the internal rate of return (IRR) for investment in grid-connected PV systems. - Highlights: ► This work shows the EU positioning on development of photovoltaic (PV) systems. ► The installed power and the internal rate of return have been used as reference. ► The existing programs in relation to pay and incentives have been reviewed

  1. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  2. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  3. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  4. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  5. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  6. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  7. Management of electricity markets in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, A.; Florescu, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing energy markets in Europe were discussed with particular reference to the need to integrate and interconnect national energy markets. The Romanian power market evolution since 2000 was also analyzed, taking into account the fact that the strategic objective of the Romanian Government is to assume the role of Regional Exchange in the South-East European region. A common approach to energy is needed to enable the European Union (EU) to compete in global markets, to improve sustainability in the EU and to secure energy supply. An overall framework is needed in order to achieve these objectives. This paper presented the general measures needed to complete the internal gas and electricity markets in Europe. It also proposed measures to ensure that the EU's internal energy market guarantees security of supply and solidarity between Member States. The guiding principles that an approach to information management and market transparency should be based on were described. The authors suggested that an integrated and competitive electricity and gas markets should be established to promote efficient energy services and diversify the energy mix. The measures needed in order to achieve the goal of a genuine single market at EU level were described along with the actions needed to stimulate investments in infrastructure and generation capacity. Measures to prevent or manage energy supply crises were also proposed. 4 refs., 1 tab

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  9. European Union concerns with its energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commeau, N.

    2001-01-01

    European Union (E.U.) produces only half its needs concerning energy. It is expected that by 2030, the energy balance will be 86% for fossil energies, 8% for renewable energies and 6% for nuclear energy. Different scenario show that the dependence of E.U will worsen and reach 70% unless a common strategy is launched to curb the tendency. E.U is elaborating a common policy concerning energy, this policy rests on 4 axis: 1) monitoring the increase of the energy consumption by promoting energy savings in housing and transport, 2) directing the energy demand towards less polluting energy by using taxes, public funding and European regulations as incentive tools, 3) sustaining a constant dialogues with energy exporting countries in order to get a more stable energy market and have a benefiting influence on prices, and 4) developing new routes of importation of energy by for instance contributing to the construction of new oil or gas pipeline networks. (A.C.)

  10. Shop stewards' learning and union strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark the trade unions have well established educational systems providing the shop stewards with a variety of competencies. Union courses have been analysed focusing on shop stewards' satisfaction with the content and the practical impact of the courses. However, little attention has been...... different theoretical traditions: Shop steward's learning is situational, relational and cross-contextual. Shop stewards' learning is lifelong and life wide. And shop stewards' learning is closely connected to the development of the labour market and not least the unions' priorities, interpretation...

  11. THE NEW ARCHITECTURE OF ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that began in 2007-2008 has highlighted the need for a stronger economic coordination at EU level, to ensure financial stability. The new architecture of economic governance in the European Union is based on Fiscal Pact, on Macroeconomic Imbalances Identification Mechanism, on European Stability Mechanism and on Banking Union. Since the banking system is the most significant component of the financial system, we will give more importance to the analysis of Banking Union, which is based on three pillars: The Single Supervisory Mechanism, The Single Resolution Mechanism and The Deposit Guarantee Schemes.

  12. Rationalities in Trade Union Practices: A Discourse Analytic Perspective on The Strategies of Three Danish Trade Unions for Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this paper is to analyze the discursive practices of three Danish trade unions for professional and managerial staff as found in their strategy and position papers. Using discourse analytic methods, the paper analyzes, discusses, and compares the strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation clarifies the discursive premises of the unions and it shows how these premises restrain and afford their agendas. The overall purpose of the paper is to investigate and describe the dominant logics and rationalities that shape the documents and to point to their limits and bounds. Through an archaeological investigation, the paper critically examines the implicit and tacit naturalizations made in the documents and reveals the ideological presuppositions of the discursive practices of the authors. The paper documents how “strategic management” has become an integral part of Danish trade unions practices and the paper sets out to discuss this trend in relation to the general neo-liberal decentering of the “social” and promotion of “community” as the locus of governance. Through examples from the practices of the Danish trade unions for professionals, the paper substantiates how new technologies of governance and the subjectification of union members as “customers” tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of “political actors” to “service providers” in the advanced liberal societies.

  13. Presencia de Circulifer tenellus Baker y Beet mild curly top virus en maleza durante el invierno en el centro norte de México Circulifer tenellus Baker and Beet mild curly top virus presence in weeds during the winter in north-central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle; Luis Roberto Reveles-Torres; Mario Domingo Amador-Ramírez; María Mercedes Medina-Aguilar; Guillermo Medina-García

    2012-01-01

    Una de las enfermedades más importantes del chile para secado en el norte centro de México es la denominada amarillamientos del chile. Existe poca información acerca de la interacción entre el vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker), el Beet mild curly top virus y la maleza durante el invierno en esta región, consecuentemente el objetivo del trabajo fue identificar maleza de invierno que sirve como refugio para el vector y hospedero del virus en esta región. Entre enero y marzo de 2011 se muestrea...

  14. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaprutko

    Full Text Available Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient. Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies.Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17 and Croatia (EUR 132.77 in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg. Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53 than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26.Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  15. Uniones de nitruro de silicio. Superaleaciones

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    Barea, R.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of silicon nitride materials are limited by the difficulty and cost of making complex shapes. In the present work, the use of some superalloys as bonding interlayer between two silicon nitride pieces has been investigated. Three types of Ni based superalloys have been chosen because their technological interest. Joining experiments have been performed by thermocompression at different temperatures and pressures, in a medium vacuum atmosphere. Reactions taking place at the superalloy / Si3N4 interface have been studied using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A comparative study among the three superalloys /Si3N4 interfaces has been done.

    El posible uso del nitruro de silicio en el ámbito industrial se ve limitado por la dificultad y el coste que supone mecanizar geometrías complicadas. En el presente trabajo se estudia la posibilidad del uso de superaleaciones como interlámina de unión entre piezas de este material. Se han seleccionado tres superaleaciones con base niquel-cromo debido a su interés tecnológico. Las uniones se han llevado a cabo por termocompresión en vacío, utilizando varias presiones y temperaturas. Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de las intercaras de unión en las tres aleaciones, analizando mediante microanálisis por energías dispersadas de Rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido las reacciones que tienen lugar.

  16. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  17. The Role of Graduate Employee Unions in Gender Equality (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Freeland, Emily

    2009-04-01

    Graduate employee unions represent a significant fraction of graduate employees in the United States, Canada, and other nations. The collective bargaining process is a unique forum where issues ranging from paid parental leave, hostile work environment, and access to lactation rooms can be addressed on an even footing with the employing universities. Because employment is governed by a collective bargaining agreement, violations are subject to a grievance policy. The Teaching Assistants' Association at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is one of the oldest graduate employee unions in the world. We discuss this example union, including successes in both the collective bargaining process and the grievance procedure. In particular, we find that graduate employee unions are an effective means of fighting pregnancy discrimination. We also provide a comparison of parental leave policies for graduate students at various universities.

  18. The Effects of Great Britain's Exit from the European Union

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    Amarița Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union directly influences the economicdevelopment of Romania, which will force our country to take all the necessary measures in thecurrent economic conjuncture in order to anchor in the international trade relations.

  19. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions. ..... (online resources listed in Appendix I). ... only slight law variations differentiate the boys' and girls' games within.

  20. The contribution of teacher unions in the restoration of teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    privileged colleagues, and can be implemented in higher education by the use of long-term, .... role of the teachers unions in the improvement teacher motivation and ...... graphic profile of students, the article reports on the service levels that.